WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater cleanup overview

  1. An Overview of Groundwater Governance and Management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Qi, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the legislative and administrative water management systems is essential to translate hydrological expertise into real actions. This study provides an overview of groundwater governance and management in China, including the existing laws, regulations, institutional arrangements and governing practices. Respectable progress has been made in a relatively short period of time in the legislation of China's groundwater governance. However, the implementation of the laws and regulations has not been as successful as their formulation process. Groundwater overdraft and quality deterioration has not been fundamentally brought under control. Institutional deficiencies, statutory deficiencies, enforcement deficiencies, insufficient public participation and information disclosure are some of the major reasons for poor groundwater management in China. To better address the problems in contemporary groundwater management, the legislation system should firstly be improved. Secondly, institutional reforms are needed to straighten out several critical relationships, including the relationship between the national and local governments, the relationship among different ministries with water-related jurisdiction, and the relationship between river basin based and administrative division based management approaches. Thirdly, a national water-monitoring network should be constructed with improved metering techniques. Data publishing and information sharing should also be promoted.

  2. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  3. Integrated groundwater management: An overview of concepts and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Managing water is a grand challenge problem and has become one of humanity’s foremost priorities. Surface water resources are typically societally managed and relatively well understood; groundwater resources, however, are often hidden and more difficult to conceptualize. Replenishment rates of groundwater cannot match past and current rates of depletion in many parts of the world. In addition, declining quality of the remaining groundwater commonly cannot support all agricultural, industrial and urban demands and ecosystem functioning, especially in the developed world. In the developing world, it can fail to even meet essential human needs. The issue is: how do we manage this crucial resource in an acceptable way, one that considers the sustainability of the resource for future generations and the socioeconomic and environmental impacts? In many cases this means restoring aquifers of concern to some sustainable equilibrium over a negotiated period of time, and seeking opportunities for better managing groundwater conjunctively with surface water and other resource uses. However, there are many, often-interrelated, dimensions to managing groundwater effectively. Effective groundwater management is underpinned by sound science (biophysical and social) that actively engages the wider community and relevant stakeholders in the decision making process. Generally, an integrated approach will mean “thinking beyond the aquifer”, a view which considers the wider context of surface water links, catchment management and cross-sectoral issues with economics, energy, climate, agriculture and the environment. The aim of the book is to document for the first time the dimensions and requirements of sound integrated groundwater management (IGM). The primary focus is on groundwater management within its system, but integrates linkages beyond the aquifer. The book provides an encompassing synthesis for researchers, practitioners and water resource managers on the concepts and

  4. Overview of groundwater management approaches at salinisation risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Zuffianò, Livia Emanuela

    2013-04-01

    All natural waters contain dissolved minerals from interactions with atmospheric and soil gases, mixing with other solutions, and/or interactions with the biosphere and lithosphere. In many cases, these processes result in natural waters containing solute or salinity above concentrations recommended for a specified use, which creates significant social and economic problems. Groundwater salinisation can be caused by natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities. For the former case, we can distinguish terrestrial and marine phenomena. Approximately 16% of the total area of continental earth is potentially involved in groundwater salinisation. Seawater intrusion can be considered to be the primary phenomenon to be studied in terms of groundwater salinisation. Three schematic approaches to the protection of groundwater via salinisation mitigation and/or groundwater salinity improvement are described based on the classifications of the primary salinisation sources and focusing on the effect of seawater intrusion. The complexity of these approaches generally increases due to difficulties caused by groundwater quality and quantity degradation and increased demand for quality water. In order from the lowest to the highest complexity, these approaches are the engineering approach, the discharge management approach, and the water and land management approach. The engineering approach is realised on the local or detailed scale with the purpose of controlling the salinisation, optimising the well discharge with specific technical solutions and/or completing works to improve the quality and/or quantity of the discharged fresh groundwater. The discharge management approach encompasses at least an entire coastal aquifer and defines rules concerning groundwater utilisation and well discharge. The water and land management approach should be applied on the regional scale. Briefly, this approach becomes necessary when one or more need creates an overall framework of high

  5. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  6. Cleanup at Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiger, Susan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hargis, Kenneth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, George J [NNSL/LASO

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.

  7. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Nepal—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, arsenic (As contamination is a major issue of current drinking water supply systems using groundwater and has recently been one of the major environmental health management issues especially in the plain region, i.e., in the Terai districts, where the population density is very high. The Terai inhabitants still use hand tube and dug wells (with hand held pumps that are bored at shallow to medium depth for their daily water requirements, including drinking water. The National Sanitation Steering Committee (NSSC, with the help of many other organizations, has completed arsenic blanket test in 25 districts of Nepal by analysing 737,009 groundwater samples. Several organizations, including academic institutions, made an effort to determine the levels of arsenic concentrations in groundwater and their consequences in Nepal. The results of the analyses on 25,058 samples tested in 20 districts, published in the status report of arsenic in Nepal (2003, demonstrated that the 23% of the samples were containing 10–50 µg/L of As, and the 8% of the samples were containing more than 50 µg/L of As. Recent status of over 737,009 samples tested, the 7.9% and 2.3% were contaminated by 10–50 µg/L and >50 µg/L, respectively of As. The present paper examines the various techniques available for the reduction of arsenic concentrations in Nepal in combination with the main results achieved, the socio-economic status and the strategies. This paper aims to comprehensively compile all existing data sets and analyze them scientifically, by trying to suggest a common sustainable approach for identifying the As contamination in the nation, that can be easily adopted by local communities for developing a sustainable society. The paper aims also to find probable solutions to quantify and mitigate As problem without any external support. The outcome of this paper will ultimately help to identify various ways for: identify risk areas; develop awareness; adopt

  8. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  9. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Progress Toward Cleanup of Operable Unit 1 Groundwater at the US DOE Mound, Ohio, Site: Success of a Phase-Combined Remedy – 15310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [U.S. Department of Energy, Harrison, OH (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Cato, Rebecca [Stoller Newport News Nuclear Inc., Weldon Spring, MS (United States); Looney, Brian [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Huntsman, Brent [Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) soil and groundwater have been affected by volatile organic compounds (VOC) Present groundwater remedy is collection, treatment, and disposal (pump and treat [P&T]) Several combinations of technologies were used to address soil and groundwater contamination Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is a viable alternative Majority of source term has been excavated VOC concentrations in groundwater have decreased Attenuation mechanisms have been observed in the subsurface at OU-1

  11. Innovative technologies for soil cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested.

  12. 25 Years Of Environmental Remediation In The General Separations Area Of The Savannah River Site: Lessons Learned About What Worked And What Did Not Work In Soil And Groundwater Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blount, Gerald [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Thibault, Jeffrey [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Millings, Margaret [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Prater, Phil [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned and administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE). SRS covers an area of approximately 900 square kilometers. The General Separation Area (GSA) is located roughly in the center of the SRS and includes: radioactive material chemical separations facilities, radioactive waste tank farms, a variety of radioactive seepage basins, and the radioactive waste burial grounds. Radioactive wastes were disposed in the GSA from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Radioactive operations at the F Canyon began in 1954; radioactive operations at H Canyon began in 1955. Waste water disposition to the F and H Seepage Basins began soon after operations started in the canyons. The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) began operations in 1952 to manage solid waste that could be radioactive from all the site operations, and ceased receiving waste in 1972. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) received radioactive solid waste from 1969 until 1995. Environmental legislation enacted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s led to changes in waste management and environmental cleanup practices at SRS. The US Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970, and the Clean Water Act in 1972; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted by Congress in 1980; the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed into law in 1992. Environmental remediation at the SRS essentially began with a 1987 Settlement Agreement between the SRS and the State of South Carolina (under the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control - SCDHEC), which recognized linkage between many SRS waste management facilities and RCRA. The SRS manages several of the larger groundwater remedial activities under RCRA for facilities recognized early on as environmental problems. All subsequent

  13. 25 Years Of Environmental Remediation In The General Separations Area Of The Savannah River Site: Lessons Learned About What Worked And What Did Not Work In Soil And Groundwater Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blount, Gerald [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Thibault, Jeffrey [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Millings, Margaret [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Prater, Phil [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned and administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE). SRS covers an area of approximately 900 square kilometers. The General Separation Area (GSA) is located roughly in the center of the SRS and includes: radioactive material chemical separations facilities, radioactive waste tank farms, a variety of radioactive seepage basins, and the radioactive waste burial grounds. Radioactive wastes were disposed in the GSA from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Radioactive operations at the F Canyon began in 1954; radioactive operations at H Canyon began in 1955. Waste water disposition to the F and H Seepage Basins began soon after operations started in the canyons. The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) began operations in 1952 to manage solid waste that could be radioactive from all the site operations, and ceased receiving waste in 1972. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) received radioactive solid waste from 1969 until 1995. Environmental legislation enacted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s led to changes in waste management and environmental cleanup practices at SRS. The US Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970, and the Clean Water Act in 1972; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted by Congress in 1980; the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed into law in 1992. Environmental remediation at the SRS essentially began with a 1987 Settlement Agreement between the SRS and the State of South Carolina (under the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control - SCDHEC), which recognized linkage between many SRS waste management facilities and RCRA. The SRS manages several of the larger groundwater remedial activities under RCRA for facilities recognized early on as environmental problems. All subsequent

  14. Pesticides in groundwater and drinking water wells: overview of the situation in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, P N M; Vissers, M J M; van der Linden, A M A

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, many of the fresh groundwater resources are vulnerable to pollution. Owing to high population densities and intensive farming practices, pesticide residues are found in groundwater at many places. Hence a number of drinking water abstraction wells contain pesticides residues, causing considerable costs for purification. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires countries to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies and set up monitoring plans for groundwater quality, including pesticides. 771 groundwater samples were taken from monitoring wells in 2006 and analysed for a broad list of pesticides in order to fulfil these requirements. Pesticide were detected in 27% of samples, while in 11% the WFD limit of 0.1 microg/l was exceeded. In this paper, these and earlier measurements are evaluated further, considering also measurements in drinking water wells, information about the origin of measured pesticides and calculated trends in use and emissions. The measurements in the monitoring wells showed that where pesticides are used, 15-55% (minimal and maximal estimation) of the wells in shallow groundwater (1 to 20 m below soil surface) contain pesticides residues at concentrations above 0.1 microg/l. When the metabolites BAM and AMPA are excluded (as not relevant in human toxicological terms), the estimation range is 7-37%. These patterns observed in shallow groundwater are reflected by the occurrence of pesticides in vulnerable abstraction wells that are used for the production of drinking water. The WFD requires the determination of both status and trends. The design of current monitoring network is evaluated from this perspective. Several recommendations are made for more adequate and efficient monitoring.

  15. An overview of dissolved organic carbon in groundwater and implications for drinking water safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S.; Hynds, P.; Flynn, R.

    2017-06-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is composed of a diverse array of compounds, predominantly humic substances, and is a near ubiquitous component of natural groundwater, notwithstanding climatic extremes such as arid and hyper-arid settings. Despite being a frequently measured parameter of groundwater quality, the complexity of DOC composition and reaction behaviour means that links between concentration and human health risk are difficult to quantify and few examples are reported in the literature. Measured concentrations from natural/unpolluted groundwater are typically below 4 mg C/l, whilst concentrations above these levels generally indicate anthropogenic influences and/or contamination issues and can potentially compromise water safety. Treatment processes are effective at reducing DOC concentrations, but refractory humic substance reaction with chlorine during the disinfection process produces suspected carcinogenic disinfectant by-products (DBPs). However, despite engineered artificial recharge systems being commonly used to remove DOC from recycled treated wastewaters, little research has been conducted on the presence of DBPs in potable groundwater systems. In recent years, the capacity to measure the influence of organic matter on colloidal contaminants and its influence on the mobility of pathogenic microorganisms has aided understanding of transport processes in aquifers. Additionally, advances in polymerase chain reaction techniques used for the detection, identification, and quantification of waterborne pathogens, provide a method to confidently investigate the behaviour of DOC and its effect on contaminant transfer in aquifers. This paper provides a summary of DOC occurrence in groundwater bodies and associated issues capable of indirectly affecting human health.

  16. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  17. Cleanups in My Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) is a public web application that enables integrated access through maps, lists and search filtering to site-specific information EPA...

  18. Overview of groundwater quality in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, 1946--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data from public and private sources for the period 1946 to 2009 were compiled and put into a common data repository for the Piceance Basin. The data repository is available on the web at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/cwqdr/Piceance/index.shtml. A subset of groundwater-quality data from the repository was compiled, reviewed, and checked for quality assurance for this report. The resulting dataset consists of the most recently collected sample from 1,545 wells, 1,007 (65 percent) of which were domestic wells. From those samples, the following constituents were selected for presentation in this report: dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, pH, major ions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride), trace elements (arsenic, barium, iron, manganese, selenium), nitrate, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, methane, and the stable isotopic compositions of water and methane. Some portion of recharge to most of the wells for which data were available was derived from precipitation (most likely snowmelt), as indicated by δ2H [H2O] and δ18O[H2O] values that plot along the Global Meteoric Water Line and near the values for snow samples collected in the study area. Ninety-three percent of the samples were oxic, on the basis of concentrations of dissolved oxygen that were greater than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per liter. Concentration data were compared with primary and secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Constituents that exceeded the primary standards were arsenic (13 percent), selenium (9.2 percent), fluoride (8.4 percent), barium (4.1 percent), nitrate (1.6 percent), and benzene (0.6 percent). Concentrations of toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene did not exceed standards in any samples. Constituents that exceeded the secondary standard were dissolved solids (72 percent), sulfate (37 percent), manganese (21 percent), iron (16 percent), and chloride (10 percent). Drinking-water standards have not been established for

  19. Corrective measures evaluation report for Tijeras Arroyo groundwater.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Johnathan L (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Orr, Brennon R. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Dettmers, Dana L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Howard, M. Hope (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-08-01

    This Corrective Measures Evaluation report was prepared as directed by a Compliance Order on Consent issued by the New Mexico Environment Department to document the process of selecting the preferred remedial alternative for Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater. Supporting information includes background concerning the site conditions and potential receptors and an overview of work performed during the Corrective Measures Evaluation. The evaluation of remedial alternatives included identifying and describing four remedial alternatives, an overview of the evaluation criteria and approach, comparing remedial alternatives to the criteria, and selecting the preferred remedial alternative. As a result of the Corrective Measures Evaluation, monitored natural attenuation of the contaminants of concern (trichloroethene and nitrate) is the preferred remedial alternative for implementation as the corrective measure for Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater. Design criteria to meet cleanup goals and objectives and the corrective measures implementation schedule for the preferred remedial alternative are also presented.

  20. Substance-related environmental monitoring strategies regarding soil, groundwater and surface water - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kördel, Werner; Garelick, Hemda; Gawlik, Bernd M; Kandile, Nadia G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Rüdel, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Substance-related monitoring is an essential tool within environmental risk assessment processes. The soundness of policy decisions including risk management measures is often directly related to the reliability of the environmental monitoring programs. In addition, monitoring programs are required for identifying new and less-investigated pollutants of concern in different environmental media. Scientifically sound and feasible monitoring concepts strongly depend on the aim of the study. The proper definition of questions to be answered is thus of pivotal importance. Decisions on sample handling, storage and the analysis of the samples are important steps for the elaboration of problem-oriented monitoring strategies. The same applies to the selection of the sampling sites as being representative for scenarios to be investigated. These steps may become critical to handle for larger international monitoring programs and thus trigger the quality of their results. This study based on the work of an IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) task group addresses different kinds and approaches of substance-related monitoring of different compartments of soil, groundwater and surface water, and discusses their advantages and limitations. Further important aspects are the monitoring across policies and the monitoring data management using information systems.

  1. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  2. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  3. Overview of groundwater sources and water-supply systems, and associated microbial pollution, in Finland, Norway and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve, Bjørn; Kvitsand, Hanne Margrethe Lund; Pitkänen, Tarja; Gunnarsdottir, Maria J.; Gaut, Sylvi; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M.; Rossi, Pekka M.; Miettinen, Ilkka

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of groundwater systems and groundwater contamination in Finland, Norway and Iceland are presented, as they relate to outbreaks of disease. Disparities among the Nordic countries in the approach to providing safe drinking water from groundwater are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future. Groundwater recharge is typically high in autumn or winter months or after snowmelt in the coldest regions. Most inland aquifers are unconfined and therefore vulnerable to pollution, but they are often without much anthropogenic influence and the water quality is good. In coastal zones, previously emplaced marine sediments may confine and protect aquifers to some extent. However, the water quality in these aquifers is highly variable, as the coastal regions are also most influenced by agriculture, sea-water intrusion and urban settlements resulting in challenging conditions for water abstraction and supply. Groundwater is typically extracted from Quaternary deposits for small and medium municipalities, from bedrock for single households, and from surface water for the largest cities, except for Iceland, which relies almost entirely on groundwater for public supply. Managed aquifer recharge, with or without prior water treatment, is widely used in Finland to extend present groundwater resources. Especially at small utilities, groundwater is often supplied without treatment. Despite generally good water quality, microbial contamination has occurred, principally by norovirus and Campylobacter, with larger outbreaks resulting from sewage contamination, cross-connections into drinking water supplies, heavy rainfall events, and ingress of polluted surface water to groundwater.

  4. Overview of groundwater sources and water-supply systems, and associated microbial pollution, in Finland, Norway and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve, Bjørn; Kvitsand, Hanne Margrethe Lund; Pitkänen, Tarja; Gunnarsdottir, Maria J.; Gaut, Sylvi; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M.; Rossi, Pekka M.; Miettinen, Ilkka

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of groundwater systems and groundwater contamination in Finland, Norway and Iceland are presented, as they relate to outbreaks of disease. Disparities among the Nordic countries in the approach to providing safe drinking water from groundwater are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future. Groundwater recharge is typically high in autumn or winter months or after snowmelt in the coldest regions. Most inland aquifers are unconfined and therefore vulnerable to pollution, but they are often without much anthropogenic influence and the water quality is good. In coastal zones, previously emplaced marine sediments may confine and protect aquifers to some extent. However, the water quality in these aquifers is highly variable, as the coastal regions are also most influenced by agriculture, sea-water intrusion and urban settlements resulting in challenging conditions for water abstraction and supply. Groundwater is typically extracted from Quaternary deposits for small and medium municipalities, from bedrock for single households, and from surface water for the largest cities, except for Iceland, which relies almost entirely on groundwater for public supply. Managed aquifer recharge, with or without prior water treatment, is widely used in Finland to extend present groundwater resources. Especially at small utilities, groundwater is often supplied without treatment. Despite generally good water quality, microbial contamination has occurred, principally by norovirus and Campylobacter, with larger outbreaks resulting from sewage contamination, cross-connections into drinking water supplies, heavy rainfall events, and ingress of polluted surface water to groundwater.

  5. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  6. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  7. Gas stream cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Gas stream cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  10. Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) On-line Characterization and Remediation Databases Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the 10 on-line characterization and remediation databases available on the Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) website sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  11. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  12. Accelerated cleanup risk reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1998-02-01

    There is no proven technology for remediating contaminant plume source regions in a heterogeneous subsurface. This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop the requisite new technologies so that will be rapidly accepted by the remediation community. Our technology focus is hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) which is a novel in situ thermal technique. We have expanded this core technology to leverage the action of steam injection and place an in situ microbial filter downstream to intercept and destroy the accelerated movement of contaminated groundwater. Most contaminant plume source regions, including the chlorinated solvent plume at LLNL, are in subsurface media characterized by a wide range in hydraulic conductivity. At LLNL, the main conduits for contaminant transport are buried stream channels composed of gravels and sands; these have a hydraulic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -2} cm/s. Clay and silt units with a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} cm/s bound these buried channels; these are barriers to groundwater movement and contain the highest contaminant concentrations in the source region. New remediation technologies are required because the current ones preferentially access the high conductivity units. HPO is an innovative process for the in situ destruction of contaminants in the entire subsurface. It operates by the injection of steam. We have demonstrated in laboratory experiments that many contaminants rapidly oxidize to harmless compounds at temperatures easily achieved by injecting steam, provided sufficient dissolved oxygen is present. One important challenge in a heterogeneous source region is getting heat, contaminants, and an oxidizing agent in the same place at the same time. We have used the NUFT computer program to simulate the cyclic injection of steam into a contaminated aquifer for design of a field demonstration. We used an 8 hour, steam/oxygen injection cycle followed by a 56 hour relaxation

  13. SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies. PMID:25152535

  14. Performance of in-situ soil and groundwater treatment systems at McClellan Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E. [BDM Federal, McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Mook, P.H. Jr.; Wong, K.B. [Sm-ALC/EMR, McClellan AFB, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), located near Sacramento, California, is one of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s National Environmental Technology Test Sites. The US Air Force has evaluated, as part of the on-going environmental clean-up of McClellan AFB, several innovative and conventional in situ soil and groundwater technologies for the treatment of volatile organic compounds. This paper presents an overview and comparison of the performance and cost of three innovative technologies tested at McClellan AFB. Conventional groundwater extraction systems are effective but costly. Operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for treatment systems are increasingly becoming a major component of the environmental clean-up budget. The performance, limitations, costs, and lessons learned from the implementation of conventional soil vapor and groundwater extraction systems are compared with those of two innovative dual phase extraction systems. Both the Xerox 2-Phase{trademark} Extraction system and a standard dual phase extraction system are more effective than their conventional counterparts, but only over a discrete range of soil permeabilities. Discussions on McClellan AFB`s experiences with cometabolic bioremediation of groundwater and thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction systems are also included.

  15. Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Terai region of Nepal: an overview of health concerns and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, D; Bhandari, B S; Viraraghavan, T

    2009-01-01

    A review of published information on the arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Terai regions of Nepal showed that the source was mainly geogenic due to the dissolution of the arsenic-bearing minerals. Clinical observations of patients in the arsenic affected districts revealed chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water. Half a million people inhabiting the region are believed to have been exposed to arsenic levels greater than 50 microg/L in their drinking water. Thirty-one percent of the population (3.5 million) in the region are estimated to have been exposed to arsenic levels between 10 and 50 microg/L. Iron assisted biosand filters currently distributed and in operation are a suitable alternative to mitigate the interim arsenic standard of 50 microg/L, as set by the Nepal Government. Arsenic biosand filters were also effective in removing bacteria and viruses from drinking water in laboratory and field tests. However, groundwater treatment targeting cluster communities in the Terai region is the sustainable way of mitigating the arsenic problem.

  16. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  17. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  18. Development of teleoperated cleanup system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kwon, H. J

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of a teleoperated cleanup system for use in a highly radioactive environment of DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Demonstration Facility) at KAERI where direct human access to the in-cell is strictly limited. The teleoperated cleanup system was designed to remotely remove contaminants placed or fixed on the floor surface of the hot-cell by mopping them with wet cloth. This cleanup system consists of a mopping slave, a mopping master and a control console. The mopping slave located at the in-cell comprises a mopping tool with a mopping cloth and a mobile platform, which were constructed in modules to facilitate maintenance. The mopping master that is an input device to control the mopping slave has kinematic dissimilarity with the mopping slave. The control console provides a means of bilateral control flows and communications between the mopping master and the mopping slave. In operation, the human operator from the out-of-cell performs a series of decontamination tasks remotely by manipulating the mopping slave located in-cell via a mopping master, having a sense of real mopping. The environmental and mechanical design considerations, and control systems of the developed teleoperated cleanup system are also described.

  19. Army Environmental Cleanup Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    New success indicators are all definable, measurable, and achievable MAY 200918 of 29 Emerging Issues  Emerging contaminants  MMRP progress  NCP...programmatic expectations  NDNODS  Operational range program  Vapor Intrusion MAY 200919 of 29 Emerging Contaminants – Hexavalent Chromium...regulatory standards  Several emerging contaminants have been assessed and judged to have a significant potential impact to Army cleanup programs

  20. Corrective measures evaluation report for technical area-v groundwater.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Johnathan L (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Orr, Brennon R. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Dettmers, Dana L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Howard, Hope (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-01

    This Corrective Measures Evaluation Report was prepared as directed by the Compliance Order on Consent issued by the New Mexico Environment Department to document the process of selecting the preferred remedial alternative for contaminated groundwater at Technical Area V. Supporting information includes background information about the site conditions and potential receptors and an overview of work performed during the Corrective Measures Evaluation. Evaluation of remedial alternatives included identification and description of four remedial alternatives, an overview of the evaluation criteria and approach, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of remedial alternatives, and selection of the preferred remedial alternative. As a result of the Corrective Measures Evaluation, it was determined that monitored natural attenuation of all contaminants of concern (trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and nitrate) was the preferred remedial alternative for implementation as the corrective measure to remediate contaminated groundwater at Technical Area V of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Finally, design criteria to meet cleanup goals and objectives and the corrective measures implementation schedule for the preferred remedial alternative are presented.

  1. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R.J.

    1997-06-01

    'The Pacific Northwest National Lab. was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This section gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas-Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.'

  2. State Summary of Soil and Groundwater Cleanup Standards for Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Mizona D era of N.D.: Non Detect. ADHS: Arizona Depmwtem of Health Services , VOCs: Volatile Organic Compounds EnvImWeIW Quality 602-207-42U Product...also require V 3C scan (8240) and TCLP or retals und= some circumstan s,C I COntRat : James Atchey. Arkansas De ,m of PoltUtion Contol & Ecology 501...sintal Services Progrun. Site specific. (TCLP) I III 5ppb for Drinking Water. Coalact: John Crawshsw, Miassm Deai nt o( Note: Regulatory levels in 40CFR

  3. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  4. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  5. Potential soil cleanup objectives for nitrogen-containing fertilizers at agrichemical facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.

    2006-01-01

    Accidental and incidental chemical releases of nitrogen-containing fertilizers occur at retail agrichemical facilities. Because contaminated soil may threaten groundwater quality, the facility may require some type of site remediation. The purpose of this study was to apply the concepts of the Soil Screening Levels of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to derive soil cleanup objectives (SCO) that are protective of groundwater quality in Illinois for nitrogen as nitrate and as ammonium. The Soil Screening Levels are based on the solute transport mechanisms of sorption, volatilization, and groundwater dilution, and the contaminant-specific groundwater cleanup objective used to derive the SCO. Because nitrate is relatively unreactive, only groundwater dilution could be taken into account in the derivation of a SCO. Using a default groundwater objective for potable groundwater, an SCO of 38 mg N-NO3/kg was derived. For ammonium, however, the extent of sorption was measured using an uncontaminated, surface-soil sample (0 to 15 cm) of 10 different soil types that occur in Illinois and three gravel-fill samples from three different agrichemical facilities. Using a default groundwater objective, an SCO was derived for each soil type. The median SCO was 989 mg N-NH4/kg. The SCO calculated for each of the 10 soil and 3 fill samples was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity, clay content, and surface area. It was concluded that this approach can be used to derive either default of site-specific SCOs for nitrogen as nitrate and as ammonium for chemical releases. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  7. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  8. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dardenne, Yves M.

    2017-01-03

    Apparatus, systems, and methods for nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting include the steps of identifying an area; collecting samples; sample preparation; identification, assay, and analysis; and relating the samples to the area.

  9. Streamlining Site Cleanup in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    This joint effort, supported by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC), advances the environmental cleanup goals of PlaNYC 2030, the city's comprehensive sustainability plan.

  10. A Citizen's Guide to Drycleaner Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners (SCRD) has prepared an easy-to-read guide explaining the drycleaner cleanup process and describing the technologies that are most commonly used to clean up contaminated drycleaner sites.

  11. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  12. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  13. A groundwater-planning toolkit for the main Karoo basin:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an overview of groundwater-planning tools that were ... concept used in surface-water resource assessments and dam or reservoir design were adapted and applied to groundwater. ..... treatment facilities and bulk storage.

  14. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-02-27

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist.

  15. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  16. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  17. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Recovery Act Funded Cleanups, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Recovery Act Funded Cleanup sites as part of the CIMC web service. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was signed into law...

  18. Fast-Track Cleanup at Closing DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fast-Track Cleanup program strives to make parcels available for reuse as quickly as possible by the transfer of uncontaminated or remediated parcels, the lease of contaminated parcels where cleanup is underway, or the 'early transfer' of contaminated property undergoing cleanup.

  19. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  20. Summary of proposed approach for deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-11-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory, carried out under an Interagency Agreement (IAG) with the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The objective of this paper is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL.

  1. Environmental Assessment For Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-01

    DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15 mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10-4 (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10-6 level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and

  2. Groundwater contamination and pollution in micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detay, M.; Alessandrello, E.; Come, P.; Groom, I.

    1989-12-01

    This paper is an overview of groundwater contamination and pollution in th e main islands of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Republic of Belau (Palau). A strategy for the comprehensive protection of groundwater resources in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands is proposed.

  3. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division performs studies and develops strategies, techniques and technologies in the area of radioactive waste management, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear installations and the remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites. These activities are performed in the context of our responsibility towards the safety of present and future generations and contribute to achieve intrageneration equity.

  4. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  5. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  6. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  7. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  8. A tritium vessel cleanup experiment in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caorlin, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Owens, D.K.; Voorhees, D.; Mueller, D.; Ramsey, A.T.; La Marche, P.H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    A simple tritium cleanup experiment was carried out in TFTR following the initial high power deuterium-tritium discharges in December 1993. A series of 34 ohmic and deuterium neutral beam fueled shots was used to study the removal of tritium implanted into the wall and limiters. A very large plasma was created in each discharge to ``scrub`` an area as large as possible. Beam-fueled shots at 2.5 to 7.5 MW of injected power were used to monitor tritium concentration levels in the plasma by detection of DT-neutrons. The neutron signal decreased by a factor of 4 during the experiment, remaining well above the expected T-burnup level. The amount of tritium recovered at the end of the cleanup was about 8% of the amount previously injected with high power DT discharges. The experience gained suggests that measurements of tritium inventory in the torus are very difficult to execute and require dedicated systems with overall accuracy of 1%.

  9. FLUOR HANFORD (FH) MAKES CLEANUP A REALITY IN NEARLY 11 YEARS AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2007-05-24

    For nearly 11 years, Fluor Hanford has been busy cleaning up the legacy of nuclear weapons production at one of the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) major sites in the United States. As prime nuclear waste cleanup contractor at the vast Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, Fluor Hanford has changed the face of cleanup. Fluor beginning on October 1, 1996, Hanford Site cleanup was primarily a ''paper exercise.'' The Tri-Party Agreement, officially called the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order - the edict governing cleanup among the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington state - was just seven years old. Milestones mandated in the agreement up until then had required mainly waste characterization, reporting, and planning, with actual waste remediation activities off in the future. Real work, accessing waste ''in the field'' - or more literally in huge underground tanks, decaying spent fuel POO{approx}{approx}S, groundwater, hundreds of contaminated facilities, solid waste burial grounds, and liquid waste disposal sites -began in earnest under Fluor Hanford. The fruits of labors initiated, completed and/or underway by Fluor Hanford can today be seen across the site. Spent nuclear fuel is buttoned up in secure, dry containers stored away from regional water resources, reactive plutonium scraps are packaged in approved containers, transuranic (TRU) solid waste is being retrieved from burial trenches and shipped offsite for permanent disposal, contaminated facilities are being demolished, contaminated groundwater is being pumped out of aquifers at record rates, and many other inventive solutions are being applied to Hanford's most intransigent nuclear wastes. (TRU) waste contains more than 100 nanocuries per gram, and contains isotopes higher than uranium on the Periodic Table of the Elements. (A nanocurie is one-billionth of a curie.) At the same time, Fluor Hanford

  10. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  11. Environmental Assessment For Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-01

    DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15 mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10-4 (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10-6 level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and

  12. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  13. Scientific Opportunity to Reduce Risk in Groundwater and Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Looney, Brian B.; Zachara, John M.; Liang, Liyuan; Lesmes, D.; Chamberlain, G. M.; Skubal, Karen L.; Adams, V.; Denham, Miles E.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-08-25

    In this report, we start by examining previous efforts at linking science and DOE EM research with cleanup activities. Many of these efforts were initiated by creating science and technology roadmaps. A recurring feature of successfully implementing these roadmaps into EM applied research efforts and successful cleanup is the focus on integration. Such integration takes many forms, ranging from combining information generated by various scientific disciplines, to providing technical expertise to facilitate successful application of novel technology, to bringing the resources and creativity of many to address the common goal of moving EM cleanup forward. Successful projects identify and focus research efforts on addressing the problems and challenges that are causing “failure” in actual cleanup activities. In this way, basic and applied science resources are used strategically to address the particular unknowns that are barriers to cleanup. The brief descriptions of the Office of Science basic (Environmental Remediation Science Program [ERSP]) and EM’s applied (Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program) research programs in subsurface science provide context to the five “crosscutting” themes that have been developed in this strategic planning effort. To address these challenges and opportunities, a tiered systematic approach is proposed that leverages basic science investments with new applied research investments from the DOE Office of Engineering and Technology within the framework of the identified basic science and applied research crosscutting themes. These themes are evident in the initial portfolio of initiatives in the EM groundwater and soil cleanup multi-year program plan. As stated in a companion document for tank waste processing (Bredt et al. 2008), in addition to achieving its mission, DOE EM is experiencing a fundamental shift in philosophy from driving to closure to enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation.

  14. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  15. Reconstruction of groundwater depletion using a global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Wada, Yoshi; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    earlier flux-based estimates and more similar to estimates based on well data, mainly due to enhanced recharge from surface waters. Our results present a global overview of water table depth and reveal hotspots of groundwater depletion, generally occurring in groundwater irrigated systems.

  16. Coupling a detergent lysis/cleanup methodology with intact protein fractionation for enhanced proteome characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ritin; Dill, Brian D; Chourey, Karuna; Shah, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert L

    2012-12-07

    The expanding use of surfactants for proteome sample preparations has prompted the need to systematically optimize the application and removal of these MS-deleterious agents prior to proteome measurements. Here we compare four detergent cleanup methods (trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, chloroform/methanol/water (CMW) extraction, a commercial detergent removal spin column method (DRS) and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP)) to provide efficiency benchmarks with respect to protein, peptide, and spectral identifications in each case. Our results show that for protein-limited samples, FASP outperforms the other three cleanup methods, while at high protein amounts, all the methods are comparable. This information was used to investigate and contrast molecular weight-based fractionated with unfractionated lysates from three increasingly complex samples ( Escherichia coli K-12, a five microbial isolate mixture, and a natural microbial community groundwater sample), all of which were prepared with an SDS-FASP approach. The additional fractionation step enhanced the number of protein identifications by 8% to 25% over the unfractionated approach across the three samples.

  17. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  18. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals.

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-8 Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2005-11-07

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-8 waste site. This waste site was formerly used to stage scrap metal from the 300 Area in support of a program to recycle aluminum.

  20. Engineering Forum Issue Paper: Online Hazardous Waste Cleanup Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper is intended to give the reader examples of some online technical resources that can assist with hazardous waste cleanups in the Superfund, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Brownfields programs.

  1. EPA proposes St. Regis Paper Co. Cleanup Plan, accepting comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Immediate Release No.16-OPA006 EPA proposes St. Regis Paper Co. Cleanup Plan; accepting comments CHICAGO (March 30, 2016) -- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is issuing a proposed plan to clean up soil contamin

  2. Edible Oil Barriers for Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Generic Numeric Cleanup Standards for Groundwater Type I and II Aquifers ..................................................................3 Table 3-1...emulsified oil on the aquifer permeability and continued changes in contaminant concentrations and biodegradation indicator parameters in the aquifer ...Methane concentrations increased indicating methanogenic conditions within the PRB. No significant changes were observed in the upgradient monitor

  3. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Antonios, Rafic S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. PMID:27784979

  4. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour,1,2 Rafic S Antonios,1 Iqbal Ike K Ahmed3 1Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods: We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results: This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion: The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. Keywords: brunescent cataract, cortex aspiration, phacoemulsification, pseudo-exfoliation, weak zonules

  5. groundwater contribution to crop water requirement groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Groundwater, water table, capillary rise, soil type, waterleaf, ... GROUNDWATER CONTRIBUTION TO WATERLEAF (TALINUM TRIANGULARE) IN OXISOLS, I. J. ... Nutritionally, ... information to facilitate increased crop production,.

  6. Accounting for Mass Transfer Kinetics when Modeling the Impact of Low Permeability Layers in a Groundwater Source Zone on Dissolved Contaminant Fate and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Web: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/rods/fulltext/e1098040. pdf InsideEPA.com. "EPA Seeks To Ease Groundwater Cleanup Policy Following NAS...PERMEABILITY LAYERS IN A GROUNDWATER SOURCE ZONE ON DISSOLVED CONTAMINANT FATE AND TRANSPORT THESIS James M. Bell, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENV-14-M-08...MODELING THE IMPACT OF LOW PERMEABILITY LAYERS IN A GROUNDWATER SOURCE ZONE ON DISSOLVED CONTAMINANT FATE AND TRANSPORT THESIS Presented

  7. DECOMMISSIONING AND ENVRIONMENTAL CLEANUP OF SMALL ARMS TRAINING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, T.

    2012-12-04

    constituents posed a migration risk to groundwater. The NTCR action involved removal of approximately 12,092 m3 (15,816 yd3) of spent bullets and lead-impacted soil and off-site disposal. The removal action included soils from the berm area, a fill area that received scraped soils from the berm, and soil from a drainage ditch located on the edge of the berm area. Also included in the removal action was a mixture of soil, concrete, and asphalt from the other three range areas. Under this action, 11,796 m3 (15,429 yd3) of hazardous waste and impacted soil were removed from the SATA and transported to a permitted hazardous waste disposal facility (Lone Mountain Facility in Oklahoma) and 296 m3 (387 yd3) of nonhazardous waste (primarily concrete debris) were removed and transported to a local solid waste landfill for disposal. During the excavation process, the extent was continuously assessed through the use of a hand-held, field-portable X-ray fluorescence unit with results verified using confirmation sampling with certified laboratory analysis. Following the completion of the excavation and confirmation sampling, final contouring, grading, and establishment of vegetative cover was performed to stabilize the affected areas. The NTCR action began on August 17, 2010, and mechanical completion was achieved on April 27, 2011. The selected removal action met the removal action objectives (RAOs), is protective of human health and the environment both in the short- and long-term, was successful in removing potential ecological risks, and is protective of surface water and groundwater. Furthermore, the selected NTCR action met residential cleanup goals and resulted in the release of the SEA from restricted use contributing to the overall footprint reduction at SRS.

  8. STRATEGIC ISSUES GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Golovina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is a key component of our environment; it is a renewable, limited and vulnerable natural resource, which provides economic, social, and environmental well-being of the population. The most promising source of drinking water supply is groundwater usage. Drinking and industrial groundwater is one of the most important components of the groundwater mineral resource base in the Russian Federation. Modern system of groundwater extraction management and state regulation is currently imperfect and has definite disadvantages, among them - lack of control over natural resources by the state, an old system of tax rates for the use of groundwater, commercialization stage of licensing, the budget deficit, which is passed on other spheres of the national economy. This article provides general information about the state of groundwater production and supply in Russia, negative trends of groundwater usage, some actions for the improvement in the system of groundwater’s fund management are suggested. The most important amendments of the law “About mineral resources” are overviewed, effects of these changes are revealed and recommendations for future groundwater extraction regulation are given.

  9. CALCULATING ECONOMIC RISK AFTER HANFORD CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since late 1997, researchers at the Hanford Site have been engaged in the Groundwater Protection Project (formerly, the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Project), developing a suite of integrated physical and environmental models and supporting data to trace the complex path of Hanford legacy contaminants through the environment for the next thousand years, and to estimate corresponding environmental, human health, economic, and cultural risks. The linked set of models and data is called the System Assessment Capability (SAC). The risk mechanism for economics consists of ''impact triggers'' (sequences of physical and human behavior changes in response to, or resulting from, human health or ecological risks), and processes by which particular trigger mechanisms induce impacts. Economic impacts stimulated by the trigger mechanisms may take a variety of forms, including changes in either costs or revenues for economic sectors associated with the affected resource or activity. An existing local economic impact model was adapted to calculate the resulting impacts on output, employment, and labor income in the local economy (the Tri-Cities Economic Risk Model or TCERM). The SAC researchers ran a test suite of 25 realization scenarios for future contamination of the Columbia River after site closure for a small subset of the radionuclides and hazardous chemicals known to be present in the environment at the Hanford Site. These scenarios of potential future river contamination were analyzed in TCERM. Although the TCERM model is sensitive to river contamination under a reasonable set of assumptions concerning reactions of the authorities and the public, the scenarios show low enough future contamination that the impacts on the local economy are small.

  10. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  11. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time.

  12. Implications of the KONVERGENCE Model for Difficult Cleanup Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Dakins, Maxine Ellen; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-08-04

    Abstract—Some cleanup decisions, such as cleanup of intractable contaminated sites or disposal of spent nuclear fuel, have proven difficult to make. Such decisions face high resistance to agreement from stakeholders possibly because they do not trust the decision makers, view the consequences of being wrong as too high, etc. Our project’s goal is to improve sciencebased cleanup decision-making. This includes diagnosing intractable situations, as a step to identifying a path toward sustainable solutions. Companion papers describe the underlying philosophy of the KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions,1 and the overall framework and process steps.2 Where knowledge, values, and resources converge (the K, V, and R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision – a decision that works over time. For intractable cases, serious consideration of the adaptable class of alternatives is warranted – if properly implemented and packaged.

  13. Joint venture to apply biotechnology to waste cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    ENSR Corporation and Celgene Corporation have announced the signing of a letter of intent to form ENSR-Celgene, a joint venture that will develop and apply biotechnology to the cleanup of hazardous wastes. ENSR-Celgene will perform all bioremediation projects contracted by ENSR or Celgene, with technical support provided by both ENSR and Celgene. ENSR recently completed a successful demonstration project using bioremediation to cleanup petrochemical sludges in a seven-acre lagoon at a Superfund site. The EPA has not approved this technology for the site's final remediation. Bioremediation technology is expected to save responsible parties $75 million in cleanup costs and be completed nearly four years sooner than by using incineration, according to Zoch.

  14. Accelerated cleanup Initiatives Putting the Acceleration Plans into Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TYREE, G.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes project successes during the last year and presents strategies for accomplishing work required to accelerate waste retrieval, treatment and closure of 177 large underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The tanks contain approximately 53 million gallons of liquid, sludge, and solid waste resulting from decades of national defense production. The Hanford Site is a 560 square-mile area in southeastern Washington State. One of the nation's largest rivers, the Columbia River, flows through the site and within seven miles of the waste tanks. The US. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) drew upon the recommendations in the DOE's Top-To-Bottom Review and the ideas that emerged from the Cleanup Challenges and Constraints Team (C3T) when creating new initiatives last fall in accelerated tank cleanup. The initiatives reflect discussions and planning during the last year by the DOE, regulatory,agencies, Hanford stakeholders, and CH2M HILL on how to accelerate tank cleanup and closure. The initiatives focus on near-term risk reduction, deployment of proven cleanup technologies, and completing the feed delivery and waste storage systems needed to support Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant. Working with the Office of River Protection, CH2M HILL is changing the way it does business to align with the new focus on accelerated tank cleanup initiatives. A key concept of this new approach is to deploy simple, proven technologies whenever possible to accomplish program goals. Finding existing technologies and evaluating whether they can be applied to or adapted to Hanford tank cleanup provide the best chance for success in achieving treatment of all of Hanford's tank waste by 2028.

  15. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Clark D.; Bennett, Sheila Q.

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998 and seven in fiscal year 1999.(a) All of the fiscal year 1996 awards have been completed and the Principal Investigators are writing final reports, so their summaries will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  16. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards - Fiscal Year 2000 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CD Carlson; SQ Bennett

    2000-07-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, eight in fiscal year 1998, and seven in fiscal year 1999. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have been completed and will publish final reports, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the currently funded grants addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research performed at PNNL is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation; Decontamination and Decommissioning; Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials; and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  17. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards -- Fiscal Year 2002 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Brockman, Fred J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Egorov, Oleg B.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Grate, Jay W.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Mattigod, Shas V.; McGrail, B. Peter; Meyer, Philip D.; Murray, Christopher J.; Panetta, Paul D.; Pfund, David M.; Rai, Dhanpat; Su, Yali; Sundaram, S. K.; Weber, William J.; Zachara, John M.

    2002-06-11

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been awarded a total of 80 Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants since the inception of the program in 1996. The Laboratory has collaborated on an additional 14 EMSP awards with funding received through other institution. This report describes how each of the projects awarded in 1999, 2000, and 2001 addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in the individual project reports included in this document. Projects are under way in three main areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  18. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-05-13

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  19. Groundwater and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Kukurić, N.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Bhaduri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans abstract two hundred times more groundwater than oil, annually. Ironically, the role of groundwater in water management and supply is underappreciated, partially due to its invisibility. By conducting a literature survey and investigating groundwater information databases, this chapter answer

  20. HANDBOOK ON THE BENEFITS, COSTS, AND IMPACTS OF LAND CLEANUP AND REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the land cleanup and reuse scenario. When possible, recommendations are provided for conducting economic analysis of land cleanup and reuse sites and programs. The knowledge base ...

  1. Ecosystem services in sustainable groundwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinstra, Jaap; van Wensem, Joke

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem services concept seems to get foothold in environmental policy and management in Europe and, for instance, The Netherlands. With respect to groundwater management there is a challenge to incorporate this concept in such a way that it contributes to the sustainability of decisions. Groundwater is of vital importance to societies, which is reflected in the presented overview of groundwater related ecosystem services. Classifications of these services vary depending on the purpose of the listing (valuation, protection, mapping et cetera). Though the scientific basis is developing, the knowledge-availability still can be a critical factor in decision making based upon ecosystem services. The examples in this article illustrate that awareness of the value of groundwater can result in balanced decisions with respect to the use of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services concept contributes to this awareness and enhances the visibility of the groundwater functions in the decision making process. The success of the ecosystem services concept and its contribution to sustainable groundwater management will, however, largely depend on other aspects than the concept itself. Local and actual circumstances, policy ambitions and knowledge availability will play an important role. Solutions can be considered more sustainable when more of the key elements for sustainable groundwater management, as defined in this article, are fully used and the presented guidelines for long term use of ecosystem services are respected.

  2. Global Depletion of Groundwater Resources: Past and Future Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, M. F.; de Graaf, I. E. M.; Van Beek, L. P.; Wada, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, about 17% of the crops are irrigated, yet irrigation accounts for 40% of the global food production. As more than 40% of irrigation water comes from groundwater, groundwater abstraction rates are large and exceed natural recharge rates in many regions of the world, thus leading to groundwater depletion. In this paper we provide an overview of recent research on global groundwater depletion. We start with presenting various estimates of global groundwater depletion, both from flux based as well as volume based methods. We also present estimates of the contribution of non-renewable groundwater to irrigation water consumption and how this contribution developed during the last 50 years. Next, using a flux based method, we provide projections of groundwater depletion for the coming century under various socio-economic and climate scenarios. As groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, we also provide estimates of this contribution from the past as well as for future scenarios. Finally, we show recent results of groundwater level changes and change in river flow as a result of global groundwater abstractions as obtained from a global groundwater flow model.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  5. Stroke: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Stroke: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death ...

  6. BIOVENTING OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS FOR GROUND-WATER CLEANUP THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, and dichloromethane (methylene chloride) can exist in contaminated subsurface material as (1) the neat oil, (2) a component of a mixed oily waste, (3) a solu...

  7. Groundwater cleanup by in-situ sparging. IX. Air channeling model for nonaqueous phase liquid removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.J.; Norris, R.D.; Clarke, A.N. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the removal of dissolved and nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated aquifers by sparging. The model assumes that the sparging air moves through the aquifer in persistent channels and that NAPL must dissolve and move to these channels by diffusion and dispersion processes. The dependence of the model results on model parameters is explored, and practical implications for sparging well operation are discussed.

  8. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects.

  9. A novel polymer inclusion membrane based method for continuous clean-up of thiocyanate from gold mine tailings water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsoo; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2018-01-05

    Thiocyanate is present in gold mine tailings waters in concentrations up to 1000mgL(-1) and this has a serious environmental impact by not allowing water reuse in the flotation of gold ore. This significantly increases the consumption of fresh water and the amount of wastewater discharged in tailings dams. At the same time thiocyanate in tailings waters often leads to groundwater contamination. A novel continuous membrane-based method for the complete clean-up of thiocyanate in concentrations as high as 1000mgL(-1) from its aqueous solutions has been developed. It employs a flat sheet polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) of composition 70wt% PVC, 20wt% Aliquat 336 and 10wt% 1-tetradecanol which separates counter-current streams of a feed thiocyanate solution and a 1M NaNO3 receiving solution. The PIM-based system has been operated continuously for 45days with 99% separation efficiency. The volume of the receiving solution has been drastically reduced by recirculating it and continuously removing thiocyanate by precipitating it with in-situ generated Cu(I). The newly developed PIM-based thiocyanate clean-up method is environmentally friendly in terms of reagent use and inexpensive with respect to both equipment and running costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil water and vegetation management for cleanup of selenium contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    Over the past year scientists have initiatived a new effort aimed at developing a soil water and vegetation management plan for Kesterson Reservoir. The plan is intended to result in a gradual depletion of the inventory of soluble selenium at the Reservoir through a combination agriculturally oriented practices that enhance dissipation of selenium from near surface soils. Agriculturally oriented processes that will contribute to depletion include microbial volatilization from the soils, direct volatilization by living plants, decomposition and volatilization of selenium-bearing vegetation, harvest and removal of seleniferous vegetation, and leaching. The benefits of using this integrated approach are that (1) no single mechanism needs to be relied upon to detoxify the soils, (2) a stable plant community can be established during this period so that impacts to wildlife can be more easily evaluated and controlled, (3) cleanup and management of the site can be carried out in a cost-effective manner. The management plan is also intended to facilitate control over wildlife exposure to selenium contaminated biota by creating a well managed environment. The majority of research associated with this new effort is being carried out at a 200 m by 50 m test plot in Pond 7. A two-line irrigation system , providing local groundwater as an irrigation supply, has been installed. Through an intensive program of soil water sampling, soil gas sampling, vegetation sampling, groundwater monitoring, and soil moisture monitoring, the mass balance for selenium under irrigated conditions is being evaluated. These studies, in conjunction with supplementary laboratory experiments will provide the information needed to develop an optimal management plan for the site. 23 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Shoreline oil cleanup, recovery and treatment evaluation system (SOCRATES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.; Lunel, T.; Sommerville, M. [National Environmental Technology Centre, Culham (United Kingdom); Tyler, A.; Marshall, I. [BMT Marine Information Systems Ltd., Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    A beach cleanup computer system was developed to mitigate the impact of shoreline oiling. The program, entitled SOCRATES, was meant to determine the most suitable cleanup methodologies for a range of different spill scenarios. The development, operation and capabilities of SOCRATES was described, with recent examples of successful use during the Sea Empress spill. The factors which influenced decision making and which were central to the numerical solution were: (1) the volumetric removal rate of oil, (2) area removal rate of oil, (3) length of oil slick removed per hour, (4) volumetric removal rate of oily waste, (5) area of the oil slick, (6) length of the oil slick, (7) volume of liquid emulsion, and (8) length of beach. 14 figs.

  12. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Scoma, Alberto; Michoud, Grégoire; Aulenta, Federico; Boon, Nico; Borin, Sara; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  14. Cleanup delays at hazardous waste sites: an incomplete information game

    OpenAIRE

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Simon, Leo K.; Zhao, Jinhua

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the incentives facing Potentially Responsible Parties at a hazardous waste site to promote excessive investigation of the site and thus postpone the beginning of the remediation phase of the cleanup. We model the problem as an incomplete information, simultaneous-move game between PRPs. We assume that PRP's liability shares are predetermined. Each PRP's type is its private information about the precision of its own records relating to the site. A strategy for a PRP is a fun...

  15. Liability of Defense Contractors for Hazardous Waste Cleanup Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    laws against toxic waste dumpers . I want faster cleanups and tougher enforcement of penalties against polluters. [Address by President Bush to joint...excludes coverage for "[a]ny loss, cost, or expense arising out of any governmental direction or request that [the insured] test for, monitor , clean...test for, monitor , clean up, remove, contain, treat, detoxify, or neutralize the pollutants.Ř 63 ENDNOTES 1. Text of President Bush’s Address to

  16. Cleanup of contaminated soil -- Unreal risk assumptions: Contaminant degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, A. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Ewing, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure assessments for development of risk-based soil cleanup standards or criteria assume that contaminant mass in soil is infinite and conservative (constant concentration). This assumption is not real for most organic chemicals. Contaminant mass is lost from soil and ground water when organic chemicals degrade. Factors to correct for chemical mass lost by degradation are derived from first-order kinetics for 85 organic chemicals commonly listed by USEPA and state agencies. Soil cleanup criteria, based on constant concentration, are then corrected for contaminant mass lost. For many chemicals, accounting for mass lost yields large correction factors to risk-based soil concentrations. For degradation in ground water and soil, correction factors range from greater than one to several orders of magnitude. The long exposure durations normally used in exposure assessments (25 to 70 years) result in large correction factors to standards even for carcinogenic chemicals with long half-lives. For the ground water pathway, a typical soil criterion for TCE of 1 mg/kg would be corrected to 11 mg/kg. For noncarcinogens, correcting for mass lost means that risk algorithms used to set soil cleanup requirements are inapplicable for many chemicals, especially for long periods of exposure.

  17. Groundwater sustainability and urban development - a major challenge for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a critical, but often under appreciated, resource for urban water supply, a serious and costly hazard to urban infrastructure, and the 'invisible link' between various facets of the urbanisation process. An overview is presented of the benefits of urban groundwater use, together with some insidious and persistent problems that groundwater can present (especially those related to groundwater pollution from inadequate sanitation) for urban development. Spontaneous piecemeal approaches invariably mean that 'one person's solution becomes another person's problem' - and there is a strong argument for groundwater considerations to be part of a more holistic approach to urban infrastructure planning and management. However this is not a simple task because of the widespread vacuum of institutional responsibility and accountability for groundwater in urban areas. The current state of urban groundwater management will be reviewed, and pragmatic solutions to strengthening various facets of urban groundwater governance and management presented, using examples from Latin America and South Asia.

  18. Introductory Overviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakeman, A.J.; Hamilton, S.H.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Pierce, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory Overview articles are designed to provide introductory level background to key themes and topics that caters to the eclectic readership of EMS. It is envisaged that these articles will help to break down barriers to shared understanding and dialogue within multidisciplinary teams, and m

  19. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  20. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  1. Biotechnology Workgroup for Department of Defense Soil and Groundwater Decontamination Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    biotransfor - mation rates. 2.3.5 Develop In-Situ Methods for Assessing Microbiological Activity; Priority 6, a 6.2 and 6.3 Project Background: In order...2.5.6 Heavy Metals Speciation in DERA/Superfund Sites; Priority Level 4 ) Background: Impact, toxicity and degree of bioaccumulation ...groundwater. "* Ability to predict the bioaccumulation /biomagnification of metal species. 0 "* Cost-effective cleanup of hazardous waste sites contaminated

  2. Sulfate Reduction in Groundwater: Characterization and Applications for Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Z.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Johnson, B.

    2012-06-01

    Sulfate is ubiquitous in groundwater, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sulfate reduction reactions play a significant role in mediating redox conditions and biogeochemical processes for subsurface systems. They also serve as the basis for innovative in-situ methods for groundwater remediation. An overview of sulfate reduction in subsurface environments is provided, with a specific focus on implications for groundwater remediation. A case study presenting the results of a pilot-scale ethanol injection test illustrates the advantages and difficulties associated with the use of electron-donor amendments for sulfate remediation.

  3. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  4. Overview Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  5. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  6. Memorandum of the Establishment of Cleanup Levels for CERCLA Sites with Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum presents clarifying guidance for establishing protective cleanup levels for radioactive contamination at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites.

  7. Union job fight boiling at DOE cleanup sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setzer, S.W.

    1993-11-15

    The US DOE is facing a growing jurisdictional dispute over which unions will perform the majority of clean-up work at its facilities. Unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO Metal Trades Council representing operations employees at the sites believe they have a fundamental right to work. Unions in the AFL-CIO's Building and Construction Trades Dept. insist that they have a clear mandate under federal labor law and the Davis-Bacon Act. The issue has heated up in recent weeks at the policy level and is boiling in a contentious dispute at DOE's Fernald site in Ohio.

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  10. Renewable Natural Gas Clean-up Challenges and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    removed including CO, CO2,CH4) Illustrative Process Flow Diagram for On-site H2 Supply System & SOFC Power Generation...day 1.5 to SOFC ) 13.2 scfm . 8.0 scfm Flow rate: ~ 2.9 scfm ( PSA: ~ 31.7scfm) Usable Heat Electricity 2 CO: ~0.5% H2: ~73.5 Total Flow...34.6 scfm SOFC : 17 t 18 Example Gas Cl eanup Sys em for WWDG > Configured a gas cleanup system utilizing a membrane module for CO

  11. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  12. Characterization of shallow groundwater at TNX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located on 300 square miles along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, is owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The site`s mission is to support the national security through the production of nuclear weapons material. With the recent reduction of the nation`s nuclear stockpile and the stronger focus on the cleanup of sites where nuclear operations activities have left behind soil and groundwater contamination, identifying and remediating all inactive wastes has become a primary goal.The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the western portion of SRS (Figure 1). The area is a pilot-scale test facility for the Savannah River Technology Center. Pilot-scale testing and evaluation of chemical processes at TNX have included support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Separations Area, and fuel and target manufacturing areas. Wastewater generated during tests was discharged to unlined basins through a network of underground process sewers.A discussion of waste disposal activities for the TNX Area is included in this report to identify the major sources of contaminants that have impacted the groundwater.

  13. Groundwater Storage Changes: Present Status from GRACE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianli; Famigliett, James S.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provide quantitative measurement of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes with unprecedented accuracy. Combining GRACE-observed TWS changes and independent estimates of water change in soil and snow and surface reservoirs offers a means for estimating groundwater storage change. Since its launch in March 2002, GRACE time-variable gravity data have been successfully used to quantify long-term groundwater storage changes in different regions over the world, including northwest India, the High Plains Aquifer and the Central Valley in the USA, the North China Plain, Middle East, and southern Murray-Darling Basin in Australia, where groundwater storage has been significantly depleted in recent years (or decades). It is difficult to rely on in situ groundwater measurements for accurate quantification of large, regional-scale groundwater storage changes, especially at long timescales due to inadequate spatial and temporal coverage of in situ data and uncertainties in storage coefficients. The now nearly 13 years of GRACE gravity data provide a successful and unique complementary tool for monitoring and measuring groundwater changes on a global and regional basis. Despite the successful applications of GRACE in studying global groundwater storage change, there are still some major challenges limiting the application and interpretation of GRACE data. In this paper, we present an overview of GRACE applications in groundwater studies and discuss if and how the main challenges to using GRACE data can be addressed.

  14. Groundwater Storage Changes: Present Status from GRACE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianli; Famiglietti, James S.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provide quantitative measurement of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes with unprecedented accuracy. Combining GRACE-observed TWS changes and independent estimates of water change in soil and snow and surface reservoirs offers a means for estimating groundwater storage change. Since its launch in March 2002, GRACE time-variable gravity data have been successfully used to quantify long-term groundwater storage changes in different regions over the world, including northwest India, the High Plains Aquifer and the Central Valley in the USA, the North China Plain, Middle East, and southern Murray-Darling Basin in Australia, where groundwater storage has been significantly depleted in recent years (or decades). It is difficult to rely on in situ groundwater measurements for accurate quantification of large, regional-scale groundwater storage changes, especially at long timescales due to inadequate spatial and temporal coverage of in situ data and uncertainties in storage coefficients. The now nearly 13 years of GRACE gravity data provide a successful and unique complementary tool for monitoring and measuring groundwater changes on a global and regional basis. Despite the successful applications of GRACE in studying global groundwater storage change, there are still some major challenges limiting the application and interpretation of GRACE data. In this paper, we present an overview of GRACE applications in groundwater studies and discuss if and how the main challenges to using GRACE data can be addressed.

  15. Groundwater Pollution Arising From The Disposal Of Creosote Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Flyvbjerg, J.

    1992-01-01

    by subsurface micro-organisms. This paper gives an overview of the present knowledge about microbial degradation of creosote contaminants under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, various techniques for biological remediation of creosote-contaminated groundwater are outlined. These techniques include...

  16. Cleanup of an urban site contaminated by monazite processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C.; Zenaro, Rozangela; Sachett, Ivanor A. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radioprotecao Ambiental

    2001-07-01

    For half a century the Santo Amaro Mill processed monazite sand in order to isolate rare earth elements. At the beginning of its operation, the mill was located far from the centre of Sao Paulo city. However, over the years the city spread and engulfed the mill, which, together with economical and radiological problems, led to its being shutdown and later decommissioned. Based on a future residential occupation scenario complying with a dose limit of 1 mSv/y, a concentration guideline level of 0.65 Bq/g of {sup 228} Ra activity concentration in the soil was derived. The cleanup actions led for removing of about 2300 m{sup 3} of soil from the area, of which 60 m{sup 3} was sent to a repository and 2240 m{sup 3} to a municipal landfill. This paper address to present the criteria for the establishment of the derived concentration guideline level of radionuclides in soil and the studies carried out for establishment of measurement procedures for on-site radiation measurements aiming speed-up of the analyses during the cleanup actions. (author)

  17. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2017-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  18. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2015-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  19. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  20. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  1. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Baynes, P.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies.

  2. IBL Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrere, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS IBL project is reaching a completion phase with the integration of the staves around the IPT and beam pipe structure. The installation and insertion into the Pixel will be done in May with a tight schedule constraint. This talk will give an overview of the project including the production status and the recent issues met like the corrosion problem. The tremendous effort made to recover the production and optimize the time and the available components to test the full on-detector and off-detector chain highlighted very efficient and excellent results. The integration tools and all the engineering efforts are also made to ensure the success of the last operations on the surface and in the cavern.

  3. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  4. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  5. Hot gas clean-up with ceramic filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A.; Gross, R.; Renz, U. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik

    1998-12-31

    Hot gas cleanup is necessary during the combined cycle combustion of coal, ceramic filters are frequently used for filtration. Pressure and velocity measurements inside the filter elements during pulse cleaning of a single ceramic candle filter element were carried out. The experimental set-up is described and the results for filter element cleaning at {var_theta} = 25,500 and 900{degree}C and cleaning pressures of P{sub B} = 1.4, 1.9 and 2.8 bar are presented and discussed. Numerical simulations of filter element cleaning for the experimental conditions are presented and discussed as well. Regarding the good agreement of experimental results with numerical predictions it is proven that numerical simulations of the back-pulse cleaning should be employed as design tool for filter cleaning systems. 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  7. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  8. Advances in Groundwater Remediation: Achieving Effective In Situ Delivery of Chemical Oxidants and Amendments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegrist, Robert L.; Crimi, Michelle; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by organic chemicals represents a major environmental problem in urban areas throughout the United States and other industrialized nations. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has emerged as one of several viable methods for remediation of organically contamina...... delivery of treatment fl uids, with an emphasis on chemical oxidants and amendments, which can help achieve cleanup goals and protect groundwater and associated drinking water resources.......Contamination of soil and groundwater by organic chemicals represents a major environmental problem in urban areas throughout the United States and other industrialized nations. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has emerged as one of several viable methods for remediation of organically...... ) delivered into the subsurface using injection wells, probes, or other techniques. A continuing challenge for ISCO, as well as other in situ remediation technologies, is how to achieve in situ delivery and obtain simultaneous contact between treatment fl uids, such as oxidants and amendments, and the target...

  9. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-02-27

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money.

  10. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

    2010-03-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  11. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  12. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  13. Groundwater monitoring plan for the proposed state-approved land disposal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, S.P.

    1993-10-13

    This document outlines a detection-level groundwater monitoring program for the state-approved land disposal structure (SALDS). The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluent from the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this plan is to present a groundwater monitoring program that is capable of determining the impact of effluent disposal at the SALDS on the quality of groundwater in the uppermost aquifer. This groundwater monitoring plan presents an overview of the SALDS, the geology and hydrology of the area, the background and indicator evaluation (detection) groundwater monitoring program, and an outline of a groundwater quality assessment (compliance) program. This plan does not provide a plan for institutional controls to track tritium beyond the SALDS.

  14. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  15. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  16. Review of emerging organic pollutants in groundwater in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Koroša

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic compounds EOC are substances which have been only recently determined as pollutants,and substances which have been newly developed or discovered in the environment. EOC in groundwater cancause adverse effects on the environment and human health. They enter into the natural environment as a resultof various anthropogenic activities. The article provides an overview of emerging organic pollutants that occur ingroundwater. These compounds are drug residues, substances originating from personal care products, pesticides,veterinary products, food additives, nanomaterials, industrial and other compounds found in wastewater. Thearticle describes the main sources and the presence of EOC in groundwater, pathways and potential impacts(risks. An overview of EOC detection research in the world is presented. Within the review of Slovenian studiesthe investigations dealing with the determination of wide spectrum of EOC presence in groundwater, with drugresidues in groundwater and waste water, or with the development of analytical methods for these substanceswere analyzed. From the entire analysis we inferred that we must be aware of the possible presence of EOC riskin groundwatereven in small concentrations. To reduce the yet extent unknown risks, it is necessary to determineEOC threshold values in groundwater and their impact. In the future it will be necessary to identify new pollutants,to develop new analytical methods to determine their sources and routes, and in particular, to establishmonitoring for these substances.

  17. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we provid

  18. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  19. Groundwater data network interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Booth, Nathaniel; Boisvert, Eric; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Water data networks are increasingly being integrated to answer complex scientific questions that often span large geographical areas and cross political borders. Data heterogeneity is a major obstacle that impedes interoperability within and between such networks. It is resolved here for groundwater data at five levels of interoperability, within a Spatial Data Infrastructure architecture. The result is a pair of distinct national groundwater data networks for the United States and Canada, and a combined data network in which they are interoperable. This combined data network enables, for the first time, transparent public access to harmonized groundwater data from both sides of the shared international border.

  20. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  2. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  3. Government Districts, Other, City trash cleanup zones, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'City trash cleanup zones'. Data...

  4. A co-metabolic approach to groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Strandberg, G.W.; Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Herbes, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Phelps, T.J.; White, D.C. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. for Applied Microbiology)

    1991-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Integrated Demonstration (Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-arid Sites) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee (UT) are involved in demonstrations of the use of methanotrophs in bioreactors for remediation of contaminated groundwater. In preparation for a field demonstration at ORNL's K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL is conducting batch experiments, is operating a number of bench-scale bioreactors, has designed pretreatment systems, and has modified a field-scale bioreactor provided by the Air Force Engineering and Services Center for use at the site. UT is operating bench-scale bioreactors with the goal of determining the stability of a trichloroethylene-degrading methanotrophic consortia during shifts in operating conditions (e.g. pH, nutrient inputs, and contaminant mixtures). These activities are all aimed at providing the knowledge base necessary for successful treatment of contaminated groundwater at the SRS and K-25 sites as well as other DOE sites. 18 refs., 1 fig. , 1 tab.

  5. Major clean-up effort in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Marzio Nessi

    On Tuesday 10 October, 58 ATLAS collaborators volunteered to give a hand for a major clean-up of the ATLAS detector prior to the toroid magnet ramp-up. This special task monopolised all of the technical coordination team and eight supervisors to oversee the volunteers who were assigned to two separate five-hour shifts. The volunteers removed all sorts of loose material inside and outside the detector, focusing mainly on potentially magnetic material lost inside the detector and dirt accumulated over several months, not to mention zillions of clipped cable ties! The technical crew provided 120 garbage bags and all were used. All sorts of material that had been lost inside the detector by various people was retrieved, in particular small tools which could potentially damage the detector, as well as metallic fillings hazardous for the electronics once the magnet will be ramped up. A more detailed inspection followed for all the inside of the detector, making sure the current on the magnet could be raised to 5KA ...

  6. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  7. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity ...

  8. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  9. Canada's groundwater resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for life in arid and semiarid region. It is also important in humid regions, and is one of the fundamental requirements for the maintenance of natural landscapes and aquatic ecosystem...

  10. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  11. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  12. Precision Dual-Aquifer Dewatering at a Low Level Radiological Cleanup in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, A. S.; Langman, J. W. Jr.; Zahl, H. A.; Miller, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    Cleanup of low-level radioactive wastes at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey during the period October, 2000 through November, 2001 required the design, installation and operation of a dual-aquifer dewatering system to support excavation of contaminated soils. Waste disposal pits from a former rare-earth processing facility at the WISS had been in contact with the water table aquifer, resulting in moderate levels of radionuclides being present in the upper aquifer groundwater. An uncontaminated artesian aquifer underlies the water table aquifer, and is a localized drinking water supply source. The lower aquifer, confined by a silty clay unit, is flowing artesian and exhibits potentiometric heads of up to 4.5 meters above grade. This high potentiometric head presented a strong possibility that unloading due to excavation would result in a ''blowout'', particularly in areas where the confining unit was < 1 meter thick. Excavation of contaminated materials w as required down to the surface of the confining unit, potentially resulting in an artesian aquifer head of greater than 8 meters above the excavation surface. Consequently, it was determined that a dual-aquifer dewatering system would be required to permit excavation of contaminated material, with the water table aquifer dewatered to facilitate excavation, and the deep aquifer depressurized to prevent a ''blowout''. An additional concern was the potential for vertical migration of contamination present in the water table aquifer that could result from a vertical gradient reversal caused by excessive pumping in the confined system. With these considerations in mind, a conceptual dewatering plan was developed with three major goals: (1) dewater the water table aquifer to control radionuclide migration and allow excavation to proceed; (2) depressurize the lower, artesian aquifer to reduce the potential for a ''blowout''; and (3

  13. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  14. Intensive groundwater use: a silent revolution that cannot be ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, M R; Martínez-Santos, P

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, agriculture in arid and semi-arid countries has experienced a true "silent revolution" of intensive groundwater use. Millions of independent farmers worldwide have chosen to become increasingly dependent on the reliability of groundwater resources, and as a result their countries have reaped abundant social and economic benefits. Data from several countries shows that groundwater irrigation presents a much greater efficiency, than surface water irrigation systems, thus contributing to fulfil the motto of "more crops and jobs per drop". If this situation is confirmed globally, the usual world water visions have to be reviewed. However, the "silent revolution" has been carried out with scarce control on the part of governmental water agencies, and thus a series of unwanted effects have developed in certain places. While these by no means justify the pervasive "hydromyths" and obsolete paradigms that voice the frailty of groundwater, appropriate management of groundwater resources remains a worldwide challenge. This paper provides an overview of these issues, and concludes with the necessity there is to educate all levels of society on the importance of groundwater and to create bottom-up user associations to manage aquifers as common pool resources.

  15. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  16. PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-23

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We

  17. CORTICAL CLEANUP WITHOUT SIDE PORT IN SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to achieve complete cortical cleanup and avoid problems related with sideport during Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS so as to have a good visual out come with minimal recovery period, and a better quality of life. After nucleus delivery, cortical cleanup is an important step in any cataract surgical procedure. Cortex especially subincisional area (11 to 1 o’clock is difficult to manage intraoperatively. Bimanual irrigation aspiration through two side ports, aspiration by J cannula, iris massage manoeuver, ice cream scoop manoeuver are various techniques of cortical matter aspiration. We acquired the technique of aspiration of subincisional cortex without using side port in all cases by paying attention on type of cataract, status of pupil, use of Adrenalin mixed BSS intraoperatively, Tunnel construction, Capsulorhexis size and capsular rim size at 12 o’clock. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective study of 1 year from 2013 to 2014, 60 patients (60 eyes aged 40 years or older attending the General Ophthalmic Department were included in the study group with another group of 60 patients (60 eyes as controls. The study was on age related cataracts which are basically. 1 Cortical cataract 2 Nuclear cataract 3 Subcapsular cataract. Proper assessment of cortical cataract based on its maturity such as a Immature b Mature c Hyper mature and d Morgagnian cataract, nucleus for its opalescence and color, size of posterior subcapsular opacity and pupillary status (Dilating well or not with mydriatics were taken into consideration. Eyes with pseudoexfoliation having poor pupillary dilation were also included. Eyes with congenital anomalies, congenital cataract, gross corneal and retinal pathologies, and glaucoma were excluded. RESULTS Among 60 study eyes in the study group 35 presented with cortical, 20 with nuclear cataract and 5 with posterior subcapsular cataracts. In 58(96.6% cases, sideport was not required; 3(5% eyes

  18. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  19. Decommissioning and Environmental Cleanup of a Small Arms Training Facility - 13225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Karen M. [United States Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (United States); Kmetz, Thomas F.; Smith, Sandra B.; Blount, Gerald C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    constituents posed a migration risk to groundwater. The NTCR action involved removal of approximately 12,092 m{sup 3} (15,816 yd{sup 3}) of spent bullets and lead-impacted soil and off-site disposal. The removal action included soils from the berm area, a fill area that received scraped soils from the berm, and soil from a drainage ditch located on the edge of the berm area. Also included in the removal action was a mixture of soil, concrete, and asphalt from the other three range areas. Under this action, 11,796 m{sup 3} (15,429 yd{sup 3}) of hazardous waste and impacted soil were removed from the SATA and transported to a permitted hazardous waste disposal facility (Lone Mountain Facility in Oklahoma) and 296 m{sup 3} (387 yd{sup 3}) of nonhazardous waste (primarily concrete debris) were removed and transported to a local solid waste landfill for disposal. During the excavation process, the extent was continuously assessed through the use of a hand-held, field-portable X-ray fluorescence unit with results verified using confirmation sampling with certified laboratory analysis. Following the completion of the excavation and confirmation sampling, final contouring, grading, and establishment of vegetative cover was performed to stabilize the affected areas. The NTCR action began on August 17, 2010, and mechanical completion was achieved on April 27, 2011. The selected removal action met the removal action objectives (RAOs), is protective of human health and the environment both in the short- and long-term, was successful in removing potential ecological risks, and is protective of surface water and groundwater. Furthermore, the selected NTCR action met residential cleanup goals and resulted in the release of the SEA from restricted use contributing to the overall footprint reduction at SRS. (authors)

  20. Limits to global groundwater consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest accessible freshwater resource worldwide and is of critical importance for irrigation, and so for global food security. For many regions of the world where groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge, persistent groundwater depletion occurs. A direct consequence of depletion is falling groundwater levels, reducing baseflows to rivers, harming ecosystems. Also, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence can occur. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable limits with all the associated problems. Here, we estimated past and future trends (1960-2050) in groundwater levels resulting from changes in abstractions and climate and predicted when limits of groundwater consumption are reached. We explored these limits by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that low that groundwater becomes unattainable for abstractions and how river flows are affected. Water availabilities, abstractions, and lateral groundwater flows are simulated (5 arcmin. resolution) using a coupled version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and a groundwater model based on MODFLOW. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of the worlds confined and unconfined aquifer systems, needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Results show that, next to the existing regions experiencing groundwater depletion (like India, Pakistan, Central Valley) new regions will develop, e.g. Southern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Using a limit that reflects present-day feasibility of groundwater abstraction, we estimate that in 2050 groundwater becomes unattainable for 20% of the global population, mainly in the developing countries and pumping cost will increase significantly. Largest impacts are found

  1. Use of iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundy, Andrew B. [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: A.Cundy@brighton.ac.uk; Hopkinson, Laurence [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Whitby, Raymond L.D. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01

    Reactions involving iron play a major role in the environmental cycling of a wide range of important organic, inorganic and radioactive contaminants. Consequently, a range of environmental clean-up technologies have been proposed or developed which utilise iron chemistry to remediate contaminated land and surface and subsurface waters, e.g. the use of injected zero zero-valent iron nanoparticles to remediate organic contaminant plumes; the generation of iron oxyhydroxide-based substrates for arsenic removal from contaminated waters; etc. This paper reviews some of the latest iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation, their current state of development, and their potential applications and limitations.

  2. Groundwater systems of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Sub-Continent is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world's land area. It encompasses some of the world's largest fluvial systems in the world (River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus Basins, which hosts some of the highest yielding aquifers in the world. The distribution of usable groundwater in the region varies considerably and the continued availability of safe water from many of these aquifers (e.g. Bengal Basin is constrained by the presence of natural contaminants. Further, the trans-boundary nature of the aquifers in the Indian Sub-Continent makes groundwater resource a potentially politically sensitive issue, particularly since this region is the largest user of groundwater resources in the world. Indeed, there is considerable concern regarding dwindling well yield and declining groundwater levels, even for the highly productive aquifers. Though irrigation already accounts for >85% of the total ground water extraction of the region, there is a mounting pressure on aquifers for food security of the region. Highly variable precipitation, hydrogeological conditions and predicted, impending climate change effects provide substantial challenges to groundwater management. The observed presence of natural groundwater contaminants together with the growing demand for irrigated food production and predicted climate change further complicate the development of strategies for using groundwater resources sustainably. We provide an introduction and overview of 11 articles, collated in this special issue, which describe the current condition of vulnerable groundwater resources across the Indian Sub-Continent.

  3. Methods for exploring uncertainty in groundwater management predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Comunian, Alessandro; Fu, Baihua; Blakers, Rachel S; Jakeman, Anthony J; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Models of groundwater systems help to integrate knowledge about the natural and human system covering different spatial and temporal scales, often from multiple disciplines, in order to address a range of issues of concern to various stakeholders. A model is simply a tool to express what we think we know. Uncertainty, due to lack of knowledge or natural variability, means that there are always alternative models that may need to be considered. This chapter provides an overview of uncertainty in models and in the definition of a problem to model, highlights approaches to communicating and using predictions of uncertain outcomes and summarises commonly used methods to explore uncertainty in groundwater management predictions. It is intended to raise awareness of how alternative models and hence uncertainty can be explored in order to facilitate the integration of these techniques with groundwater management.

  4. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    The many roles that groundwater plays in landscape evolution are becoming more widely appreciated. In this overview, three major categories of groundwater processes and resulting landforms are considered: (1) Dissolution creates various karst geometries, mainly in carbonate rocks, in response to conditions of recharge, geologic setting, lithology, and groundwater circulation. Denudation and cave formation rates can be estimated from kinetic and hydraulic parameters. (2) Groundwater weathering generates regoliths of residual alteration products at weathering fronts, and subsequent exhumation exposes corestones, flared slopes, balanced rocks, domed inselbergs, and etchplains of regional importance. Groundwater relocation of dissolved salts creates duricrusts of various compositions, which become landforms. (3) Soil and rock erosion by groundwater processes include piping, seepage erosion, and sapping, important agents in slope retreat and headward gully migration. Thresholds and limits are important in many chemical and mechanical groundwater actions. A quantitative, morphometric approach to groundwater landforms and processes is exemplified by selected studies in carbonate and clastic terrains of ancient and recent origins. Résumé Les rôles variés joués par les eaux souterraines dans l'évolution des paysages deviennent nettement mieux connus. La revue faite ici prend en considération trois grandes catégories de processus liés aux eaux souterraines et les formes associées: (1) La dissolution crée des formes karstiques variées, surtout dans les roches carbonatées, en fonction des conditions d'alimentation, du cadre géologique, de la lithologie et de la circulation des eaux souterraines. Les taux d'érosion et de formation des grottes peuvent être estimés à partir de paramètres cinétiques et hydrauliques. (2) L'érosion par les eaux souterraines donne naissance à des régolites, résidus d'altération sur des fronts d'altération, et l'exhumation r

  5. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report summarizes the state of the art in performance modeling of advanced high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) gas cleanup devices. Volume I contains the culmination of the research effort carried over the past 12 months and is a summary of research achievements. Volume II is the user's manual for the computer programs developed under the present research project. In this volume, Section 2 presents background information on pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion concepts, a description of the role of the advanced gas cleanup systems, and a list of advanced gas cleanup systems that are currently in development under DOE sponsorship. Section 3 describes the methodology for the software architecture that forms the basis of the well-disciplined and structured computer programs developed under the present project. Section 4 reviews the fundamental theories that are important in analyzing the cleanup performance of HTHP gas filters. Section 5 discusses the effect of alkali agents in HTHP gas cleanup. Section 6 evaluates the advanced HTHP gas cleanup models based on their mathematical integrity, availability of supporting data, and the likelihood of commercialization. As a result of the evaluation procedure detailed in Section 6, five performance models were chosen to be incorporated into the overall system simulation code, ASPEN. These five models (the electrocyclone, ceramic bag filter, moving granular bed filter, electrostatic granular bed filter, and electrostatic precipitator) are described in Section 7. The method of cost projection for these five models is discussed in Section 8. The supporting data and validation of the computer codes are presented in Section 9, and finally the conclusions and recommendations for the HTHP gas cleanup system model development are given in Section 10. 72 references, 19 figures, 25 tables.

  6. Sources, Speciation and Mobility of Plutonium and Other Transuranics in the Groundwater at the Savannah River Site (Sept. 2003-Sept. 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.; Buesseler, K.O.; Dai, M.; Kaplan, D.

    2006-06-01

    The intent of this research effort is to: (1) provide the basis for accurate modeling and prediction of actinide transport; (2) allow for remediation strategies to be planned that might use in-situ manipulations of geochemical variables to enhance (for extraction) or retard (for immobilization) Pu mobility in the groundwater zone; (3) identify specific Pu sources and the extent of far field, or long-term migration of transuranics in groundwater; (4) reduce costly uncertainty in performance and risk assessment calculations. This new knowledge is essential to ensure continued public and worker safety at the DOE sites and the efficient management of cleanup and containment strategies.

  7. Sources, Speciation and Mobility of Plutonium and Other Transuranics in the Groundwater at the Savannah River Site (Sept. 2003-Sept. 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Kaplan, D.; Peterson, S.; Dai, M.

    2006-11-07

    The intent of this research effort is to: i) provide the basis for accurate modeling and prediction of actinide transport; ii) allow for remediation strategies to be planned that might use in-situ manipulations of geochemical variables to enhance (for extraction) or retard (for immobilization) Pu mobility in the groundwater zone; iii) identify specific Pu sources and the extent of far field, or long-term migration of transuranics in groundwater; iv) reduce costly uncertainty in performance and risk assessment calculations. This new knowledge is essential to ensure continued public and worker safety at the DOE sites and the efficient management of cleanup and containment strategies.

  8. Sources, Speciation and Mobility of Plutonium and Other Transuranics in the Groundwater at the Savannah River Site (Sept. 2003-Sept. 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Kaplan, D.; Peterson, S.; Dai, M.

    2006-11-07

    The intent of this research effort is to: (1) provide the basis for accurate modeling and prediction of actinide transport; (2) allow for remediation strategies to be planned that might use in-situ manipulations of geochemical variables to enhance (for extraction) or retard (for immobilization) Pu mobility in the groundwater zone; (3) identify specific Pu sources and the extent of far field, or long-term migration of transuranics in groundwater; (4) reduce costly uncertainty in performance and risk assessment calculations. This new knowledge is essential to ensure continued public and worker safety at the DOE sites and the efficient management of cleanup and containment strategies.

  9. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment...

  10. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  11. Groundwater cleanup by in-situ sparging. XIII. Random air channels for sparing of dissolved and nonaqueous phase volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.J.; Clarke, A.N. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Kaminski, K.M.; Chang, E.Y. [Martin Luther King Magnet High School, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the sparging of dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) from contaminated aquifers. The sparging air moves through the aquifer in persistent, random channels, to which VOC must move by diffusion/dispersion to be removed. The dependence of the rate of remediation on the various model parameters is investigated and some practical conclusions are reached regarding the operation of air sparging wells for aquifer remediation. VOCs of low water solubility (such as alkanes) and present as NAPL are found to be removed by air sparging much more slowly than VOCs of higher water solubility (such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) and present as NAPL, due to the very small maximum concentration gradients which can be maintained around droplets of the former. These small concentration gradients result in very slow rates of NAPL solution.

  12. Groundwater cleanup by in-situ sparging. X. Air channeling model for biosparging of nonaqueous phase liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.J.; Norris, R.D.; Clarke, A.N. [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A column model is developed to simulate the removal and biodegradation of dissolved and nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated aquifers by biosparging. The model assumes that the injected air moves through the aquifer in persistent channels and that NAPL must dissolve and move to these channels by diffusion and dispersion. The dependence of model results on several of the parameters of the model is investigated, and suggestions for optimizing biosparging system operations are made. The removal of NAPL VOCs of quite low solubility (such as alkanes) from smear zones below the water is modeled, and is found to be an extremely slow process. Drawing down the water table to below the smear zone by pumping is suggested as a possible solution.

  13. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  14. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  15. Evaluation of containment failure and cleanup time for Pu shots on the Z machine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    Between November 30 and December 11, 2009 an evaluation was performed of the probability of containment failure and the time for cleanup of contamination of the Z machine given failure, for plutonium (Pu) experiments on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Due to the unique nature of the problem, there is little quantitative information available for the likelihood of failure of containment components or for the time to cleanup. Information for the evaluation was obtained from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the Z machine facility. The SMEs provided the State of Knowledge (SOK) for the evaluation. There is significant epistemic- or state of knowledge- uncertainty associated with the events that comprise both failure of containment and cleanup. To capture epistemic uncertainty and to allow the SMEs to reason at the fidelity of the SOK, we used the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for this evaluation. We quantified two variables: the probability that the Pu containment system fails given a shot on the Z machine, and the time to cleanup Pu contamination in the Z machine given failure of containment. We identified dominant contributors for both the time to cleanup and the probability of containment failure. These results will be used by SNL management to decide the course of action for conducting the Pu experiments on the Z machine.

  16. A GIS-Enabled, Michigan-Specific, Hierarchical Groundwater Modeling and Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Mandle, R.; Simard, A.; Fisher, B.; Brown, E.; Ross, S.

    2005-12-01

    Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives. Many agencies in Michigan have spent several years compiling expensive and comprehensive surface water and groundwater inventories and other related spatial data that describe their respective areas of responsibility. However, most often this wealth of descriptive data has only been utilized for basic mapping purposes. The benefits from analyzing these data, using GIS analysis functions or externally developed analysis models or programs, has yet to be systematically realized. In this talk, we present a comprehensive software environment that allows Michigan groundwater resources managers and frontline professionals to make more effective use of the available data and improve their ability to manage and protect groundwater resources, address potential conflicts, design cleanup schemes, and prioritize investigation activities. In particular, we take advantage of the Interactive Ground Water (IGW) modeling system and convert it to a customized software environment specifically for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing the Michigan statewide groundwater database. The resulting Michigan IGW modeling system (IGW-M) is completely window-based, fully interactive, and seamlessly integrated with a GIS mapping engine. The system operates in real-time (on the fly) providing dynamic, hierarchical mapping, modeling, spatial analysis, and visualization. Specifically, IGW-M allows water resources and environmental professionals in Michigan to: * Access and utilize the extensive data from the statewide groundwater database, interactively manipulate GIS objects, and display and query the associated data and attributes; * Analyze and model the statewide groundwater database, interactively convert GIS objects into numerical model features

  17. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  18. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  19. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  20. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  1. Clean-up and disposal process of polluted sediments from urban rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the discussion is concentrated on the properties of the polluted sediments and the combination of clean-up and disposal process for the upper layer heavily polluted sediments with good flowability. Based on the systematic analyses of various clean-up processes, a suitable engineering process has been evaluated and recommended. The process has been applied to the river reclamation in Yangpu District of Shanghai metropolis. An improved centrifuge is used for dewatering the dredged sludge,which plays an important role in the combination of clean-up and disposal process. The assessment of the engineering process shows its environmental and technical economy feasibility, which is much better than that of traditional dredging-disposal processes.

  2. Mechanism Involved in Trichloroethylene-Induced Liver Cancer: Importance to Environmental Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Richard J.; Thrall, Brian D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop critical data for improving risk-based cleanup standards for trichloroethylene (TCE). Importance to DOE. Cleanup costs for chlorinated solvents found on DOE sites are most frequently driven by TCE because it is the most widespread contaminant and is generally present at the highest concentrations. Data that would permit increases in risk-based standards for TCE would reduce complex wide cleanup costs by hundreds of millions of dollars. Current Regulatory Actions that Research will Impact. EPA is currently reviewing its risk assessment for TCE. Richard J. Bull has worked with EPA on this review by writing the mode of action section of their determination. A presentation by James Cogliano of EPA at the 1999 Annual Society of Toxicology Meeting indicates that they have accepted the concept of nonlinear extrapolation for liver tumor induction by TCE. This project will end in FY 1999 with its major technical and policy objectives satisfied.

  3. Summary of Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Potential Impacts Related to Hanford Cleanup and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IWATATE, D.F.

    2000-07-14

    This white paper provides an initial assessment of the potential impacts of the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) regulations (and proposed revisions) on the Hanford site cleanup and addresses concerns that MTCA might impose inappropriate or unachievable clean-up levels and drive clean-up costs higher. The white paper and supporting documentation (Appendices A and B) provide DOE with a concise and up-to-date review of potential MTCA impacts to cost and schedule for the Hanford site activities. MTCA, Chapter 70.105D RCW, is the State of Washington's risk based law governing clean-up of contaminated sites and is implemented by The Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the MTCA Clean-up Regulations, Chapter 173-340 WAC. Hanford cleanup is subject to the MTCA requirements as Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for those areas of Hanford being managed under the authority of the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the state Dangerous Waste Regulations. MTCA provides Ecology with authority to implement site clean-up actions under both the federal RCRA and CERCLA regulations as well as the state regulations. Most of the Hanford clean-up actions are being implemented under the CERCLA program, however, there is a trend is toward increased use of MTCA procedures and standards. The application of MTCA to the Hanford clean-up has been an evolving process with some of the Hanford clean-up actions considering MTCA standards as an ARAR and using MTCA procedures for remedy selection. The increased use and application of MTCA standards and procedures could potentially impact both cost and schedule for the Hanford cleanup.

  4. SGN's experience in the field of decommissioning and site cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouques, F. [SGN, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, 78182 Saint Quentin-en-Yvelines Cedex (France); Destrait, L. [SGN, 30204 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2003-07-01

    As early as the 1980's, SGN participated in dismantling projects at CEA and COGEMA plants in France. The experience gained has since been applied to many projects in France and abroad. In close collaboration with the customer, SGN is prime contractor on a cleanup and dismantling project, from preliminary studies and tool and process development to release of the site. SGN's areas of expertise include waste retrieval, decontamination processes, intervention robotics, cutting tools and waste management and treatment. SGN's proposal is based on proven methods and feedback from earlier projects. SGN is currently participating in many cleanup and dismantling projects, including the three (LRTP project at Chernobyl, Marcoule Plant UP1 and Hanford in the U.S.A) presented below. The contents is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. LRTP Project at Chernobyl; 2.1. Description of interim waste storage; 2.2. Organization; 2.3. Plant characteristics; 2.4. Process Implemented (waste retrieval from the storage tanks; waste sampling and pretreatment; Volume reduction; Cementing); 2.5. Schedule; 3. Marcoule plant UP1; 3.1 Description of plant UP1; 3.2 Organization; 3.3. Cleanup/Dismantling program; 3.3.1. Purpose of the decommissioning and cleanup operations; 3.3.2. D and D techniques Implemented (Cleanup techniques used; Examples of remote handling equipment): 3.3.3. Purpose of the waste retrieval and packaging operations; 3.3.4. Purpose of the dismantling operations; 4. Hanford in the U.S.A.; 4.1. Decontamination and cleanup of hot cells; 4.2. Liquid and sludge retrieval; 4.3. Retrieval and packaging of spent nuclear fuel.

  5. The mental health of clean-up workers 18 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K; Havenaar, J M; Tintle, N L; Guey, L T; Kotov, R; Bromet, E J

    2008-04-01

    The psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl accident is regarded as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. Yet the mental health of the clean-up workers, who faced the greatest radiation exposure and threat to life, has not been systematically evaluated. This study describes the long-term psychological effects of Chernobyl in a sample of clean-up workers in Ukraine. The cohorts were 295 male clean-up workers sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1990 interviewed 18 years after the accident (71% participation rate) and 397 geographically matched controls interviewed as part of the Ukraine World Mental Health (WMS) Survey 16 years after the accident. The World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered. We examined group differences in common psychiatric disorders, suicide ideation and severe headaches, differential effects of disorder on days lost from work, and in the clean-up workers, the relationship of exposure severity to disorder and current trauma and somatic symptoms. Analyses were adjusted for age in 1986 and mental health prior to the accident. Relatively more clean-up workers than controls experienced depression (18.0% v. 13.1%) and suicide ideation (9.2% v. 4.1%) after the accident. In the year preceding interview, the rates of depression (14.9% v. 7.1%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (4.1% v. 1.0%) and headaches (69.2% v. 12.4%) were elevated. Affected workers lost more work days than affected controls. Exposure level was associated with current somatic and PTSD symptom severity. Long-term mental health consequences of Chernobyl were observed in clean-up workers.

  6. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  7. GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AND CHEMICAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The existing knowledge base regarding the presence and significance of chemicals foreign to the subsurface environment is large and growing -the papers in this volume serving as recent testament. But complex questions with few answers surround the unknowns regarding the potential for environmental or human health effects from trace levels of xenobiotics in groundwater, especially groundwater augmented with treated wastewater. Public acceptance for direct or indirect groundwater recharge using treated municipal wastewater ( especially sewage) spans the spectrum from unquestioned embrace to outright rejection. In this article, I detour around the issues most commonly discussed for groundwater recharge and instead focus on some of the less-recognized issues- those that emanate from the mysteries created at the many literal and virtual interfaces involved with the subsurface world. My major objective is to catalyze discussion that advances our understanding of the barriers to public acceptance of wastewater reuse -with its ultimate culmination in direct reuse for drinking. I pose what could be a key question as to whether much of the public's frustration or ambivalence in its decision making process for accepting or rejecting water reuse (for various purposes including personal use) emanates from fundamental inaccuracies, misrepresentation, or oversimplification of what water 'is' and how it functions in the environment -just what exactly is the 'water cyc

  8. Regulating groundwater use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    Around the world it has proven very difficult to develop policies and interventions that ensure socio-environmentally sustainable groundwater use and exploitation. In the state of Guanajuato, Central Mexico, both the national government and the decentralized state government have pursued to regulate

  9. Evaluation of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygenates on groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tom; Rong, Yue; Harmon, Thomas; Suffet, Mel

    2004-01-01

    The environmental behavior of fuel oxygenates (other than methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) is poorly understood because few data have been systematically collected and analyzed. This study evaluated the potential for groundwater resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (FHCs) and oxygenates (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], tertamyl methyl ether [TAME], diisopropyl ether [DIPE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], and MTBE) by examining their occurrence, distribution, and spatial extent in groundwater beneath leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) facilities, focusing on data collected from over 7200 monitoring wells in 868 LUFT sites from the greater Los Angeles, CA, region. Excluding the composite measure total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline (TPHG), TBA has the greatestsite maximum (geometric mean) groundwater concentration among the study analytes; therefore, its presence needs to be confirmed at LUFT sites so that specific cleanup strategies can be developed. The alternative ether oxygenates (DIPE, TAME, and ETBE) are less likely to be detected in groundwater beneath LUFT facilities in the area of California studied and when detected are present at lower dissolved concentrations than MTBE, benzene, or TBA. Groundwater plume length was used as an initial indicator of the threat of contamination to drinking water resources. Approximately 500 LUFT sites were randomly selected and analyzed. The results demonstrate MTBE to pose the greatest problem, followed by TBA and benzene. The alternative ether oxygenates were relatively localized and indicated lesser potential for groundwater resource contamination. However, all indications suggest the alternative ether oxygenates would pose groundwater contamination threats similar to MTBE if their scale of usage is expanded. Plume length data suggest that in the absence of a completely new design and construction of the underground storage tank (UST) system, an effective management strategy may involve placing greater emphasis

  10. Development of a Groundwater Transport Simulation Tool for Remedial Process Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Tonkin, M.; Miller, Charles W.; Baker, S.

    2015-01-14

    The groundwater remedy for hexavalent chromium at the Hanford Site includes operation of five large pump-and-treat systems along the Columbia River. The systems at the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units treat a total of about 9,840 liters per minute (2,600 gallons per minute) of groundwater to remove hexavalent chromium, and cover an area of nearly 26 square kilometers (10 square miles). The pump-and-treat systems result in large scale manipulation of groundwater flow direction, velocities, and most importantly, the contaminant plumes. Tracking of the plumes and predicting needed system modifications is part of the remedial process optimization, and is a continual process with the goal of reducing costs and shortening the timeframe to achieve the cleanup goals. While most of the initial system evaluations are conducted by assessing performance (e.g., reduction in contaminant concentration in groundwater and changes in inferred plume size), changes to the well field are often recommended. To determine the placement for new wells, well realignments, and modifications to pumping rates, it is important to be able to predict resultant plume changes. In smaller systems, it may be effective to make small scale changes periodically and adjust modifications based on groundwater monitoring results. Due to the expansive nature of the remediation systems at Hanford, however, additional tools were needed to predict the plume reactions to system changes. A computer simulation tool was developed to support pumping rate recommendations for optimization of large pump-and-treat groundwater remedy systems. This tool, called the Pumping Optimization Model, or POM, is based on a 1-layer derivation of a multi-layer contaminant transport model using MODFLOW and MT3D.

  11. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  12. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission. First issue, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.

  13. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  14. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

    2003-09-01

    The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high

  15. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

    2003-09-01

    The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high

  16. PROTECTING GROUNDWATER & THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2006-06-29

    Along the remote shores of the Columbia River in southeast Washington state, a race is on. Fluor Hanford, a prime cleanup contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site, is managing a massive, multi-faceted project to remove contaminants from the groundwater before they can reach the Columbia. Despite the daunting nature and size of the problem--about 80 square miles of aquifer under the site contains long-lived radionuclides and hazardous chemicals--significant progress is being made. Many groups are watching, speaking out, and helping. A large. passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River--the eighth largest in the world--and have a voice in Hanford's future. Fluor Hanford and the DOE, along with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) interact with all the stakeholders to make the best decisions. Together, they have made some remarkable strides in the battle against groundwater contamination under the site.

  17. Volume overload cleanup: An approach for on-line SPE-GC, GPC-GC, and GPC-SPE-GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkdijk, H.; Mol, H.G.J.; Nagel, B. van der

    2007-01-01

    A new concept for cleanup, based on volume overloading of the cleanup column, has been developed for on-line coupling of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), or both, to gas chromatography (GC). The principle is outlined and the applicability demonstrated by the determi

  18. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems. Volume 1 of 3 -- Report and Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report is submitted in response to a Congressional request and is intended to communicate the nature, content, goals, and accomplishments of the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to interested and affected parties in the Department and its contractors, at Federal agencies, in the scientific community, and in the general public. The EMSP was started in response to a request to mount an effort in longer term basic science research to seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective. Section 1, ``Background of the Program,`` provides information on the evolution of the EMSP and how it is managed, and summarizes recent accomplishments. Section 2, ``Research Award Selection Process,`` provides an overview of the ongoing needs identification process, solicitation development, and application review for scientific merit and programmatic relevance. Section 3, ``Linkages to Environmental Cleanup Problems,`` provides an overview of the major interrelationships (linkages) among EMSP basic research awards, Environmental Management problem areas, and high cost projects. Section 4, ``Capitalizing on Science Investments,`` discusses the steps the EMSP plans to use to facilitate the application of research results in Environmental Management strategies through effective communication and collaboration. Appendix A contains four program notices published by the EMSP inviting applications for grants.

  19. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  20. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 microg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  1. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN TRICHLOROETHYLENE INDUCED LIVER CANCER: IMPORTANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Richard J.; Thrall, Brain D.

    2001-12-31

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common contaminant of groundwater as a result of poor disposal practices of the past. As a consequence, this solvent is the focus of many clean-up operations of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. TCE is carcinogenic in both mice and rats, but at different sites, the liver and kidney, respectively (NCI 1976; NTP 1988; NTP 1990). Liver tumor induction in mice has been the tumor most critical from the standpoint of environmental regulation (Bull 2000). Under the proposed cancer risk guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1996), identifying the dose-response behavior of key events involved in carcinogenic responses can be used for developing alternative risk assessments. A major difficulty in developing alternative approaches for TCE is the fact that three of its metabolites are capable of inducing liver cancer in mice (Bull et al. 1990; Daniel et al. 1992; DeAngelo et al. 1999; Pereria 1996). Two of these metabolites have distinct modes of action, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA). The third metabolite, chloral hydrate, is probably active as a result of its conversion to one or both of these two metabolites. Ordinarily, the first approach to assigning causality to a metabolite in tumorigenesis would be an attempt to measure its concentration in the body and associate that with tumorigenic concentrations observed when the compound is itself administered. This can be done with relative ease with TCA. However, it has been more difficult with DCA since blood levels of this metabolite after exposure to carcinogenic doses of DCA fall rapidly below detection limits (Kato-Weinstein et al. 1998; Merdink et al. 1998). Mutations in the ras protooncogene have been used to determine if distinct patterns of DNAsequence alterations can provide indications of the type of DNA damage that might be produced by carcinogens. The presence of ras mutations in chemically-induced tumors was suggested as a means o f determining

  2. Firms vie to offer DOE a prize-winning recipe for cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-04-25

    Eager to get the most bang for its waste cleanup bucks, the US Department of Energy is conducting its own version of the Pillsbury bake-off. DOE is pitting two environmental contractors, Rust International Corp. and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., against each other to come up with the prize-winning recipe for cleaning up some nasty waste problems.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  4. An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Madadi, Vincent O; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The need for continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has necessitated the development of analytical techniques that are sensitive and selective with minimal reagent requirement. In light of this, we developed a column for clean-up of soil and sediment extracts, which is less demanding in terms of the amount of solvent and sorbent. The dual-layer column consists of acidified silica gel and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs were synthesized via aqueous suspension polymerization using PCB 15 as the dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and the obtained particles characterized via SEM, BET, and batch rebinding assays. Pre-concentration of the spiked real-world water sample using MISPE gave recoveries between 85.2 and 104.4% (RSD clean-up of extracts from complex matrices provided recoveries of 91.6-102.5% (RSD clean-up using acidified silica (70.4-90.5%; RSD clean-up procedure for continuous monitoring of PCBs. Method detection limits were 0.01-0.08 ng g(-1) and 0.002-0.01 ng mL(-1) for solid matrices and water, respectively.

  5. Refractive properties of separate erythrocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers at different pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarevica, Gunta; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Bruvere, Ruta; Gabruseva, Natalija; Leice, Alevtine; Zvagule, Tija

    2000-04-01

    This study is focused on the modifications in erythrocytes of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident clean-up workers as a late health effect of short-term impact of high level radioactive contamination. As a result, a new method based on erythrocyte refractive index properties at different pH has been elaborated.

  6. Legal aspects of the clean-up and reclamation of the manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joldzic, V. [Belgrade University, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Inst. for Criminology and Sociological Research

    1995-12-31

    The laws associated with the cleanup of manufactured gas plants in Yugoslavia is described. These comprise the Environmental Protection Act; the Law about Space Planning and Organizing; Building Law; and Agricultural Land Use Law. Joint remedial action in the Danube Basin is discussed. 13 refs.

  7. Beam cleanup of a 532-nm pulsed solid-state laser using a bimorph mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Lei; Bing Xu; Ping Yang; Lizhi Dong; Wenjin Liu; Hu Yan

    2012-01-01

    A successful beam cleanup of a 5-mJ/200-μs pulsed solid-state laser system operating at 532-nm wavelength is demonstrated. In this beam cleanup system, a wave-front sensor-less adaptive optics (AO) system is set up with a 20-element bimorph mirror (BM), a high-voltage amplifier, a charge-coupled device camera, and a control software implementing the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The brightness of the laser focal spot is improved because the wave-front distortions have been compensated. The performance of this system is presented and the experimental results are analyzed.%A successful beam cleanup of a 5-mJ/200-μs pulsed solid-state laser system operating at 532-nm wavelength is demonstrated.In this beam cleanup system,a wave-front sensor-less adaptive optics (AO) system is set up with a 20-element bimorph mirror (BM),a high-voltage amplifier,a charge-coupled device camera,and a control software implementing the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm.The brightness of the laser focal spot is improved because the wave-front distortions have been compensated.The performance of this system is presented and the experimental results are analyzed.

  8. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.; Salomaa, S. [eds.] [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Tekkel, M. [eds.] [Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T. [ed.] [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, J.D. Jr. [ed.] [Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  10. Waste Cleanup: Status and Implications of DOE’s Compliance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant ...Consent Order, In the Matter of U.S. DOE: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant , No. OH7-890- 008-983; 8/12/1997 3 Establish oversight roles for...deal with revelations about longstanding problems at the Paducah and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment plants . Page 21 GAO-02-567 Waste Cleanup

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  14. Proposals for intervention values for soil clean-up: Second series of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg R van den; Bockting GJM; Crommentuijn GH; Jansen PJCM; LBG

    1994-01-01

    The thoroughly revised intervention values for soil clean-up have recently come into force. In this report, proposals will be presented for intervention values for other chemicals on the basis of an ecotoxicological and a human-toxicological evaluation. The proposals made have followed the procedure

  15. Groundwater hydrology instructional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ronald G.

    Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, is preparing for its third cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology, beginning January 15, 1986. The first cycle finished with an impressive completion ratio for registered participants, and the second cycle has currently been underway since July. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the Soil Conservation Service (of the U.S. Department of Agriculture) to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. Since its evolution into IRIS, an 80% participant completion rate has been recorded for the first cycle, which is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by correspondence courses. This excellent rate of success is the result of 2 years of refinement and demonstrates the progressive nature of the program. IRIS has met the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  16. 2-Phase groundwater and soil vapor extraction site test at McClellan AFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, C.; Kingsley, G.B.; Lawrence J. [Radian Corp., Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The innovative 2-phase extraction technique is a method recently patented by Xerox Corporation for simultaneously extracting contaminated groundwater and soil vapor from the subsurface. The 2-phase technique is primarily applicable to those sites with semipermeable soils containing volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in both soils and groundwater. This technique has several distinct advantages over either conventional soil vapor extraction or groundwater extraction, because it can: cut the dollar per-contaminant-pound cleanup costs by an order of magnitude; simplify the extraction and treatment of both contaminated water and vapor; and shorten remediation times. The U.S. EPA and the Air Force elected to conduct an EPA Site test of the 2-phase Extraction technology at McClellan results indicate: The groundwater flow rate is twice that of the pump-and-treat system. The mass of contaminants from a single well removed increased from 130 lbs/year to more than 5,000 lbs/year, over 30 times more than the pump-and treat rate, with potential for even higher removal rates: 5,000 to 8,000 pounds of contaminants per year. Up to 95% of the contamination was extracted in the vapor phase, where it could be treated more easily and efficiently.

  17. Pharmaceutical occurrence in groundwater and surface waters in forests land-applied with municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachran, Andrew D; Shea, Damian; Bodnar, Wanda; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment are of increasing public importance because of their ubiquitous nature and documented effects on wildlife, ecosystems, and potentially humans. One potential, yet undefined, source of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment is via the land application of municipal wastewater onto permitted lands. The objective of the present study is to determine the extent to which pharmaceuticals are mitigated by or exported from managed tree plantations irrigated with municipal wastewater. A specific focus of the present study is the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater and surface water discharge. The study site is a municipality that land-applies secondary treated wastewater onto 930 hectares of a 2000-hectare managed hardwood and pine plantation. A suite of 33 pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones was targeted in the analysis, which consisted of monthly grab sampling of groundwater, surface water, and wastewater, followed by concentration and cleanup via solid phase extraction and separation, detection, and quantification via liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. More than one-half of all compounds detected in irrigated wastewater were not present in groundwater and subsequent surface water. However, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, caffeine, and other prescription and over-the-counter drugs remained in groundwater and were transported into surface water at concentrations up to 10 ng/L. These results provide important documentation for pharmaceutical fate and transport in forest systems irrigated with municipal wastewater, a previously undocumented source of environmental entry.

  18. Contain contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Ash, R.E. IV [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Despite recent progress in innovative treatment technologies, many problems with contaminated groundwater still require the use of barrier walls, typically in combination with extraction and treatment systems. New technologies for subsurface barrier walls, mostly based on geomembranes, advancements in self-hardening slurries and permeation grouts with materials such as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions, are being developed at an unprecedented pace. The paper discusses deep soil mixing, jet grouting, slurry trenches, and permeation grouting.

  19. Groundwater types in Southeast Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The region of Southeast Srem is rich in ground waters, which is of great significance to agricultural production. The objective of this paper was to designate the zones of different groundwater types from the aspect of recharge, based on the analysis of groundwater regimes in the study area. A very complex groundwater regime in Southeast Srem, which depends on a great number of natural and some anthropogenic factors, makes it difficult to designate clearly the zones of the three main types of groundwater regime. Still, the boundaries of the zones of groundwater regime types were defined based on the results of correlation analysis of the basic factors affecting the groundwater regime. Zone I includes the climatic type of groundwater. Its fluctuation corresponds to the vertical factors of water balance (precipitation and evaporation and it is not affected by the river water level. This zone extends North and East of the line Putinci, Golubinci, Stara Pazova, Batajnica, Dobanovci, mainly in the area of the loess plateau. Within the zone, groundwater is at a relatively great depth. Only exceptionally, in the valleys, it appears almost on the surface. Zone II includes the climatic-hydrological groundwater type, which is the transition between the climatic type and the hydrological type. The fluctuation of groundwater regime is affected both by the effect of vertical balance factors, and by the effect of watercourses. Climatic-hydrological groundwater type covers the central and the lowest part of the study area and the South part of the middle terrace. Zone III is classified as the hydrological groundwater type and it covers the riparian areas along the Sava and the Danube. The aquifer is hydraulically connected with the river Sava.

  20. SPECIFIC SOLUTIONS GROUNDWATER FLOW EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Syahruddin, Muhammad Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    Geophysic publication Groundwater flow under surface, its usually slow moving, so that in laminer flow condition can find analisys using the Darcy???s law. The combination between Darcy law and continuity equation can find differential Laplace equation as general equation groundwater flow in sub surface. Based on Differential Laplace Equation is the equation that can be used to describe hydraulic head and velocity flow distribution in porous media as groundwater. In the modeling Laplace e...

  1. Groundwater-ocean interaction and its effects on coastal ecological processes - are there groundwater-dependant ecosystems in the coastal zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, T. C.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrological land-ocean connectivity is an important driver of coastal ecosystems. Rivers are obvious and visible pathways for terrestrial runoff. The critical role of surface water discharge from rivers to coastal ecosystems has been well documented. Hidden from view, 'downstream' effects of coastal (supra-tidal, intertidal and submarine) groundwater discharge are far less well understood. Whilst hydrological and geochemical processes associated with coastal groundwater discharge have received an increasing amount of scientific attention over the past decade or so, the effects of groundwater flow on productivity, composition, diversity and functioning of coastal ecosystems along the world's shorelines have received little attention to date. Coastal groundwater discharge includes both terrestrial (fresh) groundwater fluxes and the recirculation of seawater through sediments, analogous to hyporheic flow in rivers. I will present an overview over relevant coastal hydrological processes, and will illustrate their ecological effects on examples from diverse tropical coastal ecosystems, e.g. (1) perennial fresh groundwater discharge from coastal sand dune systems permitting growth of freshwater-dependent vegetation in the intertidal zone of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), (2) recirculation of seawater through mangrove forest floors directly affecting tree health and providing a pathway for carbon export from these ecosystems, (3) the local hydrology of groundwater-fed coastal inlets on Mexico's Yucatan peninsula affecting the movement behaviour of and habitat use by the queen conch Strombus gigas, an economically important species in the Caribbean region. These examples for hydrological-ecological coupling in the coastal zone invite the question if we should not consider these coastal ecosystems to be groundwater-dependent, in analogy to groundwater-dependency in freshwater aquatic systems.

  2. Debonding and adhesive remnant cleanup: an in vitro comparison of bond quality, adhesive remnant cleanup, and orthodontic acceptance of a flash-free product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Sudit, Geoffrey N; Larson, Brent E

    2015-10-01

    A new flash-free adhesive promises to eliminate the need to clean up excess adhesive upon orthodontic bracket bonding. This study evaluated this new adhesive with regard to microleakage at the enamel-bracket interface, amount of adhesive remaining on the tooth after bracket debonding, time required for adhesive remnant cleanup, and clinical practitioners' preference in comparison to a conventional adhesive. A total of 184 bovine incisors were bonded with ceramic brackets using either the flash-free adhesive (APC Flash-Free Adhesive Coated Appliance System, 3M Unitek [3M], Monrovia, California, USA) or a conventional adhesive (APCII Adhesive Coated Appliance System, 3M). Twenty-four of the teeth were scanned using microcomputed tomography to quantify microleakage into the adhesive layer. Twenty orthodontists debonded the brackets, removed the remaining adhesive, and then completed a survey regarding their preference for one of the two adhesives. The adhesive remnant was quantified and the time required for its removal recorded. Differences between the adhesives were tested for statistical significance. For both adhesives, the microleakage was minimal with no significant differences between the two adhesives. The adhesive remnant was significantly larger for the flash-free adhesive, whereas there was no significant difference in adhesive cleanup time. Fourteen out of the 20 orthodontists preferred the flash-free adhesive over the conventional adhesive. In vitro testing cannot replicate the actual clinical situation during in vivo debonding. With regard to bond quality and adhesive remnant cleanup, the new flash-free adhesive performs just as well as the conventional adhesive, and, of the two products, is the one preferred by most orthodontists. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  4. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  5. Characteristics of high arsenic groundwater in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChun Zhu; XueYong Zhao; Min Chen; YongQing Luo; Xin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the Hetao Basin is one of the most seriously arsenic-affected groundwater areas in China. In order to understand the characteristics of high arsenic (As) groundwater in the Basin, a brief overview of arsenic in groundwater follows. High arsenic in the Basin commonly occurs in shallow groundwater and the total arsenic concentrations range from 0.58 to 572 µg/L (average 99.73 µg/L), exceeding the maximum mandated value of 10 µg/L for drinking water in China;As(Ш) is the predominant species. The regional distribution pattern of arsenic in the groundwater increases from south/southeast to north/northwest. Hangjinhouqi and Wuyuan counties are considered as the most seriously affected areas, with high incidences of endemic arsenicosic diseases in the Hetao Basin. High groundwater arsenic correlates with the increase of well depth. Previous studies proposed that groundwater arsenic in the Basin is mainly originated from desorption of some natural solid materials in the sediments, under reducing condition. Generally, reducing condition is believed to be the primary factor for arsenic releasing from the sediment to groundwater in the region. Under inorganic or bacterial processes, Fe2O3 changes to FeS and arsenic adsorbed to Fe(OH)3 dissolves into groundwater, and As(V) is re-duced to As(Ш). Besides, reducing environments, groundwater hydraulic gradients, organic matter, pH, evapotranspiration, and soil texture are presumed to be the predominant factors that control arsenic mobilization.

  6. Osteoporosis: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C. Conrad; Slemenda, Charles

    1987-01-01

    An overview of osteoporosis, its types, causes, diagnosis, and treatment is presented. Risk factors and bone mass measurement are also discussed. This article serves as an introduction to a symposium on osteoporosis containing five other articles in this issue. (MT)

  7. Overview of Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organ Systems Additional Content Medical News Overview of Rehabilitation By Alex Moroz, MD, FACP, New York University School of Medicine;Rusk Rehabilitation NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click ...

  8. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... Insecticide Poisoning Iron Poisoning Lead Poisoning Overview of Food Poisoning Mushroom (Toadstool) Poisoning Plant and Shrub Poisoning ...

  9. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  10. Investigation of post hydraulic fracturing well cleanup physics in the Cana Woodford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong

    Hydraulic fracturing was first carried out in the 1940s and has gained popularity in current development of unconventional resources. Flowing back the fracturing fluids is critical to a frac job, and determining well cleanup characteristics using the flowback data can help improve frac design. It has become increasingly important as a result of the unique flowback profiles observed in some shale gas plays due to the unconventional formation characteristics. Computer simulation is an efficient and effective way to tackle the problem. History matching can help reveal some mechanisms existent in the cleanup process. The Fracturing, Acidizing, Stimulation Technology (FAST) Consortium at Colorado School of Mines previously developed a numerical model for investigating the hydraulic fracturing process, cleanup, and relevant physics. It is a three-dimensional, gas-water, coupled fracture propagation-fluid flow simulator, which has the capability to handle commonly present damage mechanisms. The overall goal of this research effort is to validate the model on real data and to investigate the dominant physics in well cleanup for the Cana Field, which produces from the Woodford Shale in Oklahoma. To achieve this goal, first the early time delayed gas production was explained and modeled, and a simulation framework was established that included all three relevant damage mechanisms for a slickwater fractured well. Next, a series of sensitivity analysis of well cleanup to major reservoir, fracture, and operational variables was conducted; five of the Cana wells' initial flowback data were history matched, specifically the first thirty days' gas and water producing rates. Reservoir matrix permeability, net pressure, Young's modulus, and formation pressure gradient were found to have an impact on the gas producing curve's shape, in different ways. Some moderately good matches were achieved, with the outcome of some unknown reservoir information being proposed using the

  11. Anthropization of groundwater resources in the Mediterranean region: processes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Remini, Boualem

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview is provided of processes and challenges related to Mediterranean groundwater resources and associated changes in recent decades. While most studies are focused thematically and/or geographically, this paper addresses different stages of groundwater exploitation in the region and their consequences. Examples emphasize the complex interactions between the physical and social dimensions of uses and evolution of groundwater. In natural conditions, Mediterranean groundwater resources represent a wide range of hydrogeological contexts, recharge conditions and rates of exploitation. They have been actively exploited for millennia but their pseudo-natural regimes have been considerably modified in the last 50 years, especially to satisfy agricultural demand (80% of total water consumption in North Africa), as well as for tourism and coastal cities. Climate variability affects groundwater dynamics but the various forms of anthropization are more important drivers of hydrological change, including changes in land use and vegetation, hydraulic works, and intense pumpings. These changes affect both the quantity and quality of groundwater at different scales, and modify the nature of hydrogeological processes, their location, timing, and intensity. The frequent cases of drastic overexploitation illustrate the fragility of Mediterranean groundwater resources and the limits of present forms of management. There is no easy way to maintain or recover sustainability, which is often threatened by short-term interests. To achieve this goal, a significant improvement in hydrogeological knowledge and closer collaboration between the various disciplines of water sciences are indispensable.

  12. Anthropization of groundwater resources in the Mediterranean region: processes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Remini, Boualem

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive overview is provided of processes and challenges related to Mediterranean groundwater resources and associated changes in recent decades. While most studies are focused thematically and/or geographically, this paper addresses different stages of groundwater exploitation in the region and their consequences. Examples emphasize the complex interactions between the physical and social dimensions of uses and evolution of groundwater. In natural conditions, Mediterranean groundwater resources represent a wide range of hydrogeological contexts, recharge conditions and rates of exploitation. They have been actively exploited for millennia but their pseudo-natural regimes have been considerably modified in the last 50 years, especially to satisfy agricultural demand (80% of total water consumption in North Africa), as well as for tourism and coastal cities. Climate variability affects groundwater dynamics but the various forms of anthropization are more important drivers of hydrological change, including changes in land use and vegetation, hydraulic works, and intense pumpings. These changes affect both the quantity and quality of groundwater at different scales, and modify the nature of hydrogeological processes, their location, timing, and intensity. The frequent cases of drastic overexploitation illustrate the fragility of Mediterranean groundwater resources and the limits of present forms of management. There is no easy way to maintain or recover sustainability, which is often threatened by short-term interests. To achieve this goal, a significant improvement in hydrogeological knowledge and closer collaboration between the various disciplines of water sciences are indispensable.

  13. Overview of Specialized Courts

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This Overview has two primary purposes. First, it provides judicial system officials with the arguments in favor of and in opposition to the creation of specialized courts. Second, it offers recommendations for consideration by judicial system officials when they are deliberating whether to establish specialized courts. This Overview also provides a review of types of specialized courts that have been established in court systems in some countries in Europe and the United States. This review ...

  14. Acquisition Support Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Principles of Effective Acquisition © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 31 Summary The SEI, through the Acquisition Support Program , works directly...2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Acquisition Support Program Overview Brian Gallagher Director, Acquisition Support Program 9 March, 2006...MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition Support Program Overview 5a. CONTRACT

  15. TFAWS: Ares Thermal Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a Constellation session at the 2007 Thermal & Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), an overview of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Lander systems will be given. This presentation provides a general description of the CLV (also known as Ares-I)and Ares-V vehicles portion of the session. The presentation will provide an overview of the thermal requirements, design environments, challenges and thermal modeling examples.

  16. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  17. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  18. Sustainable groundwater management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Faunt, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses data collection, modeling tools, and scientific analysis to help water managers plan for, and assess, hydrologic issues that can cause “undesirable results” associated with groundwater use. This information helps managers understand trends and investigate and predict effects of different groundwater-management strategies.

  19. Promoting local management in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Frank

    2006-03-01

    There is a strong case for making greater effort to promote local groundwater management—in addition to other measures that regulate groundwater use. Though scattered, there are several examples—from India, Pakistan, Yemen and Egypt—where groundwater users effectively self-imposed restrictions on the use of groundwater. There are a number of recurrent themes in such spontaneously-developed examples of local regulation: the importance of not excluding potential users; the importance of simple, low transaction cost rules; the power of correct and accessible hydrogeological information; the possibility of making more use of demand and supply management strategies; and the important supportive role of local governments. The case is made, using examples, for actively promoting local groundwater management as an important element in balancing groundwater uses. Two programmes for promoting local groundwater management in South India are described—one focussing on participatory hydrological monitoring, and one focussing on micro-resource planning and training. In both cases the response was very positive and the conclusion is that promoting local groundwater regulation is not difficult, costly or sensitive and can reach the necessary scale quickly.

  20. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...... into the pristine groundwater residing deeper in the aquifer. Reactant-to-product ratios across reaction fronts are altered by dispersive mixing and transience in reactant input functions. Modelling therefore allowed a direct comparison of observed and simulated ratios of concentrations of NO3 (reactant...

  1. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  2. Evaluation of electrospun polyvinyl chloride/polystyrene fibers as sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Qiu, Shanshan; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Daxiong; Zhang, Canying

    2011-05-15

    A novel, high-capacity oil sorbent consisting of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/polystyrene (PS) fiber was prepared by an electrospinning process. The sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, and sorption mechanism of the PVC/PS sorbent were studied. The results showed that the sorption capacities of the PVC/PS sorbent for motor oil, peanut oil, diesel, and ethylene glycol were 146, 119, 38, and 81 g/g, respectively. It was about 5-9 times that of a commercial polypropylene (PP) sorbent. The PVC/PS sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity (about 1000 times) and high buoyancy in the cleanup of oil over water. The SEM analysis indicated that voids among fibers were the key for the high capacity. The electrospun PVC/PS sorbent is a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbent for oil spill cleanup.

  3. Radiological assessment in case of an incident at the hot cells clean-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragolici Cristian A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clean-up and decontamination of the hot cells will be performed in the second phase of the WWR-S research reactor decommissioning. Identification of possible incidents or accidents is the key element in radiological assessment and prevention. As major incident it was considered a fire burst that occurred during the progress of the clean-up operations. The postulated incident has, as a consequence, thick smoke generation from the burned radioactive material and the dispersion of this material in the environment through the technological ventilation system and the evacuation chimney. From the performed analysis it can be seen that in the case of an incident to the reactor hot cells, an operator engaged in intervention operations could take an effective dose of 5.29 Sv per event, coming from both external and internal exposure. Such an incident, if it happens, would be classified of level 3 on the INES scale.

  4. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  5. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  6. Stockpiles of obsolete pesticides and cleanup priorities: A methodology and application for Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig; Wheeler, David

    2010-01-01

    Obsolete pesticides have accumulated in almost every developing country or economy in transition over the past several decades. Concerned about the risks these chemicals pose to nearby residents, public health and environmental authorities are eager to reduce health threats by removing and decontaminating stockpile sites. However, there are many sites, cleanup can be costly, and public resources are scarce, so decision makers need to set priorities. Under these conditions, it seems sensible to develop a methodology for prioritizing sites and treating them sequentially, as budgetary resources permit. This paper presents a new methodology that develops a cleanup priority index for 1915 metric tons of obsolete pesticide formulations at 197 stockpile sites in Tunisia. The approach integrates information on populations at risk, their proximity to stockpiles, and the relative toxic hazards of the stockpiles. What emerges from the Tunisia results is a strategy for sequentially addressing all 197 sites to rapidly reduce potential health damage in a cost-effective way.

  7. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  8. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes of soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.

  9. The Environmental Management Core Laboratories - A Collaborative Effort to Enhance Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, Steve Allen; Griebenow, Bret Lee; Frandsen, Greg Bryan; Kearns, Paul Kenneth

    2002-08-01

    Acknowledging that the magnitude and diversity of the critical issues facing the DOE-EM cannot be addressed by a single institution, the Laboratory Directors established the EM Core Laboratories. This collaborative network ensures that the best available resources are addressing environmental quality issues through the introduction of critical new science and technology. Based upon the Top-to-Bottom Review, the EM program is shifting the focus of its cleanup efforts to accelerate schedules to reduce cost and the most significant risks. To facilitate this acceleration, the Office of Science and Technology has restructured their research and development program towards two new thrusts. These thrusts, Closure Site Support and Alternative Development, are aimed at the high priority needs to support the re-baselined cleanup program. The EM Core Laboratories are well positioned to ensure the successful implementation of this new direction.

  10. The Environmental Management Core Laboratories - A Collaborative Effort to Enhance Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, S.A.; Frandsen, G.B.; Kearns, P.K.

    2002-05-16

    Acknowledging that the magnitude and diversity of the critical issues facing the DOE-EM cannot be addressed by a single institution, the Laboratory Directors established the EM Core Laboratories. This collaborative network ensures that the best available resources are addressing environmental quality issues through the introduction of critical new science and technology. Based upon the Top-to-Bottom Review, the EM program is shifting the focus of its cleanup efforts to accelerate schedules to reduce cost and the most significant risks. To facilitate this acceleration, the Office of Science and Technology has restructured their research and development program towards two new thrusts. These thrusts, Closure Site Support and Alternative Development, are aimed at the high priority needs to support the re-baselined cleanup program. The EM Core Laboratories are well positioned to ensure the successful implementation of this new direction.

  11. Hanford Site Cleanup Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology--A Strategic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Kreid, Dennis K.; Walton, Terry L.

    2001-02-01

    The sheer expanse of the Hanford Site, the inherent hazards associated with the significant inventory of nuclear materials and wastes, the large number of aging contaminated facilities, the diverse nature and extent of environmental contamination, and the proximity to the Columbia River make Hanford perhaps the world's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. It is not possible to address the more complex elements of this enormous challenge in a cost-effective manner without strategic investments in science and technology. Success requires vigorous and sustained efforts to enhance the science and technology basis, develop and deploy innovative solutions, and provide firm scientific bases to support site cleanup and closure decisions at Hanford.

  12. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, John C. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Edwards, W. Scott [Areva Federal Services, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); West, Lori D. [Materials and Energy Corporation, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  13. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE USE OF COMMERCIAL BIOREMEDIATION AGENTS FOR CLEAN-UP OF OIL-CONTAMINATED ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this document is to conduct a comprehensive review of the use of commercial bioremediation products treating oil spills in all environments, Literature assessed includes peer-reviewed articles, company reports, government reports, and reports by cleanup contracto...

  14. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE USE OF COMMERCIAL BIOREMEDIATION AGENTS FOR CLEAN-UP OF OIL-CONTAMINATED ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this document is to conduct a comprehensive review of the use of commercial bioremediation products treating oil spills in all environments, Literature assessed includes peer-reviewed articles, company reports, government reports, and reports by cleanup contracto...

  15. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigilião, Lara Carvalho Freitas; Marquezan, Mariana; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding. Methods: A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L), 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H), 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L), DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU), Renew System (GR) and Diagloss polisher (GD). Mean roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz) were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05) was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01). Conclusion: All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness. PMID:26560825

  16. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  17. Base Closure and Realignment Act (BRAC) Cleanup Plan, Sacramento Army Depot, Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Washington, D.C. Farquhar, F.P. 1965. History of the Sierra Nevada. University of California Press, Berkeley . FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency...during Earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute: Berkeley , California. 7-6 Sacramento Army Depot California -BRAC Cleanup Plan - Version...SwaffmateAmy Depei Cal~ onda - PAC Cleanu PMan *Versio 2 QO~be 195 Gtognd Suttae Q 0 G S Silty SAND -Light Brown, Moist, Soft. I Fine with Small Pebbles

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground waste site. This site was an open field covered with cobbles, with no vegetation growing on the surface. The site received irradiated reactor parts that were removed during conversion of the 105-F Reactor from the Liquid 3X to the Ball 3X Project safety systems and received mostly vertical safety rod thimbles and step plugs.

  19. Systems Engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford Cleanup mission: First issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the top-level SE mission analysis, functions analysis, and requirements analysis for the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Because SE is an iterative process, this document will be continuously updated as the mission evolves. This first issue will be subject to change as lower-level work is conducted or primary system architecture is changed as a result of public involvement, NEPA processes, or changes in DOE/HQ direction.

  20. Systems engineering product description report for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.J.; Bailey, K.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Collings, J.L.; Hubbard, A.B.; Niepke, T.M. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document describes the upper level physical and administrative (nonphysical) products that, when delivered, complete the Hanford Cleanup Mission. Development of product descriptions is a continuation of the Sitewide Systems Engineering work described in the Sitewide functional analysis, the architecture synthesis, and is consistent with guidance contained in the mission plan. This document provides a bridge between all three documents and the products required to complete the mission of cleaning up the Hanford Site.

  1. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  2. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  3. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater. PMID:25374935

  4. CRADA opportunities with METC`s gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, E.N.; Rockey, J.M.; Tucker, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    Opportunities exist for Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to support commercialization of IGCC power systems. METC operates an integrated gasifier and hot gas cleanup facility for the development of gasification and hot gas cleanup technologies. The objective of our program is to gather performance data on gasifier operation, particulate removal, desulfurization and regeneration technologies. Additionally, slip streams are provided for developing various technologies such as; alkali monitoring, particulate measuring, chloride removal, and contaminate recovery processes. METC`s 10-inch diameter air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG) provides 300 lb/hr of coal gas at 1100{degrees}F and 425 psig. The particulate laden gas is transported to METC`s Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR). The gas pressure is reduced to 285 psig before being fed into a candle filter vessel. The candle filter vessel houses four candle filters and multiple test coupons. The particulate free gas is then desulfurized in a sorbent reactor. Starting in 1996 the MGCR system will be able to regenerate the sorbent in the same vessel.

  5. A risk-based cleanup criterion for PCE in soil. [Tetrachloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; McKone, T.E.; Hall, L.C.

    1990-09-26

    The most important attribute of a chemical contaminant at a hazardous-wastes site for decision makers to consider with regard to its cleanup is the potential risk associated with human exposure. For this reason we have developed a strategy for establishing a risk-based cleanup criterion for chemicals in soil. We describe this strategy by presenting a cleanup criterion for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in soil associated with a representative California landscape. We being by discussing the environmental fate and transport model, developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), that we used to predict the equilibrium concentration of PCE in five environmental media from a steady-state source in soil. Next, we explain the concept and application of pathway-exposure factors (PEFs), the hazard index, and cancer-potency factors (CPFs) for translating the predicted concentrations of PCE into estimated potential hazard or risk for hypothetically exposed individuals. Finally, the relationship between concentration and an allowable level of risk is defined and the societal and financial implications are discussed. 22 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  7. Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, J.M.; Kumar, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to investigate the removal of SO[sub x] and particulate matter from direct coal fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation was to be accomplished through a bench scale testing and evaluation program for SO[sub x] removal and the innovative particulate collection concept of particulate growth through electrostatic agglomeration followed by high efficiency mechanical collection. The process goal was to achieve control better than that required by 1979 New Source Performance Standards. During Phase I, the designs of the combustor and gas cleanup apparatus were successfully completed. Hot gas cleanup was designed to be accomplished at temperature levels between 1800[degrees] and 2500[degrees]F at pressures up to 15 atmospheres. The combustor gas flow rate could be varied between 0.2--0.5 pounds per second. The electrostatic agglomerator residence time could be varied between 0.25 to 3 seconds. In Phase II, all components were fabricated, and erected successfully. Test data from shakedown testing was obtained. Unpredictable difficulties in pilot plant erection and shakedown consumed more budget resources than was estimated and as a consequence DOE, METC, decided ft was best to complete the contract at the end of Phase II. Parameters studied in shakedown testing revealed that high-temperature high pressure electrostatics offers an alternative to barrier filtration in hot gas cleanup but more research is needed in successful system integration between the combustor and electrostatic agglomerator.

  8. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. PCR inhibitor removal using the NucleoSpin® DNA Clean-Up XS kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Korie L; Person, Eric C; Hudlow, William R

    2013-01-01

    Forensic evidence samples are collected from an unlimited variety of substrates, which may contain compounds known to inhibit the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These PCR inhibitors are co-extracted with the DNA sample and can negatively affect the DNA typing results, which can range from partial to complete inhibition of the short tandem repeat (STR) PCR. One potential solution is to remove the PCR inhibitors from the extracts prior to the STR PCR with the NucleoSpin(®) DNA Clean-Up XS kit. The kit contains a NucleoSpin(®) XS silica column that has a special funnel design of thrust rings along with a very small silica membrane, which allows for sample elution in a small volume that is appropriate for use with current STR typing kits. The NucleoSpin(®) DNA Clean-Up XS kit was optimized for the best possible DNA recovery and then evaluated for its ability to remove eight commonly encountered PCR inhibitors including: bile salt, collagen, hematin, humic acid, indigo, melanin, tannic acid and urea. Each of these PCR inhibitors was effectively removed by the NucleoSpin(®) DNA Clean-Up XS kit as demonstrated by generating more complete STR profiles from the cleaned up inhibitor samples than from the raw inhibitor samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-08-16

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents.

  11. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  12. Groundwater Pathway Model for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 21, Material Disposal Area T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Terry Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy [Neptune Inc, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dash, Zora [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-09

    This report consists of four major sections, including this introductory section. Section 2 provides an overview of previous investigations related to the development of the current sitescale model. The methods and data used to develop the 3-D groundwater model and the techniques used to distill that model into a form suitable for use in the GoldSim models are discussed in Section 3. Section 4 presents the results of the model development effort and discusses some of the uncertainties involved. Three attachments that provide details about the components and data used in this groundwater pathway model are also included with this report.

  13. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  14. Warm Cleanup of Coal-Derived Syngas: Multicontaminant Removal Process Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Kurt A.; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Braunberger, Beau; Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2017-02-15

    Warm cleanup of coal- or biomass-derived syngas requires sorbent and catalytic beds to protect downstream processes and catalysts from fouling. Sulfur is particularly harmful because even parts-per-million amounts are sufficient to poison downstream synthesis catalysts. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a conventional sorbent for sulfur removal; however, its operational performance using real gasifier-derived syngas and in an integrated warm cleanup process is not well reported. In this paper, we report the optimal temperature for bulk desulfurization to be 450oC, while removal of sulfur to parts-per-billion levels requires a lower temperature of approximately 350oC. Under these conditions, we found that sulfur in the form of both hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide could be absorbed equally well using ZnO. For long-term operation, sorbent regeneration is desirable to minimize process costs. Over the course of five sulfidation and regeneration cycles, a ZnO bed lost about a third of its initial sulfur capacity, however sorbent capacity stabilized. Here, we also demonstrate, at the bench-scale, a process and materials used for warm cleanup of coal-derived syngas using five operations: 1) Na2CO3 for HCl removal, 2) regenerable ZnO beds for bulk sulfur removal, 3) a second ZnO bed for trace sulfur removal, 4) a Ni-Cu/C sorbent for multi-contaminant inorganic removal, and 5) a Ir-Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst employed for ammonia decomposition and tar and light hydrocarbon steam reforming. Syngas cleanup was demonstrated through successful long-term performance of a poison-sensitive, Cu-based, water-gas-shift catalyst placed downstream of the cleanup process train. The tar reformer is an important and necessary operation with this particular gasification system; its inclusion was the difference between deactivating the water-gas catalyst with carbon deposition and successful 100-hour testing using 1 LPM of coal-derived syngas.

  15. Groundwater remediation from the past to the future: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Mao, Guozhu; Crittenden, John; Liu, Xi; Du, Huibin

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and plays a role in geochemical cycling. Groundwater is also used for agricultural irrigation and for the domestic supply of drinking water in most nations. However, groundwater contamination has led to many research efforts on groundwater remediation technologies and strategies. This study evaluated a total of 5486 groundwater remediation-related publications from 1995 to 2015 using bibliometric technology and social network analysis, to provide a quantitative analysis and a global view on the current research trend and future research directions. Our results underline a strong research interest and an urgent need to remediate groundwater pollution due to the increasing number of both groundwater contamination and remediation publications. In the past two decades, the United States (U.S.) published 41.1% of the papers and it was the core country of the international collaboration network, cooperating with the other 19 most productive countries. Besides the active international collaboration, the funding agencies also played positive roles to foster the science and technology publications. With respect to the analysis of the distribution of funding agencies, the National Science Foundation of China sponsored most of the groundwater remediation research. We also identified the most productive journals, Environmental Science and Technology and Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, which published 334 and 259 scientific articles (including research articles and reviews) over the past 20 years, respectively. In addition to journal publications, a patent analysis was performed to show the impact of intellectual property protection on journal publications. Three major remediation technologies, including chemical oxidation, biodegradation and adsorption, have received increasing interest in both journal publication and patent development. Our results provide a valuable reference and global overview to identify

  16. Physics Survey Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-30

    An overview of a series of assignments of the branches of physics carried out by the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. It identifies further theories in physics and makes recommendations on preventive priorities. The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) has conducted a new decadal survey of physics entitled ''Physics in a New Era''. The survey includes assessments of the main branches of physics as well as certain selected emerging areas. The various elements of the survey were prepared by separately-appointed National Research Council (NRC) committees. The BPA formed the Physics Survey Overview Committee (PSOVC) to complete the survey by preparing an overview of the field of physics to summarize and synthesize the results of the various assessments and to address cross-cutting issues that concern physics as a whole.

  17. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  18. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  19. CEQATR Thermal Test Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balusek, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    A thermal test overview of the Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Test Requirement (CEQATR) is presented. The contents include: 1) CEQATR Thermal Test Overview; 2) CxP Environments; 3) CEQATR Table 1.2-1; 4) Levels of Assembly; 5) Definitions for Levels of Assembly; 6) Hardware Applicability; 7) CEQATR Thermal-Related Definitions; 8) Requirements for unit-level thermal testing; 9) Requirements for major assembly level thermal testing; 10) General thermal testing requirements; 11) General thermal cycle, thermal vacuum profiles; 12) Test tolerances; 13) Vacuum vs Ambient; 14) Thermal Gradient; 15) Sequence of Testing; 16) Alternative Strategies; 17) Protoflight; 18) Halt/Hass; 19) Humidity; and 20) Tailoring.

  20. Effects of Oil Spillage on Groundwater Quality In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwachukwu A. N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to ascertain the effect of oil spillage on groundwater quality in the oil producing Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out in Abacheke community in Egbema Local Government area, Imo state.Water Samples were collected forquality analysis in boreholes/wells at three locations A, B, C. Locations A and B are areas with history of spillage while C is a location downstream with no history of oil spillage. The following parameters were tested for; physical parameters (temperature and turbidity, inorganic constituents (Conductivity, PH, TDS, DO, BOD, Mg, and P and organic constituents (Total hydro-carbonThe results showed the some parameters exceeded the WHO permissible levels. Comparatively, Sample C had a lower value of hydrocarbon content (0.6 mg/l while Samples A and B values were 0.9mg/l and 1.1mg/l respectively.The Turbidityvalue for sample C was 5 NTU compared to values of 14 and 18 NTU from samples A and B respectively. Results of PH test also showed that samples A and B were more acidic (5.56 and 5.98 respectively than Sample C. The higher level of Turbidity and Total hydro-carbon for samples A and B isan indication of oil pollution which is attributable to incessant spillage. It is therefore necessary that appropriate treatment be carried out on the water samples to avoid adverse health effects.We also recommend that comprehensive groundwater monitoring should be carried out in the Niger Delta area and cleanup exercises carried outwhenever there is an oil spill to prevent infiltration of oil into the ground water.

  1. The importance of hydraulic groundwater theory in catchment hydrology: The legacy of Wilfried Brutsaert and Jean-Yves Parlange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troch, P.A.A.; Berne, A.D.; Harman, C.; Hilberts, A.G.J.; Lyon, S.W.; Paniconi, C.; Pauwels, V.R.N.; Rupp, D.E.; Selker, J.S.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Verhoest, N.E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a literature overview, this paper summarizes the impact and legacy of the contributions of Wilfried Brutsaert and Jean-Yves Parlange (Cornell University) with respect to the current state-of-the-art understanding in hydraulic groundwater theory. Forming the basis of many applications in cat

  2. The importance of hydraulic groundwater theory in catchment hydrology: The legacy of Wilfried Brutsaert adn Jean-Yves Parlange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troch, P.A.; Berne, A.; Bogaart, P.W.; Harman, C.; Hilberts, A.G.J.; Lyon, S.W.; Paniconi, C.; Pauwels, V.R.N.; Rupp, D.E.; Selker, J.S.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Verhoest, N.E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a literature overview, this paper summarizes the impact and legacy of the contributions of Wilfried Brutsaert and Jean-Yves Parlange (Cornell University) with respect to the current state-of-the-art understanding in hydraulic groundwater theory. Forming the basis of many applications in cat

  3. The importance of hydraulic groundwater theory in catchment hydrology: The legacy of Wilfried Brutsaert adn Jean-Yves Parlange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troch, P.A.; Berne, A.; Bogaart, P.W.; Harman, C.; Hilberts, A.G.J.; Lyon, S.W.; Paniconi, C.; Pauwels, V.R.N.; Rupp, D.E.; Selker, J.S.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Verhoest, N.E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a literature overview, this paper summarizes the impact and legacy of the contributions of Wilfried Brutsaert and Jean-Yves Parlange (Cornell University) with respect to the current state-of-the-art understanding in hydraulic groundwater theory. Forming the basis of many applications in cat

  4. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  5. GROUNDWATER HYDROCHEMISTRY EVALUATION IN RURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... the quality of groundwater from domestic water supply boreholes across rural Botswana. Ionic ... quality limits the supply of potable fresh water. To utilize and protect valuable water ..... prescribed specification of World Health.

  6. Groundwater Vulnerability Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions onThis map represent areas with similar hydrogeologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  7. Groundwater resources management through the applications of simulation modeling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay

    2014-11-15

    The global population is increasing rapidly and expected to touch the 9.5 billion mark by 2050 from the current 7.2 billion. The management of the groundwater resources is a challenging task worldwide against the backdrop of the growing water demand for industrial, agricultural, and domestic uses and shrinking resources. Moreover, this task has been hampered significantly due to declining/rising groundwater levels and associated contamination. A broad range of solutions could be considered to address the aforementioned problems of groundwater management, but the effectiveness of all the solutions and their combinations cannot be verified with field experiments. Given their predictive capability, simulation models are often the only viable means of providing input to management decisions, as they can forecast the likely impacts of a particular water management strategy. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the simulation modeling applications for the management of groundwater resources. The past papers on the overview of groundwater simulation models, use of remote sensing and GIS in groundwater modeling, and application of simulation models in arid and semiarid regions are described in detail. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual overview, oral detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate...

  9. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the basi

  10. Overview of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylitis › Types of Spondylitis › Ankylosing Spondylitis Overview of Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis (pronounced ank-kih-low-sing spon- ... of treatment. Learn More About Treatments Causes of Ankylosing Spondylitis Although the exact cause of AS is unknown, ...

  11. BMDO photovoltaics program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caveny, Leonard H.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    This is an overview of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) Photovoltaic Program. Areas discussed are: (1) BMDO advanced Solar Array program; (2) Brilliant Eyes type satellites; (3) Electric propulsion; (4) Contractor Solar arrays; (5) Iofee Concentrator and Cell development; (6) Entech linear mini-dome concentrator; and (7) Flight test update/plans.

  12. LANL HED Programs Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flippo, Kirk Adler [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-04-23

    The Powerpoint presentation provides an overview of High-Energy Density (HED) Physis, ICF and Burning Plasma research programs at Los Alamos National Lab. in New Mexico. Work in nuclear diagnostics is also presented, along with a summary of collaborations and upcoming projects.

  13. Futurism 1984: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Florence F.

    This overview of futurism defines it as a movement believing that a positive future world may be created through wise decision-making and futuristic planning. Present societal conditions have provided an impetus for a futuristic focus, and various authors, think tanks, techniques, and organizations have contributed to the wide acclaim and respect…

  14. Occupational Information Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    This three-part book provides an overview of 500 occupations. The book is organized into three parts. Part I introduces the following seven occupational classification systems, along with their manuals and dictionaries: an observational classification system, Roe's Classification System, Holland's Classification System, the Standard Occupational…

  15. Overview of religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided.

  16. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  17. An Overview of Sociolinguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴书麟

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sociolinguistics.Sociolinguistics is a newly developed subject which studies the interrelationship between language and society.The paper first introduces the history of sociolinguistics;next the major schools and its representatives;finally a summary will be achieved to conclude the review.

  18. Change management - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The need for systematic and comprehensive change management in health that involves everybody * Various change management types, models, best practices, and techniques, and how to plan and execute change management * Some of the common mistakes with change management in healthcare.

  19. Virtual Reality: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Highlights of this overview of virtual reality include optics; interface devices; virtual worlds; potential applications, including medicine and archaeology; problems, including costs; current research and development; future possibilities; and a listing of vendors and suppliers of virtual reality products. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  20. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  1. Cell Science-02 Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sarah Diane

    2014-01-01

    The presentation provides an general overview of the Cell Science-02 science and payload operations to the NASA Payload Operations Integrated Working Group. The overview includes a description of the science objectives and specific aims, manifest status, and operations concept.

  2. A master-slave parallel hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for groundwater remediation design under general hydrogeological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Yang, Y.; Luo, Q.; Wu, J.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a new hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the niched Pareto tabu search combined with a genetic algorithm (NPTSGA), whereby the global search ability of niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS) is improved by the diversification of candidate solutions arose from the evolving nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) population. Also, the NPTSGA coupled with the commonly used groundwater flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed methodology is then applied to a large-scale field groundwater remediation system for cleanup of large trichloroethylene (TCE) plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Furthermore, a master-slave (MS) parallelization scheme based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is incorporated into the NPTSGA to implement objective function evaluations in distributed processor environment, which can greatly improve the efficiency of the NPTSGA in finding Pareto-optimal solutions to the real-world application. This study shows that the MS parallel NPTSGA in comparison with the original NPTS and NSGA-II can balance the tradeoff between diversity and optimality of solutions during the search process and is an efficient and effective tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems under complicated hydrogeologic conditions.

  3. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  4. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well.......This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  5. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H

    2015-07-21

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  6. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunao Marui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  7. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers, 1986–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Hakulinen, Timo; Smailyte, Giedre; Stengrevics, Aivars; Auvinen, Anssi; Inskip, Peter D.; Boice, John D.; Rahu, Mati

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess site-specific cancer risk in the Baltic cohort of Chernobyl cleanup workers 1986–2007. Methods The Baltic cohort includes 17,040 men from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania who participated in the environmental cleanup after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in 1986–1991, and who were followed for cancer incidence until the end of 2007. Cancer cases diagnosed in the cohort and in the male population of each country were identified from the respective national cancer registers. The proportional incidence ratio (PIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the site-specific cancer risk in the cohort. For comparison and as it was possible, the site-specific standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for the Estonian sub-cohort, which was not feasible for the other countries. Results Overall, 756 cancer cases were reported during 1986–2007. A higher proportion of thyroid cancers in relation to the male population was found (PIR=2.76; 95%CI 1.63–4.36), especially among those who started their mission shortly after the accident, in April–May 1986 (PIR=6.38; 95% CI 2.34–13.89). Also, an excess of oesophageal cancers was noted (PIR=1.52; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). No increased PIRs for leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined were observed. PIRs and SIRs for the Estonian sub-cohort demonstrated the same site-specific cancer risk pattern. Conclusion Consistent evidence of an increase in radiation-related cancers in the Baltic cohort was not observed with the possible exception of thyroid cancer, where conclusions are hampered by known medical examination including thyroid screening among cleanup workers. PMID:23683549

  9. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  10. Improvements of primary coolant shutdown chemistry and reactor coolant system cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudard, G.; Gilles, B.; Mesnage, F. [EDF/GDL (France); Cattant, F. [EDF R and D (France)

    2002-07-01

    In the framework of a radiation exposure management program entitled <>, EDF aims at decreasing the mass dosimetry of nuclear power plants workers. So, the annual dose per unit, which has improved from 2.44 m.Sv in 1991 to 1.08 in 2000, should target 0.8 mSv in the year 2005 term in order to meet the results of the best nuclear operators. One of the guidelines for irradiation source term reduction is the optimization of operation parameters, including reactor coolant system (RCS) chemistry in operation, RCS shutdown chemistry and RCS cleanup improvement. This paper presents the EDF strategy for the shutdown and start up RCS chemistry optimization. All the shutdown modes have been reviewed and for each of them, the chemical specifications will be fine tuned. A survey of some US PWRs shutdown practices has been conducted for an acid and reducing shutdown chemistry implementation test at one EDF unit. This survey shows that deviating from the EPRI recommended practice for acid and reducing shutdown chemistry is possible and that critical path impact can be minimized. The paper also presents some investigations about soluble and insoluble species behavior and characterization; the study focuses here on {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 122}Sb, {sup 124}Sb and iodine contamination. Concerning RCS cleanup improvement, the paper presents two studies. The first one highlights some limited design modifications that are either underway or planned, for an increased flow rate during the most critical periods of the shutdown. The second one focuses on the strategy EDF envisions for filters and resins selection criteria. Matching the study on contaminants behavior with the study of filters and resins selection criteria should allow improving the cleanup efficiency. (authors)

  11. Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

  12. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  13. Data clean-up and management a practical guide for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Hogarth, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Data use in the library has specific characteristics and common problems. Data Clean-up and Management addresses these, and provides methods to clean up frequently-occurring data problems using readily-available applications. The authors highlight the importance and methods of data analysis and presentation, and offer guidelines and recommendations for a data quality policy. The book gives step-by-step how-to directions for common dirty data issues.focused towards libraries and practicing librariansdeals with practical, real-life issues and addresses common problems that all libraries faceoffe

  14. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  15. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate several novel copper-based binary oxides for their suitability as regenerable sorbents for hot gas cleanup application in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}C (1200{degree}--1550{degree}F). To achieve this objective, several novel copper-based binary oxide sorbents will be prepared. Experimental tests will be conducted at ambient pressure to determine the stability, sulfidation capacity, regenerability, and sulfidation kinetics of the novel sorbents. Tests will also be conducted at high pressure for the determination of the sulfidation reactivity, regenerability, and durability of the sorbents. The attrition characteristics of the sorbents will also be determined.

  16. Relevance of Nuclear Weapons Clean-Up Experience to Dirty Bomb Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C; Crites, T R

    2002-08-19

    During the past 50 years, the United States has experienced 32 major nuclear weapons accidents, nine of which released special nuclear material to the environment. Response to these accidents, coupled with recovery experience following the Russian satellite reentry and weapons test site cleanup, form the basis for determining actions that might be required following a nuclear terrorist event involving the release of radioactive material. Though valuable information has been gained following the recovery from various commercial accidents, most notably the Chernobyl nuclear power plant failure and the dismantled radiography source in the Brazilian city of Goi nia, this paper will focus on the lessons learned from the U.S. nuclear weapons program.

  17. Action Memorandum for the Engineering Test Reactor under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared adn released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessol. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface.

  18. NucleoSpin(®) XS Columns for DNA Concentration and Clean-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlow, William R

    2016-01-01

    The phenol-chloroform (organic) extraction method continues to be a preferred method for extraction of DNA from forensic evidence samples that may contain low quantities of DNA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors. The aqueous extracts from the organic extraction of DNA require subsequent concentration and cleanup, which has traditionally been performed with microdialysis filter units, including the Centricon(®) and Microcon(®) centrifugal filter devices. Here, we describe the use of the NucleoSpin(®) XS silica columns as an alternative for the concentration and purification of the aqueous extracts from the organic extraction and for the removal of PCR inhibitors from existing DNA extracts.

  19. Continuing Clean-up at Oak Ridge, Portsmouth and Paducah-Successes and Near-Term Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, L. L.; Houser, S. M.; Starling, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the complexities and challenges associated with the Oak Ridge Environmental Management (EM) cleanup program and the steps that DOE and Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (the Oak Ridge EM team) have collaboratively taken to make significant physical progress and get the job done. Maintaining significant environmental cleanup progress is a daunting challenge for the Oak Ridge EM Team. The scale and span of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) cleanup is immense-five major half-century-old installations in three states (three installations are complete gaseous diffusion plants), with concurrent cleanup at the fully operational Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Y-12 National Security Complex, and with regulatory oversight from three states and two United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regions. Potential distractions arising from funding fluctuations and color-of-money constraints, regulatory negotiations, stakeholder issues, or any one of a number of other potential delay phenomena can not reduce the focus on safely achieving project objectives to maintain cleanup momentum.

  20. Multi-scale experimental programs for estimating groundwater recharge in hydrologically changing basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Neil; Larsen, Josh; Reading, Lucy; Bulovic, Nevenka; Jarihani, Abdollah; Finch, Warren

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater recharge estimates are required to evaluate sustainable groundwater abstractions and to support groundwater impacts assessments associated with minerals and energy extraction. Increasingly, recharge estimates are also needed for regional and global scale water cycle modelling. This is especially the case in the great arid and semi-arid basins of the world due to increased water scarcity and dependence of ecosystems and livelihoods on their water supplies, and the considerable potential influence of groundwater on the hydrological cycle. Groundwater resources in the semi-arid Surat Basin of south-east Queensland, Australia, support extensive groundwater-dependent ecosystems and have historically been utilised for regional agriculture and urban water-use. Large volumes of water are currently being produced and will continue to do so as a part of coal seam gas extraction. There is considerable uncertainty about the impacts of gas extraction on water resources and the hydrological cycle, and much of this uncertainty stems from our limited knowledge about recharge processes and how to upscale them. Particular questions are about the role of storm events in controlling annual recharge, the relative contributions of local 'recharge zones' versus diffuse recharge and the translation of (relatively easily quantified) shallow drainage estimates to groundwater recharge. A multi-scale recharge research program is addressing these questions, using multiple approaches in estimating groundwater recharge, including plot and catchment scale monitoring, use of remote sensed data and simulation models. Results during the first year of the program have resulted in development of process hypotheses and experimental designs at three field sites representing key gaps in knowledge. The presentation will overview the process of designing the experimental program; how the results from these sites will be integrated with existing knowledge; and how results will be used to advance

  1. Data Assimilation for Management of Industrial Groundwater Contamination at a Regional Scale

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the main sources for drinking water and agricultural activities. Various activities of both humans and nature may lead to groundwater pollution. Very often, pollution, or contamination, of groundwater goes undetected for long periods of time until it begins to a ect human health and/or the environment. Cleanup technologies used to remediate pollution can be costly and remediation processes are often protracted. A more practical and feasible way to manage groundwater contamination is to monitor and predict contamination and act as soon as there is risk to the population and the environment. Predicting groundwater contamination requires advanced numerical models of groundwater ow and solute transport. Such numerical modeling is increasingly becoming a reference criterion for water resources assessment and environmental protection. Subsurface numerical models are, however, subject to many sources of uncertainties from unknown parameters and approximate dynamics. This dissertation considers the sequential data assimilation approach and tackles the groundwater contamination problem at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Industrial concentration data are used to monitor and predict the fate of organic contaminants using a threedimensional coupled ow and reactive transport model. We propose a number of 5 novel assimilation techniques that address di erent challenges, including prohibitive computational burden, the nonlinearity and coupling of the subsurface dynamics, and the structural and parametric uncertainties. We also investigate the problem of optimal observational designs to optimize the location and the number of wells. The proposed new methods are based on the ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), which provides an e cient numerical solution to the Bayesian ltering problem. The dissertation rst investigates in depth the popular joint and dual ltering formulations of the state-parameters estimation problem. New methodologies, algorithmically

  2. A project on groundwater research inventory and classification to make groundwater visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseko, Adrienn; Petitta, Marco; van der Keur, Peter; Fernandez, Isabel; Garcia Alibrandi, Clint; Hinsby, Klaus; Hartai, Eva; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Szucs, Peter; Mikita, Viktoria; Bisevac, Vanja; Bodo, Balazs

    2017-04-01

    deliverables (scientific reports, articles, projects, etc.) illustrating and providing links to research efforts carried out through Europe since 2000, indicating where data can be retrieved, and following their classification according to the proposed methodology. Both the HRC-SYS classification approach and the EIGR tool, are fundamental to achieve the main aim of the KINDRA project: to create an overview of the scientific knowledge covering European countries by means of an accurate assessment of hydrogeology research in various geographical and geo-environmental settings, and to allow for a direct comparison and exploit existing synergies. The scope of the project also includes identification of future trends, critical challenges and research gaps, to improve management and policy development for groundwater resources on a EU level coherently with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Groundwater Directive (GWD). As part of the work to be carried out in 2017, the identified research gaps will be converted into specific recommendations for the further development of EU level policies and research programmes. The project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 642047.

  3. Distributed Computing: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Firoj Ali; Rafiqul Zaman Khan

    2015-01-01

    Decrease in hardware costs and advances in computer networking technologies have led to increased interest in the use of large-scale parallel and distributed computing systems. Distributed computing systems offer the potential for improved performance and resource sharing. In this paper we have made an overview on distributed computing. In this paper we studied the difference between parallel and distributed computing, terminologies used in distributed computing, task allocation in distribute...

  4. Forensic odontology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Duane E

    2014-06-01

    This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements.

  5. Overview of ALICE results

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE detector was designed to study the physics of matter under extreme conditions of high energy density. Different results were reported by the experiment using data from the successful run I of the LHC. The goal of the present work is to present an overview of recent ALICE results. This comprises selected results from several analyses of pp, p-pb and Pb-Pb data at the LHC energies.

  6. Command Overview 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    XXXX = Xxx 1 Captain William W. DeBow Commander Port Hueneme Division Naval Surface Warfare Center COMMAND OVERVIEW 2012 Report Documentation... Xxx XXXX = Xxx 3 Bumper Washington D.C. *  Headquarters Virginia Beach *  Radars White Sands *  Missile Systems *  Overland Testing *  HE...Homeport for Navy’s Test Ship •  Deep Water Port •  49 Years of Fleet Support XXXX = Xxx XXXX = Xxx 4 Bumper Unique Facilities Deep Water

  7. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  8. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  9. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  10. Determination of ETU in tomatoes and tomato products by HPLC-PDA: evaluation of cleanup procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, S; Tsipi, D; Oreopoulou, V; Tzia, C

    2001-03-01

    An HPLC-PDA method for the determination of ethylenethiourea (ETU), the main degradation product of the organic fungicides ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate)s (EBDCs), in tomatoes and tomato products is reported. Solid-matrix liquid-liquid (l-l) partitioning and separatory funnel l-l partitioning for the cleanup were examined. The effect of salt addition, pH, and phase ratio on analyte recovery at the cleanup step was studied. It was found that solid-matrix l-l partitioning afforded higher precision and more selective separation of the analyte. According to the method proposed, the samples were extracted with methanol/water (3:1, v/v) and cleaned up on an Extrelut 20 column. ETU was eluted with dichloromethane and separated on a reversed phase HPLC column. For tomato products with degrees Brix > 20 further purification through silica cartridge was adopted. The method was validated over the following ranges of concentrations: 0.01-0.5 mg/kg for tomatoes, 0.01-0.1 mg/kg for tomato juice, and 0.05-0.25 mg/kg for tomato paste. The accuracy (recoveries > 70%) and the precision obtained (%RSD < 10%) were satisfactory.

  11. Phase 1 of the North Site cleanup: Definition of product streams. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorini, S.; Merriam, N.

    1994-03-01

    Various materials and equipment have accumulated at the Western Research Institute (WRI) North Site Facility since its commissioning in 1968. This facility was built by the US Bureau of Mines, transferred to the US Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) in 1976, and transferred once again to the US Department of Energy (DOE) shortly thereafter. In 1983, the North Site Facility became part of WRI. The materials that have accumulated over the years at the site have been stored in drums, tanks, and open piles. They vary from oil shale, tar sand, and coal feedstocks to products and materials associated with in situ simulation and surface process developments associated with these feedstocks. The majority of these materials have been associated with DOE North Site activities and work performed at the North Site under DOE-WRI cooperative agreement contracts. In phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project, these materials were sampled and evaluated to determine their chemical characteristics for proper disposal or use in accordance with current local, state, and federal regulations. Phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project involved dividing the stored materials into product streams and dividing each product stream into composite groups. Composite groups contain materials known to be similar in composition, source, and process exposure. For each composite group, materials, which are representative of the composite, were selected for sampling, compositing, and analysis.

  12. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the research is to provide databases and design criteria to assist in the selection of optimum alloys for construction of components needed to contain process streams in advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems. Typical components include: steam line piping and superheater tubing for low emission boilers (600 to 700{degrees}C), heat exchanger tubing for advanced steam cycles and topping cycle systems (650 to 800{degrees}C), foil materials for recuperators, on advanced turbine systems (700 to 750{degrees}C), and tubesheets for barrier filters, liners for piping, cyclones, and blowback system tubing for hot-gas cleanup systems (850 to 1000{degrees}C). The materials being examined fall into several classes, depending on which of the advanced heat recovery concepts is of concern. These classes include martensitic steels for service to 650{degrees}C, lean stainless steels and modified 25Cr-30Ni steels for service to 700{degrees}C, modified 25Cr-20Ni steels for service to 900{degrees}C, and high Ni-Cr-Fe or Ni-Cr-Co-Fe alloys for service to 1000{degrees}C.

  13. Furthering the derivation of predictive wildlife toxicity reference values for use in soil cleanup decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, David B; Johnson, Mark S; Burris, Janet A; Fairbrother, Anne

    2014-07-01

    The development of media-specific ecological values for risk assessment includes the derivation of acceptable levels of exposure for terrestrial wildlife (e.g., birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians). Although the derivation and subsequent application of these values can be used for screening purposes, there is a need to identify toxicological effects thresholds specifically for making remedial decisions at individual contaminated sites. A workshop was held in the fall of 2012 to evaluate existing methods and recent scientific developments for refining ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) and improving the derivation of site-specific ecological soil clean-up values for metals (Eco-SCVs). This included a focused session on the development and derivation of toxicity reference values (TRVs) for terrestrial wildlife. Topics that were examined included: methods for toxicological endpoint selection, techniques for dose-response assessment, approaches for cross-species extrapolation, and tools to incorporate environmental factors (e.g., metal bioavailability and chemistry) into a reference value. The workgroup also made recommendations to risk assessors and regulators on how to incorporate site-specific wildlife life history and toxicity information into the derivation of TRVs to be used in the further development of soil cleanup levels.

  14. Determination of amphetamines in hair by integrating sample disruption, clean-up and solid phase derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R

    2016-05-20

    The utility of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the direct analysis of amphetamines in hair samples has been evaluated, using liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization. The proposed approach is based on the employment of MSPD for matrix disruption and clean-up, followed by the derivatization of the analytes onto the dispersant-sample blend. The fluorogenic reagent 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) has been used for derivatization. Different conditions for MSPD, analyte purification and solid phase derivatization have been tested, using amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), ephedrine (EPE) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as model compounds. The results have been compared with those achieved by using ultrasound-assisted alkaline digestion and by MSPD combined with conventional solution derivatization. On the basis of the results obtained, a methodology is proposed for the analysis of amphetamines in hair which integrates sample disruption, clean-up and derivatization using a C18 phase. Improved sensitivity is achieved with respect to that obtained by the alkaline digestion or by the MSPD followed by solution derivatization methods. The method can be used for the quantification of the tested amphetamines within the 2.0-20.0ng/mg concentration interval, with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25-0.75ng/mg. The methodology is very simple and rapid (the preparation of the sample takes less than 15min).

  15. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States); CIZEL, Jean-Pierre [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Blanchard, Samuel [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)

    2013-07-01

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  16. Surface Modification of Graphene Oxides by Plasma Techniques and Their Application for Environmental Pollution Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxue; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Zhongshan; Wang, Qi; Li, Jiaxing; Hobiny, Aatef; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties and possible applications. The large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on GOs leads to a high sorption capacity for the removal of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup. However, the lack of selectivity results in difficulty in the selective removal of target pollutants from aqueous solutions in the presence of other coexisting pollutants. Herein, the surface grafting of GOs with special oxygen-containing functional groups using low-temperature plasma techniques and the application of the surface-modified GOs for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental pollution are reviewed. This paper gives an account of our research on the application of GO-based nanomaterials in environmental pollution cleanup, including: (1) the synthesis and surface grafting of functional groups on GOs, summarizing various types of low-temperature plasma techniques for the synthesis of graphene/GOs; and (2) the application of graphene/GOs and their composites for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions, including the interaction mechanism according to recently published results.

  17. On the fundamentals of thermal treatment for the cleanup of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lighty, J.S.; Silcox, G.D.; Pershing, D.W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Cundy, V.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on air emissions from the afterburner, mainly as a result of the regulations regarding destruction and removal efficiency of a principle organic hazardous constituent (POHC) -99.99% of the POHC must be destroyed in the system based on gas measurements from the afterburner. Research focusing on the primary desorber environment, the evolution of contaminants from solids and the resulting quality of the ash, is limited. The primary desorber is often operated at high temperatures which is costly, particularly for the cleanup of contaminated solid, due to high auxiliary fuel requirements. A more desirable option would be to desorb the contaminants from the soil at lower temperatures and then expose the off-gas to a high-temperature afterburner for decomposition of the hazardous compounds. In addition, the ability to predict the quality of the resulting soil is desirable for delisting purposes. To understand the desorption process, research must explore the rate controlling processes that are occurring. The overall goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the fundamental transport phenomena associated with the evolution of hazardous materials from soils in the primary desorber environment. As well, the rate information obtained can be used to model the thermal desorption of contaminants under a variety of experimental conditions; from these results large-scale operating parameters can be determined for optimum cleanup conditions.

  18. Dosimetry for a study of low-dose radiation cataracts among Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V V; Worgul, B V; Kundiyev, Y I; Sergiyenko, N M; Vitte, P M; Medvedovsky, C; Bakhanova, E V; Junk, A K; Kyrychenko, O Y; Musijachenko, N V; Sholom, S V; Shylo, S A; Vitte, O P; Xu, S; Xue, X; Shore, R E

    2007-05-01

    A cohort of 8,607 Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers during 1986-1987 was formed to study cataract formation after ionizing radiation exposure. Study eligibility required the availability of sufficient exposure information to permit the reconstruction of doses to the lens of the eye. Eligible groups included civilian workers, such as those who built the "sarcophagus" over the reactor, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Workers, and military reservists who were conscripted for clean-up work. Many of the official doses for workers were estimates, because only a minority wore radiation badges. For 106 military workers, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of extracted teeth were compared with the recorded doses as the basis to adjust the recorded gamma-ray doses and provide estimates of uncertainties. Beta-particle doses to the lens were estimated with an algorithm devised to take into account the nature and location of Chernobyl work, time since the accident, and protective measures taken. A Monte Carlo routine generated 500 random estimates for each individual from the uncertainty distributions of the gamma-ray dose and of the ratio of beta-particle to gamma-ray doses. The geometric mean of the 500 combined beta-particle and gamma-ray dose estimates for each individual was used in the data analyses. The median estimated lens dose for the cohort was 123 mGy, while 4.4% received >500 mGy.

  19. Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost Wendt; Sung Jun Lee; Paul Blowers

    2008-09-30

    The research was directed towards a sorbent injection/particle removal process where a sorbent may be injected upstream of the warm gas cleanup system to scavenge Hg and other trace metals, and removed (with the metals) within the warm gas cleanup process. The specific objectives of this project were to understand and quantify, through fundamentally based models, mechanisms of interaction between mercury vapor compounds and novel paper waste derived (kaolinite + calcium based) sorbents (currently marketed under the trade name MinPlus). The portion of the research described first is the experimental portion, in which sorbent effectiveness to scavenge metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at high temperatures (>600 C) is determined as a function of temperature, sorbent loading, gas composition, and other important parameters. Levels of Hg{sup 0} investigated were in an industrially relevant range ({approx} 25 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) although contaminants were contained in synthetic gases and not in actual flue gases. A later section of this report contains the results of the complementary computational results.

  20. Groundwater resource-directed measures software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-21

    Jul 21, 2006 ... 1Institute for Groundwater Studies, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa ... In this paper the methods developed for the GRDM .... The geothermal gradient for groundwater, that is, the.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SHALLOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of human societies. In Okrika Island ... abstraction of groundwater due to population increase in Port ... 298. Nwankwoala and Walter: Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Shallow Coastal Aquifers ..... and Tai-Eleme areas.

  2. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important barriers to preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to ...

  3. Valuing groundwater: A practical approach for integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groundwater economic values into decision making ... The methodology incorporates a 2-tiered valuation approach. .... groundwater systems in Botswana (SADC, 2010). .... tion) can be investigated to support water resource management.

  4. INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Forbes

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes 2006 perched water and groundwater monitoring activities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During 2006, groundwater samples were collected from a total of 22 Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA) monitoring wells, plus six aquifer wells sampled for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) monitoring program. In addition, perched water samples were collected from 21 perched wells and 19 suction lysimeters. Groundwater and perched water samples were analyzed for a suite of radionuclides and inorganic constituents. Laboratory results in this report are compared to drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Such comparison is for reference only and it should be noted that the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision does not require that perched water comply with drinking water standards.

  5. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  6. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  7. Groundwater and climate change research scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C. R.; Cheetham, M.; Guha, P

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study has reviewed much of the published literature in the field of climate change and groundwater research. Whilst it is not exhaustive with regard to groundwater quality issues, most of the published literature relating to climate change and groundwater resources, particularly in the UK, is covered. Further work is required to identify current research needs relating to the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. The study of the effects of climate chan...

  8. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J. [Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental & Chemical Technology

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  9. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the

  10. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  11. Mapping groundwater quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pebesma, Edzer Jan

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater quality is the suitability of groundwater for a certain purpose (e.g. for human consumption), and is mostly determined by its chemical composition. Pollution from agricultural and industrial origin threatens the groundwater quality in the Netherlands. Locally, this pollution is me

  12. Groundwater: Illinois' Buried Treasure. Education Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Association of Illinois, Chicago.

    Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource that many feel has been too long neglected and taken for granted. There is growing recognition in Illinois and throughout the United States that comprehensive groundwater protection measures are vital. Illinois embarked on a course in protecting groundwater resources with the passage of the Illinois…

  13. Geochemical modelling baseline compositions of groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Kjøller, Claus; Andersen, Martin Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    Reactive transport models, were developed to explore the evolution in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in three aquifers; the Triassic East Midland aquifer (UK), the Miocene aquifer at Valreas (F) and the Cretaceous aquifer near Aveiro (P). All three aquifers contain very old groundwaters...... of the evolution in natural baseline properties in groundwater....

  14. Groundwater: Illinois' Buried Treasure. Education Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Association of Illinois, Chicago.

    Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource that many feel has been too long neglected and taken for granted. There is growing recognition in Illinois and throughout the United States that comprehensive groundwater protection measures are vital. Illinois embarked on a course in protecting groundwater resources with the passage of the Illinois…

  15. Detection and Remediation of Groundwater Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the water cycle and is also widely used as sources of drinking water. With the increasing de?velopment of groundwater exploitation, the pollution is becoming more and more serious. This paper talks about the main research direc?tions of groundwater pollution, the detection, the remediation and some conclusions.

  16. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  17. State space modeling of groundwater fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendrecht, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in both urban and rural areas. It is therefore essential to monitor groundwater fluctuations. However, data that becomes available need to be analyzed further in order to extract specific information on the groundwater system. Until recently, simple linear time se

  18. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, J.P.; Rodríguez-Trigo, G.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E.; Souto-Alonso, A.; Espinosa, A.; Pozo-Rodríguez, F.; Gómez, F.P.; Fuster, C.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Antó, J.M.; Barberà, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6years after clean-up

  19. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  20. ITIL (R) - General Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jašek, Roman; Králík, Lukáš; Nožička, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the reader into the issue of ITIL (R) and provides it as a basic overview of the concepts, terminology and philosophyof IT Service management. All this information is contained in 5 key ITIL (R) publications on around 1400 pages. The aim therefore is a brief summary of the issue, which also serves as an introduction to the following articles (Differences Between ITIL (R) v2 and ITIL (R) v3, ITIL (R) and Information Security, ITIL (R) Tools and ITIL (R) Implementation).

  1. Economic Sanctions Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sanctions Seminar held on November 19 was organized by LexisNexis Russia in cooperation with ANO Pericles.The Seminar theme was ‘Economic Sanctions Overview: Due Diligence and AML Procedures.’ In the course of the seminar, practicing lawyers, compliance and AML professionals had the opportunity to interact on the scope of US A and EU Sanctions and their impact on global business transaction, as well as get a better understanding of the due diligence procedures necessary in order to comply with a such complex environment.

  2. Popeye Project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, D.C.; Alford, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the Shell Offshore Inc. (SOI) Popeye Project, a remote subsea gas development in 2,040 ft. of water in the Gulf of Mexico. Planning and execution of the Project required a balance throughout between proven methods, cost reduction, requirement for extending technology, and the desire to develop a system which could be used as a stepping stone to future deep water prospects. Popeye was successfully installed and started up in January 1996. It represents application of an innovative, yet cost-effective, field development system which advanced the state of deep water subsea technology.

  3. Popeye project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, D.C.; Alford, B.J. [Shell Offshore Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Shell Offshore Inc. (SOI) Popeye project, a remote subsea gas development in 2,040 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico. Planning and execution of the project required a balance throughout between proven methods, cost reduction, requirement for extending technology, and the desire to develop a system which could be used as a stepping stone to future deepwater prospects. Popeye was successfully installed and started up in January 1996. It represents application of an innovative, yet cost-effective, field development system that advanced the state of deepwater subsea technology.

  4. Coblation an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term coblation is derived from “Controlled ablation”. This procedure involves non-heat driven process of soft tissue dissolution using bipolar radiofrequency energy under a conductive medium like normal saline. When current from radiofrequency probe pass through saline medium it breaks saline into sodium and chloride ions. These highly energized ions form a plasma field which is sufficiently strong to break organic molecular bonds within soft tissue causing its dissolution. This article attempts to provide a broad overview of the technology and its uses in the field of otolaryngology.

  5. Galaxy alignments: An overview

    CERN Document Server

    Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Hoekstra, Henk; Kiessling, Alina; Kirk, Donnacha; Rassat, Anais

    2015-01-01

    The alignments between galaxies, their underlying matter structures, and the cosmic web constitute vital ingredients for a comprehensive understanding of gravity, the nature of matter, and structure formation in the Universe. We provide an overview on the state of the art in the study of these alignment processes and their observational signatures, aimed at a non-specialist audience. The development of the field over the past one hundred years is briefly reviewed. We also discuss the impact of galaxy alignments on measurements of weak gravitational lensing, and discuss avenues for making theoretical and observational progress over the coming decade.

  6. Overview on Seamus Heaney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巧霞

    2013-01-01

      Seamus Heaney is an Irish poet, playwright, translator, lecturer and recipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Literature. Rob⁃ert Lowell called him"the most important Irish poet since Yeats". This paper gives an overview on Seamus Heaney from four parts:first part gives a brief introduction of Seamus Heaney, the second part introduces Seamus Heaney’s characters and contributions on poetry, the third part briefly states Heaney’s postcolonial consciousness. The forth part introduces Seamus Heaney’s first book The Death of Naturalist and gives a detailed analysis of Blackberry Picking.

  7. ITIL (R) - General Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jašek, Roman; Králík, Lukáš; Nožička, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the reader into the issue of ITIL (R) and provides it as a basic overview of the concepts, terminology and philosophyof IT Service management. All this information is contained in 5 key ITIL (R) publications on around 1400 pages. The aim therefore is a brief summary of the issue, which also serves as an introduction to the following articles (Differences Between ITIL (R) v2 and ITIL (R) v3, ITIL (R) and Information Security, ITIL (R) Tools and ITIL (R) Implementation).

  8. Global Groundwater related Risk Indicators: quantifying groundwater stress and groundwater table decline (1990-2010) at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faneca Sanchez, Marta; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Kuijper, Marijn; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is an invisible but indispensable resource for the economic development of many countries. Due to the need for this resource, in many cases it is exploited under severe pressure and the exploitation can become not sustainable. The non-sustainable exploitation of water is a well-known problem on both regional and global scales. However, most currently-available assessments on water stress still mostly focus on surface water and on water balances. In this work, we presented two global maps of groundwater risk indicators: an updated version of the groundwater stress (Gleeson et al., 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nature11295) and an indicator on groundwater table decline for the period 1990-2010. To calculate both indicators, we used the updated PCR-GLOBWB model output at 5 arcmin resolution (about 10 km at the equator), that is extended with an offline coupling to a global groundwater MODFLOW model. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily river discharge and groundwater recharge, as well as surface water and groundwater abstraction rates. The latter are estimated internally within the model based on the simulation of their availabilities and water demands for irrigation and other sectors. The daily output of PCR-GLOBWB would then be aggregated to the monthly resolution and used to force the MODFLOW groundwater model resolving spatio-temporal groundwater table dynamics, incorporating the simulated groundwater abstraction of PCR-GLOBWB. Using the PCR-GLOBWB and MODFLOW simulation results from the period 1990-2010, we then quantified groundwater stress and assessed the groundwater table decline. Results are presented on four different spatial scales: 5 arcmin pixel, drainage/sub-catchment unit, state level, and major aquifer unit. The maps clearly show where groundwater is under stress, where there is a trend in the drop of the groundwater table, the slope of the drop and the significance of it.

  9. Groundwater regulation and integrated planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, Philippe; Batelaan, Okke; Hunt, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of groundwater and the diversity of uses and environmental interactions call for emerging groundwater problems to be addressed through integrated management and planning approaches. Planning requires different levels of integration dealing with: the hydrologic cycle (the physical process) including the temporal dimension; river basins and aquifers (spatial integration); socioeconomic considerations at regional, national and international levels; and scientific knowledge. The great natural variation in groundwater conditions obviously affects planning needs and options as well as perceptions from highly localised to regionally-based approaches. The scale at which planning is done therefore needs to be carefully evaluated against available policy choices and options in each particular setting. A solid planning approach is based on River Basin Management Planning (RBMP), which covers: (1) objectives that management planning are designed to address; (2) the way various types of measures fit into the overall management planning; and (3) the criteria against which the success or failure of specific strategies or interventions can be evaluated (e.g. compliance with environmental quality standards). A management planning framework is to be conceived as a “living” or iterated document that can be updated, refined and if necessary changed as information and experience are gained. This chapter discusses these aspects, providing an insight into European Union (EU), United States and Australia groundwater planning practices.

  10. Groundwater Resources: Investigation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary P.

    A glance through the table of contents of this volume might suggest that it is yet another introductory text on principles of groundwater hydrology. All of the usual basic topics are covered including definitions of terms and concepts, aquifer types, drilling methods, and pumping tests. But partly because this book is intended for practicing groundwater consultants rather than students, other less elementary topics such as environmental isotope techniques, geochemical methods, interpretation and utilization of spring flow, geophysical methods, and groundwater balances are also included.According to the preface, ‘practical applicability’ is stressed ‘to show how groundwater investigations should be conducted using a systematic, well-directed effort’ and to describe ‘… what to do, what to avoid, and what kind of results one can reasonably expect …’ While this book was published as part of a series of monographs on water pollution, it is more in the nature of a handbook than a true monograph. That is, it is not an in-depth treatment of a single topic but presents a broad introduction to the ways in

  11. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in drinking water is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable because of the associated aesthetic and operational problems, namely: bad taste, colour, stains on laundry and plumbing fixtures, and aftergrowth in the

  12. Adsorptive iron removal from groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some

  13. ATLAS overview week highlights

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Froidevaux

    2005-01-01

    A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

  14. Life cycle assessment of soil and groundwater remediation technologies: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an increasingly widespread tool in support systems for environmental decision-making regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites. In this study, the use of LCA to compare the environmental impacts of different remediation...... and scope definition and the applied impact assessment. The studies differ in their basic approach since some are prospective with focus on decision support while others are retrospective aiming at a more detailed assessment of a completed remediation project. Literature review The literature review showed...... scenarios in terms of their associated environmental burden. Main features An overview of the assessed remediation technologies and contaminant types covered in the literature is presented. The LCA methodologies of the 12 reviewed studies were compared and discussed with special focus on their goal...

  15. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Reager, John T.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human‐dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE‐based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions. PMID:26900185

  16. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  17. Thermal management of an urban groundwater body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a management concept for the sustainable thermal use of an urban groundwater body. The concept is designed to be applied for shallow thermal groundwater use and is based on (1 a characterization of the present thermal state of the investigated urban groundwater body; (2 the definition of development goals for specific aquifer regions, including future aquifer use and urbanization; and (3 an evaluation of the thermal use potential for these regions.

    The investigations conducted in the city of Basel (Switzerland focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the aquifer as well as the thermal influence of river-groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include: (1 short- and long-term data analysis; (2 high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring; as well as (3 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows quantifying the thermal influence on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and additional heat from urbanization. Subsequently, management strategies for minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal use potential are discussed.

  18. Comparison of clean-up methods for ochratoxin A on wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili commercialized in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-10-22

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  19. Use of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the selective clean-up of clenbuterol from calf urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Sherrington, D; Ensing, K

    2000-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed in order to study the possibilities in using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbent material in solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for clean-up of clenbuterol from urine. A binding study of clenbuterol in several solvents was performed on a clenbuterol imprint

  20. Methode van onderzoek voor residuen van bestrijdingsmiddelen na clean-up m.b.v. gelpermeatiechromatografie (GPC) (Multimethode 12)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve PA

    1988-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een methode gegeven voor de clean-up van extracten m.b.v. gelpermeatie-chromatografie (GPC) t.b.v. de bepaling van residuen van electroncaptieve en organofosforbestrijdingsmiddelen. Een oudere versie van de GPC-methode, die alleen de organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen omvatte,

  1. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.

  2. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  3. Rapid and simple clean-up and derivatizaton procedure for the gas chromatographic determination of acidic drugs in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, H.; Hulshoff, A.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid and simple clean-up and derivatization procedure that can be generally applied to the gas chromatographie (GC) determination of acidic drugs of various chemical and therapeutic classes is described. The drugs are extracted from acidified plasma with chloroform containing 5% of isopropanol, w

  4. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Prelle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC, molecular imprinting polymers (MIP, Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0% more than wine (6.6%, beers (16.6% and coffee (26.6%. Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%, two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  5. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelle, Ambra; Spadaro, Davide; Denca, Aleksandra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-01-01

    The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC), molecular imprinting polymers (MIP), Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance) as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili) marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili) resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0%) more than wine (6.6%), beers (16.6%) and coffee (26.6%). Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%), two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold. PMID:24152987

  6. Use of fluorinated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and simplified cleanup for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, cost-effective method is described for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust using pressurized fluid extraction, cleanup with modified silica solid phase extraction tubes, and fluorinated internal standards. There are 14 PBDE congeners inc...

  7. IED Cleanup: A Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge--The Benefits and Execution of a Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Mark; Kressly, Rich

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative classroom robotics challenge named "IED Cleanup". This classroom challenge was created to incorporate a humanitarian project with the use of a robotics design system in order to remove simulated IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) to a detonation zone within a specified amount of time. Throughout the activity,…

  8. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, modified alloy 800, and two sulfidation resistant alloys: HR160 and HR120. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700{degrees}C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925{degrees}C with good weldability and ductility.

  9. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and clean-up criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-02-18

    Soil clean-up criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria which include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, and modified alloy 800. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700 C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925 C with good weldability and ductility.

  11. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Alloys for design and construction of structural components needed to contain process streams and provide internal structures in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems were examined. Emphasis was placed on high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys for service at temperatures above 1000 {degrees}F (540{degrees}C). Data were collected that related to fabrication, joining, corrosion protection, and failure criteria. Alloys systems include modified type 310 and 20Cr-25Ni-Nb steels and sulfidation-resistance alloys HR120 and HR160. Types of testing include creep, stress-rupture, creep crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for high temperature service, a modified type 310 stainless steel was developed with a target strength of twice that for standard type 310 stainless steel.

  12. Synthesis of a Novel Highly Oleophilic and Highly Hydrophobic Sponge for Rapid Oil Spill Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Maryam; Azizian, Saeid

    2015-11-18

    A highly hydrophobic and highly oleophilic sponge was synthesized by simple vapor-phase deposition followed by polymerization of polypyrrole followed by modification with palmitic acid. The prepared sponge shows high absorption capacity in the field of separation and removal of different oil spills from water surface and was able to emulsify oil/water mixtures. The sponge can be compressed repeatedly without collapsing. Therefore, absorbed oils can be readily collected by simple mechanical squeezing of the sponge. The prepared hydrophobic sponge can collect oil from water in both static and turbulent conditions. The proposed method is simple and low cost for the manufacture of highly oleophilic and highly hydrophobic sponges, which can be successfully used for effective oil-spill cleanup and water filtration.

  13. Environmental cleanup privatization, products and services directory, January 1997. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an ambitious ``Ten Year Plan`` for the Weapons Complex, an initiative to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within a decade. This Second Edition of the Directory is designed to facilitate privatization which is key to the success of the Plan. The Directory is patterned after the telephone Yellow Pages. Like the Yellow Pages, it provides the user with points of contact for inquiring further into the capabilities of the listed companies. This edition retains the original format of three major sections under the broad headings: Treatment, Characterization, and Extraction/Deliver/Materials Handling. Within each section, companies are listed alphabetically. Also, ``company name`` and ``process type`` indices are provided at the beginning of each section to allow the user quick access to listings of particular interest.

  14. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Deep Groundwater from the Witwatersrand Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, M. J.; Hendrickson, S.; Simon, P.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Wilkie, K.; Onstott, T. C.; Washton, N.; Clewett, C.

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the isolation, fractionation, and chemical analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in deep groundwater in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa. The groundwater was accessed through mining boreholes in gold and diamond mine shafts. Filtered water samples were collected and preserved for later analysis. In some cases, the organic carbon was also collected on DAX-8 and XAD-4 adsorption resins in situ and then transported to the surface for removal, clean-up, and lyophilization. Solid state C-13 NMR analysis of that organic carbon was conducted. Organic compounds were also isolated from the water using solid phase extraction cartridges for later analysis by GC-MS. Absorbance, fluorescence, and HPLC analyses was were used to analyze the DOC in the filtered water samples. C-14 and C-13 isotopic analysis of the organic carbon was also conducted. Identifiable components of the DOC include both organic acids and amino acids. However, initial results indicate that the majority of the subsurface DOC is a complex heterogeneous mixture with an average molecular weight of approximately 1000 Da, although this DOC is less complex than that found in soils or surface water. Finally, we will discuss possible sources of the organic carbon and its biogeochemical cycling in the subsurface.

  15. Bacterial Diversity in Submarine Groundwater along the Coasts of the Yellow Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eYe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine groundwater (SGD is one of the most significant pathways for the exchange of groundwater and/or source of nutrients, metals and carbon to the ocean, subsequently cause deleterious impacts on the coastal ecosystems. Microorganisms have been recognized as the important participators in the biogeochemical processes in the SGD. In this study, by utilizing 16S rRNA-based Illumina Miseq sequencing technology, we investigated bacterial diversity and distribution in both fresh well water and brackish recirculated porewater along the coasts in the Yellow Sea. The results showed that Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, especially Comamonas spp. and Limnohabitans spp. were dominated in fresh well samples. Distinct patterns of bacterial communities were found among the porewater samples due to different locations, for examples, Cyanbacteria was the most abundant in the porewater samples far from the algal bloomed areas. The analysis of correlation between representative bacterial taxonomic groups and the contexture environmental parameters showed that fresh well water and brackish porewater might provide different nutrients to the coastal waters. Potential key bacterial groups such as Comamonas spp. may be excellent candidates for the bioremediation of the natural pollutants in the SGD. Our comprehensive understanding of bacterial diversity in the SGD along the coasts of the Yellow Sea will create a basis for designing the effective clean-up approach in-situ, and provide valuable information for the coastal management.

  16. Respirable dust and silica exposure among World Trade Center cleanup workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Mirer, Franklin E

    2017-03-01

    The cleanup effort following the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) was unprecedented and involved removal of 1.8 million tons of rubble over a nine-month period. Work at the site occurred 24 hr a day, 7 days a week and involved thousands of workers during the process. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) conducted personal and area exposure sampling during the cleanup of the site. Secondary data analysis was performed on OSHA air sampling data for respirable dust and silica from September 2001 to June 2002 at the WTC recovery site to characterize workers' exposure. Results for silica and respirable particulate were stratified by area and personal samples as well as job task for analysis. Of 1108 samples included in the analysis, 693 were personal and 415 were area. The mean result for personal silica samples was 42 μg/m(3) (Range: 4.2-1800 μg/m(3)). Workers identified as drillers had the highest mean silica exposure (72 μg/m(3); range: 5.8-800 μg/m(3)) followed by workers identified as dock builders (67 μg/m(3); range: 5.8-670 μg/m(3)). The mean result for personal samples for respirable particulate was 0.44 mg/m(3) (range: 0.00010-13 mg/m(3)). There were no discernable trends in personal respirable dust and silica concentrations with date.

  17. High-temperature high-pressure gas cleanup with ceramic bag filters. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, M.; Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Kuby, W.; Turner-Tamiyasu, E.

    1982-12-06

    Advanced processes designed for the efficient use of coal in the production of energy will benefit from, or even depend upon, highly efficient, economical, high-temperature removal systems for fine particulates. In the case of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), the hot gas cleanup device must operate at approximately 1600/sup 0/F. Existing commercial filter systems are temperature limited due to the filter material, but ceramic fibers intended for refractory insulation offer the promise of a practical high-temperature filter media if they can be incorporated into a design which combines filter performance with acceptable durability. The current work was initiated to further develop and demonstrate on a larger-scale basis, a ceramic fiber filtration system for application to coal-fired PFBC's. The development effort centered around the need to replace the knit metal wire scrim, used in earlier designs as support for the fine fiber ceramic mat filtration medium, with a corrosion-resistant material. This led to the selection of woven ceramic cloth for support of the mat layer. Because of the substantial difference in strength and other material properties between the metal and ceramic cloth, tests were necessary to optimize the filter; pulse parameters such as pulse duration, pulse pressure, and pulse injection orifice size; woven cloth mesh configuration; the technique for clamping the bag to the support; and similar structural, fluid, and control parameters. The demonstration effort included both tests to prove this concept in a real application and a systems analysis to show commercial feasibility of the ceramic filtration approach for hot gas cleanup in PFBC's. 12 references, 57 figures, 23 tables.

  18. Cancer risk among Chernobyl cleanup workers in Estonia and Latvia, 1986-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati; Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Tekkel, Mare; Stengrevics, Aivars; Hakulinen, Timo; Boice, John D; Inskip, Peter D

    2006-07-01

    Two cohorts of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia (4,786 men) and Latvia (5,546 men) were followed from 1986 to 1998 to investigate cancer incidence among persons exposed to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. Each cohort was identified from various independent sources and followed using nationwide population and mortality registries. Cancers were ascertained by linkage with nationwide cancer registries. Overall, 75 incident cancers were identified in the Estonian cohort and 80 in the Latvian cohort. The combined-cohort standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.34) and for leukemia, 1.53 (95% CI = 0.62-3.17; n = 7). Statistically significant excess cases of thyroid (SIR = 7.06, 95% CI = 2.84-14.55; n = 7) and brain cancer (SIR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.07-3.83; n = 11) were found, mainly based on Latvian data. However, there was no evidence of a dose response for any of these sites, and the relationship to radiation exposure remains to be established. Excess of thyroid cancer cases observed may have been due to screening, the leukemia cases included 2 unconfirmed diagnoses, and the excess cases of brain tumors may have been a chance finding. There was an indication of increased risk associated with early entry to the Chernobyl area and late follow-up, though not statistically significant. Further follow-up of Chernobyl cleanup workers is warranted to clarify the possible health effects of radiation exposure.

  19. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  20. On-capillary sample cleanup method for the electrophoretic determination of carbohydrates in juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cid, Gabriel; Simonet, Bartolomé M; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2007-05-01

    On many occasions, sample treatment is a critical step in electrophoretic analysis. As an alternative to batch procedures, in this work, a new strategy is presented with a view to develop an on-capillary sample cleanup method. This strategy is based on the partial filling of the capillary with carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotube (c-SWNT). The nanoparticles retain interferences from the matrix allowing the determination and quantification of carbohydrates (viz glucose, maltose and fructose). The precision of the method for the analysis of real samples ranged from 5.3 to 6.4%. The proposed method was compared with a method based on a batch filtration of the juice sample through diatomaceous earth and further electrophoretic determination. This method was also validated in this work. The RSD for this other method ranged from 5.1 to 6%. The results obtained by both methods were statistically comparable demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed methods and their effectiveness. Electrophoretic separation of carbohydrates was achieved using 200 mM borate solution as a buffer at pH 9.5 and applying 15 kV. During separation, the capillary temperature was kept constant at 40 degrees C. For the on-capillary cleanup method, a solution containing 50 mg/L of c-SWNTs prepared in 300 mM borate solution at pH 9.5 was introduced for 60 s into the capillary just before sample introduction. For the electrophoretic analysis of samples cleaned in batch with diatomaceous earth, it is also recommended to introduce into the capillary, just before the sample, a 300 mM borate solution as it enhances the sensitivity and electrophoretic resolution.

  1. Long term alterations of blood plasma albumin in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inta Kalnina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the most generously represented protein in human blood plasma. Therefore it is important to follow and assess the transport function of albumin in clinic researches. Disturbances in structural/functional properties of albumin play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases and immune state in patients. Changes in albumin transformation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic criterion in pathologies. ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed at the Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers in long term period in relation with humans having no professional contact with radioactivity. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 and #8216;effective and #8217; and total albumin (EA and TA concentration in blood plasma; (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence; (4 albumin binding site characteristics. Screening of the individuals with a period of 25-26 years after the work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional albumin properties; first on conformations of plasma albumin, and second characteristics of tryptophanyl region of the molecule. The revealed structural modifications of albumin are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cardio-vascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. In conclusion, ABM is a sensitive probe for albumin alterations and can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between control (donors and groups of Chernobyl clean-up workers. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(3.000: 165-170

  2. Monitoring the clean-up operation of agricultural fields flooded with red mud in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Rékási, Márk; Anton, Áron D; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2016-12-01

    In the course of the clean-up operation after the red mud inundation in 2010, red mud was removed from the soil surface in places where the layer was more than 5 cm deep. Before its removal, the red mud seeped into the soil. In 2012, soil samples were taken from depths of 0 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm on some of the affected areas. The parameters investigated were pH, organic matter, salt%, and the total and mobile fractions of various elements. The values recorded in 2012 were compared with those measured immediately after the removal of the red mud in 2010 and with the background and clean-up target concentrations. The pH values remained below the designated limit, while the salt content only exhibited values in the weakly salty range on areas at the greatest distance from the dam. In the central part of the inundated area, total Na contents above the 900 mg/kg target value were observed, but the Na content in the 0-20-cm layer generally exhibited a decrease due to leaching. The pH and As concentration also showed a decline on several areas compared with the values recorded in 2010. Total As and Co contents in excess of the target values were recorded on the lowest-lying part of the flooded area, probably because the finest red mud particles were deposited the furthest from the dam, where they seeped into the soil. Nevertheless, the mobility and plant availability of both elements remained moderate. The total contents of both Co and Mo, however, exhibited a significant rise compared with both the background value and the 2010 data. The monitoring of the cleaned-up areas showed that after a 2-year period element concentrations that exceeded the target values and could be attributed to the red mud pollution were only detectable on the lowest-lying areas.

  3. Extraction and clean-up methods for organochlorine pesticides determination in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joana Gomes; Amaya Chávez, Araceli; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Colín Cruz, Arturo; García Fabila, María Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can cause environmental damage and human health risks since they are lipophilic compounds with high resistance to degradation and long half-lives in humans. As most persistent OCPs have been banned years ago, it is expected to find these compounds at trace levels in environment. Therefore, increasingly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques are required to ensure effective monitoring of these compounds. The aim of this review is to discuss extraction and clean-up methods used to monitor OCP residues in milk, reported in the last 20 years. To carry out this review, an exhaustive bibliographic review was conducted. Despite the disadvantages of conventional extraction and clean-up methods, such as liquid-liquid, solid-phase or Soxhlet extractions, these procedures are still used due to their reliability. New extraction methods, like solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion or QuEChERS, have not been thoroughly evaluated for OCP determination in milk. Almost all the methodologies analyzed in this review presented good performance characteristics according to the performance acceptability criteria set in SANCO's procedure. Comparison between limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD), for the reported methodologies, is not always possible due to the heterogeneity of the units. Thus, researchers should take into account an homogenization of LOD and LOQ units, according to the international regulations and MRLs established. Finally, more research is necessary to obtain the ideal methodology for OCPs determination in milk, which comprises the environmentally friendly characteristics of the new techniques and the reliability of the traditional methodologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Considerations for the development of health-based surface dust cleanup criteria for beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Erin; De Gandiaga, Elise; Madl, Amy K

    2013-03-01

    The exposure-response patterns with beryllium sensitization (BeS), chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and lung cancer are influenced by a number of biological and physicochemical factors. Recent studies have suggested dermal exposure as a pathway for BeS. In light of the current non-health-based DOE Beryllium Rule surface criteria, the feasibility of deriving a human health-based surface dust cleanup criteria (SDCC) for beryllium was assessed based on toxicology and health risk factors via all potential routes of exposure. Beryllium-specific and general exposure factors were evaluated, including (1) beryllium physicochemical characteristics, bioavailability and influence on disease prevalence, and (2) chemical dissipation, resuspension and transfer. SDCC for non-cancer (SDCC) and cancer (SDCC) endpoints were derived from a combination of modern methods applied for occupational, residential and building reentry surface dust criteria. The most conservative SDCC estimates were derived for dermal exposure (5-379 μg/100 cm for 0.1-1% damaged skin and 17-3337 μg/100 cm for intact skin), whereas the SDCC for inhalation exposure ranged from 51 to 485 μg/100 cm. Considering this analysis, the lowest DOE surface criterion of 0.2 μg/100 cm is conservative for minimizing exposure and potential risks associated with beryllium-contaminated surfaces released for non-beryllium industrial or public sector use. Although methodological challenges exist with sampling and analysis procedures, data variability and interpretation of surface dust information in relation to anthropogenic and natural background concentrations, this evaluation should provide useful guidance with regard to cleanup of manufacturing equipment or remediation of property for transfer to the general public or non-beryllium industrial facilities.

  5. Enamel Surface Roughness after Debonding of Orthodontic Brackets and Various Clean-Up Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate enamel roughness after adhesive removal using different burs and an Er:YAG laser.Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of forty human premolars were sealed by two layers of nail varnish, except for a circular area of 3 mm in diameter on the middle third. The enamel surfaces were initially subjected to profilometry analysis and four parameters of surface irregularity (Ra, Rq, Rt and Rz were recorded. Following bracket bonding and debonding, adhesive remnants were removed by tungsten carbide burs in low- or high- speed handpieces (group 1 and 2, respectively, an ultrafine diamond bur (group 3 or an Er:YAG laser (250 mJ, long pulse, 4 Hz (group 4, and surface roughness parameters were measured again. Then, the buccal surfaces were polished and the third profilometry measurements were performed.Results: The specimens that were cleaned with a low speed tungsten carbide bur showed no significant difference in surface irregularity between the different treatment stages (p>0.05. Surface roughness increased significantly after clean-up with the diamond bur and the Er:YAG laser (p<0.01. In comparison between groups, adhesive removal with tungsten carbide burs at slow- or high-speed handpieces produced the lowest, while enamel clean-up with the Er:YAG laser caused the highest values of roughness measurements (P<0.05.Conclusion: Under the study conditions, application of the ultrafine diamond bur or the Er:YAG laser caused irreversible enamel damage on tooth surface, and thus these methods could not be recommended for removing adhesive remnants after debonding of orthodontic brackets.

  6. Shaping the contours of groundwater governance in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Himanshu; Shah, Mihir; P.S. Vijay Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Study region: India. Study focus: India's groundwater dependence and the crises of depletion and contamination of groundwater resources require the development of a robust groundwater dependence framework. Understanding the challenges of developing a groundwater governance framework for regions of extensive groundwater development versus relatively less-developed areas of groundwater development is important. The groundwater typology is a function of both, the hydrogeological aspects of gr...

  7. Metal and metalloid containing natural products and a brief overview of their applications in biology, biotechnology and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel A; Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Beale, David J; Callahan, Damien L; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-02-01

    Bioinorganic natural product chemistry is a relatively unexplored but rapidly developing field with enormous potential for applications in biology, biotechnology (especially in regards to nanomaterial development, synthesis and environmental cleanup) and biomedicine. In this review the occurrence of metals and metalloids in natural products and their synthetic derivatives are reviewed. A broad overview of the area is provided followed by a discussion on the more common metals and metalloids found in natural sources, and an overview of the requirements for future research. Special attention is given to metal hyperaccumulating plants and their use in chemical synthesis and bioremediation, as well as the potential uses of metals and metalloids as therapeutic agents. The potential future applications and development in the field are also discussed.

  8. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  9. Content Analysis of Vomit and Diarrhea Cleanup Procedures To Prevent Norovirus Infections in Retail and Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Morgan G; Dubé, Anne-Julie; Leone, Cortney M; Moore, Christina M; Fraser, Angela M

    2016-11-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States, sickening 19 to 21 million Americans each year. Vomit and diarrhea are both highly concentrated sources of norovirus particles. For this reason, establishing appropriate cleanup procedures for these two substances is critical. Food service establishments in states that have adopted the 2009 or 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code are required to have a program detailing specific cleanup procedures. The aim of our study was to determine the alignment of existing vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures with the 11 elements recommended in Annex 3 of the 2011 Supplement to the 2009 Food Code and to determine their readability and clarity of presentation. In July 2015, we located vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures by asking Norovirus Collaborative for Outreach, Research, and Education stakeholders for procedures used by their constituency groups and by conducting a Google Advanced Search of the World Wide Web. We performed content analysis to determine alignment with the recommendations in Annex 3. Readability and clarity of presentation were also assessed. A total of 38 artifacts were analyzed. The mean alignment score was 7.0 ± 1.7 of 11 points; the mean clarity score was 6.7 ± 2.5 of 17 points. Only nine artifacts were classified as high clarity, high alignment. Vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures should align with Annex 3 in the Food Code and should, as well, be clearly presented; yet, none of the artifacts completely met both conditions. To reduce the spread of norovirus infections in food service establishments, editable guidelines are needed that are aligned with Annex 3 and are clearly written, into which authors could insert their facility-specific information.

  10. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-05-06

    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature.

  11. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  12. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  13. Methadone Treatment: Overview and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Tang, Beth Archibald

    This overview focuses on methadone treatment. Briefly, it describes the clinical uses of methadone for substance abuse treatment, explores dosage guidelines, and discusses counseling components. This overview also reviews research data on the application of methadone treatment to special populations, such as pregnant women, polydrug users, and…

  14. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; Environmental Compliance Department Environment, Safety, and Health Division Y-12 National Security Complex

    2004-03-31

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (hereafter referenced as BWXT), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (BWXT Y12 S/RID) regarding the implementation of a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility. Additionally, this plan is a ''living'' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP, and an overview of ongoing Y-12 groundwater monitoring activities. Section 3 describes the key elements of the GWPP management strategy. Organizational roles and responsibilities of GWPP personnel are outlined in Section 4. Section 5 presents an overview of the GWPP project plans for applicable programmatic elements. Section 6 lists the reports, plans, and documents that are referenced for technical and administrative details.

  15. Dyslexia: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Wajuihian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and a balanced sociocultural background.  Dyslexia is the most common type of learning disorder.  Reading difficulties affect a child’s academic achievement.  As primary eye care practitioners, optometrists have a role in attending to patients who may present with symptoms indicative of dyslexia, therefore an understanding of dyslexia will be beneficial to the optometrist.  This paper presents an overview of dyslexia and discusses its prevalence, aetiology, classifications, neural pathways involved in reading, theories, neuro-imaging techniques and management options. The role of optometry in the multidisciplinary management of dyslexia is discussed.  (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 89-98

  16. LSST telescope modeling overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Araujo, C.; Barr, J.; Callahan, S.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gressler, W.; Hileman, E.; Liang, M.; Muller, G.; Neill, D.; Schoening, W.; Warner, M.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael

    2016-08-01

    During this early stage of construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), modeling has become a crucial system engineering process to ensure that the final detailed design of all the sub-systems that compose the telescope meet requirements and interfaces. Modeling includes multiple tools and types of analyses that are performed to address specific technical issues. Three-dimensional (3D) Computeraided Design (CAD) modeling has become central for controlling interfaces between subsystems and identifying potential interferences. The LSST Telescope dynamic requirements are challenging because of the nature of the LSST survey which requires a high cadence of rapid slews and short settling times. The combination of finite element methods (FEM), coupled with control system dynamic analysis, provides a method to validate these specifications. An overview of these modeling activities is reported in this paper including specific cases that illustrate its impact.

  17. Marine pollution: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  18. Theory overview on spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed

    2011-08-15

    A theoretical overview of the exotic spectroscopy in the charm and beauty quark sector is presented. These states are unexpected harvest from the e{sup +}e{sup -} and hadron colliders and a permanent abode for the majority of them has yet to be found. We argue that some of these states, in particular the Y{sub b}(10890) and the recently discovered states Z{sub b}(10610) and Z{sub b}(10650), discovered by the Belle collaboration are excellent candidates for tetraquark states [bq][ anti b anti q], with q=u,d light quarks. Theoretical analyses of the Belle data carried out in the tetraquark context is reviewed. (orig.)

  19. Concept Overview & Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is an opportunity for wide-scale use of hydrogen as an intermediate that carries energy from various production options to multiple uses. It is based on identifying and developing opportunities for low-cost hydrogen production and investigating opportunities for using that hydrogen across the electricity, industrial, and transportation sectors. One of the key production opportunities is use of low-cost electricity that may be generated under high penetrations of variable renewable generators such as wind and solar photovoltaics. The technical potential demand for hydrogen across the sectors is 60 million metric tons per year. The U.S. has sufficient domestic renewable resources so that each could meet that demand and could readily meet the demand using a portfolio of generation options. This presentation provides an overview of the concept and the technical potential demand and resources. It also motivates analysis and research on H2@Scale.

  20. Roboethics a navigating overview

    CERN Document Server

    Tzafestas, Spyros G

    2016-01-01

    This volume explores the ethical questions that arise in the development, creation and use of robots that are capable of semiautonomous or autonomous decision making and human-like action. It examines how ethical and moral theories can and must be applied to address the complex and critical issues of the application of these intelligent robots in society. Coverage first presents fundamental concepts and provides a general overview of ethics, artificial intelligence and robotics. Next, the book studies all principal ethical applications of robots, namely medical, assistive, socialized and war roboethics. It looks at such issues as robotic surgery, children-robot and elderly-robot therapeutical/social interactions and the use of robots, especially autonomous lethal ones, in warfare. In addition, a chapter also considers Japanese roboethics as well as key intercultural and robot legislation issues. Overall, readers are provided with a thorough investigation into the moral responsibility (if any) of autonomous ro...

  1. Groundwater Policy Research: Collaboration with Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Guerrero, Bridget L.; Weinheimer, Justin; Amosson, Stephen H.; Almas, Lal K.; Golden, Bill B.; Wheeler-Cook, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The unique nature of the Ogallala Aquifer presents interesting and confounding problems for water policymakers who are coping with changing groundwater rules in Texas. The purpose of this article is to link previous efforts in water policy research for the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas with current collaborations that are ongoing with regional water planners. A chronological progression of economic water modeling efforts for the region is reviewed. The results of two recent collaborative studies ...

  2. Groundwater Policy Research: Collaboration with Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Guerrero, Bridget L.; Weinheimer, Justin; Amosson, Stephen H.; Almas, Lal K.; Golden, Bill B.; Wheeler-Cook, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The unique nature of the Ogallala Aquifer presents interesting and confounding problems for water policymakers who are coping with changing groundwater rules in Texas. The purpose of this article is to link previous efforts in water policy research for the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas with current collaborations that are ongoing with regional water planners. A chronological progression of economic water modeling efforts for the region is reviewed. The results of two recent collaborative studies ...

  3. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Collaboration Program Overview: Interactions, Agreements, and Future Direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Lopukh, D. B.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.

    2010-02-10

    As the lead U.S. agency for the environmental cleanup, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) carries out international activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding accelerated risk reduction and remediation of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To achieve this, EM pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. An initiative of the International Program is to link international experience and expertise to the technical needs of the overall EM mission and to foster further collaboration with international partners to promote those needs. This paper will provide an overview of the current international program and how it plans to leverage existing, and when necessary, new international partnerships to support the overall EM cleanup mission. In addition it will examine the future vision of the international program to promote the EM mission through a focus on transformational solutions, science, and technology development.

  4. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  5. Calendar Year 2016 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael Marquand [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractoroperated laboratory. National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., manages and operates SNL/NM for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. Two types of groundwater surveillance monitoring are conducted at SNL/NM: (1) on a site-wide basis as part of the SNL/NM Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program’s Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) Groundwater Surveillance Task and (2) on a site-specific groundwater monitoring at LTS/Environmental Restoration (ER) Operations sites with ongoing groundwater investigations. This Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report summarizes data collected during groundwater monitoring events conducted at GMP locations and at the following SNL/NM sites through December 31, 2016: Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern (AOC); Chemical Waste Landfill; Mixed Waste Landfill; Technical Area-V Groundwater AOC; and the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater AOC. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  6. Alpine Groundwater - Pristine Aquifers Under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and permafrost retreat are prominent climate change indicators. However, the characteristics of climate and hydrology in mountain areas remain poorly understood relative to lowland areas. Specifically, not much is known about alpine groundwater, its recharge and water quality variations, as these remote reservoirs are rarely monitored. As global temperatures rise, glaciers and permafrost will continue to retreat forming new sediment deposits and changing infiltration conditions in high alpine terrain. Climate change impacts the hydro-chemical composition of alpine waters, accelerates weathering processes, and potentially triggers mobilization of pollutants. Accordingly, we monitored groundwater quantity and quality parameters of an alpine porous aquifer near the Tiefenbach glacier in the Gotthard Massif in Switzerland. The goal of this research was to assess quality and seasonal storage dynamics of groundwater above the timberline (2000 m). To translate hydrological science into an ecosystem service context, we focused on four attributes: Water quantity: observations of groundwater level fluctuations combined with analysis of contributing water sources based on stable isotope analysis to give a quantitative understanding of origin and amount of water, Water quality: groundwater level, groundwater temperature and electrical conductivity were used as proxies for sampling of hydro-chemical parameters with automated water samplers during primary groundwater recharge periods (snowmelt and rainfall events), Location: Alpine terrain above the timberline, especially recharge into/out of an alpine porous aquifer at a pro-glacial floodplain and Date of annual melt (albedo effect) and timing of flow (snow- and icemelt from May to September) and groundwater recharge during the growing season. The study found that the summer groundwater temperatures depend on the date of annual melt and are more sensitive to climate forcing than lowland groundwater temperatures

  7. Simulating groundwater-induced sewer flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Mansour, M.; Stanic, M.; Jackson, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, Chalk catchments of southern England experienced severe groundwater flooding. High groundwater levels resulted in the groundwater ingress into the sewer network that led to restricted toilet use and the overflow of diluted, but untreated sewage to road surfaces, rivers and water courses. In response to these events the water and sewerage company Thames Water Utilities Ltd (TWUL) had to allocate significant funds to mitigate the impacts. It was estimated that approximately £19m was spent responding to the extreme wet weather of 2013-14, along with the use of a fleet of over 100 tankers. However, the magnitude of the event was so large that these efforts could not stop the discharge of sewage to the environment. This work presents the analysis of the risk of groundwater-induced sewer flooding within the Chalk catchment of the River Lambourn, Berkshire. A spatially distributed groundwater model was used to assess historic groundwater flood risk and the potential impacts of changes in future climate. We then linked this model to an urban groundwater model to enable us to simulate groundwater-sewer interaction in detail. The modelling setup was used to identify relationships between infiltration into sewers and groundwater levels at specific points on TWUL's sewer network, and to estimate historic and future groundwater flood risk, and how this varies across the catchment. The study showed the significance of understanding the impact of groundwater on the urban water systems, and producing information that can inform a water company's response to groundwater flood risk, their decision making process and their asset management planning. However, the knowledge gained through integrated modelling of groundwater-sewer interactions has highlighted limitations of existing approaches for the simulation of these coupled systems. We conclude this work with number of recommendations about how to improve such hydrological/sewer analysis.

  8. A global-scale two-layer transient groundwater model: Development and application to groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge E. M.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Gleeson, Tom; Moosdorf, Nils; Schmitz, Oliver; Sutanudjaja, Edwin H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of freshwater to satisfy human water needs. Moreover, groundwater buffers variable precipitation rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of droughts and evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. In this study, building on previous work, we simulate groundwater head fluctuations and groundwater storage changes in both confined and unconfined aquifer systems using a global-scale high-resolution (5‧) groundwater model by deriving new estimates of the distribution and thickness of confining layers. Inclusion of confined aquifer systems (estimated 6-20% of the total aquifer area) improves estimates of timing and amplitude of groundwater head fluctuations and changes groundwater flow paths and groundwater-surface water interaction rates. Groundwater flow paths within confining layers are shorter than paths in the underlying aquifer, while flows within the confined aquifer can get disconnected from the local drainage system due to the low conductivity of the confining layer. Lateral groundwater flows between basins are significant in the model, especially for areas with (partially) confined aquifers were long flow paths crossing catchment boundaries are simulated, thereby supporting water budgets of neighboring catchments or aquifer systems. The developed two-layer transient groundwater model is used to identify hot-spots of groundwater depletion. Global groundwater depletion is estimated as 7013 km3 (137 km3y-1) over 1960-2010, which is consistent with estimates of previous studies.

  9. Remote instruction in groundwater hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    staff of the Interactive Remote Instructional System

    Wright State University (Dayton, Ohio) is preparing for its fourth cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology beginning July 15, 1986. The Department of Geological Sciences proudly announces that the first two cycles recorded an impressive 83% completion ratio for registered participants. This completion rate is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by courses of this nature; it is the result of 2 years of implementation and refinement and demonstrates the progressive orientation of the program. The third cycle has been underway since January. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. As a result of that cooperative effort, the IRIS program has evolved to meet the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  10. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues.

  11. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  12. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  13. Review of Groundwater Protection and Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; ZHANG Ai-ping

    2008-01-01

    This review begins with an introduction of groundwater resources in China and their distribution characteristic, followed by an elaboration of the exploitation and utilization of groundwater and the negative environmental effects from groundwater overexploitation, and a description of the existing groundwater protection and management measures. At last, the existing problems in groundwater protection and management, with some suggestions, are presented.

  14. Groundwater surface mapping informs sources of catchment baseflow

    OpenAIRE

    J. F. Costelloe; T. J. Peterson; K. Halbert; A. W. Western; J. J. McDonnell

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater discharge is a major contributor to stream baseflow. Quantifying this flux is difficult, despite its considerable importance to water resource management and evaluation of the effects of groundwater extraction on streamflow. It is important to be able to differentiate between contributions to streamflow from regional groundwater discharge (more susceptible to groundwater extraction) compared to interflow processes (arguably less susceptible to groundwater ...

  15. Calendar Year 2011 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC,

    2012-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2011 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. This report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and known extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for environmental cleanup on the ORR. In August 2011, URS | CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) replaced Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) as the DOE EM contractor. For this report, BJC/UCOR will be referenced as the managing contractor for CY 2011. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures

  16. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  17. Scarce data in hydrology and hydrogeology: Estimation and modelling of groundwater recharge for a numerical groundwater flow model in a semi-arid to arid catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräbe, Agnes; Schulz, Stephan; Rödiger, Tino; Kolditz, Olaf

    2013-04-01

    Water resources are strongly limited in semi-arid to arid regions and groundwater constitutes often the only possibility for fresh water for the population and industry. An understanding of the hydrological processes and the estimation of magnitude of water balance parameters also includes the knowledge of processes of groundwater recharge. For the sustainable management of water resources, it is essential to estimate the potential groundwater recharge under the given climatic conditions. We would like to present the results of a hydrological model, which is based on the HRU- concept and intersected the parameters of climatic conditions, topography, geology, soil, vegetation and land use to calculate the groundwater recharge. This model was primarily developed for humid area applications and has now been adapted to the regional conditions in the semi-arid to arid region. It was quite a challenge to understand the hydrological processes in the semi-arid to arid study area and to implement those findings (e.g. routing [Schulz (in prep.)]) into the model structure. Thus we compared the existing approaches for groundwater recharge estimations (chloride mass balance [Marei et. al 2000], empirical relations such as rainfall and base flow-relation [Goldschmidt 1960; Guttman 2000; Hughes 2008; Issar 1993; Lerner 1990; De Vries et. al 2002]) with the results of our numerical model. References: De Vries, J. J., I. Simmers (2002): Groundwater recharge: an overview of processes and challenges. Hydrogeology Journal (2002) 10: 5-17. DOI 10.1007/s10040-001-0171-7. Guttman, J., 2000. Multi-Lateral Project B: Hydrogeology of the Eastern Aquifer in the Judea Hills and Jordan Valley. Mekorot Water Company, Report 468, p. 36. Hughes, A. G., M. M. Mansour, N. S. Robins (2008): Evaluation of distributed recharge in an upland semi-arid karst system: the West Bank Mountain Aquifer, Middle East. Hydrogeology Journal (2008) 16: 845-854. DOI 10.1007/s10040-008-0273-6 Issar, A. S. (1993

  18. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  19. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2.3: Sulfur Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is Subtask 2.3 of Task 2, Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates, of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 2.3 builds upon the sulfur removal information first presented in Subtask 2.1, Gas Cleanup Technologies for Biomass Gasification by adding additional information on the commercial applications, manufacturers, environmental footprint, and technical specifications for sulfur removal technologies. The data was obtained from Nexant's experience, input from GTI and other vendors, past and current facility data, and existing literature.

  20. Cleanup and valuation of waters of the aquifer of M’zab Valley (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouled Belkhir Cheikh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The M’zab valley is a hyper arid region of average rainfall not exceeding 100 mm per year. However, the rare floods that occur in M’zab River drain large volumes of surface water. Thanks to the genius of the local population, traditional dams were made for artificial recharge of groundwater. Grace of traditional wells drilled in the valley, farmers irrigate their palm groves and gardens. However, since more than half a century, the contribution of deep drilling for the exploitation of the aquifer of the Continental Intercalary posed environmental problems. On the basis of investigations and surveys of the local population during the years 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, it appears that these modern techniques in water catchment caused harmful consequences to the region like the rising of water consumption, pollution of groundwater and soil salinity. Solutions and recommendations are outlined in this article.

  1. Interactions between groundwater and surface water: The state of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2002-01-01

    The interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. To understand these interactions in relation to climate, landform, geology, and biotic factors, a sound hydrogeoecological framework is needed. All these aspects are synthesized and exemplified in this overview. In addition, the mechanisms of interactions between groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) as they affect recharge-discharge processes are comprehensively outlined, and the ecological significance and the human impacts of such interactions are emphasized. Surface-water and groundwater ecosystems are viewed as linked components of a hydrologic continuum leading to related sustainability issues. This overview concludes with a discussion of research needs and challenges facting this evolving field. The biogeochemical processes within the upper few centimeters of sediments beneath nearly all surface-water bodies (hyporheic zone) have a profound effect on the chemistry of the water interchange, and here is where most of the recent research has been focusing. However, to advance conceptual and other modeling of GW-SW systems, a broader perspective of such interactions across and between surface-water bodies is needed, including multidimensional analyses, interface hydraulic characterization and spatial variability, site-to-region regionalization approaches, as well as cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  2. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  3. Defense Contractor Recovery of Cleanup Costs at Contractor Owned and Operated Facilitie

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    of Government Contractors for Environmental Damage, 21 Publi Contrags Law Journal 1992, Summer 1992. 1-3 It is the intent of this paper to outline the...from the production of rayon cord used for airplane and jeep tires. The government contracted with FMC for production, but did not own any of the raw...government liable as an "arranger" for groundwater contamination resulting from World War II contracts for the production of high tenacity rayon cord.9

  4. Monitoring groundwater drought with GRACE data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Getirana, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater drought is a distinct class of drought, not a sub-class of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological drought and has profound impacts on natural environments and societies. Due to a deficiency of in situ measurements, we developed a groundwater drought indicator using groundwater change estimates derived by assimilating GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomalies into the NASA Catchment land surface model. Data assimilation enables spatial and temporal downscaling of coarse GRACE TWS observations (monthly and ~150,000 km2 effective spatial resolution) and extrapolation to near-real time. In this talk, we will present our latest progress on using GRACE satellite data for groundwater drought monitoring in the U.S. and globally. Characteristics of this groundwater drought indicator will be discussed, including its relationship with other types of drought and how they are influenced by model physics and climate conditions. Results are evaluated using in situ groundwater observations.

  5. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2017-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen....... Therefore secondly a much simpler mass balance approach is used with lumped descriptions of the most important hydrological processes controlling water level and groundwater inflow to the system. The water level dynamics are here described and bracketed nicely and a dynamic description of the seepage rate...... the dynamic description of groundwater seepage can be very useful in future studies of the links between seepage, soil water chemistry and vegetation in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems....

  6. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  7. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analysis of Atrazine and Desethylatrazine at Sub-μg/L Concentrations in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreglmann, Kathrin; Hoeche, Martina; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Reinnicke, Sandra; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Environmental degradation of organic micropollutants is difficult to monitor due to their diffuse and ubiquitous input. Current approaches - concentrations measurements over time, or daughter-to-parent compound ratios - may fall short, because they do not consider dilution, compound- specific sorption characteristics or alternative degradation pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers an alternative approach based on evidence from isotope values. Until now, however, the relatively high limits for precise isotope analysis by gas chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) have impeded CSIA of sub µg/L scale micropollutant concentrations in field samples. We present the first measurements of C and N isotope ratios of the herbicide atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine at concentrations of 100 to 1000 ng/L in natural groundwater samples. Solid phase extraction and preparative HPLC were tested and validated for preconcentration and cleanup of groundwater samples of up to 10 liters without bias by isotope effects. Matrix interferences after solid phase extraction could be greatly reduced by a preparative HPLC cleanup step prior to GC-IRMS analysis. Sensitivity was increased by a factor of 6 to 8 by changing the injection method from large-volume-injection to cold-on-column injection on the GC-IRMS system. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values of field samples showed no obvious correlation with concentrations or desethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratios. Contrary to expectations, however, δ13C values of desethylatrazine were consistently less negative than those of atrazine from the same sites. Potentially, this line of evidence may contain information about further desethylatrazine degradation. In such a case the common practice of using desethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratios would underestimate natural atrazine degradation.

  8. Marfan's syndrome: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Marfan's syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with an estimated prevalence of one in 10,000 to 20,000 individuals. This rare hereditary connective tissue disorder affects many parts of the body. The diagnosis of Marfan's syndrome is established in accordance with a review of the diagnostic criteria, known as the Ghent nosology, through a comprehensive assessment largely based on a combination of major and minor clinical manifestations in various organ systems and the family history. Aortic root dilation and mitral valve prolapse are the main presentations among the cardiovascular malformations of Marfan's syndrome. The pathogenesis of Marfan's syndrome has not been fully elucidated. However, fibrillin-1 gene mutations are believed to exert a dominant negative effect. Therefore, Marfan's syndrome is termed a fibrillinopathy, along with other connective tissue disorders with subtle differences in clinical manifestations. The treatment may include prophylactic β-blockers and angiotensin II-receptor blockers in order to slow down the dilation of the ascending aorta, and prophylactic aortic surgery. Importantly, β-blocker therapy may reduce TGF-β activation, which has been recognized as a contributory factor in Marfan's syndrome. The present article aims to provide an overview of this rare hereditary disorder.

  9. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases.

  10. Psychosurgery: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, R P; Goodrich, J T

    2001-03-01

    Neurosurgical treatment for psychiatric disorders has a long and controversial history. From the Stone Age use of trephining to release the demons of the spirit to the millimeter accuracy of stereotactic instruments currently used in the operating room, psychosurgery has enjoyed enthusiastic support as well as experiencing scorn. Today, psychosurgery is a minimally invasive and highly selective treatment that is performed for only a few patients with severe, treatment-refractory, affective, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive disorders. Recent advances in technology and functional neuroanatomic techniques, as well as economic pressures to decrease the costs of caring for chronically ill patients, may provide an opportunity for psychosurgery to become a more attractive option for the treatment of psychiatric diseases. In this historical overview, the rise and fall of psychosurgery are described. A better understanding of the colorful history of this interesting topic should enable modern neurosurgeons and other health care professionals to meet the social, ethical, and technical challenges that are sure to lie ahead.

  11. An overview of Trilinos.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin R.; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Hoekstra, Robert John; Phipps, Eric Todd; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Williams, Alan B.; Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Howle, Victoria E.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Willenbring, James M.; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2003-08-01

    The Trilinos Project is an effort to facilitate the design, development, integration and ongoing support of mathematical software libraries. In particular, our goal is to develop parallel solver algorithms and libraries within an object-oriented software framework for the solution of large-scale, complex multi-physics engineering and scientific applications. Our emphasis is on developing robust, scalable algorithms in a software framework, using abstract interfaces for flexible interoperability of components while providing a full-featured set of concrete classes that implement all abstract interfaces. Trilinos uses a two-level software structure designed around collections of packages. A Trilinos package is an integral unit usually developed by a small team of experts in a particular algorithms area such as algebraic preconditioners, nonlinear solvers, etc. Packages exist underneath the Trilinos top level, which provides a common look-and-feel, including configuration, documentation, licensing, and bug-tracking. Trilinos packages are primarily written in C++, but provide some C and Fortran user interface support. We provide an open architecture that allows easy integration with other solver packages and we deliver our software to the outside community via the Gnu Lesser General Public License (LGPL). This report provides an overview of Trilinos, discussing the objectives, history, current development and future plans of the project.

  12. Cold electronics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, R. K.

    Low-temperature operation is being applied and contemplated for electronic systems ranging from single-transistor circuits for basic research to VLSI integrated circuits for ultra-fast computers. It is seen as both a means of extracting better performance from present technology and as an important ingredient of the next generation of devices and circuits. This overview is concerned with electronics based on semiconductors; for low temperatures the primary material is Si, although GaAs also has considerable potential, and the primary device is the field-effect transistor in various forms. Reduced temperature operation offers improvements in performance through improvement of materials-related properties such as electronic carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. Substantial improvements in reliability are also expected since degradation mechanisms are thermally activated; however, this could be negated unless problems of thermal expansion mismatch and cycling are overcome. Refrigeration continues to be a central concern; mechanical cycles are still the mainstay and progress is being made in systems applicable to electronics, although further development is needed.

  13. In Situ Sediment Treatment Using Activated Carbon: A Demonstrated Sediment Cleanup Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clayton R; Ghosh, Upal; LaRosa, Paul; Menzie, Charles A; Luthy, Richard G; Greenberg, Marc S; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Collins, John; Hull, John; Hjartland, Tore; Glaza, Edward; Bleiler, John; Quadrini, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews general approaches for applying activated carbon (AC) amendments as an in situ sediment treatment remedy. In situ sediment treatment involves targeted placement of amendments using installation options that fall into two general approaches: 1) directly applying a thin layer of amendments (which potentially incorporates weighting or binding materials) to surface sediment, with or without initial mixing; and 2) incorporating amendments into a premixed, blended cover material of clean sand or sediment, which is also applied to the sediment surface. Over the past decade, pilot- or full-scale field sediment treatment projects using AC—globally recognized as one of the most effective sorbents for organic contaminants—were completed or were underway at more than 25 field sites in the United States, Norway, and the Netherlands. Collectively, these field projects (along with numerous laboratory experiments) have demonstrated the efficacy of AC for in situ treatment in a range of contaminated sediment conditions. Results from experimental studies and field applications indicate that in situ sequestration and immobilization treatment of hydrophobic organic compounds using either installation approach can reduce porewater concentrations and biouptake significantly, often becoming more effective over time due to progressive mass transfer. Certain conditions, such as use in unstable sediment environments, should be taken into account to maximize AC effectiveness over long time periods. In situ treatment is generally less disruptive and less expensive than traditional sediment cleanup technologies such as dredging or isolation capping. Proper site-specific balancing of the potential benefits, risks, ecological effects, and costs of in situ treatment technologies (in this case, AC) relative to other sediment cleanup technologies is important to successful full-scale field application. Extensive experimental studies and field trials have shown that when

  14. Biochemical observations relating to oxidant stress injury in Chernobyl clean-up workers ("liquidators") from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skesters, Andrejs; Zvagule, T; Silova, A; Rusakova, N; Larmane, L; Reste, J; Eglite, M; Rainsford, K D; Callingham, B A; Bake, M-A; Lece, A

    2010-02-01

    To establish if there is further evidence for the long-term oxidant stress injury (as reported previously--Kumerova et al. in Biol Trace Elem Res 77:1-12, 2000) in surviving Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) workers from Latvia. The overall objectives of this study have been to establish if there have been long-term systemic changes in the oxidant/antioxidant status of clean-up workers that might reflect adaptation to the progression of oxidative stress injury. Biochemical analyses of the circulating levels of endogenous oxidants and anti-oxidants were undertaken over two periods (Stage 1 in 1998-1999 and Stage 2 in 2005-2006) at approximately 6-7 years time interval, in order to establish if there have been time-dependent changes in the parameters that may be important for the health of the clean-up workers. The biochemical analyses included (a) plasma levels of the anti-oxidant, selenium, (b) blood and plasma levels of glutathione peroxidase, (c) red blood cell catalase, (d) plasma total oxidant status as lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides, (e) plasma ceruloplasmin, and (f) total blood levels of zinc and copper. The circulating content of lipid peroxides, plasma oxidisability, lipid peroxides, catalase, Zn, and Cu were elevated above normal values at both the stages of this study. Glutathione peroxidase was increased above normal values at Stage 1 but not at Stage 2. The most pronounced changes between Stage 1 and Stage 2 were (a) a reduction by about (1/2) in the content of lipid peroxides and lipid peroxidation, but not in the blood oxidisability and (b) increased plasma selenium. The data show that there may be a partial improvement in the anti-oxidant/oxidant status of the Chernobyl NPP workers over the 7-year period of investigation. The NPP patients may be undergoing progressive reduction in blood oxidants accompanied by adaptation to oxidant stress injury due to the increased anti-oxidant activity measured in their plasma and blood.

  15. Investigating In-Situ Mass Transfer Processes in a Groundwater U Plume Influenced by Groundwater-River Hydrologic and Geochemical Coupling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Hanford Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is a DOE/BER-supported experimental and monitoring facility focused on multi-scale mass transfer processes (hanfordifc@pnl.gov). It is located within the footprint of a historic uranium (U) waste disposal pond that overlies a contaminated vadose zone and a 1 km+ groundwater U plume. The plume is under a regulatory clean-up mandate. The site is in hydraulic connectivity with the Columbia River that is located approximately 300 m distant. Dramatic seasonal variations in Columbia River stage cause 2m+ variations in water table and associated changes in groundwater flow directions and composition that are believed to recharge contaminant U to the plume through lower vadose zone pumping. The 60 m triangular shaped facility contains 37 monitoring wells equipped with down-hole electrical resistance tomography electrode and thermistor arrays, pressure transducers for continual water level monitoring, and specific conductance electrodes. Well spacings allow cross-hole geophysical interrogation and dynamic plume monitoring. Various geophysical and hydrologic field characterizations were performed during and after well installation, and retrieved sediments are being subjected to a hierarchal laboratory characterization process to support geostatistical models of hydrologic properties, U(VI) distribution and speciation, and equilibrium and kinetic reaction parameters for robust but tractable field-scale reactive transport calculations. Three large scale (10,000 gal+), non-reactive tracer experiments have been performed to evaluate groundwater flowpaths and velocities, facies scale mass transfer, and subsurface heterogeneity effects under different hydrologic conditions (e.g., flow vectors toward or away from the river). A passive monitoring experiment was completed during spring and summer of 2009 that documents spatially variable U(VI) release and plume recharge from the contaminated lower vadose zone during

  16. Groundwater Level Predictions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓敏; 尚松浩; 刘翔

    2002-01-01

    The prediction of groundwater level is important for the use and management of groundwater resources. In this paper, the artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to predict groundwater level in the Dawu Aquifer of Zibo in Eastern China. The first step was an auto-correlation analysis of the groundwater level which showed that the monthly groundwater level was time dependent. An auto-regression type ANN (ARANN) model and a regression-auto-regression type ANN (RARANN) model using back-propagation algorithm were then used to predict the groundwater level. Monthly data from June 1988 to May 1998 was used for the network training and testing. The results show that the RARANN model is more reliable than the ARANN model, especially in the testing period, which indicates that the RARANN model can describe the relationship between the groundwater fluctuation and main factors that currently influence the groundwater level. The results suggest that the model is suitable for predicting groundwater level fluctuations in this area for similar conditions in the future.

  17. The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management ... provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. ... of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management.

  18. Remedies proposed for China's groundwater problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A.

    Groundwater experts and hydrologists from China and 10 other nations recently gathered in Beijing to exchange state-of-the-art scientific and technological knowledge on groundwater hydrology, modeling, remediation, and management. The participants also reviewed groundwater environmental conditions in China, identified key problems, and made recommendations to help guide the nation's groundwater policy.The Regional Workshop on Ground Water Contamination, held from July 31 to August 4, 1995, was the fifth of a series of regional workshops sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment of the United Nations Environmental Program. Earlier workshops were held in Thailand (1991), Costa Rica (1993), the Czech Republic (1994), and Australia (1994).

  19. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  20. Groundwater management for agriculture and nature: an economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.

    As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering

  1. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  2. Federal Energy Management Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-05

    Brochure offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  3. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  4. The 100-C-7 Remediation Project. An Overview of One of DOE's Largest Remediation Projects - 13260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Thomas C. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Strom, Dean [Washington Closure Hanford LLC, 2620 Fermi Avenue, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Beulow, Laura [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 309 Bradley Boulevard, Suite 115, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH) completed remediation of one of the largest waste sites in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The waste site, 100-C-7, covers approximately 15 football fields and was excavated to a depth of 85 feet (groundwater). The project team removed a total of 2.3 million tons of clean and contaminated soil, concrete debris, and scrap metal. 100-C-7 lies in Hanford's 100 B/C Area, home to historic B and C Reactors. The waste site was excavated in two parts as 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1. The pair of excavations appear like pit mines. Mining engineers were hired to design their tiered sides, with safety benches every 17 feet and service ramps which allowed equipment access to the bottom of the excavations. The overall cleanup project was conducted over a span of almost 10 years. A variety of site characterization, excavation, load-out and sampling methodologies were employed at various stages of remediation. Alternative technologies were screened and evaluated during the project. A new method for cost effectively treating soils was implemented - resulting in significant cost savings. Additional opportunities for minimizing waste streams and recycling were identified and effectively implemented by the project team. During the final phase of cleanup the project team applied lessons learned throughout the entire project to address the final, remaining source of chromium contamination. The C-7 cleanup now serves as a model for remediating extensive deep zone contamination sites at Hanford. (authors)

  5. Ultrasonic extraction followed by a novel filtration and clean-up device for screening of some polyphenols in tobaccos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xungang; Cai, Jibao; Yang, Jun; Su, Qingde

    2005-02-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC method using a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyphenols in tobaccos. Ultrasonic extraction was employed at 25 degrees C to extract the polyphenols present in tobaccos into anhydrous methanol. A novel filtration device linked to a clean-up cartridge was designed for simultaneous extract filtration and clean-up. Optimized HPLC-DAD analysis, with multi-wavelength detection, was used for determination of the polyphenols. Because the content of some of the polyphenols is too low to be quantified directly, a concentration step was necessary. Anhydrous methanol was employed for extraction of the polyphenols because of its high extraction efficiency and its low boiling point in the concentration step. Using the proposed method, six polyphenols were quantified in tobaccos (Nicotina tobaccum L.).

  6. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Højgård, A.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all......A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling...... system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control...

  7. Clean-up of the sea bed in the North Sea 1996; Opprydding av havbunnen i Nordsjoeen 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum activities in the North Sea have inadvertently caused some conflict with fishermen getting their trawls etc. into trash from littering of the sea bed. In the present report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate describes a clean-up operation undertaken in 1996 and paid by the State. A clean-up area of 1000 km{sup 2} off Karmoey was selected. This area was mapped by side scan sonar along survey lines 300 m equidistant and a sonar range of 200 m. The sonar data were continuously interpreted by a geophysicist. Selected targets were then identified by ROV and eventually removed. Of the 59 targets examined, 11 were removed and dumped onshore. The largest part elevated was a chain cable of 9 tons. There is also a brief discussion of the compensation agreement with Norwegian fishermen. 4 figs.

  8. Groundwater Pathway Model for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Terry A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Strobridge, Daniel M. [Neptune Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cole, Gregory L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gable, Carl Walter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Broxton, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Springer, Everett P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schofield, Tracy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-10

    This report consists of four major sections, including this introductory section. Section 2 provides an overview of previous investigations related to the development of the current sitescale model. The methods and data used to develop the 3-D groundwater model and the techniques used to distill that model into a form suitable for use in the GoldSim models are discussed in Section 3. Section 4 presents the results of the model development effort and discusses some of the uncertainties involved. Eight attachments that provide details about the components and data used in this groundwater pathway model are also included with this report. The groundwater modeling effort reported here is a revision of the work that was conducted in 2005 (Stauffer et al., 2005a) in support of the 2008 Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008). The revision effort was undertaken primarily to incorporate new geologic information that has been collected since 2003 at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. The new data were used to create a more accurate geologic framework model (GFM) that forms the basis of the numerical modeling of the site’s long-term performance. The groundwater modeling uses mean hydrologic properties of the geologic strata underlying Area G; this revision includes an evaluation of the impacts that natural variability in these properties may have on the model projections.

  9. US Army TARDEC: Robotics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    unclassified US ARMY TARDEC Robotics Overview Bernard Theisen, Joint Center for Robotics 25 March 2010 Reference herein to any specific commercial...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US ARMY TARDEC Robotics Overview 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Bernard... Robotics Industry Partnerships Academia PartnershipsGovernment Partnerships TRADOC Community Outreach • S&T Support to the RS-JPO • Develops and Fosters

  10. The Present Situation and Countermeasures of Groundwater Contamination in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shindo, Shizuo; Tang, Changyuan

    1997-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] Since 1982, thousands of groundwater pollution cases have been found in Japan. In order to improve the groundwater quality, Japan has developed strategies for protection of groundwater. In this paper, authors try to explain the present of groundwater use, groundwater pollution and remediation methods in Japan. From the results shown in this paper, it can be found that groundwater pollution problem has become very serious in Japan. Even many efforts have been made to improve the sit...

  11. Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution Nitrogen Fertilizer Using Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Ta-oun, Mongkon; Daud, Mohamed; Bardaie, Mohd Zohadie

    2017-01-01

    An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia to identify potential groundwater quality problems. The expert system could predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and exiting environments. Four categories of groundwater pollution potential were identified base on an N-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index. A groundwater pol...

  12. Photopatterning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) membranes for a high level of enrichment and cleanup of nucleic acids in microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Meng; Hao, Nan; Yu, Tao; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-09-14

    An ideal nanoporous poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) membrane has been fabricated in glass microchannels by means of spatially controlled photopatterning technology for a high level of enrichment and cleanup of nucleic acids.

  13. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  14. Long term evolution of recycled DIAMEX solvent properties under hydrolysis and radiolysis with or without solvent clean-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, B.; Saucerotte, B.; Faucon, M.; Rudloff, D.; Gastaldi, M.; Bisel, I

    2004-07-01

    As part of the SPIN program, CEA has developed DIAMEX process allowing co-extraction of actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) thanks to a diamide extractant, the Di-Methyl Di-Octyl Hexyl-Ethoxy Malonamide, symbolized by DMDOHEMA. Along the different process steps, diamide undergoes radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation leading to reaction products changing extraction performances and hydrodynamic behavior of the solvent. If to be industrially used, extractant has to be recycled. Therefore an alkaline solvent clean-up step has been defined to remove acidic degradation products whose modifying extraction properties. Nevertheless long-term recycling may allow accumulation of amounts of products which can influence process operating and separation performances. MARCEL is a laboratory scale bench mark, simulating chemical and radiolytic conditions of the process, designed for the long term evolution studies of the recycled solvent properties. Extraction, scrubbing and stripping are performed in mixer-settlers whereas centrifugal contactors are used for solvent clean-up. Different flow-sheets have been tested through various runs during about 200 hours each: - Hydrolysis with or without solvent clean-up; - Hydrolysis coupled with radiolysis with solvent clean-up. For each solvent cycle, DMDOHEMA undergoes a 2.5 hours hydrolysis at 40 deg C and, if radiolysis is studied, a 8.5 kGy exposure. Solvent properties have been followed-up by steady tests (viscosity, density, surface tension, refraction index, phase settling time ratio (RTD), distribution coefficients of several cations) and quantitative analysis of the degradation products. The efficiency and correct hydrodynamic behavior of the alkaline treatment has been shown, remaining hydrolysis and radiolysis degradation products having no significant influence on solvent properties. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: Chris.salice@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79410 (United States); Sample, Bradley E., E-mail: bsample@ecorisk.com [Ecological Risk Inc., Rancho Murieta, CA 95683 (United States); Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth A.; Sable, Shaye [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Energy, Coast and Environment Building, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies. - Highlights: > We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate population-level impacts of PCB contamination. > The model was also used to explore the population responses to different PCB remediation strategies. > Population size had a large impact on whether mink populations persisted or went extinct. > Starting remediation sooner had a stronger positive effect on mink populations than did the rate of PCB clean-up. > Individual-based models are useful in understanding effects of contamination and different remediation strategies. - An individual-based model of mink showed strong population-level effects of PCB contamination and provided insight into optimal PCB remediation strategies.

  16. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    Under Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Flow Industries, Inc., has developed computer models to simulate the physical performance of five hot-gas cleanup devices for pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), combined-cycle power plants. Separate cost models have also been developed to estimate the cost of each device. The work leading to the development of these models is described in Volume I of this report. This volume contains the user's manuals for both the physical and cost models. The manuals for the physical models are given first followed by those for the cost models. Each manual is a complete and separate document. The model names and devices and their respective subroutine names are: (1) Moving Granular Bed Filter by Combustion Power Company, USRCGB, QFCOST; (2) Ceramic Bag Filter by Acurex, USRACB, QDCOST; (3) Electrostatic Granular Bed Filter by General Electric, USRGGB, QACOST; (4) Electrostatic Precipitator by Research Cottrell, USRCEP, QECOST; and (5) Electrocyclone by General Electric, USRGCY, QBCOST.

  17. Automated Aflatoxin Analysis Using Inline Reusable Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC-Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, Ria; Pazdanska, Monika; Marley, Elaine; Biselli, Scarlett; Staiger, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A novel reusable immunoaffinity cartridge containing monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxins coupled to a pressure resistant polymer has been developed. The cartridge is used in conjunction with a handling system inline to LC with fluorescence detection to provide fully automated aflatoxin analysis for routine monitoring of a variety of food matrixes. The handling system selects an immunoaffinity cartridge from a tray and automatically applies the sample extract. The cartridge is washed, then aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are eluted and transferred inline to the LC system for quantitative analysis using fluorescence detection with postcolumn derivatization using a KOBRA® cell. Each immunoaffinity cartridge can be used up to 15 times without loss in performance, offering increased sample throughput and reduced costs compared to conventional manual sample preparation and cleanup. The system was validated in two independent laboratories using samples of peanuts and maize spiked at 2, 8, and 40 μg/kg total aflatoxins, and paprika, nutmeg, and dried figs spiked at 5, 20, and 100 μg/kg total aflatoxins. Recoveries exceeded 80% for both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. The between-day repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 9.6% for aflatoxin B1 for the six levels and five matrixes. Satisfactory Z-scores were obtained with this automated system when used for participation in proficiency testing (FAPAS®) for samples of chilli powder and hazelnut paste containing aflatoxins.

  18. Potential Biotechnological Strategies for the Cleanup of Heavy Metals and Metalloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem A. Mosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global mechanization, urbanization and various natural processes have led to the increased release of toxic compounds into the biosphere. These hazardous toxic pollutants include a variety of organic and inorganic compounds, which pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. The contamination of soil and water are the major environmental concerns in the present scenario. This leads to a greater need for remediation of contaminated soils and water with suitable approaches and mechanisms. The conventional remediation of contaminated sites commonly involves the physical removal of contaminants, and their disposition. Physical remediation strategies are expensive, non-specific and often make the soil unsuitable for agriculture and other uses by disturbing the microenvironment. Owing to these concerns, there has been increased interest in eco-friendly and sustainable approaches such as bioremediation, phytoremediation and rhizomediation for the cleanup of contaminated sites. This review lays particular emphasis on biotechnological approaches and strategies for heavy metal and metalloid containment removal from the environment, highlighting the advances and implications of bioremediation and phytoremediation as well as their utilization in cleaning-up toxic pollutants from contaminated environments.

  19. Validation of extraction, clean-up and DR CALUX {sup registered} bioanalysis. Pt. I. Feedingstuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besselink, H.; Jonas, A.; Brouwer, B. [BioDetection Systems BV (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnappels, M.; Swinkels, A. [Masterlab BV, Boxmeer (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    Feed safety is a high priority issue for the feed sector as it directly impacts at the beginning of the food-chain. Currently stringent EU limit values are in force for dioxins in feedingstuffs for animal and public health protection. Biodetection Systems BV's (BDS) DR CALUX {sup registered} bioassay is a cost-effective and rapid method to measure low levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in various matrices. The use of bioassays for monitoring dioxins in feed allows the (pre)-selection of samples suspected of being contaminated above limit values with dioxins. To permit bioassays to be used for screening feedingstuffs for the presence of dioxins and related compounds, the EU has laid down general requirements for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feedingstuffs and specific requirements for cell-based bioassays. To ensure reliability the DR CALUX {sup registered} bioassay, validated methods for extraction and DR CALUX {sup registered} analysis are necessary. Within the framework of the development of DR CALUX {sup registered} analysis methods, extraction and clean-up methods for 13 feedingstuffs were evaluated, selected and validated. In this paper we present the results of this substantive multi-matrix feedingstuffs validation study.

  20. Diving behaviour of wildlife impacted by an oil spill: A clean-up and rehabilitation success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilvers, B L; Morgan, K M; Finlayson, G; Sievwright, K A

    2015-11-15

    The value of rehabilitating oiled wildlife is an on-going global debate. On October 5, 2011, the cargo vessel C/V Rena grounded on Astrolabe Reef, New Zealand (NZ), spilling over 300 tonnes of heavy fuel oil. As part of the Rena oil spill response, 383 little blue penguins (LBP, Eudyptula minor) were captured, cleaned, rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment. This research investigates foraging behaviour changes due either to the oil spill or by the rehabilitation process by comparing the diving behaviour of rehabilitated (n=8) and non-rehabilitated (n=6) LBPs and with LBP populations throughout NZ. Stabile isotope analysis of feathers was also used to investigate diet. There were no foraging behaviour differences between rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated LBPs and the overall diving behaviour of these LBPs have similar, if not less energetic, foraging behaviour than other LBPs in NZ. This suggests the rehabilitation process and clean-up undertaken after the Rena appears effective and helps justify the rehabilitation of oiled wildlife across the world.