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Sample records for groundwater budget myth

  1. Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Maxwell Corydon, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Deals with various myths about animals and plants. Discusses bats (not blind), toads (do not cause warts), dragonflies (will not sew up your mouth), horseshoe crabs (will not sting with their tails), owls (not so smart), and goldenrod (does not cause hayfever). (MH)

  2. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  3. Impact of land-surface elevation and riparian evapotranspiration seasonality on groundwater budget in MODFLOW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Hoori; Meixner, Thomas; Maddock, Thomas; Hogan, James F.; Guertin, D. Phillip

    2011-09-01

    Riparian groundwater evapotranspiration (ETg) constitutes a major component of the water balance especially in many arid and semi-arid environments. Although spatial and temporal variability of riparian ETg are controlled by climate, vegetation and subsurface characteristics, depth to water table (DTWT) is often considered the major controlling factor. Relationships between ETg rates and DTWT, referred to as ETg curves, are implemented in MODFLOW ETg packages (EVT, ETS1 and RIP-ET) with different functional forms. Here, the sensitivity of the groundwater budget in MODFLOW groundwater models to ETg parameters (including ETg curves, land-surface elevation and ETg seasonality) are investigated. A MODFLOW model of the hypothetical Dry Alkaline Valley in the Southwestern USA is used to show how spatial representation of riparian vegetation and digital elevation model (DEM) processing methods impact the water budget when RIPGIS-NET (a GIS-based ETg program) is used with MODFLOW's RIP-ET package, and results are compared with the EVT and ETS1 packages. Results show considerable impact on ETg and other groundwater budget components caused by spatial representation of riparian vegetation, vegetation type, fractional coverage areas and land-surface elevation. RIPGIS-NET enhances ETg estimation in MODFLOW by incorporating vegetation and land-surface parameters, providing a tool for ecohydrology studies, riparian ecosystem management and stream restoration.

  4. Karst groundwater budget and discharge regime of Banja Spring near Petnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Vakanjac Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed hydrological and hydrogeological assessments of karst spring discharge require information about the groundwater regime in the study area/watershed. However, groundwater regime monitoring is often organized locally and sporadically, as required for specific studies or projects, and seldom lasts longer than one year. On the other hand, if time series of quantitative parameters are shorter than 15 years, the watershed is considered to be ungauged. As a result, discharge regime and karst aquifer budget assessments of ungauged watersheds can be misleading. To minimize water budget assessment errors, available time series need to be extended as far as possible. Regression models are commonly used to extend, simulate or fill gaps in existing time series. The paper presents an application of multiple linear regression to extend the existing time series of mean monthly discharges of Banja Spring (at Petnica, western Serbia, in order to cover the entire study period (1960-2006.

  5. Hydrogeologic framework and selected components of the groundwater budget for the upper Umatilla River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Nora B.; Ely, Kate; Mehta, Smita; Stonewall, Adam J.; Risley, John C.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    2017-05-31

    Executive SummaryThis report presents a summary of the hydrogeology of the upper Umatilla River Basin, Oregon, based on characterization of the hydrogeologic framework, horizontal and vertical directions of groundwater flow, trends in groundwater levels, and components of the groundwater budget. The conceptual model of the groundwater flow system integrates available data and information on the groundwater resources of the upper Umatilla River Basin and provides insights regarding key hydrologic processes, such as the interaction between the groundwater and surface water systems and the hydrologic budget.The conceptual groundwater model developed for the study area divides the groundwater flow system into five hydrogeologic units: a sedimentary unit, three Columbia River basalt units, and a basement rock unit. The sedimentary unit, which is not widely used as a source of groundwater in the upper basin, is present primarily in the lowlands and consists of conglomerate, loess, silt and sand deposits, and recent alluvium. The Columbia River Basalt Group is a series of Miocene flood basalts that are present throughout the study area. The basalt is uplifted in the southeastern half of the study area, and either underlies the sedimentary unit, or is exposed at the surface. The interflow zones of the flood basalts are the primary aquifers in the study area. Beneath the flood basalts are basement rocks composed of Paleogene to Pre-Tertiary sedimentary, volcanic, igneous, and metamorphic rocks that are not used as a source of groundwater in the upper Umatilla River Basin.The major components of the groundwater budget in the upper Umatilla River Basin are (1) groundwater recharge, (2) groundwater discharge to surface water and wells, (3) subsurface flow into and out of the basin, and (4) changes in groundwater storage.Recharge from precipitation occurs primarily in the upland areas of the Blue Mountains. Mean annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation for the upper

  6. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  7. Citizen Participation for the Improvement of Local Management: Realities, Myths and Challenges about the Participatory Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Pagani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The conceptions of participatory phenomenon are wide and generate various positions. Several authors agree that municipal government, as the face of the State closer to its citizens, is the privileged place to develop participatory public policies, which contributes to make more transparent, efficient, inclusive and democratic the government management. This proximity would allow local actors to participate in communal development processes and would enable them to diagnose problems, participating in decision-making and public policies designing and its evaluation. Moreover, it is noticed that the State transfer its duties to the society through manipulation of participatory policies, which are used as artificial means to build consensus. This article explores the fundamentals, implementation methodologies and results in four cases of participatory budgeting (in La Plata, San Fernando, San Miguel and San Martín. The main lines of analysis focused on the characterization of the projects generated by this policy, the changes in local management and the type of social participation. This research used semi structured and in depth interviews, observations, documentary research with secondary sources of information generated by municipalities (website, laws, institutional documentation, brochures, statistics and academic works produced by other researchers.

  8. Hydrological budget of Lake Chad: assessment of lake-groundwater interaction by coupling Bayesian approach and chemical budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of lake-groundwater interactions is a crucial step to constrain water balance of lacustrine and aquifer systems. Located in the Sahel, the Lake Chad is at the center of an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. One of the most remarkable features of this terminal lake is that, despite the semi-arid context and high evaporation rates of the area, its waters are fresh. It is proposed in the literature that the solutes are evacuated in the underlying quaternary aquifer bearing witness to the importance of surface water and groundwater exchanges for the chemical regulation of the lake. The water balance of this system is still not fully understood. The respective roles of evaporation versus infiltration into the quaternary aquifer are particularly under constrained. To assess lake-groundwater flows, we used the previous conceptual hydrological model of the lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2011). This model involves six parameters including infiltration rate. A probabilistic inversion of parameters, based on an exploration of the parameters space through a Metropolis algorithm (a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method), allows the construction of an a posteriori Probability Density Function of each parameter yielding to the best fits between observed lake levels and simulated. Then, a chemical budget of a conservative element, such as chloride, is introduced in the water balance model using the optimal parameters resulting from the Bayesian inverse approach. The model simulates lake level and chloride concentration variations of lake Chad from 1956 up to 2008. Simulated lake levels are in overall agreement with the observations, with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient above 0.94 for all sets of parameters retained. The infiltration value, obtained by such probabilistic inversion approach, accounts for 120±20 mm/yr, representing 5% of the total outputs of the lake. However, simulated chloride concentrations are overestimated in

  9. Groundwater budgets for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, Arizona, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources, initiated an investigation of the hydrogeology and water resources of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in northwestern Arizona in 2005, and this report is part of that investigation. Water budgets were developed for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys to provide a generalized understanding of the groundwater systems in this rural area that has shown some evidence of human-induced water-level declines. The valleys are within the Basin and Range physiographic province and consist of thick sequences of permeable alluvial sediment deposited into basins bounded by relatively less permeable igneous and metamorphic rocks. Long-term natural recharge rates (1940-2008) for the alluvial aquifers were estimated to be 1,400 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for Detrital Valley, 5,700 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and 6,000 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Natural discharge rates were assumed to be equal to natural recharge rates, on the basis of the assumption that all groundwater withdrawals to date have obtained water from groundwater storage. Groundwater withdrawals (2007-08) for the alluvial aquifers were less than 300 acre-ft/yr for Detrital Valley, about 9,800 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and about 4,500 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Incidental recharge from leaking water-supply pipes, septic systems, and wastewater-treatment plants accounted for about 35 percent of total recharge (2007-08) across the study area. Natural recharge and discharge values in this study were 24-50 percent higher than values in most previously published studies. Water budgets present a spatially and temporally "lumped" view of water resources and incorporate many sources of uncertainty in this study area where only limited data presently are available.

  10. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  11. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system on the Kitsap Peninsula, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework, groundwater recharge and discharge, groundwater levels and flow directions, seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations, interactions between aquifers and the surface‑water system, and a water budget. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, the part of Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 12 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 2,116 drillers’ logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections and unit extent and thickness maps. Unconsolidated aquifers typically consist of moderately to well-sorted alluvial and glacial outwash deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. These units often are discontinuous or isolated bodies and are of highly variable thickness. Unconfined conditions occur in areas where aquifer units are at land surface; however, much of the study area is mantled by glacial till, and confined aquifer conditions are common. Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifers generally flows radially off the peninsula in the direction of Puget Sound and Hood Canal. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low

  12. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  13. A hydrological budget (2002-2008) for a large subtropical wetland ecosystem indicates marine groundwater discharge accompanies diminished freshwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Amartya K.; Moses, Christopher S.; Price, Rene M.; Engel, Victor; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Water budget parameters are estimated for Shark River Slough (SRS), the main drainage within Everglades National Park (ENP) from 2002 to 2008. Inputs to the water budget include surface water inflows and precipitation while outputs consist of evapotranspiration, discharge to the Gulf of Mexico and seepage losses due to municipal wellfield extraction. The daily change in volume of SRS is equated to the difference between input and outputs yielding a residual term consisting of component errors and net groundwater exchange. Results predict significant net groundwater discharge to the SRS peaking in June and positively correlated with surface water salinity at the mangrove ecotone, lagging by 1 month. Precipitation, the largest input to the SRS, is offset by ET (the largest output); thereby highlighting the importance of increasing fresh water inflows into ENP for maintaining conditions in terrestrial, estuarine, and marine ecosystems of South Florida.

  14. Water-carbon Links in a Tropical Forest: How Interbasin Groundwater Flow Affects Carbon Fluxes and Ecosystem Carbon Budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genereux, David [NC State University; Osburn, Christopher [NC State University; Oberbauer, Steven [Florida International University; Oviedo Vargas, Diana [NC State University; Dierick, Diego [Florida International University

    2017-03-27

    This report covers the outcomes from a quantitative, interdisciplinary field investigation of how carbon fluxes and budgets in a lowland tropical rainforest are affected by the discharge of old regional groundwater into streams, springs, and wetlands in the forest. The work was carried out in a lowland rainforest of Costa Rica, at La Selva Biological Station. The research shows that discharge of regional groundwater high in dissolved carbon dioxide represents a significant input of carbon to the rainforest "from below", an input that is on average larger than the carbon input "from above" from the atmosphere. A stream receiving discharge of regional groundwater had greatly elevated emissions of carbon dioxide (but not methane) to the overlying air, and elevated downstream export of carbon from its watershed with stream flow. The emission of deep geological carbon dioxide from stream water elevates the carbon dioxide concentrations in air above the streams. Carbon-14 tracing revealed the presence of geological carbon in the leaves and stems of some riparian plants near streams that receive inputs of regional groundwater. Also, discharge of regional groundwater is responsible for input of dissolved organic matter with distinctive chemistry to rainforest streams and wetlands. The discharge of regional groundwater in lowland surface waters has a major impact on the carbon cycle in this and likely other tropical and non-tropical forests.

  15. Hydrogeologic Framework, Groundwater Movement, and Water Budget in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and Vicinity, Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Mark E.; Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Lane, R.C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and vicinity, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget. The study area covers about 706 square miles in western Pierce County, Washington, and extends north to the Puyallup River, southwest to the Nisqually River, and is bounded on the south and east by foothills of the Cascade Range and on the west by Puget Sound. The area is underlain by a northwest-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits which overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the foothills along the southern and southeastern margin of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 11 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 450 drillers' logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections, and unit extent and thickness maps. Groundwater in unconsolidated glacial and interglacial aquifers generally flows to the northwest towards Puget Sound, and to the north and northeast towards the Puyallup River. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low permeability confining units that separate discontinuous bodies of aquifer material and act as local groundwater-flow barriers. Water levels in wells completed in the unconsolidated hydrogeologic units show seasonal variations ranging from less than 1 to about 50 feet. The largest groundwater-level fluctuation (78 feet) observed during the monitoring period (March 2007-September 2008) was in a well completed in the bedrock unit. Synoptic streamflow measurements made in September 2007 and July 2008 indicated a

  16. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.; Lane, Ron C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Marshall, Cameron; Clothier, Burt G.; Knoedler, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget. The study area covers about 1,220 square miles in northern Pierce and southern King Counties, Washington; extends north to the Green River and Auburn Valley and southwest to the Puyallup River and adjacent uplands; and is bounded on the south and east by foothills of the Cascade Range and on the west by Puget Sound. The area is underlain by a northwest-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits, which overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the foothills along the southern and eastern margin of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 13 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 1,012 drillers’ logs to construct 8 hydrogeologic sections, and unit extent and thickness maps.

  17. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  18. A tidal creek water budget: Estimation of groundwater discharge and overland flow using hydrologic modeling in the Southern Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, Béatrice; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Twilley, Robert R.

    2011-07-01

    Taylor Slough is one of the natural freshwater contributors to Florida Bay through a network of microtidal creeks crossing the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone Region (EMER). The EMER ecological function is critical since it mediates freshwater and nutrient inputs and controls the water quality in Eastern Florida Bay. Furthermore, this region is vulnerable to changing hydrodynamics and nutrient loadings as a result of upstream freshwater management practices proposed by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP), currently the largest wetland restoration project in the USA. Despite the hydrological importance of Taylor Slough in the water budget of Florida Bay, there are no fine scale (˜1 km 2) hydrodynamic models of this system that can be utilized as a tool to evaluate potential changes in water flow, salinity, and water quality. Taylor River is one of the major creeks draining Taylor Slough freshwater into Florida Bay. We performed a water budget analysis for the Taylor River area, based on long-term hydrologic data (1999-2007) and supplemented by hydrodynamic modeling using a MIKE FLOOD (DHI, http://dhigroup.com/) model to evaluate groundwater and overland water discharges. The seasonal hydrologic characteristics are very distinctive (average Taylor River wet vs. dry season outflow was 6 to 1 during 1999-2006) with a pronounced interannual variability of flow. The water budget shows a net dominance of through flow in the tidal mixing zone, while local precipitation and evapotranspiration play only a secondary role, at least in the wet season. During the dry season, the tidal flood reaches the upstream boundary of the study area during approximately 80 days per year on average. The groundwater field measurements indicate a mostly upwards-oriented leakage, which possibly equals the evapotranspiration term. The model results suggest a high importance of groundwater contribution to the water salinity in the EMER. The model performance is satisfactory

  19. The use and re-use of unsustainable groundwater for irrigation: a global budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Danielle S.; Wisser, Dominik; Prusevich, Alex; Lammers, Richard B.; Frolking, Steve

    2017-03-01

    Depletion of groundwater aquifers across the globe has become a significant concern, as groundwater is an important and often unsustainable source of irrigation water. Simultaneously, the field of water resource management has seen a lively debate over the concepts and metrics used to assess the downstream re-use of agricultural runoff, with most studies focusing on surface water balances. Here, we bring these two lines of research together, recognizing that depletion of aquifers leads to large amounts of groundwater entering surface water storages and flows by way of agricultural runoff. While it is clear that groundwater users will be impacted by reductions in groundwater availability, there is a major gap in our understanding of potential impacts downstream of groundwater pumping locations. We find that the volume of unsustainable groundwater that is re-used for irrigation following runoff from agricultural systems is nearly as large as the volume initially extracted from reservoirs for irrigation. Basins in which the volume of irrigation water re-used is equal to or greater than the volume of water initially used (which is possible due to multiple re-use of the same water) contain 33 million hectares of irrigated land and are home to 1.3 billion people. Some studies have called for increasing irrigation efficiency as a solution to water shortages. We find that with 100% irrigation efficiency, global demand for unsustainable groundwater is reduced by 52%, but not eliminated. In many basins, increased irrigation efficiency leads to significantly decreased river low flows; increasing irrigation efficiency to 70% globally decreases total surface water supplies by ∽600 km3 yr-1. These findings illustrate that estimates of aquifer depletion alone underestimate the importance of unsustainable groundwater to sustaining surface water systems and irrigated agriculture.

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for the Yucatán littoral: An approach for groundwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandacirerol, Nancy; Comín, Francisco; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have altered the balance of ecosystems to the detriment of natural environments. Eutrophication is a serious risk in Yucatán, a state in the eastern peninsula of México where groundwater supplies the only freshwater to a karst shelf environment. While economic development in Yucatán is increasing, environmental awareness is lagging, and efficient waste treatment systems are lacking. To assess potential nitrogen and phosphorus inputs into the coastal zone of Yucatán, we analyzed government reports and the chemical composition of groundwater and aquaculture wastewater. Swine, poultry, and tourism are revealed as the main continental nutrient sources, while groundwater with high nitrate concentrations is the principal coastal nutrient source, a pattern similar to other river discharges around the world. This study demonstrates that environmental risk management practices must be implemented in the Yucatán region to protect groundwater quality.

  1. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Groundwater dynamics and water budget analysis at a wetland-dominated forested floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S.; Callahan, T. J.; Senn, L.; Shelley, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the preliminary relationships between groundwater behavior, vegetation communities, and soil characteristics in a mature, protected forested floodplain at Congaree National Park, South Carolina. Time series analysis of groundwater level data were collected hourly at ten different piezometers from 2009 to 2013. Piezometers were screened 4-7 m deep in the surficial aquifer and arrayed from the floodplain bluff along a 3-km, valley-perpendicular transect to Cedar Creek, a local tributary of the Congaree River. Eight of the ten sites were in an unconfined portion of the floodplain aquifer, and the other two sites closer to Cedar Creek were locally confined due to a 1.5 - 3-m thick clay layer above the piezometer screen. Time series analysis, including depth below ground surface, response to storm events, and diurnal evapotranspiration (ET) signals was used to functionally group piezometer sites with similar characteristics. Lithologic logs collected during piezometer installation and forest community structure at each site were inspected to look for relationships to explain groundwater behavior. A separate analysis of ET signals helped assess potential feedbacks between vegetation and groundwater in this wetland-dominated setting. This project stemmed from hydrology class trips to Congaree National Park sponsored by the park's education and outreach program. Students learned field methods and data collection, management, and analysis techniques to reinforce hydrology concepts and principles.

  3. Grammar Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the continued survival of "myths" about English grammar, for example, the statement that in negative and interrogative sentences "any" should be used instead of "some". It is based on a survey of 195 Hong Kong students majoring in English, in five different cohorts, which found that such myths are…

  4. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  5. Hydrogeologic Framework, Groundwater Movement, and Water Budget in Tributary Subbasins and Vicinity, Lower Skagit River Basin, Skagit and Snohomish Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Sumioka, Steven S.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Huffman, Raegan L.

    2009-01-01

    A study to characterize the groundwater-flow system in four tributary subbasins and vicinity of the lower Skagit River basin was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology in evaluating the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals and consumptive use on tributary streamflows. This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater and surface-water flow system in the subbasins, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework of the subbasins; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget for the subbasins. The study area covers about 247 mi2 along the Skagit River and its tributary subbasins (East Fork Nookachamps Creek, Nookachamps Creek, Carpenter Creek, and Fisher Creek) in southwestern Skagit County and northwestern Snohomish County, Washington. The geology of the area records a complex history of accretion along the continental margin, mountain building, deposition of terrestrial and marine sediments, igneous intrusion, and the repeated advance and retreat of continental glaciers. A simplified surficial geologic map was developed from previous mapping in the area, and geologic units were grouped into nine hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers and confining units. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was constructed and, with lithologic information from 296 drillers'logs, was used to produce unit extent and thickness maps and four hydrogeologic sections. Groundwater in unconsolidated aquifers generally flows towards the northwest and west in the direction of the Skagit River and Puget Sound. This generalized flow pattern is likely complicated by the presence of low-permeability confining units that separate discontinuous bodies of aquifer material and act as local groundwater-flow barriers. Groundwater

  6. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information home > privacy + phrs > common privacy myths Common Privacy Myths With the new federal laws protecting ... Here are the truths to some of the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your ...

  7. Myth Dispelled

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-20

    Dr. Adam Possner, an assistant professor of general internal medicine at George Washington University, reads and discusses his poem, "Myth Dispelled.".  Created: 3/20/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/21/2013.

  8. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth, Pandora's…

  9. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth,…

  10. CNP budgets of a coral-dominated fringing reef at La Réunion, France: coupling of oceanic phosphate and groundwater nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuet, P.; Atkinson, M. J.; Blanchot, J.; Casareto, B. E.; Cordier, E.; Falter, J.; Frouin, P.; Fujimura, H.; Pierret, C.; Susuki, Y.; Tourrand, C.

    2011-06-01

    Productivity, nutrient input, nutrient uptake, and release rates were determined for a coral-dominated reef flat at La Réunion, France, to assess the influence of groundwater nitrogen on carbon and nutrient budgets. Water samples were collected offshore in the ocean, at the reef crest and back reef for nutrients, picoplankton, pH, and total alkalinity. Volume transport of ocean water across the reef flat was measured using both current meters and drogues. Groundwater advected onto the reef flat and mixed with incoming ocean water. Metabolic rates for the reef community were determined to be: gross primary production = 1,000 mmol C m-2 d-1, community respiration = 960 mmol C m-2 d-1, and community calcification = 210 mmol C m-2 d-1. Across the reef flat, silicate behaved conservatively, there was net uptake of phosphate (0.06 mmol P m-2 d-1) and net release of nitrate, ammonia, dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen (total 7.0 mmol N m-2 d-1). Groundwater nitrate contributed 37% of the increase in nitrate plus ammonia. The first-order mass transfer coefficient of phosphate was 3.3 m d-1, and for nitrate plus ammonia, 5.9 m d-1. Gross N and P uptake from estimates of mass transfer and uptake of particles were 0.37 mmol P m-2 d-1 and 7.2 mmol N m-2 d-1, respectively giving an N:P uptake ratio of 20:1. Thus, the elevation of nitrogen across the reef flat maintains a high N:P flux, enhancing algal growth downstream of the transect. We conclude that net community production (40 mmol C m-2 d-1) was sustained by net uptake of phosphate from the ocean and net uptake of new nitrogen from groundwater.

  11. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  12. Hydrogeologic framework refinement, ground-water flow and storage, water-chemistry analyses, and water-budget components of the Yuma area, southwestern Arizona and southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Land, Michael; Faunt, Claudia C.; Leake, S.A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Fleming, John B.; Pool, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water and surface-water system in the Yuma area in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California is managed intensely to meet water-delivery requirements of customers in the United States, to manage high ground-water levels in the valleys, and to maintain treaty-mandated water-quality and quantity requirements of Mexico. The following components in this report, which were identified to be useful in the development of a ground-water management model, are: (1) refinement of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) updated water-level maps, general ground-water flow patterns, and an estimate of the amount of ground water stored in the mound under Yuma Mesa; (3) review and documentation of the ground-water budget calculated by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior (Reclamation); and (4) water-chemistry characterization to identify the spatial distribution of water quality, information on sources and ages of ground water, and information about the productive-interval depths of the aquifer. A refined three-dimensional digital hydrogeologic framework model includes the following hydrogeologic units from bottom to top: (1) the effective hydrologic basement of the basin aquifer, which includes the Pliocene Bouse Formation, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and pre-Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic rocks; (2) undifferentiated lower units to represent the Pliocene transition zone and wedge zone; (3) coarse-gravel unit; (4) lower, middle, and upper basin fill to represent the upper, fine-grained zone between the top of the coarse-gravel unit and the land surface; and (5) clay A and clay B. Data for the refined model includes digital elevation models, borehole lithology data, geophysical data, and structural data to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units. The top surface of the coarse-gravel unit, defined by using borehole and geophysical data, varies similarly to terraces resulting from the down cutting of the Colorado River. Clay A

  13. Riparian forest and permanent groundwater: a key coupling for balancing the hillslope water budget in Sudanian West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests are thought to play an important role in the regional dynamics of the West African monsoon, through their capacity to extract water from permanent aquifers located deep in the soil and pump it into the atmosphere even during the dry season. This is especially true for riparian forests located at the bottom of the hillslopes. This coupling between the riparian forests and the permanent aquifers is investigated, looking for quantifying its contribution to the catchment water balance. To this end, use is made of the observations available from a comprehensively instrumented hillslope through the framework of the AMMA-CATCH (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis – Coupling the Tropical Atmosphere and the Hydrological Cycle observing system. Attention is paid to measurements of actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture and deep groundwater level. A vertical 2-D approach is followed using the physically-based Hydrus 2-D model in order to simulate the hillslope hydrodynamics, the model being calibrated and evaluated through a multi-criteria approach. The model correctly simulates the hydrodynamics of the hillslope as far as soil moisture dynamics, deep groundwater fluctuation and actual evapotranspiration dynamics are concerned. In particular, the model is able to reproduce the observed hydraulic disconnection between the deep permanent groundwater table and the river. A virtual experiment shows that the riparian forest depletes the deep groundwater table level through transpiration occurring throughout the year so that the permanent aquifer and the river are not connected. Moreover the riparian forest and the deep groundwater table form a coupled transpiration system: the riparian forest transpiration is due to the water redistribution at the hillslope scale feeding the deep groundwater through lateral saturated flow. The annual cycle of the transpiration origin is also quantified. The riparian forest which covers only 5% of the

  14. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  15. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  16. Political myth and sacrifice

    OpenAIRE

    Vriese, de, H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This article examines the relationship between political myth and sacrifice. In recent years, as a result of theoretical advances as well as practical concern to understand the rapidly changing landscape of contemporary politics, the phenomenon of political myth has attracted increasing scholarly attention. This has led to a refined and robust theory of political myth, with a sharp analytical edge and relevant practical applications. The relationship between political myth and sacri...

  17. Spatial Distribution of Ground-Water Recharge Estimated with a Water-Budget Method for the Jordan Creek Watershed, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, to illustrate a water-budget method for mapping the spatial distribution of ground-water recharge for a 76-square-mile part of the Jordan Creek watershed, northwest of Allentown, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Recharge was estimated by using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) water-budget model for 577 landscape units in Jordan Creek watershed, delineated on the basis of their soils, land use/land cover, and mean annual precipitation during 1951-2000. The water-budget model routes precipitation falling on each landscape unit to components of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, storage, and vertical percolation (recharge) for a five-layer soil column on a daily basis. The spatial distribution of mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 for each landscape unit was mapped by the use of a geographic information system. Recharge simulated by the water-budget model in Jordan Creek watershed during 1951-2000 averaged 12.3 inches per year and ranged by landscape unit from 0.11 to 17.05 inches per year. Mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 simulated by the water-budget model was most sensitive to changes to input values for precipitation and runoff-curve number. Mean annual recharge values for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-use/land-cover classes were similar (11.2 to 12.2 inches per year) but were substantially less for high-density urban (6.8 inches per year), herbaceous wetlands (2.5 inches per year), and forested wetlands (1.3 inches per year). Recharge rates simulated for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-cover classes were similar because those land-use/land-cover classes are represented in the model with parameter values that either did not significantly affect simulated recharge or tended to have offsetting effects on recharge. For example, for landscapes with forest land

  18. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  19. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  20. Hydrogeology, water quality, water budgets, and simulated responses to hydrologic changes in Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creek ground-water basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Eugene B.; Van Konyenburg, Kathryn M.

    1998-01-01

    result in numerous dry wells, seawater intrusion, and subsidence. Digital ground-water-flow models were used to estimate several items in the ground-water budgets and to investigate the effects of pumpage and drought. The models also were used to investigate the hydrologic effects of selected water-resources management alternatives. Selection of alternatives was not constrained by issues related to water rights, which were under dispute during the study. Increases in the area and intensity of irrigation could increase agricultural water demand by 26 to 35 percent, an increase that would lower water levels by as much as 10 feet and possibly cause subsidence in the lower Santa Rosa Basin. An additional municipal well in the lower Santa Rosa Basin could withdraw 100 acre-feet per year without causing seawater intrusion, but subsidence might occur. Transferring 270 acre-feet per year of treated wastewater from a percolation area near the coast to an area about 0.5 mile upstream of the municipal well field in the San Simeon Basin could raise upstream water levels by as much as 12 feet without causing significant water-table mounding or seawater intrusion. Decreases in agricultural pumping after a winter without streamflow could prevent seawater intrusion while allowing municipal pumping to continue at normal rates.

  1. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  2. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground-Water Budget of the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer, Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Bartolino, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources and Washington State Department of Ecology, investigated the hydrogeologic framework and ground-water budget of the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer located in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. Descriptions of the hydrogeologic framework, water-budget components, and further data needs are provided. The SVRP aquifer, which covers about 370 square miles including the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho, and the Spokane Valley and Hillyard Trough, Washington, is the sole source of drinking water for more than 500,000 residents. Continued growth, water-management issues, and potential effects on water availability and water quality in the aquifer and in the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers have illustrated the need to better understand and manage the region's water resources. The SVRP aquifer consists mostly of gravels, cobbles, and boulders - deposited during a series of outburst floods resulting from repeated collapse of the ice dam that impounded ancient Glacial Lake Missoula. In most places, the SVRP aquifer is bounded by bedrock of pre-Tertiary granite or metasedimentary rocks, or Miocene basalt and associated sedimentary deposits. Discontinuous fine-grained layers are scattered throughout the SVRP aquifer at considerably different altitudes and with considerably different thicknesses. In the Hillyard Trough and the Little Spokane River Arm of the aquifer, a massive fine-grained layer with a top altitude ranging from about 1,500 to 1,700 feet and thickness ranging from about 100 to 200 feet separates the aquifer into upper and lower units. Most of the Spokane Valley part of the aquifer is devoid of fine-grained layers except near the margins of the valley and near the mouths of lakes. In the Rathdrum Prairie, multiple fine-grained layers are scattered throughout the aquifer with top altitudes ranging from about 1,700 to 2,400 feet with thicknesses ranging from 1

  3. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  4. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  5. Liberating Interdisciplinarity from Myth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    of a myth, fueled by the ideal of a unitary discipline; the ideal discipline has strong boundaries, and as long as the discourse continues to focus on a need for boundaries, the only available discourse is one that articulates the discipline as weak. Thus, the myth is a vicious circle that can be broken...

  6. Gene myths in public perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalastog, Anna Lydia

    2012-05-01

    In this article I examine myths in the gene science debate, and their use as a tool in analysis of popular perceptions and public opinion of genetic science and gene technology. In daily language myth means something untrue, though theories of myth present them as carriers of knowledge and truth. I understand myth as a narrative, a cultural construct that aims to describe the world, its origin, and its constituent elements. I compare scholars' usage of myths, considering their implications. I conclude that i) As an analytical tool the concept of myth is too loosely defined, or understood through theories which leave out context, social relations and interaction. This provides limited insight about myths and myth-making in present day society. ii) An updated understanding of myths, including location/context and interaction/process would enrich analysis.

  7. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    lysimeters for determining potential recharge and evapotranspiration from changes in water storage is discussed in Chapter 5. Aquifer water-budget methods based on the measurement of groundwater levels are described in Chapter 6.

  8. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and globalization and to the study of the place of the mass media in the contemporary Islamic resurgence. It explores the annulment of spatial and temporal distance by globalization and by the communications revolution underlying it, and how this has affected the cherished myths and memories of the Muslim community......Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam....... It shows how contemporary Islamic thinkers and movements respond to the challenges of globalization by preserving, reviving, reshaping, or transforming myths and memories....

  9. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not there). Myth #5: Drinking is a Good Way to Take the Edge Off my Chronic ... However, it will not improve your coordination or decision-making skills. These can be impaired for several hours ...

  10. Morphine: Myths and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Families Take the Quiz Morphine: Myths and Reality February, 2013 The mere mention of “Morphine” can ... due to misinformation and lack of training. The reality is that Morphine (and other opiates that work ...

  11. International program confronts myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The concept of reproductive rights (RR) is being attacked in an ultra-conservative backlash based on myth and misinformation. One such myth, that supporters of RR favor coercive population control measures, is the exact opposite of the truth. A second myth, that reproductive health (RH) is a euphemism for abortion, ignores the many facets of RH addressed by a holistic approach to RH needs in the areas of family planning, maternal and child health care, sexuality, infertility, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, detection and treatment of reproductive tract cancer, and female genital mutilation. The third myth, that only radical feminists and anti-family interests support women's reproductive choice, fails to recognize the broad support among women and men worldwide for the RR movement. A fourth myth, that emergency (postcoital) contraception is a form of abortion, defies the physical reality that emergency contraception prevents pregnancy by interrupting the process of implantation that leads to pregnancy. Finally, the myth that promoting reproductive freedom neglects the real needs of women in developing countries denies the fact that women have identified RH needs as a major concern and that RR are promoted as part of a holistic approach to attaining full gender equality and equity.

  12. The contribution of groundwater discharge to the overall water budget of two typical Boreal lakes in Alberta/Canada estimated from a radon mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon-222, a naturally-occurring radioisotope with a half-life of 3.8 days, was used to estimate groundwater discharge to small lakes in wetland-dominated basins in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, Canada. This region is under significant water development pressure including both oil sands mining and in situ extraction. Field investigations were carried out in March and July 2008 to measure radon-222 distributions in the water column of two lakes as a tracer of groundwater discharge. Radon concentrations in these lakes ranged from 0.5 to 72 Bq/m3, while radon concentrations in groundwaters ranged between 2000 and 8000 Bq/m3. A radon mass balance, used in comparison with stable isotope mass balance, suggested that the two lakes under investigation had quite different proportions of annual groundwater inflow (from 0.5% to about 14% of the total annual water inflow. Lower discharge rates were attributed to a larger drainage area/lake area ratio which promotes greater surface connectivity. Interannual variability in groundwater proportions is expected despite an implied seasonal constancy in groundwater discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that a combination of stable isotope and radon mass balance approaches provides information on flowpath partitioning that is useful for evaluating surface-groundwater connectivity and acid sensitivity of individual water bodies of interest in the Alberta Oil Sands Region.

  13. Keynote: Beyond Budgeting in a Lean and Agile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogsnes, Bjarte

    We suggest that we need a fundamentally different philosophy and a concept for how organisations are led and managed. We believe that it is time to challenge the traditional management myths. The main goal of Beyond Budgeting is not get rid of budgets. The budget must go, but it is more the budgeting mindset we need to get rid of, because it represents the old thinking that needs to be changed. Based on the works of The Beyond Budgeting Round Table, we review a set of 12 principles for a new style of contemporary leadership and management.

  14. Myths about second language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrijela Petra Nagode; Karmen Pižorn

    2016-01-01

    There exist several myths about second/foreign language learning. Many of them might have been »fossilised« by second/foreign language users. The article highlights a selection of four myths on second/foreign language learning. Myth 1 is that the sooner one starts to learn a second/foreign language, the better they will learn it. Myth 2 is that transfer from L1 is the major source of errors in a second/foreign language. Myth 3 is that the teacher should correct errors as soon as they appear t...

  15. The contribution of groundwater discharge to the overall water budget of Boreal lakes in Alberta/Canada estimated from a radon mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radon-222, a naturally-occurring radioisotope with a half-life of 3.8 days, was used to estimate groundwater discharge to small lakes in wetland-rich basins in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, Alberta, a region under significant water development pressures including both oil sands mining and in situ extraction. A program of field investigations was carried out in March and July 2008 using a Durridge RAD-7® and RAD Aqua® to measure radon-222 activity distributions in dissolved gas in the water column of two lakes as a tracer of groundwater discharge in the timeframe of 4 half-lives (15 days. Radon activity concentrations in lakes was found to range from 0.5 to 72 Bq/m3, compared to radon activity concentrations in groundwaters, measured using a RAD H2O, in the range of 2000–8000 Bq/m3. Radon mass balance, used in comparison with stable isotope mass balance, suggested that the two lakes under investigation had quite different proportions of annual groundwater inflow, one being close to 0.5% of annual inflow and the other about 14%, with lower values in the former attributed to a larger drainage area/lake area ratio which promotes greater surface connectivity. Interannual variability in groundwater proportions is expected despite constancy of groundwater discharge rates due to observed variability in annual surface runoff. Combination of stable isotope and radon mass balance approaches provides information on flowpath partitioning that is useful for evaluating surface-groundwater connectivity and acid sensitivity of individual water bodies of interest in the Alberta Oil Sands Region.

  16. Seven Myths about Beginners' Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Karen; Kirkebæk, Mads Jakob

    2015-01-01

    to use a ‘myth-detector’ to detect, reflect on and possibly reject myths they may meet in their profession. The ‘myth-detector’ consists of four simple questions, namely (1) Where do we know it from? (2) What is it built on? (3) What views on learning, language and culture lie behind? and (4) Who (gets......) the myth about ‘the only thing’ (the method), (4) the myth about “we tried that before”, (5) the myth about “one people and one teaching method, (6) the myth about easy and difficult languages, and (7) the myth about students with no competences and a worthless past. The article suggests language teachers......In the article the authors have selected seven myths about beginners’ language for discussion, reflection and possible rejection. These are (1) the myth about the necessity of mastering the system before being able to speak the language, (2) the myth about limited capacity on the ‘hard disc’, (3...

  17. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  18. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  19. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  20. Using an Integrated Surface Water - Groundwater Flow Model for Evaluating the Hydrologic Impacts of Historic and Potential Future Dry Periods on Simulated Water Budgets in the Santa Rosa Plain Watershed, Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, J. A.; Woolfenden, L. R.; Nishikawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Communities in the Santa Rosa Plain watershed (SRPW), Sonoma County, CA, USA are experiencing increasing demand for limited water resources. Streamflow in the SRPW is runoff dominated; however, groundwater also is an important resource in the basin. The watershed has an area of 262 mi2 that includes natural, agricultural, and urban land uses. To evaluate the hydrologic system, an integrated hydrologic model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey coupled groundwater and surface-water flow model, GSFLOW. The model uses a daily time step and a grid-based discretization of the SRPW consisting of 16,741 10-acre cells for 8 model layers to simulate all water budget components of the surface and subsurface hydrologic system. Simulation results indicate significant impacts on streamflow and recharge in response to the below average precipitation during the dry periods. The recharge and streamflow distributions simulated for historic dry periods were compared to future dry periods projected from 4 GCM realizations (two different GCMs and two different CO2 forcing scenarios) for the 21st century, with the dry periods defined as 3 consecutive years of below average precipitation. For many of the projected dry periods, the decreases in recharge and streamflow were greater than for the historic dry periods due to a combination of lower precipitation and increases in simulated evapotranspiration for the warmer 21st century projected by the GCM realizations. The greatest impact on streamflow for both historic and projected future dry periods is the diminished baseflow from late spring to early fall, with an increase in the percentage of intermittent and dry stream reaches. The results indicate that the coupled model is a useful tool for water managers to better understand the potential effects of future dry periods on spatially and temporally distributed streamflow and recharge, as well as other components of the water budget.

  1. Beyond Evaluation Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1991-01-01

    Refutes three evaluation myths--(1) evaluation is findings; (2) outcomes are hard to measure; and (3) evaluation is an add-on--with three principles: (1) evaluation is a learning process; (2) soft data about important issues are better than hard data about unimportant issues; and (3) meaningful evaluation is integrated into teaching and learning.…

  2. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  3. More Myths of Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Linda; Lerner, Gail

    1986-01-01

    Challenges "myths" about women and migration, including (1) the causes of migration are economic, not racism; (2) migrant women receive support from feminist groups and trade unions; (3) transnational corporations are positive forces in developing nations; (4) migration today has little impact on family life; and (5) most migrants cluster in…

  4. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and globalization and to the study of the place of the mass media in the contemporary Islamic resurgence. It explores the annulment of spatial and temporal distance by globalization and by the communications revolution underlying it, and how this has affected the cherished myths and memories of the Muslim community...

  5. Diet myths and facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure to check the serving size too. MYTH? Skipping breakfast makes you gain weight. FACT: Eating a healthy breakfast can help you manage your hunger later in the day and help ... that skipping the morning meal leads directly to weight gain. ...

  6. Between myth and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    . It was found that the information behaviour of secondary school pupils to a large extent confirm the negative myths of the Google Generation in terms of information literacy and preferences for information resources. However, pupils at their third year generally tended to be more critical and to demonstrate...

  7. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness.

  8. Between myth and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of an exploratory case study of secondary school pupils’ information behaviour. According to Rowlands et al. (2008) many myths exist about the Google Generation (those born after 1993) that tend to overestimate the positive impact of ICTs on the young...... need for educational research and inquiry into the information and digital literacy skills of young people. This will help guide the way library services and digital information systems are designed in addition to facilitate how information literacy programs are developed and implemented...... in an educational practice. The research on young people’s information behaviour by Rowlands et al. was carried out in 2007. To determine whether the picture of the Google generation is consistent with reality a number of the myths investigated in 2007 were explored among 43 Danish secondary school pupils in 2009...

  9. Space, myth and cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambardzumov, Arsen

    2016-12-01

    There exist both ancient and modern myths. The competition of good and evil, sanctity, mythic hero character, etc. make up those myths. Connection between the myth and literature, art and mainly cinematography is highly essential. Hollywood is a striking example of that connection, in other words "A Dream Factory". The mythic component in American films is obvious. It refers to the product structure which is frequently created by mythic rules. One of its striking examples is D. Lucas's film "Star wars. Episode IV – New Hope" (1977): The film plot is built on the struggle between the good and the evil. On one hand those are the representatives of the Empire with Darth Vader and princess Leia with her devotees on the other. The space has played a unique role for Greek philosophers as well. It was the symbol of perfection and grace. The attempt to approach this perfection, the desire to see the internal similarity besides the external one has been reflected in S. Kubrick's film "2001: Space Odyssey" (1968). Showing the space distance director looks for perfection in us which lies in the harmony of truth, human and nature.

  10. The Market Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Björkman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Market can be understood as a self-organizing system that is constantly evolving. Like all social institutions, it is governed by principles and rules created by society, not by any universal laws of nature. If it does not work the way we want it to, we have the power and freedom to change its rules. However, prevailing notions about the market are veiled in myth. Many have argued that there is a vast gap between economic models of how the market is assumed to work and how it actually functions, but there is also a gap between the way it now functions and alternative possible ways it could be structured to more effectively promote social welfare and equity. ‘Unveiling the myth’ is therefore necessary to alter its enduring influence on us, for the betterment of humanity. Some have referred to this myth as ‘neoliberalism’, but this is not the emphasis here. The point, rather, is to show that understanding theories and models of the market in terms of the seven myths discussed in this article allows us to change the constitutive rules of the market and radically improve the pre-distribution of social benefits while preserving the dynamic freedom of the market, thus limiting the need for regulating rules.

  11. Myths and Truths from Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses some of the common myths in the field of exercise physiology. Some of the myths are misconstrued facts that have developed over time, such as the myth of localized fat reduction. Other myths are unproved or collective beliefs used to justify a social institution; we see this occur in the form of "fitness fads." Society is…

  12. Debunking the Myths of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwarth, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability, which affects reading in as many as one in five people. Many children go without proper interventions because of ineffective teaching strategies, and common myths associated with this disability. The purpose of this study was to test how deeply ingrained some myths might be, and decipher where educators…

  13. Quantum mechanics: Myths and facts

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, H

    2006-01-01

    A common understanding of quantum mechanics (QM) among students and practical users is often plagued by a number of "myths", that is, widely accepted claims on which there is not really a general consensus among experts in foundations of QM. These myths include wave-particle duality, time-energy uncertainty relation, fundamental randomness, the absence of measurement-independent reality, locality of QM, nonlocality of QM, the existence of well-defined relativistic QM, the claims that quantum field theory (QFT) solves the problems of relativistic QM or that QFT is a theory of particles, as well as myths on black-hole entropy. The fact is that the existence of various theoretical and interpretational ambiguities underlying these myths does not yet allow us to accept them as proven facts. I review the main arguments and counterarguments lying behind these myths and conclude that QM is still a not-yet-completely-understood theory open to further fundamental research.

  14. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  15. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  16. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  17. Amateur mythographies: Fan fiction and the myth of myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Willis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.

  18. Scientific myth-conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allchin, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Using several familiar examples - Gregor Mendel, H. B. D. Kettlewell, Alexander Fleming, Ignaz Semmelweis, and William Harvey - I analyze how educators currently frame historical stories to portray the process of science. They share a rhetorical architecture of myth, which misleads students about how science derives its authority. Narratives of error and recovery from error, alternatively, may importantly illustrate the nature of science, especially its limits. Contrary to recent claims for reform, we do not need more history in science education. Rather, we need different types of history that convey the nature of science more effectively.

  19. Baikal: Myth and Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Baikal is not only one of the greatest lakes of the world. Baikal is a system of myths and images which has been formed for many centuries. The analysis of old maps shows that only 200-300 years ago the existence of Baikal was the subject of wild speculations. Today the image of Baikal is a world brand. However citizens of Irkutsk and other towns located around Baikal can hardly make any profit on it. The reason is the absence of specialists who would be able to work with such a complex and strong image as Baikal.

  20. Properties of basin-fill deposits, a 1971–2000 water budget, and surface-water-groundwater interactions in the upper Humboldt River basin, northeastern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in cooperation with Elko County, Nevada in response to concerns over growing demand for water within the county and increasing external demands that are occurring statewide. The upper Humboldt River basin encompasses 4,360 square miles in northeastern Nevada and includes the headwaters area of the Humboldt River. Nearly all of the mean annual flow of the Humboldt River originates in this area. Basin-fill deposits function as the principal aquifers in the upper Humboldt River basin. Over much of the basin lowlands, the upper 200 feet of basin fill consists of clay, silt, sand, and gravel deposited in a lake of middle to late Pliocene age. Fine-grained lacustrine sediments compose from 30 to more than 70 percent of the deposits. Mean values of transmissivity are less than 1,000 feet squared per day. Total inflow to the upper Humboldt River basin, about 3,330,000 acre-feet per year, is entirely from annual precipitation. Total outflow from the basin, about 3,330,000 acre-feet per year, occurs as evapotranspiration, streamflow, subsurface flow, and pumpage. The uncertainty of these values of inflow and outflow is estimated to be 25 percent. Baseflow of the Humboldt River is minimal upstream of the Elko Hills and in downstream reaches almost all baseflow comes from tributary inflow of the North Fork and South Fork Humboldt Rivers. However, the baseflow of these two tributaries comes from groundwater discharge to their respective channels in canyons incised in volcanic rocks along the North Fork and in carbonate rocks along the South Fork. Water levels in the shallow water-table aquifer along the Humboldt River flood plain fluctuate with changes in stage of the river. During high rising river stage in spring and early summer, streamflow enters the aquifer as bank storage. As stage begins to decline in early to mid-summer groundwater in bank storage begins discharging back into the river channel and this continues through late summer. In years of below

  1. MYTH. OTHERNESS DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana G. VOȘ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to explain the concept of otherness as a mythical dimension of the man as a creator in the context of contemporary drama. The approach is a hermeneutics one, but the intention is to extend the analysis towards an interdisciplinary approach due to the multiple ways that otherness reveals on the background of the insular space of the theater as interface of cultural and social. We wish to draw attention to the mythical-symbolic elements that catalyzes the relation between drama and its putting on stage . In our point of view the importance of the drama is the revealing the way that a prototype lives in everyone and the myth is a generating center of identities and otherness in a World of correlations. Mythical models are bringing the imaginary and objectivity into a manageable collaboration that resonate a sense of reality in order to make seen the unseen by ritual as a link between myth and culture.

  2. Mesopotamia: myth and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Haldar

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Was there a myth relating to the state in ancient Mesopotamia? There were several complexes of such myth. An example of this is Hammurabi, the king of Babylonian dynasty who extended Babylon’s control throughout Mesopotamia. His most important reform was Marduk's rise to a position as the chief deity of the whole kingdom. Whether or not the Epic of Creation obtained its final literary form in the reign of Hammurabi is a question, which is not easily answered. There is sufficient evidence of the main features of Marduk's character before Hammurabi's reign, but quite another question is that of the literary process. In any case, Marduk's position as the chief deity of the realm coincided with Hammurabi's adopting the feudal system of administration. In the Ur III period, as we have seen, the early system still prevailed, and the earlier city states continued their existence, although as provinces of the unity. This system was continued in the period of the Isin and Larsa dynasties. In the reign of Shamshi-Adad of Asshur, at any rate, we meet with a typical feudal system, as is evident, for instance, from his correspondence with his son Yasmah-Adad, viceroy of Mari. This system implies that the king considered himself the possessor of the ground, particularly such as belonged to the temples, and its products as well.

  3. Kroeber and Gifford: Karok Myths

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhoff, M. A

    1981-01-01

    Karok Myths . A. L. Kroeber and E. W. Gifford. Grace Buzaljko, ed. Foreword by Theodora Kroeber, Folkloristic Commentary by Alan Dundes. and Linguistic Index by William Bright. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980, xliv + 380 pp., $25.00.

  4. Exposing the Bathtub Coriolis Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a demonstration that employs angular momentum to disprove the myth that water spirals down a bathtub drain clockwise in one hemisphere and counterclockwise in the other because of the Coriolis force on water. (ZWH)

  5. Newton's Principia: Myth and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George

    2016-03-01

    Myths about Newton's Principia abound. Some of them, such as the myth that the whole book was initially developed using the calculus and then transformed into a geometric mathematics, stem from remarks he made during the priority controversy with Leibniz over the calculus. Some of the most persistent, and misleading, arose from failures to read the book with care. Among the latter are the myth that he devised his theory of gravity in order to explain the already established ``laws'' of Kepler, and that in doing so he took himself to be establishing that Keplerian motion is ``absolute,'' if not with respect to ``absolute space,'' then at least with respect to the fixed stars taken as what came later to be known as an inertial frame. The talk will replace these two myths with the reality of what Newton took himself to have established.

  6. Quantum Mechanics: Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    2007-11-01

    A common understanding of quantum mechanics (QM) among students and practical users is often plagued by a number of “myths”, that is, widely accepted claims on which there is not really a general consensus among experts in foundations of QM. These myths include wave-particle duality, time-energy uncertainty relation, fundamental randomness, the absence of measurement-independent reality, locality of QM, nonlocality of QM, the existence of well-defined relativistic QM, the claims that quantum field theory (QFT) solves the problems of relativistic QM or that QFT is a theory of particles, as well as myths on black-hole entropy. The fact is that the existence of various theoretical and interpretational ambiguities underlying these myths does not yet allow us to accept them as proven facts. I review the main arguments and counterarguments lying behind these myths and conclude that QM is still a not-yet-completely-understood theory open to further fundamental research.

  7. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  8. Myths of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Historical and contemporary images of ageing have generally reinforced negative stereotypes of old age. An examination of sculpture, painting, poetry, literature and film, as well as television, advertising, newspaper stories, birthday cards and road signs reveals that old age is often shown as being a time of loneliness, depression and physical decline. These conditions do occur but their prevalence and severity have been exaggerated. There are many myths of ageing that have been influenced by these representations: that old people with physical or cognitive decline are social problems; that families no longer care for their elders; that geriatric medicine is an unglamorous specialty. Low expectations of old people and ageist thinking can adversely affect how we speak of disadvantaged old people. The challenge is to question inaccurate assumptions. Key to the improvement of medical care of older people is to extend the teaching of geriatric medicine and improve and coordinate research.

  9. Between myth and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2010-01-01

    . The ubiquitous presence of technology has not resulted in improved skills in information retrieval, information seeking and evaluation. However, information skills are needed more than ever if people should be able to navigate competently in the information society. At the national level there is an intensive....... Four research questions guided the study: What characterises the information behaviour of Danish secondary school pupils? Does the information behaviour differ across school year? If so, in which way? How is information seeking conceptualized and experienced? How is the study centre and library...... (1g) and 23 pupils from their third and final year of studying (3g) – all representatives of the Google Generation. Two identical surveys were handed out in class to all the 43 participants. The survey addressed demographic issues as well as myths about the pupils’ information behavior. The survey...

  10. Between myth and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    ) What characterises the information behaviour of Danish secondary school pupils? 2) Does the information behaviour differ across year of study? If so, in which way does it differ? 3) How is information seeking conceptualized and experienced? 4) How is the study centre and library conceptualized......Many myths exist about the Google Generation which tend to overestimate the positive impact of ICT’s on young people. This paper presents and discusses the results of an exploratory case study of 43 Danish secondary school pupils’ information behaviour. Four research questions guided the study: 1...... and another with 7 participants from 3g. In addition, the librarian at the secondary school was interviewed for background information and her experiences of pupils’ information behaviour. The results of the pilot study will provide the foundation of a larger study on Danish secondary school pupils...

  11. Urban Myths about Learning and Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.; Hulshof, Casper

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the most common popular myths relating to learning and education are discussed with respect to whether there is any truth in the myth and what good educational and psychological research has to say about them. Examples of such myths range from: learning styles to neuromyths such as lef

  12. Myth and symbol in nursing theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, F Beryl

    2005-07-01

    Nursing theories are like myths, in that they contain symbolic representations that tell a story about nursing, and these stories represent or explain nursing's image, worldview, beliefs, and practices. Five theories are analyzed to identify the myths that they represent. It is proposed that uncovering the myth in nursing theories will help to communicate nursing brands that convey the essence and value of nursing.

  13. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  14. Revealing myths about people, energy and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.

    2000-05-01

    In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.

  15. Narcissism and the personal myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, E P

    1986-07-01

    Kris (1956) described the concept of the personal myth as an autobiographical story built around a family romance fantasy seen specifically in obsessive characters and serving a defensive function. In this paper the concept of the personal myth was expanded to include similar defensive constellations originating from within the grandiose self, built around omnipotent and omniscient fantasies and occurring in character formations with pregenital, narcissistic pathology. The case of a known author and poet, Nikos Kazantzakis, was used to illustrate the thesis of the paper. The available biographical material and the work of the author offer evidence to support the claim that the author's personal myth was a protective shield against anxiety originating in early narcissistic traumata.

  16. Debunking health IT usability myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggers, N; Xiao, Y; Chapman, L

    2013-01-01

    Poor usability is a threat to patient safety and linked to productivity loss, workflow disruption, user frustration, sub-optimal product use and system de-installations. Although usability is receiving more attention nationally and internationally, myths about usability persist. This editorial debunks five common myths about usability (1) usability only concerns the look and feel of a product and is, therefore, only a minor concern, (2) usability is not measurable, (3) usability stifles innovation, (4) vendors are solely responsible for product usability, and (5) usability methods are not practical for use in healthcare.

  17. THE MYTH OF THE IMF

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Myth of Science is the idea that complex phenomena in Nature can be reduced to a set of equations based on the fundamental laws of physics. The Myth of the IMF is the notion that the observed distribution of stellar masses at birth (the IMF) can and must be explained by any successful theory of star formation. In this contribution I argue that the IMF is the result of the complex evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and that as such the IMF preserves very little information, ...

  18. Structure du mythe The Structure of Myth Estructura del mito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hubner

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette analyse structurale du mythe littéraire s'appuie sur les travaux de Claude Lévi-Strauss et montre la tension productive entre les notions de structure et de mythe littéraire, tension qui devient la source abondante de signifiants polyphoniques.This in-depth analysis of the structural law which shapes the literary myth is based on Claude Lévi-Strauss’s works, and shows that there exists a fruitful tension between the notions of structure and literary myth, a tension which becomes an abundant source of polyphonic meanings.Con la ayuda de los trabajos de C. Lévi-Strauss, G. Durand y J. Rousset, se intenta dar una brillante análisis de la ley estructural del mito literario. La noción de estructura y la de mito literario mantienen entre sí una tensión fecunda, fuente inagotable de la riqueza polifónica de los significados.

  19. Myths and Facts about SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts About SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Page Content Myth: Babies can “catch” SIDS. Fact: ... sleep environment for your baby. Myth: Babies who sleep on their backs will choke if they spit ...

  20. Romanian Post‑Revolution Electoral Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bulai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some of the political and electoral myths of the post-communist transition, myths that have occupied the political agenda and the public debate throughout this period. Myths are seen as simple or complex narratives that have an explanatory and justificatory function in relation to social life, focused on Romanian society’s problems. They define and legitimizes a certain way to solve them and guides the development of society on the basis of some axiomatic principles. The article analyzes such myths, older or more recent, such as the myth of changing the electoral system, the myth of renewing the political class, the myth of the fundamental power of the referendum, the myth of the reform of the state, or of the constitutional amendments. The proposed analysis highlights the negative effects of using myths as instruments of the political and social changing on public policies and more generally on governance, and also the long-term harmful effects of the use of myths in defining political vision and Romania’s governmental development strategies.

  1. Down Syndrome Myths and Truths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leading human rights organization for all individuals with Down syndrome. National Down Syndrome Society 8 E 41st Street, 8th Floor New ... New York 10017 800-221-4602 [email protected] Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & ...

  2. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  3. The Myth of Digital Nirvana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennahum, David S.

    1996-01-01

    Although some see cyberspace as a transcendent medium that will naturally and inevitably usher in a Golden Age, allowing us to ascend to a higher plane of consciousness, the history of computer science refutes this myth. Instead of being the product of an evolutionary process, cyberspace has been deliberately designed by individual people. (PEN)

  4. The Myth of Digital Nirvana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennahum, David S.

    1996-01-01

    Although some see cyberspace as a transcendent medium that will naturally and inevitably usher in a Golden Age, allowing us to ascend to a higher plane of consciousness, the history of computer science refutes this myth. Instead of being the product of an evolutionary process, cyberspace has been deliberately designed by individual people. (PEN)

  5. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  6. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  7. The myths of the Bear

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E

    2013-01-01

    Following previous works on ancient myths in Greek and Latin literature regarding Ursa Major, and the possible relation with the ancient shape of the constellation, we discuss further this case in the light of the evolution of Homo sapiens and the ethnographic records of populations of Eurasia and North America.

  8. Five Myths about Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and processed meat you eat. If you drink alcohol, limit the amount to 1 drink per day for women, 2 per day for men. Don’t use tobacco in any form. Myth: African Americans are not at risk for colorectal cancer. Truth: African-American men and women are diagnosed ...

  9. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  10. Ten Myths about Instructor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwell, Martin M.

    1990-01-01

    Debunks 10 myths about instructor training: platform skills are supremely important; enthusiasm is essential; technical people are terrible instructors; practice makes perfect; videotaping improves skills; watching good instructor is good way to learn; student evaluations will improve instructors; good instructors can overcome bad design; good…

  11. EMAP: MYTHS, HOBGOBLINS AND CRUSAES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Steve and Kevin Summers. In press. EMAP: Myths, Hobgoblins and Crusades (Abstract). To be presented at EMAP Symposium 2004: Integrated Monitoring and Assessment for Effective Water Quality Management, 3-7 May 2004, Newport, RI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R980). The Environment...

  12. Le soleil devient un mythe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Lőrinszky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partant d’une phrase énigmatique datant de 1858 et puisée dans la Correspondance de Flaubert, cet article s’interroge sur la relation entre soleil et mythe, qui constituera l’un des éléments clefs de la dimension mythologique de Salammbô. Il se propose d’examiner la façon dont cette question apparaît dans deux ouvrages représentatifs des études mythographiques : d’une part, L’Origine de tous les cultes de Charles-François Dupuis, d’autre part, Les Religions de l’Antiquité..., publié sous les noms de Frédéric Creuzer et de son adaptateur français, Joseph-Daniel Guigniault. La version française de la grande synthèse de Creuzer, assortie d’une série importante de planches, a été richement exploitée par Flaubert au cours de la genèse du roman carthaginois. Dans Salammbô, le mythe apparaît sous de multiples formes. L’analyse de ce texte peut nous amener à réfléchir sur le « bon usage » du mythe auquel chaque créateur (et chaque lecteur se trouve nécessairement confronté.Starting from an enigmatic phrase in Flaubert’s correspondence, dating from 1858, this article examines the relation between the Sun and myth, which constitutes one of the key elements of the mythological dimension of Salammbô. It especially focuses on the treatment of this question in two representative works of mythographic studies, The Origin of All Religious Worship by Charles-François Dupuis, and Les Religions de l’Antiquité..., the French adaptation of Frédéric Creuzer’s Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Völker by Joseph-Daniel Guigniault. The French version of Creuzer’s great synthesis, supplied with a remarkable set of prints, was abundantly consulted by Flaubert when writing his Carthaginian novel. In Salammbô, myth takes on various forms. Analyzing this text might lead one to reconsider “the right way” to use myths — a problem all writers (and readers find themselves confronted with.

  13. Proliferation: myth or reality?; La proliferation: mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  14. The Myth of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, J.

    2009-11-01

    The Myth of Science is the idea that complex phenomena in Nature can be reduced to a set of equations based on the fundamental laws of physics. The Myth of the IMF is the notion that the observed distribution of stellar masses at birth (the IMF) can and must be explained by any successful theory of star formation. In this contribution I argue that the IMF is the result of the complex evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and that as such the IMF preserves very little information, if any, about the detailed physics of star formation. Trying to infer the physics of star formation from the IMF is like trying to understand the personality of Beethoven from the power-spectrum of the Ninth Symphony!

  15. THE MYTH OF THE IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Melnick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Myth of Science is the idea that complex phenomena in Nature can be reduced to a set of equations based on the fundamental laws of physics. The Myth of the IMF is the notion that the observed distribution of stellar masses at birth (the IMF can and must be explained by any successful theory of star formation. In this contribution I argue that the IMF is the result of the complex evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and that as such the IMF preserves very little information, if any, about the detailed physics of star formation. Trying to infer the physics of star formation from the IMF is like trying to understand the personality of Beethoven from the power-spectrum of the Ninth Symphony!

  16. Special Operations - Myths and facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

    The brief addresses some of the myths, which have induced an institutional resistance at the political and military decision levels against understanding and considering special operations as a valuable strategic tool in contemporary and future conflict prevention, crisis management, and conflict...... management. The brief gives a generic overview over what special operations factually are, thus focusing on developing a broader understanding of the usefulness of special operations in the strategy of a small state....

  17. Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Volovik, G. E.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating contribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition...

  18. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  19. Diversity Training. Myths and Realities No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    Certain myths cause some people to fear or resist diversity training; other myths overstate its outcomes and effectiveness. Many workers--white males in particular--fear that in the rush for a more diverse workplace, they will lose out. Their fears can be addressed by delivering training in a way that convinces employees that the organization's…

  20. Revisiting the Common Myths about Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    The author examines four common myths that still influence individuals regarding their perspective and understanding of the role homeschooling plays in the education of American children. Myth 1 is that homeschooling produces social misfits, stemming from the belief that homeschooled students lack the socialization skills necessary for normal…

  1. Five feminist myths about women's employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, C

    1995-09-01

    Feminist sociology has contributed substantial revisions to theory, especially in the sociology of work and employment. But it is also creating new feminist myths to replace the old patriarchal myths about women's attitudes and behaviour. Five feminist myths about women's employment are discussed whose acceptance as fact is not damaged by being demonstrably untrue. Arguably the most pervasive is the myth of rising female employment. The myth that women's work commitment is the same as that of men is often adduced to resist labour market discrimination. The myth of childcare problems as the main barrier to women's employment is commonplace in advocacy research reports. The myth of poor quality part-time jobs is used to blame employers for the characteristic behaviour of part-time workers, including high labour turnover. The issue of the sex differential in labour turnover and employment stability illustrates clearly how feminist orthodoxy has replaced dispassionate sociological research in certain topics. The concluding section considers the implications of such feminist myths for an academic community that claims to be in the truth business and for theories on the sexual division of labour.

  2. The Frankenstein Myth in Contemporary Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    Critiques three contemporary films, "Rocky IV,""Blade Runner," and "The Terminator." Constructs an evolving dystopian shadow myth that expresses the culture's repressed fears about its relationship to technology. Offers implications for the reinterpretation of the dystopian myth and for the conduct of other cultural studies. (MS)

  3. The myth-making in the media

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the system of functioning of the myths in the mass political consciousness. Identified methods of influence of mass media by means of mythological elements in the mass consciousness. The main emphasis is on the methods of implementation of political myths in the media.

  4. The Frankenstein Myth in Contemporary Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    Critiques three contemporary films, "Rocky IV,""Blade Runner," and "The Terminator." Constructs an evolving dystopian shadow myth that expresses the culture's repressed fears about its relationship to technology. Offers implications for the reinterpretation of the dystopian myth and for the conduct of other cultural…

  5. MYTHS--LITERATURE CURRICULUM I, STUDENT VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT

    PRESENTED HERE WAS A STUDY GUIDE FOR STUDENT USE IN A SEVENTH-GRADE LITERATURE CURRICULUM. INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL WAS PRESENTED ON GREEK MYTHS, NORSE MYTHOLOGY, AND AMERICAN INDIAN MYTHOLOGY. STUDY QUESTIONS, SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES, AND A REFERENCE BOOK OF MYTHS WERE PRESENTED. AN ACCOMPANYING GUIDE WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHERS (ED 010 140). (WN)

  6. 4 Myths about Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging 4 Myths About Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... for a lifetime. Here are four myths about oral health and facts to set them straight from the ...

  7. The Frankenstein Myth in Contemporary Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    Critiques three contemporary films, "Rocky IV,""Blade Runner," and "The Terminator." Constructs an evolving dystopian shadow myth that expresses the culture's repressed fears about its relationship to technology. Offers implications for the reinterpretation of the dystopian myth and for the conduct of other cultural…

  8. Myth and Other Norms in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the Thule Case at the Danish Supreme Court as an example of normativity in world society. Here norms, which may turn out to be important in world society could be myths of several kinds such as 'narrative normativity'. One myth may be that of (exclusive) sovereignty...

  9. At the foot of Mount Olympus: A theory on myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flip Schutte

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A cult normally develops around myths and rituals. In this article myth as phenomenon will be investigated. Different types and categories of myths will be listed, while research done in the past on myths will also be dealt with. Furthermore, the issue of ritual accompanying the myth will be briefly discussed. This article wants to promote the notion that one does not need any particular worldview, be it mythological, orthodox, fundamentalistic, or biblisistic, to use, understand, and appreciate myths. Even in a postmodern world the value of myths can be appreciated.

  10. The personal myth: a re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, François

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a re-evaluation of Kris's personal myth. The notion has been used rather sparingly despite the Delphi Symposium in 1984 on the question of its clinical usefulness. After framing the notion of myth, some difficulties related to the question are identified. A clinical vignette exemplifies some of the ambiguities in its definition but stresses its clinical relevance. A discussion expands on these situations so as to propose three various aspects of personal myths to account for the two variants identified by Kris. The actualization of the underlying fantasy in the character organization is a third form and the technical aspect associated with it is reviewed from a new perspective. The family romance is revisited to reassess its role as the basis of the personal myth in the face of studies favouring an earlier development of the myth.

  11. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  12. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  13. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  14. A global-scale two-layer transient groundwater model: Development and application to groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge E. M.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Gleeson, Tom; Moosdorf, Nils; Schmitz, Oliver; Sutanudjaja, Edwin H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of freshwater to satisfy human water needs. Moreover, groundwater buffers variable precipitation rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of droughts and evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. In this study, building on previous work, we simulate groundwater head fluctuations and groundwater storage changes in both confined and unconfined aquifer systems using a global-scale high-resolution (5‧) groundwater model by deriving new estimates of the distribution and thickness of confining layers. Inclusion of confined aquifer systems (estimated 6-20% of the total aquifer area) improves estimates of timing and amplitude of groundwater head fluctuations and changes groundwater flow paths and groundwater-surface water interaction rates. Groundwater flow paths within confining layers are shorter than paths in the underlying aquifer, while flows within the confined aquifer can get disconnected from the local drainage system due to the low conductivity of the confining layer. Lateral groundwater flows between basins are significant in the model, especially for areas with (partially) confined aquifers were long flow paths crossing catchment boundaries are simulated, thereby supporting water budgets of neighboring catchments or aquifer systems. The developed two-layer transient groundwater model is used to identify hot-spots of groundwater depletion. Global groundwater depletion is estimated as 7013 km3 (137 km3y-1) over 1960-2010, which is consistent with estimates of previous studies.

  15. Isaac Newton: Man, Myth, and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickey, V. Frederick

    1987-01-01

    This article was written in part to celebrate the anniversaries of landmark mathematical works by Newton and Descartes. It's other purpose is to dispel some myths about Sir Isaac Newton and to encourage readers to read Newton's works. (PK)

  16. Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Step in the Right Direction Some Myths about Nutrition & Physical Activity Are you overwhelmed by daily decisions ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  17. Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Fontaine, Kevin R; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations, and a...

  18. BADUY PLURALISM: FROM MYTH TO REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Misno Bambang Prawiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a land of many tribes, with each tribe having different customs. However they have a bond in the form of the state motto, Bhineka Tunggal Ika. This motto is based on a philosophy embraced by every tribe in the form of the teachings passed down from the ancestors such as pantun (Malay poetic form, rhyme, guguritan (Sundanese literary works, history and myths. Myths here are stories about things that happened in the past in the form of the history of the origins of man and nature, or the origin of a nation. Myths as a local wisdom are believed to be the truth by every member of the tribe applied in everyday life. This includes the myth that tells about human cultural diversity (plurality, and the community will implement its content. What about the Baduy community in Banten, do they have myths and apply the myths that deal with pluralism in their life? The Baduy are one of the ethnic groups in Indonesia who have myths about the creation of the universe, human origins, and even myths about the events that will occur. The myth about the origin of humans in the Baduy community begins with the creation of Adam as the first human, and then he had children that gave birth to the whole nation in the world. Because every human in the world is the great-grandsons of Adam, the Baduy believe that all humanity is dulur (brother despite differences in customs and religion. The reality of social life of the Baduy community, either Baduy Dalam (inner baduy or Baduy Luar (outer baduy is that they greatly respect all mankind despite the different cultures and religions. Prohibition to enter the Baduy traditional village for foreigners is because of historical factors, namely the agreement made by their ancestors with the Dutch. This research concluded that the Baduy society is a society that understands the plurality of cultures; it is based on a myth that they believe and apply in their life about tolerance of other religions. Key Word: Pluralism

  19. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  20. [Essay on the myth of oedipus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Néstor E

    2012-01-01

    Jung conceptualized the collective unconscious as the locus of the myths, the absolutely genuine and primary patterns of thinking and feeling of humanity. The legend of Oedipus or myth of incest is a irrefutable proof of its eternal validity. The present essay is an attempt to take an alternative look to a history that belong to all of us. Situations that are developed in this drama, like the characters involved in it may charge significance as an archetypal and essentially symbolic interpretation.

  1. Popular myths about the world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Norman S. Fieleke

    1997-01-01

    Many of us "know" things that are not true, and we sometimes act, or urge our representatives to act, on our mistaken beliefs. This article examines three common myths, or misconceptions, about the international economy. The author points out that, as with most myths, these embody grains of truth, but if accepted without qualification they could lead to grievous policy errors.> The author analyzes three common false assumptions: that global competition prevents inflation; that fair trade requ...

  2. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  3. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  4. Groundwater balance estimation and sustainability in the Sandıklı Basin (Afyonkarahisar/Turkey)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatma Aksever; Ayşen Davraz; Remzi Karaguzel

    2015-06-01

    The Sandıklı (Afyonkarahisar) Basin is located in the southwest of Turkey and is a semi-closed basin. Groundwater is widely used for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in the basin. The mismanagement of groundwater resources in the basin causes negative effects including depletion of the aquifer storage and groundwater level decline. To assure sustainability of the basin, determination of groundwater budget is necessary. In this study, the water-table fluctuation (WTF) and the meteorological water budget (MWB) methods were used to estimate groundwater budget in the Sandıklı basin (Turkey). Conceptual hydrogeological model of the basin was used for understanding the relation between budget parameters. The groundwater potential of the basin calculated with MWB method as 42.10 × 106 m3/year. In addition, it is also calculated with simplified WTF method as 38.48 × 106 m3/year.

  5. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...

  6. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  7. Ancient myths with perennial question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustacchi, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Even though myths have an imaginative component that frequently clashes with logical thinking, their symbolism often resonates with our collective unconscious. The divine inspiration that propels mythological heroes towards the noblest and highest ideals also carries the risk of taunting the jealousy of the gods. This may culminate in fatal results as has happened to Remus when he overstepped the newly defined boundaries set by his twin Romulus when outlining the future city of Rome. Fortunately, mythological heroes often enjoyed the benefit of having wise advisors. These were generally able to counsel their charges against yielding to the sin of pride so as to avoid triggering the anger of the gods. But when deprived of such advisors - as we are - how are we to place legitimate boundaries to our citadel of growing medical knowledge lest we scoff at limits and pay the penalty exacted from Remus?

  8. Organ Donation: Don't Let These Myths Confuse You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lifesaver. If you've never considered organ donation or delayed becoming a donor because of possibly ... information, here are answers to some common organ donation myths and concerns. Myth: If I agree to ...

  9. Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information By the National Cancer Institute To many, cancer remains one of the most frightening ... cancer. It is important to separate fact from fiction. Some of the most common cancer myths not ...

  10. Antioxidant therapy: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Selles, Alberto J. [Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: alberto@cqf.co.cu

    2005-07-15

    New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)

  11. Jung's very twentieth-century view of myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Robert A

    2003-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that Jung's view of myth, like his view of everything else, is best understood vis-à-vis Freud's. I argue that Jung in fact positions himself much more broadly, not merely against other psychologists of myth but more fundamentally against non-psychologists altogether. Undeniably, Jung pits his theory against Freud's, but only after pitting both his theory and Freud's against those theories that assume the subject matter of myth to be the external world rather than the human mind and that assume the function of myth to be either the explanation or the description of the external world rather than the expression of the human mind. The theorists whom Jung challenges are called 'nature mythologists', for whom myth is either a literal explanation or a symbolic description of the natural world. Which element of the natural world myth is about varies from nature mythologist to nature mythologist. The two leading nature mythologists, both of whom Jung cites, were Edward Tylor and James Frazer. Their theories epitomize the nineteenth-century approach to myth. For them, myth is the 'primitive' counterpart to science, which is entirely modern. For them, myth and science are incompatible, science is true and myth false, and myth must therefore go when science comes. Jung's rejection of the external world as the referent of myth and of explanation or description of that world as the function of myth epitomizes the twentieth-century response to nineteenth-century theories. For not merely Jung and Freud but also twentieth-century theorists generally, myth is anything but the 'primitive' counterpart to modern science. Consequently, myth and science are not rivals, so that myth need not go when science comes.

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  14. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  15. Considering groundwater use to improve the assessment of groundwater pumping for irrigation in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Amichi, Farida; Ameur, Fatah; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia; Bouarfa, Sami; Kuper, Marcel; Habaieb, Hamadi; Hartani, Tarik; Hammani, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater resources in semi-arid areas and especially in the Mediterranean face a growing demand for irrigated agriculture and, to a lesser extent, for domestic uses. Consequently, groundwater reserves are affected and water-table drops are widely observed. This leads to strong constraints on groundwater access for farmers, while managers worry about the future evolution of the water resources. A common problem for building proper groundwater management plans is the difficulty in assessing individual groundwater withdrawals at regional scale. Predicting future trends of these groundwater withdrawals is even more challenging. The basic question is how to assess the water budget variables and their evolution when they are deeply linked to human activities, themselves driven by countless factors (access to natural resources, public policies, market, etc.). This study provides some possible answers by focusing on the assessment of groundwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture at three sites in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria). Efforts were made to understand the different features that influence irrigation practices, and an adaptive user-oriented methodology was used to monitor groundwater withdrawals. For each site, different key factors affecting the regional groundwater abstraction and its past evolution were identified by involving farmers' knowledge. Factors such as farmer access to land and groundwater or development of public infrastructures (electrical distribution network) are crucial to decode the results of well inventories and assess the regional groundwater abstraction and its future trend. This leads one to look with caution at the number of wells cited in the literature, which could be oversimplified.

  16. Considering groundwater use to improve the assessment of groundwater pumping for irrigation in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Amichi, Farida; Ameur, Fatah; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia; Bouarfa, Sami; Kuper, Marcel; Habaieb, Hamadi; Hartani, Tarik; Hammani, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater resources in semi-arid areas and especially in the Mediterranean face a growing demand for irrigated agriculture and, to a lesser extent, for domestic uses. Consequently, groundwater reserves are affected and water-table drops are widely observed. This leads to strong constraints on groundwater access for farmers, while managers worry about the future evolution of the water resources. A common problem for building proper groundwater management plans is the difficulty in assessing individual groundwater withdrawals at regional scale. Predicting future trends of these groundwater withdrawals is even more challenging. The basic question is how to assess the water budget variables and their evolution when they are deeply linked to human activities, themselves driven by countless factors (access to natural resources, public policies, market, etc.). This study provides some possible answers by focusing on the assessment of groundwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture at three sites in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria). Efforts were made to understand the different features that influence irrigation practices, and an adaptive user-oriented methodology was used to monitor groundwater withdrawals. For each site, different key factors affecting the regional groundwater abstraction and its past evolution were identified by involving farmers' knowledge. Factors such as farmer access to land and groundwater or development of public infrastructures (electrical distribution network) are crucial to decode the results of well inventories and assess the regional groundwater abstraction and its future trend. This leads one to look with caution at the number of wells cited in the literature, which could be oversimplified.

  17. The water budget of heterogeneous areas. Impact of soil and rainfall variability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis the heterogeneity of the soil water budget components is investigated. Heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties and rainfall rate are taken into account by using stochastic methods. The importance of lateral groundwater flow in causing heterogeneity of the water budget components ha

  18. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  19. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  20. Claude Levi-Strauss: Mask and Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Kovač

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss a relationship between mask and myth and how the appropriate analysis by Claude Levi-Strauss may make clearer a complex field of masks in the part of North America. Claude Levi-Strauss stressed the multi- layered character of myth structure. Similar multi-layered character can be seen at the level of expression, content and meaning of Salish, Kwakiutl and other unique masks of this part of North America. Claude Levi-Strauss analysed certain myths trying to explain ‘the path’ of the masks that belong to the people with similar languages, or those who lived nearby. The mythology of Tsimshian, Tlingit and Haïda people have certain common characteristics that point to the similarities with the nearby groups (Kwakiutl. Despite differences that exist at the level of meanings of the masks, there is also common ‘mythological heritage’ of the people who used to live in the Northern Pacific Coast. Claude Levi-Strauss showed that there is no final solution in the myth analysis, and that there is no possibility that the dissection of the problem will reveal some hidden unity. "As mythical though does not want to start clearly somewhere and come somewhere, it never goes through its whole trajectory: there is always something waiting to be fullfield. The same way as rituals, myths are infinite." It seems that Levi-Strauss explanation of the Path of masks goes in that direction.

  1. Imitating the Myth in the Gorgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efren A. Alverio II

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of logical positivism contributed to the sharp definitional demarcation between what we consider mythical (mythos and what we take to be a true account (logos. This essay attempts to go back to one of the sources of such a supposed distinction. By analyzing the Gorgias, I will show that even Plato did not make such a distinction. In fact, Plato even constructed a theory of justice that made use of myth as its medium. The Platonic Myth in the Gorgias was used as true logos in order to justify Socrates' use of the myth as the paradigm of a life that is philosophical in contrast to that of his accusers who espoused mere sophistry. By using the concept of historia in relation with the concept of mythos, Plato regarded the futuristic afterlife in the myth as a sufficient condition to live a just life. This sufficient condition exemplified by the Myth in the Gorgias is a measuring rod by which we can compare our present system of justice.

  2. Myth in María Zambrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez Díaz del Real

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in Greece that Jose Ortega y Gasset and María Zambrano share is clear and demonstrable even if a reader is only a little familiar with these authors. Less similar is the approach they take to myth as a specific subject in their writings. Unlike Ortega's relative indifference - if one dares think anything could be indifferent to him - Zambrano takes myth as what Duch calls an "in-wording" element by linking it with autobiographical forms of writing, such as her characteristic deliriums. She re-envisions mythical figures in an intimate way, as in her play La tumba de Antígona. This article examines some of the key relationships of Greek myth with the "razón poética" in Zambrano's writing, focusing primarily on El hombre y lo divino (1955.

  3. Myths and Identities in Macedonian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Simoska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the impact of national myths on the political culture and behavior of the popu­lation, having Republic of Macedonia as the case for analysis. The theoretical framework includes different viewpoints about the role and function of myths in vari­ous types of political regimes: from strengthening the cohesion of a nation to their abuse in political propaganda. The case of Macedonia is analyzed through research data gathered by the authors in the past decade. The transmission and creation of myths in Macedonian society have proven to have an important role in the political mobilization and creation of the political culture. This example is chosen due to the specific history and present composition of the country (regarding the ethnic and religious background of its citizens. Therefore, the function of the national mythology is specific as well, influencing a great deal, as the authors conclude, the dominant political values in the society.

  4. Budget Summary of Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The Summary of Changes dataset extracted from PBGC's congressional budget justification. It contains all administrative and program increases and decreases including...

  5. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  6. Tropic lightning: myth or menace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2014-11-01

    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai'i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai'i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on "reverse triage" and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications.

  7. Seven Myths of Global Talent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Collings, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with managing talent on a global scale are greater than those faced by organisations operating on a domestic scale. We believe that the former relate to the fact that a number of key myths regarding talent management may undermine talent management's contribution...... to multinational corporation effectiveness and retard the development of management practice in this regard. Our aim is to unpack some of those myths and offer some suggestions for advancing the practice of talent management on the basis of insights from both practice and academic thinking in this area....

  8. La naissance du monde: un mythe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Borgeaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey of some cosmogonic myths that explicitly raise the question of the beginnings in terms of enigma. Mud, light, desire, dream, illusion, such are some of the disturbing ways to begin a persuasive story. Something has to be said, a story to be made, and these myths are working in the same way as the story of the big bang addressed today to those who cannot understand it. But these stories are offering, still and always, a serious reflection on what is most simply human.

  9. Organizational Transparency as Myth and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2015-01-01

    this perspective, explain its social-historical underpinnings and discuss its influence on contemporary organizations. In doing so, we also theorize in a more general sense about the relationship between myth, as a foundational understanding and description of the world, and the constellation of metaphors......, as specific ways of framing and seeing organizational reality, to which it gives rise. While observations and evidence can always be adduced to challenge a particular set of metaphors, the endogenous force of the myth may sustain the overall project. This process is explained with a detailed analysis...

  10. The Electra myth in Euripides and Cacoyannis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The goal of this research is to list, explore and explain the similarities and differences between the Electra of Euripides and the film of Michael Cacoyannis. Some critics regard the film as completely unfaithful to the original; others view it as a faithful cinematic rendition of the original; while others still regard it as a reworking of, and an improvement on, Euripides’ version of the Electra myth. The myth as treated by Euripides is about the revenge of the two children of Agam...

  11. On American Myth in Apocalypse Now

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓芳

    2015-01-01

    Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now (1979) was considered the first major studio release directly addressing Viet-nam five years after the Vietnam War ended, and it had enjoyed remarkable but critical success in history. The main purpose of this paper is to examine this film in the aspects of myth and changing attitude of this nation towards the Vietnam War. It starts from a review, then analyses the plots and characters in it, giving the war its imaginative life and bringing the audiences to a broader view about American myth.

  12. Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.

  13. Budgeting for PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lh

    2008-10-01

    There are a number of models for the acquisition of digital image management systems. The specific details for development of a budget for a PACS/RIS acquisition will depend upon the acquisition model - although there are similarities in the overarching principles and general information, particularly concerning the radiology service requirements that will drive budget considerations.While budgeting for PACS/RIS should follow the same principles as budgeting for any new technology, it is important to understand how far the implementation of digital image management systems can reach in a healthcare setting. Accurate identification of those elements of the healthcare service that will be affected by a PACS/RIS implementation is a critical component of successful budget formation and of the success of any business case and subsequent project that relies on those budget estimates.A budget for a PACS/RIS capital acquisition project should contain capital and recurrent elements. The capital is associated with the acquisition of the system in a purchase model and capital budget may also be required for upgrade - depending upon a facility's financial management processes.The recurrent (or operational) cost component for the PACS/RIS is associated with maintaining the system(s) in a sustainable operational state.It is also important to consider the service efficiencies, cost savings and service quality improvements that PACS/RIS can generate and include these factors into the economic analysis of any proposal for a PACS/RIS project.

  14. Budgeting Based on Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  15. Managing the Student Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Martha Lewkus

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the factors complicating the management of student worker budgets in libraries (e.g., the number of separate but interrelated budgets involved). Proposes a budgetary system incorporating double-entry bookkeeping, continuous proving, and combination receipts and disbursements. Considers the advantages of the system and details procedures.…

  16. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  17. STRATEGIC ISSUES GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Golovina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is a key component of our environment; it is a renewable, limited and vulnerable natural resource, which provides economic, social, and environmental well-being of the population. The most promising source of drinking water supply is groundwater usage. Drinking and industrial groundwater is one of the most important components of the groundwater mineral resource base in the Russian Federation. Modern system of groundwater extraction management and state regulation is currently imperfect and has definite disadvantages, among them - lack of control over natural resources by the state, an old system of tax rates for the use of groundwater, commercialization stage of licensing, the budget deficit, which is passed on other spheres of the national economy. This article provides general information about the state of groundwater production and supply in Russia, negative trends of groundwater usage, some actions for the improvement in the system of groundwater’s fund management are suggested. The most important amendments of the law “About mineral resources” are overviewed, effects of these changes are revealed and recommendations for future groundwater extraction regulation are given.

  18. Columbus and the Flat Earth Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Mano

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the resilient myth that it was Columbus' journey to the New World that proved that the world was round. It is widely known that it was Columbus' journey to the New World that proved that the world was round. However, Thomas Kuhn in "The Copernican Revolution" showed clearly in 1957 that the idea of a flat…

  19. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  20. Theories and myths of European foreign policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    , multilateralising and multipolarising processes. In order to make greater sense of EFP in a global political-cultural context, this chapter will consider the ways in which political theories and cultural myths co-constitute each other in both symbolic and substantive terms. EFP is understood here to involve...

  1. Walden: The Myth and the Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, Leon

    1975-01-01

    Author sought for some time to unscramble the Thoreauvian myth in the light of Walden's history as a classic and in this article he has revised a lecture he made on the subject of the real motives for Thoreau's visit to Walden Pond. (Author/RK)

  2. The Myth of the Silver Surfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Selwyn, Neil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors write about the myth of the "silver surfers"--those third-age learners adept at using the internet and other technologies for a mixture of formal and informal learning episodes. The notion of the silver surfer has endured since the latter half of the 1990s. It is sustained by the annual Silver Surfer week, media…

  3. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  4. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  5. Realities and Myths of Linguistic Imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Alan Davies's review article "Ironising the Myth of Linguicism," summarizing principles for the analysis of linguistic imperialism and demonstrating that the phenomenon is far from mythical. The article responds to some of the points raised by Davies to show that his generalizations are not justified. (41 references) (Author/CK)

  6. Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Myths and Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Harlene

    1994-01-01

    Debunks various myths and misperceptions concerning developmentally appropriate practices. Developmental appropriateness is a philosophy, not a curriculum. Despite using alternative learning strategies such as guided play, teachers are in control, facilitate real academic learning, and build on what they already know. DAP is universal and can…

  7. Columbus and the Flat Earth Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Mano

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the resilient myth that it was Columbus' journey to the New World that proved that the world was round. It is widely known that it was Columbus' journey to the New World that proved that the world was round. However, Thomas Kuhn in "The Copernican Revolution" showed clearly in 1957 that the idea of a flat…

  8. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  9. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  10. Myths in African Concept of Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Jones M.

    2014-01-01

    Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continent's history and culture. This paper examines the critical understanding of African…

  11. groundwater contribution to crop water requirement groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Groundwater, water table, capillary rise, soil type, waterleaf, ... GROUNDWATER CONTRIBUTION TO WATERLEAF (TALINUM TRIANGULARE) IN OXISOLS, I. J. ... Nutritionally, ... information to facilitate increased crop production,.

  12. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  13. Volcanic aquifers of Hawai‘i—Hydrogeology, water budgets, and conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Engott, John A.; Bassiouni, Maoya; Johnson, Adam G.; Miller, Lisa D.; Rotzoll, Kolja; Mair, Alan

    2016-06-13

    Hawai‘i’s aquifers have limited capacity to store fresh groundwater because each island is small and surrounded by saltwater. Saltwater also underlies much of the fresh groundwater. Fresh groundwater resources are, therefore, particularly vulnerable to human activity, short-term climate cycles, and long-term climate change. Availability of fresh groundwater for human use is constrained by the degree to which the impacts of withdrawal—such as lowering of the water table, saltwater intrusion, and reduction in the natural discharge to springs, streams, wetlands, and submarine seeps—are deemed acceptable. This report describes the hydrogeologic framework, groundwater budgets (inflows and outflows), conceptual models of groundwater occurrence and movement, and the factors limiting groundwater availability for the largest and most populated of the Hawaiian Islands—Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island.

  14. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  15. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  16. Oedipus of Thebes: the myth and its other meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S

    1976-01-01

    Sigmund Freud used the Oedipus myth to represent a crucial part of sexual development. Careful attention to the details of the myth as related by Sophokles points the way to entirely different and fruitful understandings. Myth is seen as an external representation of man's inner life; omens and the gods are viewed in this context. We can then see Oedipus' suffering as inseparable from loss and growth. In his struggle and ambivalence, Oedipus represents that suffering and transcendence for all of us. The myth tells us of the responsibilty, the pain, and the courage which are necessary ingredients in all human growth.

  17. DS-777 Spatial Location of Gages with Total Flow and estimated Base Flow, for the Predevelopment Simulation Period for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Baseflow is the portion of streamflow derived from groundwater flow. It is an important component of the groundwater budget, and can be estimated using known total...

  18. Groundwater Discharge Area for the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  19. Evapotranspiration Units for the Diamond Valley Flow System Groundwater Discharge Area, Central Nevada, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  20. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  1. Sustainability analysis of groundwater resources in a coastal aquifer, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Rich, Kendall; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2008-03-01

    Fort Morgan Peninsula is an attached portion of a dynamic barrier complex in the northern Gulf of Mexico and is a large tourist area that brings in a significant amount of revenue for Alabama. Many of the hotels and tourist attractions depend on the groundwater as their water supply. The over-withdrawal of groundwater and saltwater intrustion will have a negative impact on the ecology, tourism and economy if groundwater resources are not properly monitored and managed. In this study a calibrated groundwater flow model was used to analyze the sustainability of groundwater resources at Fort Morgan Peninsula. Detailed flow budgets were prepared to check the various components of inflow and outflow under different water use and climatic conditions. The results indicated the locations where groundwater was over-pumped and subjected to saltwater intrusion, or will be subjected to saltwater intrusion under a range of projected water use and climatic conditions.

  2. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  3. Pasolini's Edipo Re: myth, play, and autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipolo, Tony

    2013-08-01

    The pervasive influence of the Oedipus complex on world culture is a given, yet throughout the long history of motion pictures only one major filmmaker has tackled the literary source that inspired Freud. The film, Edipo Re, directed by Italian poet, novelist, and social and political activist Pier Paolo Pasolini, not only reconstructs the myth and adapts Sophocles' tragedy, but uses both as a basis of cinematic autobiography. This paper is a detailed analysis of the formal, stylistic, and thematic dimensions of this film, illustrating the complex manner in which Pasolini interweaves myth, play, and autobiography into a unique cinematic achievement. This analysis is followed by speculations on the implications of the film's structure and techniques and on what they reveal about Pasolini's character, his sexual profile, and the ignominious murder that ended his life.

  4. Stars, myths and rituals in Etruscan Rome

    CERN Document Server

    Magini, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a detailed and fascinating picture of the astonishing astronomical knowledge on which the Roman calendar, traditionally attributed to the king Numa Pompilius (reign 715-673 BC), was based. This knowledge, of Mesopotamian origins, related mainly to the planetary movements and to the occurrence of eclipses in the solar system. The author explains the Numan year and cycle and illustrates clearly how astronomical phenomena exerted a powerful influence over both public and private life. A series of concise chapters examines the dates of the Roman festivals, describes the related rites and myths, and places the festivals in relation to the planetary movements and astronomical events. Special reference is made to the movements of the moon and Venus, their relation to the language of myth, and the particular significance that Venus was considered to have for female fertility. The book clearly demonstrates the depth of astronomical knowledge reflected in the Roman religious calendar and the designated...

  5. Le mythe de la femme sauvage

    OpenAIRE

    Pelen, Jean-Noël

    2008-01-01

    Le livre de Clarissa Pinkola Estés, Femmes qui courent avec les loups. Histoires et mythes de l’archétype de la femme sauvage (Paris, 1996, e. o. 1992), connaît, depuis sa parution, un véritable succès mondial. Son objet est de « faire recouvrer à la femme la beauté de ses formes psychiques naturelles ». Le chemin pour y parvenir est longuement décrit à partir d’une analyse jungienne de quatorze récits de tradition orale (contes, mythes, légendes) qui renfermeraient les secrets des « anciens ...

  6. Groundwater-surface water interactions: the behavior of a small lake connected to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Marie; Barbecot, Florent; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between lakes and groundwater have been under concern in recent years and are still not well understood. Exchange rates are both spatially and temporally highly variable and are generally underestimated. However these interactions are of utmost importance for water resource management and need to be better understood since (i) the hydrogeological and geochemical equilibria within the lake drive the evolution of lakes' ecology and quality, and (ii) groundwater inflow, even in low rate, can be a key element in both the lake nutrient balance (and therefore in lake's eutrophication) and vulnerability to pollution. In many studies two main geochemical tracers, i.e. water stable isotopes and radon-222, are used to determine these interactions. However there are still many uncertainties on their time and space variations and their reliability to determine the lake budget. Therefore, a lake connected to groundwater on a small catchment was chosen to quantify groundwater fluxes change over time and the related influences on the lake's water geochemistry. Through analyse in time and space of both tracers and a precise instrumentation of the lake, their variations linked to groundwater inflows are determined. The results show that each tracer provides additional information for the lake budget with the interest to well determine the information given by each measurement: the radon-222 gives information on the groundwater inflows at a point in space and time while water stable isotopes highlight the dominant parameters of the yearly lake budget. The variation in groundwater inflows allow us to discuss lake's evolution regarding climate and environmental changes.

  7. Managing the myths of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzberg, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Myths impede the effective management of health care, for example that the system is failing (indeed, that is a system), and can be fixed by detached social engineering and heroic leadership, or treating it more like a business. This field needs to reframe its management, as distributed beyond the "top"; its strategy as venturing, not planning; its organizing as collaboration beyond control, and especially itself, as a system beyond its parts.

  8. Time and myth: the Argonauts in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez Tarrío

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This papers gives a breif overview of research in its initial phases, which examines, from the perspective of the construction of national identity, the traditional theme of the enduring and timeless nature of Classical myths and in particular the ancient myth, which is the subject of Borges’s sharp irony in his short-story “The immortal”. The reception of the Argonauts myth in Slovenian culture, initiated by the work of Janez Vajkard or Johann Weichard Freiherr von Valvasor (1641–1693, offers a significant case-study, which also highlights the relevance of Humanist and Baroque culture in the critical history of European nationalism. Writing before the emergence in Europe of the Hegelian conception of “Volkgeist”, the polymath writer applied a humanistic approach to patriotic themes, revealing Slovene culture, hybrid from its origins, to the wider world. A characteristic feature of his approach was the fusion of earlier textual tradition with contemporary oral material. Both in Slovenia and in the rest of Europe the comparison of the nineteenth century treatment of material dealing with national identity with its earlier treatment and transmission by humanist writers highlights the importance of the 16th and 17th centuries in the configuration of the different national faces of Europe as well as the significant role of common Greek and Latin roots. As a result, the myth of the Argonauts in Ljubljana, against the backdrop of idealistic or essentialist nationalist faiths, has the not inconsiderable virtue of underscoring the contaminatio that is characteristic of the construction of national identity.

  9. RUSSIA IN MYTHS AND IN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Solovey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.

  10. Myths and Misconceptions in Fall Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epp, R J

    2006-02-23

    Since 1973, when OSHA CFRs 1910 and 1926 began to influence the workplace, confusion about the interpretation of the standards has been a problem and fall protection issues are among them. This confusion is verified by the issuance of 351 (as of 11/25/05) Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA in response to formally submitted questions asking for clarification. Over the years, many workers and too many ES&H Professionals have become 'self-interpreters', reaching conclusions that do not conform to either the Standards or the published Interpretations. One conclusion that has been reached by the author is that many ES&H Professionals are either not aware of, or do not pay attention to the Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA, or the State OSHA interpretation mechanism, whoever has jurisdiction. If you fall in this category, you are doing your organization or clients a disservice and are not providing them with the best information available. Several myths and/or misconceptions have been promulgated to the point that they become accepted fact, until an incident occurs and OSHA becomes involved. For example, one very pervasive myth is that you are in compliance as long as you maintain a distance of 6 feet from the edge. No such carte blanche rule exists. In this presentation, this myth and several other common myths/misconceptions will be discussed. This presentation is focused only on Federal OSHA CFR1910 Subpart D--Walking-Working Surfaces, CFR1926 Subpart M--Fall Protection and the Fall Protection Standard Interpretation Letters. This presentation does not cover steel erection, aerial lifts and other fall protection issues. Your regulations will probably be different than those presented if you are operating under a State plan.

  11. The Role of Military Myth in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    ancient epics. Another element of military myth present in the aftermath of the First World War was the nature of the burial arrangements given to the...American efforts in WWI had been worthy and contributed to nationa l survival, and were a source of pride for the society. These burials and the...thinks to himself: "Cleve had never felt so fine as when they finally headed back through the quiet sky . This was the real joy of it all. He

  12. Network frontier as a metaphor and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Plotichkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers spatial metaphors of the Internet and the possibility to extrapolate the frontier thesis of F. Turner on the electronic space. The authors believe that information and communication technologies and the digital world have become new spaces for the expansion of states or individuals. That is why there are ongoing scientific debates on the limits and potential of western and electronic frontiers’ metaphors for analytical description of the digital space. The metaphor of the Internet as a western frontier is quite controversial; many authors prefer the electronic frontier analogy as more heuristic and valid for constructing metaphors of the digital reality. The network frontier is defined as a dynamic, elastic and permeable border of social and cultural practices of the network society. The authors estimate the heuristic potential of the concept ‘network frontier’ developed on the basis of integration of the frontier theory and the concept ‘network society’, taking into account the effects of globalization for the study of elastic, permeable and movable border of the network landscape. In the digital world, the spatiality transforms, the geography of the Internet network determines the metamorphosis of the frontier as a contact zone between online and offline spaces, which is dynamic, innovative, encourages mobility, and its permeability depends on the digital competence of citizens. The authors explain the mythology of western and electronic frontier; name the main network frontier myths related to the rhetoric of western frontier myth; describe the main components of the western frontier myth associated with the idea of American exceptionalism; and conclude with the identification of nowadays myths about frontier-men and the online space they master.

  13. Myths and legends in learning classification rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of machine learning theory on empirically learning classification rules. The paper proposes six myths in the machine learning community that address issues of bias, learning as search, computational learning theory, Occam's razor, 'universal' learning algorithms, and interactive learnings. Some of the problems raised are also addressed from a Bayesian perspective. The paper concludes by suggesting questions that machine learning researchers should be addressing both theoretically and experimentally.

  14. [The myth of the good savage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampey, N

    1994-09-01

    The conquest of the New World gave way to the myth of the Good Savage. For the Renaissance intellectuals, the ancient ideas about the Golden Age (an ideal society promising an unending bliss) seemed to be brought back to life at last. Sharply contrasting with the European exacerbated unrest of the time, America stood for a redeeming hope, a symbol of a better future. The myth of the Good Savage assumes people to be naturally good, but civilization has led them into the realm of violence, hatred, and cruelty. Besides being naturally good, nice-minded people, "good savages" were also useful, obedient people, most likely to be easily exploited by Europeans--a source for the historical drama to come. On the verge of freeing itself from the Spanish rule, Latin America--fighting its way toward independence, had three enlightened mentors: Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. There, again, another deep contrast arose between the abstract characteristics of Latin American aims to perfection, and people's actual behaviors. The former "good savage" became the modern "Latin American" embodying an utopia as well as a hope in his eagerness for setting up a plural, and humanized culture. The myth of the Good Savage represents a deep longing for an objectivation of the ego-ideal: it has been used, so to speak, in collective mobilizations as well as dogmatic crystallizations, to escape from ignominous realities or to project alternatives for a better socially-shared life.

  15. Mental Game Myths and Tips for Coaches and Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vealey, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    What often seems intuitive and well-meaning as a mental game strategy may be ineffective or detrimental to athletes, based on the evolution of knowledge in sport psychology. This article describes three popular ideas about the mental game and identifies them as myths, based on experience and research. These myths are (1) mental training should…

  16. The Myth and Magic of "Star Wars": A Jungian Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice

    The "Star Wars" trilogy is a fairy tale projected into the future which exemplifies in a clear-cut manner many of the archetypes of Jungian psychology. These films are modern retellings of ancient myths. Carl Jung has described myths as "fundamental expressions of human nature." In the films, fairy tale motifs such as typical…

  17. The European Union’s Institutionalisation of Symbols and Myths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    “The paper examines the formal institutionalisation of symbols and myths by EU institutions such as the Commission, Parliament and Council. It asks the question: What roles does the EU institutionalisation of symbols and myths play in the processes of European integration? The paper argues...

  18. Myth and philosophy on stage in Platonic dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tofighian, Omid

    2010-01-01

    This thesis consists of two components: first, I question and reposition the most dominant academic perspectives pertaining to the relationship between myth and philosophy; second, I analyze Plato’s use of myth to demonstrate my reevaluation of the issue by formulating and testing my own interdiscip

  19. Sleeping Beauty Awakes: Children's Literature and Sex Role Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Karel

    Both males and females are mythologized in children's literature. The internalization of these myths has been found to have far-reaching implications for intellectual achievement and individual functioning in a democracy. Numerous studies have indicated that these sexual myths are destructive to females' self-image. Eleanor Maccoby, in her study…

  20. Mental Game Myths and Tips for Coaches and Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vealey, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    What often seems intuitive and well-meaning as a mental game strategy may be ineffective or detrimental to athletes, based on the evolution of knowledge in sport psychology. This article describes three popular ideas about the mental game and identifies them as myths, based on experience and research. These myths are (1) mental training should…

  1. Dinosaur Discourses: Taking Stock of Gendered Learning Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of gendered learning myths in educational contexts and the wider imaginary continues to trouble feminist educational researchers and practitioners. The tracing of such myths and the categories they create through authoritative and elite discourses of the past suggests how they have functioned across different fields to preserve a…

  2. Career Development in Generation X. Myths and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    Several myths relate to the question of whether Generation X, the population cohort following the Baby Boomers, has different values, work ethics, and attitudes toward work and career development. The first myth is that individuals in Generation X are slackers, lacking career drive and ambition. The reality is that Generation X may just view the…

  3. Myth and philosophy on stage in Platonic dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tofighian, Omid

    2010-01-01

    This thesis consists of two components: first, I question and reposition the most dominant academic perspectives pertaining to the relationship between myth and philosophy; second, I analyze Plato’s use of myth to demonstrate my reevaluation of the issue by formulating and testing my own

  4. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...... budgetary control as involving the following: 1. The statement of the plans of all the departments of the business for a certain period of time in the form of estimates 2. The coordination of these estimates into a well-balanced program for the business as a whole. 3. The preparation of reports showing...... a comparison between the actual and the estimated performance, and the revision of the original plans when these reports show that such a revision is necessary. As can be seen from the statement budgetary control includes at the same time a planning and coordination mechanism for actions and performance ex...

  5. Groundwater and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Kukurić, N.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Bhaduri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans abstract two hundred times more groundwater than oil, annually. Ironically, the role of groundwater in water management and supply is underappreciated, partially due to its invisibility. By conducting a literature survey and investigating groundwater information databases, this chapter answer

  6. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  7. Myth as History, History as Myth: Family and Church Among Italo-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Michael M.

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that the history of white ethnics has been written far too long as the story of disorganization and disintegration. Argues that the themes of rebirth and creativity should be explored, discarding the myth of the American as a new man emerging after stripping away Old World traditions and institutions. (Author/RJ)

  8. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  9. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  10. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  11. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  12. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  13. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  14. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  15. Mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates from a Soil-Water-Balance model of the Appalachian Plateaus, 1980 through 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program study of Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates for...

  16. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to "make biology easier to engineer," is routinely described as leading to an increase in the "dual-use" threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be "used" for peaceful purposes or "misused" for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the "de-skilling" of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five "myths" that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these "myths" play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a "promissory" field of research and as an "emerging technology" in need of governance.

  17. The myth of the state, or the state's religious legitimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Martin Edsman

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available The myth of the state is used for legitimating certain actions. For example, the ideologist of National Socialism, A. Rosenberg, used the term myth for the belief or conception of life which was to sustain the new state. The Third Reich's myth was the superiority and glory of the Aryan' race. In addition, Hitler compared the requisite official ideology or philosophy to a religion. It must be intolerant like a religion; it demanded total submission, organization and devotion to struggle. Even Hitler's comrade in arms, Mussolini, used similar language, although the substance was partially different. Thus in a speech at Naples in 1922, Mussolini said: "We have created our myth. The myth is a faith, it is passion. It is not necessary that it shall be a reality. It is a reality by the fact that it is a goad, a hope, a faith, that it is courage. Our myth is the nation, our myth is the greatness of the nation ! In the Third World, besides native traditions, there are ideas taken from the Christian or secularized West. The first type of appropriation may have taken place long ago or in our own time. Within Islam, an offshoot from Judaism and Christianity, the theocratic consciousness is highly evident. The holder of political power is the instrument of God and shall therefore be obeyed. The ruler, on the other hand, shall consult his subjects, and the believers shall do the same among themselves and assist each other in word and deed.

  18. The Myths and Realities of Hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D Beaton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemochromatosis is a common genetic condition and yet there are still a number of misperceptions surrounding the diagnosis and management of this condition. Hemochromatosis affects both men and women. Typical patients do not have alcoholism or viral hepatitis, and often have normal liver enzymes. Clinical expression is highly variable. Genetic testing is widely available and particularly useful in family studies. Hemochromatosis can be readily diagnosed and treated. The purpose of the present review is to address the medical myths and misconceptions of hemochromatosis.

  19. The 2016 Presidential Election: Reality vs. Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Deborah B

    2016-01-01

    Politics in a democracy requires governance through debate. Nurses are an important part of the voting public and we need to assess our own anger, expectations, and values for this election. Recognizing four myths during this election season can improve the political conversation. This conversation must acknowledge different groups, interests, and opinions and then seek ways to balance or reconcile those interests. Using this as a mental model to define our politics rather than succumbing to divisive rhetoric, we can take a major step toward building a better political system.

  20. The Biggest Myth in Spatial Econometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. LeSage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is near universal agreement that estimates and inferences from spatial regression models are sensitive to particular specifications used for the spatial weight structure in these models. We find little theoretical basis for this commonly held belief, if estimates and inferences are based on the true partial derivatives for a well-specified spatial regression model. We conclude that this myth may have arisen from past applied work that incorrectly interpreted the model coefficients as if they were partial derivatives, or from use of misspecified models.

  1. HRM and culture: history, ritual, and myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, W L

    1984-01-01

    The concept of organizational culture is here applied to the practice of human resource management. Reasons for the current emphasis on culture as an organizational metaphor are suggested. Cultural indicators which have diagnostic value for human resource professionals include organizational usage of symbols, rituals, ideologies, language, stores, myths, relationships, and humor. Examples of these indicators of culture are drawn from a variety of HRM practices and functions to explore the implications of each indicator. Alternative strategies are presented for improving the management of organizational change through sensitivity to cultural impact and better utilization of existing cultural realities.

  2. Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2008-01-01

    @@ Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field.The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language.Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be taught,learners will acquire them on their own,or if the structures are taught,the lessons that ensue will he boring.Consequently,communicative and proficiency-based teaching approaches sometimes unduly limit grammar instruction.Of the many claims about grammar that deserve to be called myths,this digest will challenge ten.

  3. 10 myths of healthcare business valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeson, J David; Kaplan, Karin Chernoff

    2008-10-01

    *Acceptance of common myths regarding business valuations can undermine a hospital's efforts to successfully negotiate deals with physicians. *Hospitals need to clearly understand the nature of fair market value (FMV), the use of multiples, the "guideline company technique," whether the FMV can be based on acute care revenue stream, the physician compensation model used in the valuation, and the applicability of the physician's historical production level. *Other matters that warrant careful consideration include whether to tax effect, whether to pay for goodwill, and whether obsolescence can be accounted for in the valuation.

  4. DS-777 Spatial Location of Gages with Total Flow and estimated Base Flow, organized by Seasonal Stress Periods for the Development Simulation Period for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Baseflow is the portion of streamflow derived from groundwater flow. It is an important component of the groundwater budget, and can be estimated using known total...

  5. Groundwater availability of the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Hart, Rheannon M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for agricultural and municipal uses in the Mississippi embayment. Arkansas ranks first in the Nation for rice and third for cotton production, with both crops dependent on groundwater as a major source of irrigation requirements. Multiple municipalities rely on the groundwater resources to provide water for industrial and public use, which includes the city of Memphis, Tennessee. The demand for the groundwater resource has resulted in groundwater availability issues in the Mississippi embayment including: (1) declining groundwater levels of 50 feet or more in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in parts of eastern Arkansas from agricultural pumping, (2) declining groundwater levels of over 360 feet over the last 90 years in the confined middle Claiborne aquifer in southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana from municipal pumping, and (3) litigation between the State of Mississippi and a Memphis water utility over water rights in the middle Claiborne aquifer. To provide information to stakeholders addressing the groundwater-availability issues, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program supported a detailed assessment of groundwater availability through the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS). This assessment included (1) an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time through the use of groundwater budgets, (2) development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends, and (3) application of statistical tools to evaluate the importance of individual observations within a groundwater-monitoring network. An estimated 12 million acre-feet per year (11 billion gallons per day) of groundwater was pumped in 2005 from aquifers in the Mississippi embayment. Irrigation constitutes the largest groundwater use, accounting for approximately 10 million acre-feet per year (9 billion gallons per day) in 2000 from the Mississippi

  6. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance.

  7. The European Union’s Institutionalisation of Symbols and Myths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    that in the wake of the recent crises of European integration, the EU institutions are weaving together different myths into a new narrative as symbolised by the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth launched in 2010. The strategy plays on the myth of economic Europe through reference...... to smart growth with more effective investments in education, research and innovation. But at the same time the strategy also mobilises around the myth of green Europe with an emphasis on sustainable growth with targets for a resource efficient, greener and more competitive economy. Thirdly the strategy...

  8. Myths about older people's use of information and communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandke, Hartmut; Sengpiel, Michael; Sönksen, Malte

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses six myths common in the field of 'human-computer interaction (HCI) and older people'. These myths are widespread among computer scientists, engineers and programmers, as well as among the general public and even older individuals themselves. We can define these myths as follows. (1) Just wait and see. Future generations of older people will use computers without problems. This myth differs from those following, as it may lead to a (dangerous) conclusion of avoidance and inactivity by integrating myths 2-6. If the other myths are accepted as being true and one assumes that the problems will eventually solve themselves, it might not seem worthwhile to expend any effort on 'universal design' for older people's use of information and communication technology (ICT). However, we argue that if we do not actively and properly counteract these myths, we will perpetuate them and their grave consequences. (2) Older people are not interested in using computers. They are unaware of computer capabilities. (3) Older people consider computers as useless and unnecessary. (4) Older people lack the physical capabilities to use ICT. (5) Older people simply cannot understand interactive computing technology. (6) You can't teach an old dog new tricks. The problem of HCI for older people is that they do not learn to use new technologies and interaction techniques. In discussing these myths, we demonstrate that each one contains a grain of truth. However, the myths are improperly overgeneralized and, therefore, often wrong. Such myths are problematic. Designers and engineers often accept them as truths and neglect older users and/or apply information and communication technologies in an age-discriminating manner. Furthermore, the myths are problematic as they lead older people to avoid computer usage (i.e. a self-fulfilling prophecy). We present evidence to support the notion that these myths may often be largely - although not completely - wrong. We then demonstrate

  9. Fibroadenoma in the male breast: Truth or Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Puneet; Kohli, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Truth or myth is seldom encountered in the practice of surgery, especially in cases of breast diseases. Yet, even after thousands of years of treating breast disease by surgeons/healers, fibroadenoma in the male breast seems to be a myth, due to the absence of fibro-glandular tissue. We wish to break this myth by our own experience as well as other studies by others all over the world, and unveil the truth that fibroadenoma in the male breast is a definitive entity and has a prevalence among the vast spectrum of breast diseases.

  10. Nutrient budget in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanova, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Methods to calculate nutrient budgets in forest and grassland ecosystems are analyzed on the basis of a large number of published materials and original data. New estimates of the belowground production in forest ecosystems with due account for the growth of fine roots are suggested. Nutrient retranslocation from senescent plant tissues to growing plant tissues and nutrient leaching from the forest canopy are discussed. The budgets of major nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) in tundra, forest, and steppe ecosystems are calculated. Nutrient cycles in two forest ecosystems—a coniferous stand dominated by Picea abies and a broad-leaved stand dominated by Quercus robur—are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the more intensive turnover of nutrients in the oak stand is also characterized by a more closed character of the nutrient cycles.

  11. Summer Mean Enhanced Vegetation Index for the Diamond Valley Flow System Groundwater Discharge Area, Central Nevada, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  12. See-Through Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A more transparent budget is needed to keep track of fiscal expenditures Just what was the massive 3 trillion yuan in revenue collected by the Chinese Government last fiscal year used for? This is a big question swirling around the conversation tables of a nation eager for answers. Most Chinese people are now increasingly aware of the right to know how governments at all levels spend their money and are

  13. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  14. Groundwater Management under Meteorological Drought Conditions in Aleshtar Plain, Lorestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani Motlagh, M.; Ghasemian, D.; Winter, C.; Taie Semiromi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of precipitation causes low soil moisture content and low groundwater recharge. The resulting shortage in precipitation propagates through the hydrological system, causing a drought in different segments of the hydrological system. The aim of this study was to provide efficient groundwater management techniques during drought situations in Aleshtar plain located in Lorestan province, Iran. With the purpose of finding solutions during drought conditions, first of all a groundwater model was constructed using MODFLOW with historical groundwater levels recorded from October 1982 to September 2010. By studying precipitation fluctuation over several times, four meteorological drought scenarios including wet, normal, moderate and severe drought were considered and then each drought option was imposed to the model separately and the reaction of aquifer was forecasted by both groundwater budget and level. Results showed that the groundwater budget will be dwindling under normal condition in which the plain receives the average precipitation. Similarly, the groundwater level and water balance would be decreasing under moderate and severe drought situations so that the groundwater budget is expected to be reduced 22.24 and 33.21 Mm3 under moderate and severe drought conditions respectively if it is extended for one hydrological year. Groundwater management techniques like cutting the groundwater abstraction by 38 percent will alleviate the impacts of normal condition and moderate drought while combined scenario consisting of reducing of the groundwater utilization to 38 percent and recharging the aquifer artificially will work and as a result, not only the dropping of the groundwater level will be controlled but it also becomes considerably positive. For instance, under the combined scenario, the groundwater balance will be raised up to 15.34 Mm3 in the case of one year long severe drought.

  15. Market Myths and Facts - the Ontario Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorey, S.

    2007-07-01

    The world has learned much about electricity markets and what they can and can't do over the past few years, but some myths persist. Why they persist is a subject for those who study politics, interests and influence. This paper provides a perspective on myths which have affected the reliable and economic delivery of electricity to customers, particularly with respect to transmission. Hydro One effectively provides the transmission network for the Province of Ontario, Canada. As Hydro One is a wires company, the paper is not intended to address the issues which affect the generation or conservation sectors of the industry, except where they directly relate to the wires. The proposition of this paper is that electricity transmission is best treated as an essential public good. Transmission as a market participant and a traded commodity has generally not worked with respect to assuring that the system continues to be developed to meet the basic need of customers for reliable and affordable electricity. (auth)

  16. The myth of the Humanities in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Maria Terricabras

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Denying from the start that Humanities are in crisis, the author examines certain aspects of this statement, reflecting on what is meant by stating that the Humanities are in crisis, arguing for the growing interest in human sciences and looking more closely at the concept of myth and its use. From this basis, he examines the aim of this myth of the crisis in Humanities and reaches the conclusion that it may be used to discredit the Humanities as a knowledge system that stands alone and to subordinate them to science and technology and the principles of use and profitability controlled by power.Faced with this, Terricabras wonders how the debate on Humanities can be opened today whilst avoiding the error of identifying the Humanities in terms of the arts and creating conflict between the arts and the sciences, given that society, as it becomes more scientific and technological, needs more study into language, communication, history, philosophy, ethics, etc. This line of thought brings us ultimately to his recommending that, in contrary to the prejudices of specialisation, global understanding and a humanistic education be proposed which does not exclude mathematics, physics, biology or technology, as it is in the interrelation and the understanding of the difference that we can reencounter the sense of humanity.

  17. Myths and realities of electronics maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas H

    2008-06-01

    The author presents and discusses discoveries and developments contributing to enhanced electronics maintenance performance. This body of research is viewed from the vantage point of Nick Bond's 1970 Ely Award-winning article in Human Factors, "Some Persistent Myths About Military Electronics Maintenance." Bond identified a set of myths and summarized research that not only produced information and techniques leading to demonstrably improved maintenance performance but also exploded many unfounded beliefs that were commonly held before the research had been conducted and the findings disseminated. The period from 1964 through 1986, as reflected by publications in the journal, was a productive period of research that led to greater understanding of human factors in electronics maintenance and to numerous advances that contributed, ultimately, to more effective maintenance performance. Technological advances, combined with what we learned about maintenance performance, have substantially reduced the maintenance burden and enhanced the maintenance of electronic systems. Some of the principal lessons learned from this research on electronics maintenance apply to understanding the effects of equipment complexity, providing an optimal role for automation, designing more appropriate on-the-job training, and enhancing troubleshooting skills.

  18. The myth of the Humanities in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Maria Terricabras

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Denying from the start that Humanities are in crisis, the author examines certain aspects of this statement, reflecting on what is meant by stating that the Humanities are in crisis, arguing for the growing interest in human sciences and looking more closely at the concept of myth and its use. From this basis, he examines the aim of this myth of the crisis in Humanities and reaches the conclusion that it may be used to discredit the Humanities as a knowledge system that stands alone and to subordinate them to science and technology and the principles of use and profitability controlled by power.Faced with this, Terricabras wonders how the debate on Humanities can be opened today whilst avoiding the error of identifying the Humanities in terms of the arts and creating conflict between the arts and the sciences, given that society, as it becomes more scientific and technological, needs more study into language, communication, history, philosophy, ethics, etc. This line of thought brings us ultimately to his recommending that, in contrary to the prejudices of specialisation, global understanding and a humanistic education be proposed which does not exclude mathematics, physics, biology or technology, as it is in the interrelation and the understanding of the difference that we can reencounter the sense of humanity.

  19. Richard's back: death, scoliosis and myth making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Ann

    2015-12-01

    The body of a mediaeval monarch was always under scrutiny, and Richard III's was no exception. In death, however, his body became subject to new forms of examination and interpretation: stripped naked after the battle of Bosworth, his corpse was carried to Leicester and exhibited before being buried. In 2012, it was rediscovered. The revelation that Richard suffered from scoliosis prompts this article to re-evaluate the historical sources about Richard's physique and his posthumous reputation. This article argues that Richard's death and his myth as 'crookback' are inextricably linked and traces attitudes to spinal curvature in the early modern period. It also considers how Shakespeare represented Richard as deformed, and aspects of performance history which suggest physical vulnerability. It then considers Richard's scoliosis from the perspective of medical history, reviewing classical accounts of scoliosis and arguing that Richard was probably treated with a mixture of axial traction and pressure. It demonstrates from the evidence of Richard's medical household that he was well placed to receive hands-on therapies and considers in particular the role of his physician and surgeon, William Hobbes. Finally, it shows how the case of Richard III demonstrates the close relationship between politics and medicine in the period and the contorted process of historical myth making.

  20. Dementia Care: Confronting Myths in Clinical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitch, Shirley M; Meadows, Charles; Patton-Tackett, Eva; Yingling, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Every day, patients with dementia, their families, and their physicians face the enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible. While there are innumerable myths about dementia and its causes and treatments, we are going to focus on the most common false claims or misunderstandings which we hear in our Internal Medicine practice at Marshall Health. We offer suggestions for busy practitioners approaching some of the more common issues with patients and families in a clinic setting.

  1. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  2. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  3. Mythe et chant rituel chez les Sharanahua Sharanahua myths and ritual chants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Déléage

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le problème des relations qu’entretiennent les mythes et les rituels est ici réévalué à partir d’une perspective linguistique et épistémologique. Un mythe et un chant chamanique sharanahua (Amazonie occidentale partageant un même contenu narratif sont comparés de manière détaillée. On y observe à l’œuvre trois procédés de « ritualisation » du discours mythique : une structuration poétique du langage, une opacification du lexique et une modification du marquage évidentiel des énoncés. L’étude de chacune de ces techniques offre un aperçu sur les différentes règles d’usage de ces deux savoirs traditionnels. Ce résultat constitue un premier pas dans l’élaboration d’une théorie des conditions de transmission du savoir traditionnel.The problem of the relationship between myths and rituals is re-evaluated from a linguistic and epistemological perspective. A myth and a chant (of the shamanic Sharanahua of Occidental Amazonia, sharing the same narrative content are compared in a detailed manner. One observes in them the workings of three processes of mythical discourse “ritualisation”: a poetic structuring of language, an opacification of the lexicon and a modification of the wordings’ evidential marking. Studying each of these techniques offers a glimpse of the different usage rules applying to these two types of traditional knowledge. This result constitutes a first step in the elaboration of a theory of traditional knowledge transmission conditions.

  4. Lies We Live By: Some Academic Myths and Their Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Reece

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that seven beliefs about college teaching prevalent among academic people--e.g., it is impossible to teach people to teach and undergraduate students are generally stupid and unmotivated--are all myths. (Author/RM)

  5. The early history of methadone. Myths and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defalque, Ray J; Wright, Amos J

    2007-10-01

    This review refutes some enduring myths surrounding the discovery of methadone and presents the known accurate facts of its creation and its early development in Germany, the United States and Great Britain from 1939 to the early 1960's.

  6. Ancient astronomy an encyclopedia of cosmologies and myth

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggles, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Long before astronomy was a science, humans used the stars to mark time, navigate, organize planting and dramatize myths. This encyclopaedia draws on archaeological evidence and oral traditions to reveal how prehistoric humans perceived the skies and celestial phenomena.

  7. The Genesis of Myth in V. Solovyov’s Early Writings. Myth as Theogon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaganova Natal'ia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Vladimir Solovyov’s works myth is presented in two ways: as the authorial myth, which is a part of the future “universal religion”, and as an object of theoretical refl ection in the process of philosophical and religious research. In both cases myth is understood as an actual process of theogony, and so Solovyov’s “religious studies” turn out to be a part of his religious metaphysics. The philosopher marks three periods in mythological process: uranic – solar – phallic, and maintains such development to be a law. Solovyov’s theory of the origin of religion is based upon the idea of the essential analogy between cosmic and theogonic processes. These two processes are different ways in which the same conscious principle of the world manifests itself; in Solovyov’s religious doctrine this principle is described as the “universal soul” which strives for the divine unity. The theory of mythological process by Solovyov is compared with a similar conception of bishop Chrysanthus (Retivtsev, who also appeals to primeval monotheism as the basic form of religion. In contrast to Solovyov’s theory, Chrysanthus understands the genesis of the ancient religion as a development of tribal psychology, which is localized entirely in the consciousness of a collective religious subject.

  8. Myths about diabetes and its treatment in North Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Mridula; Kishore, Jugal

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myths prevailing about diabetes in the society have become a major hurdle for its proper treatment and control. AIM: To find out about various myths related to diabetes and its treatment in the population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital of Delhi in 2008. 124 diabetic patients attending the regular diabetic clinic, 78 people who accompanied these patients and 214 non-diabetic people were included in the study. A pre-tested inte...

  9. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  10. A model to estimate hydrological processes and water budget in an irrigation farm pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Joel O. Paz; Gary Feng; John J. Read; Ardeshir Adeli; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2017-01-01

    With increased interest to conserve groundwater resources without reducing crop yield potential, more on-farm water storage ponds have been constructed in recent years in USA and around the world. However, the hydrological processes, water budget, and environmental benefits and consequences of these ponds have not yet been fully quantified. This study developed a...

  11. Changes in groundwater recharge under projected climate in the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Understanding groundwater-budget components, particularly groundwater recharge, is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the future. This study quantifies projected changes in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) groundwater recharge from recent historical (1950-2015) through future (2016-2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections. Simulated future groundwater recharge in the UCRB is generally expected to be greater than the historical average in most decades. Increases in groundwater recharge in the UCRB are a consequence of projected increases in precipitation, offsetting reductions in recharge that would result from projected increased temperatures.

  12. Changes in groundwater recharge under projected climate in the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Understanding groundwater-budget components, particularly groundwater recharge, is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the future. This study quantifies projected changes in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) groundwater recharge from recent historical (1950–2015) through future (2016–2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections. Simulated future groundwater recharge in the UCRB is generally expected to be greater than the historical average in most decades. Increases in groundwater recharge in the UCRB are a consequence of projected increases in precipitation, offsetting reductions in recharge that would result from projected increased temperatures.

  13. Nutrition myths - the factor influencing the quality of children's diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Mrosková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the influence of parents' belief in nutrition myths on the frequency of their serving certain foods to their children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Survey carried out with 297 respondents - parents of children aged 5-18 years. The data collection took place between September 2013 and December 2014. The questionnaire focussed on 14 nutrition myths related to selected foods (milk, dairy products, meat, offal, fruit, vegetables, eggs, fish, legumes, soya, and flour dishes. At the same time, the parents reported the frequency of their serving the monitored foods to their children. In the statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used. Results: For nine nutrition myths we found significant negative coefficients between a certain nutrition myth and the frequency of the serving of the food. The nutrition myths related to the consumption of fish (r = -0.328, eggs (r = -0.203, soya (r = -0.301; -0.290, offal (r = -0.155, meat (r = -0.128, milk (r = -0.272; -0.254, and fruit/vegetables (r = -0.104. Conclusion: The belief in nutrition myths appears to be a determinant modifying parental behaviour and subsequently the quality of children's diets.

  14. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  15. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  16. Wendigos, Eye Killers, Skinwalkers: The Myth of the American Indian Vampire and American Indian “Vampire” Myths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corinna Lenhardt

    2016-01-01

    ... Meyer’s sparkling beau, Edward Cullen. In fact, the Euro-American vampire myth has long become one of the most reliable and bestselling fun-rides the entertainment industries around the world have to offer...

  17. Le mythe comme détour dans Twelfth Night The Myth as a Diversion in Twelfth Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Mauré

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Being only rarely mentioned in the text, the myth might seem an anecdotal and trivial detail. The study of the myth of Echo and Narcissus in Twelfth Night shows us however that it is a decisive element in the reading and the understanding of the play. The references are numerous and often implicit. The characters themselves alternately play the roles of Echo and Narcissus. The play is structured as if it were a mirror in which the characters endlessly duplicate each other and echo their own words. Shakespeare plays with the different versions of the myth that he often blends with subtlety. For the sake of comedy, he dares to parody and demythologize Ovid’s story. The myth seems to divert our attention from the direction of the text but closer analysis suggests the reverse and invites us to find the meaning of the play which can be seen as a real labyrinth.

  18. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  19. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  20. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  1. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  2. Le mythe du bon sauvage Hottentot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-J Boisacq

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Two themes in the Voyage á l'intérieur de I'Afrique par le Cap de Bonne-Espérance by Francois le Vaillant, 1790, attracted our attention: firstly, the criticism of the colonial system, modelled on Denis Diderot's criticism, and secondly, the description of the Hottentot people according to the mythical vision of the tribes as suggested by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. A brief explanation of Diderot's anti-colonial ideas and of the myth of the ‘noble Savage' as suggested by Rousseau, will be followed by a critical analysis of the Voyage ... so as to prove that this work is in perfect agreement with the ideologies existing in France during the second half of the 18th century and in line with the reformist notions of the thinkers who reconcile humanity and self-interest.

  3. Binukot at Nabukot: From Myth to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christine Muyco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-old tales, epic chants, and even contemporary television soap operas tell about the binukot, the well-kept maiden of the Panay Bukidnon, the highland inhabitants of Panay, Philippines. This article examines the binukot through myths and practices found in the people’s expressive culture: from the sugidanon (epic chants/chanting, to the tigbabayi (solo woman’s dance of the binanog (hawk-eagle music and dance tradition, to panubok (traditional embroidery, where the binukot is illustrated or exemplified. From various representations, the article moves to essay the binukot’s actual practice, including her present life living as a nabukot,1 a transformed status she gains when she gets married. I interlace my ethnographic observations regarding these states as part of a reconsideration of feminism from both Western and indigenous perspectives.

  4. Western Modernism and the Myth of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Weinel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available California at the beginning of the twentieth century presented a unique cultural and physical landscape in which the seeds of a modern architecture defined by space could flourish. The complex reasons for this flowering are rooted fundamentally in the climate and topography of coastal Southern California and the apparently limitless possibilities it offered to designers of buildings and landscapes. Virtually everyone, from the earliest explorers on, saw California as a "promised land" where their particular vision of a better world could be realised (Starr, 1973: 11. The attraction was the possibility presented by the landscape for transformation to ranch, farm, orchard or garden. California was abundant, spacious, and above all, hospitable. It was ripe for the development of the attitudes toward the environment that I am collecting under the title, the "Myth of Nature".

  5. The symbolism and myth surrounding nurses' uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M

    This article addresses nurses' uniform from the perspective of the symbolic, myth, legend and competing discourse. The analysis touches upon why nurses working with people who have learning disabilities discarded the nurses' uniform and why other nurses may consider doing so, particularly if suitable alternatives exist. The analysis draws from various areas of nursing practice, including the nursing of disabled people, elderly people and people with learning disabilities. Nurses' uniform is revealed as a totem of considerable potency such that to wear a uniform in just any setting or context has to be cautioned. The practicalities of protective clothing are addressed. A differentiation is drawn between uniform and protective clothing such that much of the undesirable symbolism associated with uniform may be discarded with a consequent enhancement of the image of the nurse.

  6. Freshman 15: valid theory or harmful myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melody A; Jones, Amy L

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the perception that freshmen gain 15 pounds during their 1st year of college is related to either actual or perceived weight gain. Forty-nine incoming freshmen at a small liberal arts college completed the study by filling out questionnaires and health data at the beginning and end of their 1st year on campus. The findings revealed no significant weight gain at the end of the year. The "Freshman 15" myth was found to play an important role in perpetuating negative attitudes toward weight. Freshmen who were concerned about gaining 15 pounds were more likely to think about their weight, have a poorer body image than others, and categorize themselves as being overweight.

  7. Dispelling Five Myths about E-books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Gall

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Some considered 2000 the year of the e-book, and due tothe dot-com bust, that could have been the format’s highwater mark. However, the first quarter of 2004 saw thegreatest number of e-book purchases ever with more than$3 million in sales. A 2002 consumer survey found that67 percent of respondents wanted to read e-books; 62 percent wanted access to e-books through a library.Unfortunately, the large amount of information writtenon e-books has begun to develop myths around their use,functionality, and cost. The author suggests that thesemyths may interfere with the role of libraries in helpingto determine the future of the medium and access to it.Rather than fixate on the pros and cons of current versions of e-book technology, it is important for librarians tostay engaged and help clarify the role of digital documents in the modern library.

  8. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Kirby, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The water resources of Rush Valley were assessed during 2008-2010 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater-flow system and updating the groundwater budget. Surface-water resources within Rush Valley are limited and are generally used for agriculture. Groundwater is the principal water source for most other uses including supplementing irrigation. Most groundwater withdrawal in Rush Valley is from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer where conditions are generally unconfined near the mountain front and confined at lower altitudes near the valley center. Productive aquifers also occur in fractured bedrock along the valley margins and beneath the basin-fill deposits in some areas.

  9. Disaster myths after the Great East Japan Disaster and the effects of information sources on belief in such myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Fujio

    2014-07-01

    This study examines how well disaster myths were rooted in Japanese people after the Great East Japan Disaster, as well as the effects of information sources on these misconceptions. Five common disaster myths are covered (panic, psychological shock, looting, increases in the crime rate, and material convergence), and information sources were divided into two types: public and private. Three hundred participants were asked how much credit they would give the five myths and which information sources they would rely on in post-disaster situations. The results found that, as in Western societies, these disaster myths do exist among Japanese people. Also, only public sources of disaster information, such as television and Internet news websites, had some effect on the degree of belief in disaster myths, while private sources, such as one's family, friends, and social networking sites, did not. Factors affecting the degree to which people believe in disaster myths are also discussed. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  10. Study Discounts Myth of 'Patient Zero' in U.S. AIDS Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Discounts Myth of 'Patient Zero' in U.S. AIDS Crisis Genetic analysis of 40-year-old blood ... in North America of the virus that causes AIDS. One myth already debunked by the research: That ...

  11. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Gleeson, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater--the world's largest freshwater resource--is critically important for irrigated agriculture and hence for global food security. Yet depletion is widespread in large groundwater systems in both semi-arid and humid regions of the world. Excessive extraction for irrigation where groundwater is slowly renewed is the main cause of the depletion, and climate change has the potential to exacerbate the problem in some regions. Globally aggregated groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, and has accelerated markedly since the mid-twentieth century. But its impacts on water resources are more obvious at the regional scale, for example in agriculturally important parts of India, China and the United States. Food production in such regions can only be made sustainable in the long term if groundwater levels are stabilized. To this end, a transformation is required in how we value, manage and characterize groundwater systems. Technical approaches--such as water diversion, artificial groundwater recharge and efficient irrigation--have failed to balance regional groundwater budgets. They need to be complemented by more comprehensive strategies that are adapted to the specific social, economic, political and environmental settings of each region.

  12. Greenhouse gas budgets for grasslands on peatlands and other organic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Augustin, Jürgen; Bechtold, Michel; Beetz, Sascha; Beyer, Colja; Eickenscheidt, Tim; Drösler, Matthias; Förster, Christoph; Freibauer, Annette; Giebels, Michael; Glatzel, Stephan; Heinichen, Jan; Hoffmann, Mathias; Höper, Heinrich; Leiber-Sauheitl, Katharina; Rosskopf, Niko; Zeitz, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Grassland is the major land use type for peatlands in Germany and other European countries, but strongly varies in its intensity regarding the groundwater level and the agricultural management. These parameters are known to influence the GHG emissions. Furthermore, little is known about the emissions from grasslands on soils which are rich in organic matter, but cannot be classified as peatlands (e.g. Histic Gleysols). We synthesized 116 annual GHG budgets for 46 different sites in 11 German peatlands. Carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange and ecosystem respiration), nitrous oxide and methane fluxes were measured with transparent and opaque manual chambers. Land management ranged from very intensive use with up to five cuts per year to re-wetted grasslands with only one cut late in the year. Besides the GHG fluxes, biomass yield, fertilisation, groundwater level, climatic data, vegetation composition and soil properties were measured. Overall, we found a large variability of the total GHG budget ranging from small uptakes (- 6 t CO2- equivalents/(ha yr)) to very high losses (74 t CO2-equivalents/(ha yr)). At all sites, the GHG budget was dominated by carbon dioxide, generally followed by biomass export. Surprisingly, there was no difference between the average GHG budget of the peatlands and of the other organic soils. Thus, the GHG budget did not depend on soil organic carbon concentration or stock. Generally, the groundwater table depth was the best predictor for GHG emissions at each individual peatland, but a poor overall predictor. For all sites, the GHG budget was explained best by the average nitrogen stock above the mean groundwater level.

  13. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  14. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  15. "Groundhog Day, Deja Vu," and the Myth of the Eternal Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeltz, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Reveals that through the use of the movie "Groundhog Day," students in humanities courses can grasp Friedrich Nietzsche's myth of eternal recurrence; the myth addresses the question of what if everything that occurred in one's life occurred again just as it happened before. Discusses the similarities between Nietzsche's myth and the…

  16. The Myth Incarnate: Recoupling Processes, Turmoil, and Inhabited Institutions in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The study of institutional myths has been central to organizational sociology, cultural sociology, and the sociology of education for 30 years. This article examines how the myth concept has been used and develops neglected possibilities by asking: What happens when myths become incarnate, and how does this occur? In other words, what happens when…

  17. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  18. Exploring the emotional appeal of green and social Europe myths among pan-European Union organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to advance European integration research by exploring the emotional appeal of political myths in day-to-day EU politics with a special focus on the reception and reproduction of myths among pan-European Union non-governmental organisations. I investigate myths associated with ‘EUR...... policy positions and continually mobilise desires around utopian ideals to secure organisational survival....

  19. There Still Be Dragons: Racial Disparity in School Funding Is No Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Raegen; Epstein, Diana

    2011-01-01

    It's hard to debunk a myth that's not a myth, but Jason Richwine of the Heritage Foundation has given it a try in his recent backgrounder, "The Myth of Racial Disparities in Public School Financing." The report suggests that public education spending is broadly similar across racial and ethnic groups, and it has found a predictably receptive…

  20. The Diversity Myth: Multiculturalism and Political Intolerance on Campus. [Second Edition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, David O.; Thiel, Peter A.

    The "diversity myth" is the myth that universities are doing a good job promoting diversity on campus. Universities in America have promoted this "diversity myth" which belies the actual state of affairs in the nation's schools. Instead, universities have fostered conformity on campus, and stifled true diversity. This document, sponsored by the…

  1. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  2. "Groundhog Day, Deja Vu," and the Myth of the Eternal Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeltz, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Reveals that through the use of the movie "Groundhog Day," students in humanities courses can grasp Friedrich Nietzsche's myth of eternal recurrence; the myth addresses the question of what if everything that occurred in one's life occurred again just as it happened before. Discusses the similarities between Nietzsche's myth and the…

  3. Stereotypical Beliefs about Cyber Bullying: An Exploratory Study in Terms of Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampridis, Efthymios

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates stereotypical beliefs about cyber bullying in terms of myths, a well applied concept in the study of beliefs concerning sexual aggression. The level of acceptance of cyber bullying myths (low vs. high) and the relation of myth acceptance to a number of demographic variables such as gender, field of studies, frequency…

  4. Myth in an Age of Information: Can We Synthesize "Truth" and "Fact"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that studying myth, and what it can tell of the history of people's perceptions of values, will provide a basis for future growth. Provides various examples from literature that define myth and relate the power of myth in modern society. (AEF)

  5. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  6. Myths about diabetes and its treatment in North Indian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mridula; Kishore, Jugal

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myths prevailing about diabetes in the society have become a major hurdle for its proper treatment and control. AIM: To find out about various myths related to diabetes and its treatment in the population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital of Delhi in 2008. 124 diabetic patients attending the regular diabetic clinic, 78 people who accompanied these patients and 214 non-diabetic people were included in the study. A pre-tested interview schedule with 48 questions was used to get information about sociodemographic characteristics and myths about diabetes. Data was analyzed by Epi info software version 3.2. RESULTS: The most common myth in the population (22%) was that eating more sugar causes diabetes. Others were: diabetes can only occur in old age, soaking feet in water can help control blood sugar, diabetes is a result of past sins and is cured by spiritual treatment. Myths were significantly more common in females, non-diabetics, less educated group. There was a slightly higher prevalence of myths in Muslim population. 12.1% of diabetics were taking herbal medicines. 15.9% of the diabetics and 26% of non diabetics were unaware that complications could occur if diabetes was uncontrolled. 18.5% of diabetics and 30.1% of non-diabetics were unaware about role of diet and lifestyle measures in control of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of myths about diabetes is high in North Indian population which could be associated with poor early health seeking behavior and poor compliance with treatment. PMID:20165650

  7. The European Union Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current budgetary system of the EU, its features and the differences in it from the budgets of nation states, particularly from the standpoint of budgetary revenue and expenditure. Below there is an analysis of the system of the redistribution of EU budgetary resources via the Structural Funds, leading to different net positions of the member states in the use of budgetary resources. The object of the system is to achieve the maximum economic and social cohesion within the EU. The article points out that processes of EU enlargement and the creation of a new “financial perspective” will lead to many problems in the fulfilment of these objectives.

  8. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  9. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  10. RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS AND ENTITY BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on relationships between responsibility centers and budgets supposes examining the influence of management control over the entity management structures. Thus, responsibility centers help to streamline the management structure and ensure the implementation of the budget system into practice. Budgeting refers to the transformation of financial plans into monetary units. The pragmatic approach of the relationship between responsibility centers and budgets is analyzed on the basis of Romanian entities in the regulated market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The fact that entities which show the management structure and at the same time show the income and expense budget makes us claim that both have an important role to play in implementing the entity strategies.

  11. The goldfish syndrome. Human nature and the posthuman myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2014-01-01

    Posthumanism is a myth. This does not mean to say that it constitutes a narrative devoid of any foundation, inspired by mere fantasy, far from it. The myth, as shown by Ries, Eliade and Lévi Strauss on several occasions, is based on something real and true, and appeals to conceptual structures that keep it away from a mere scientific report: having had to do with the essence of things, it does not even have a purpose of classification in a given place or time. In this sense, the posthuman myth lives outside of time and out of the common space of existence, or perhaps, it lives in its own time and in its own space. Just like the myth, posthumanism lives in consciousness: to prove this assumption, we will discuss in greater depth the spatial and temporal coordinates of posthumanism, as well as its cosmological and anthropological point of view. Once demonstrated its mythical essence, it will therefore be easier to remember how the posthuman myth - despite intending to present itself as a radically innovative and progressive thought, makes no more than re-emerge some coordinates that have always been present in the history of philosophy.

  12. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  13. Hydrologic budget of the Beaverdam Creek basin, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Andreasen, Gordon E.

    1959-01-01

    A hydrologic budget is a statement accounting for the water gains and losses for selected periods in an area. Weekly measurements of precipitation streamflow, surface-water storage, ground-water stage, and soil resistivity were made during a 2year period, April 1, 1950, to March 28, 1952, in the Beaverdam Creek basin, Wicomico County, Md. The hydrologic measurements are summarized in two budgets, a total budget and a ground-water budget, and in supporting tables and graphs. The results of the investigation have some potentially significant applications because they describe a method for determining the annual replenishment of the water supply of a basin and the ways of water disposal under natural conditions. The information helps to determine the 'safe' yield of water in diversion from natural to artificial discharge. The drainage basin of Beaverdam Creek was selected because it appeared to have fewer hydrologic variables than are generally found. However, the methods may prove applicable in many places under a variety of conditions. The measurements are expressed in inches of water over the area of the basin. The equation of the hydrologic cycle is the budget balance: P= R+E+ASW+ delta SW + delta SM + delta GW where P is precipitation; R is runoff; ET is evapotranspiration; delta SW is change in surface-water storage; delta SM is change in soil moisture; and delta GW is change in ground-water storage. In this report 'change' is the final quantity minus the initial quantity and thus is synonymous with 'increase.' Further, ,delta GW= delta H .x Yg, in which delta H is the change in ground-water stage and Yg is the gravity yield, or the specific yield of the sediments as measured during the short periods of declining ground-water levels characteristic of the area. The complex sum of the revised equation P ? R - delta SW ? ET - delta SM, which is equal to delta H. x Yg, has been named the 'infiltration residual'; it is equivalent to ground-water recharge. Two

  14. Le mythe de Babel The Myth of Babel El mito de Babel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dauphiné

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Marqué par le triple sceau de la théologie, de la littérature et de la critique, le mythe de Babel engendre une réflexion sur les fondements de la pensée occidentale. Le texte de la Genèse XI est une source considérable de création et de questionnement qui, de saint Augustin à Joyce ou Perec, demeure particulièrement féconde.As a myth which bears the triple hallmark of theology, literature and criticism, Babel is an opportunity to take into consideration the very foundations of western thought and civilization. The « tale of origins » in Gen. XI has been a source of outstanding creation and questioning which, from saint Augustine to Joyce or Perec, has remained extraordinary fruitful.Como mito que lleva el triple sello de la teología, la literatura y la crítica, Babel permite reflexionar sobre los datos fundamentales del pensamiento y de la literatura occidentales. A partir del « relato de los orígenes » de Génesis XI, han brotado una creación y una interrogación dignas de consideración y siempre, desde San Agustín a Joyce o Perec, ha sido una fuente de inspiración asombrosamente fecunda.

  15. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-11-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These techniques include: achieving active learning, avoiding jargon, employing repetition to ensure comprehension, using captivating demonstrations, cultivating an enthusiastic disposition, and increasing intrinsic motivation to learn. In this content analysis, episodes from the show's 10-year history were examined for these techniques. "MythBusters" represents an untapped source of pedagogical techniques, which science educators may consider availing themselves of in their tireless effort to better reach their students. Physics educators in particular may look to "MythBusters" for inspiration and guidance in how to incorporate these techniques into their own teaching and help their students in the learning process.

  16. Dismantling the Man-Made Myths upholding Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Ruiz, Ismael; Almansa Martínez, Pilar; Alcón Belchí, Carolina

    2017-02-02

    FGM is internationally considered an affront on human rights and an act of violence against women and young girls. Furthermore, it hierarchizes and perpetuates inequality and denies women and girls the right to physical and psychosexual integrity. The aim of this study is to detect the weak points and false premises underlying male justification of FGM and to present demythologization as a health education tool. We used a qualitative methodology with an ethonursing focus via semi-structured individual and group interviews in 25 men associated with FGM. Our results found nine myths and their possible demythologization are presented through the masculine voices of those associated with this tradition. These myths are used as justification by men and women in order to uphold the practice of FGM. Demythologization as a nursing intervention based on reorienting or restructuring models of cultural care allows us to work against the false premises making up the myths which act to protect this tradition.

  17. The myth of hypnosis: the need for remythification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Myths or misconceptions concerning hypnosis are regarded among the major barriers to effective implementation of hypnosis. Contemporary hypnotherapists are expected to elicit patients' misconceptions and to provide explanations that distinguish between mystical and scientific perceptions of hypnosis and that offer a picture of the state of the art of hypnosis. Dealing with misconceptions on a rational and cognitive level seems to have the ability to change a patient's conscious knowledge and understanding of hypnosis. Nevertheless, deeply rooted and emotionally saturated misbeliefs with historical-cultural origins still prevail. This article focuses on the prehypnotic phase of therapy and proposes remythification to deal with the myth of hypnosis. This approach aims to promote the hypnotherapeutic process by utilizing myth-related misconceptions.

  18. Myths in the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gündüz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital tumors constitute a group of diverse lesions with a low incidence in the population. Tumors affecting the eye and ocular adnexa may also secondarily invade the orbit. Lack of accumulation of a sufficient number of cases with a specific diagnosis at various orbital centers, the paucity of prospective randomized studies, animal model studies, tissue bank, and genetic studies led to the development of various myths regarding the diagnosis and treatment of orbital lesions in the past. These myths continue to influence the diagnosis and treatment of orbital lesions by orbital specialists. This manuscript discusses some of the more common myths through case summaries and a review of the literature. Detailed genotypic analysis and genetic classification will provide further insight into the pathogenesis of many orbital diseases in the future. This will enable targeted treatments even for diseases with the same histopathologic diagnosis. Phenotypic variability within the same disease will be addressed using targeted treatments.

  19. Erwin Piscator's Russia's Day: Agitprop between History and Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bregović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of Erwin Piscator as a theatre director is marked by attempts to introduce communist ideology into theatre, which was reflected in various aspects of his theatrical practice. This paper focuses on the agitprop productions staged by his Proletarian Theatre, which propagated the communist narrative of class struggle by the use of an irrational aesthetics. These performances embodied the contradiction that can be found in communist practice, which appealed to the scientifically rational analysis of history as class struggle, but in practice abolished criticism and transformed class struggle into a myth. Piscator’s production of Russia’s Day staged the conflict between the capitalist and the proletarian class according to the scientific analysis of history as class struggle, but the irrational aesthetics of the performance immersed the audience into the staged history, transforming the communist narrative into a myth.Keywords: Erwin Piscator, agitprop, Proletarian Theatre, Russia’s Day, myth, historical materialism, rationality, emotion

  20. Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: the Kobe Bryant case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franiuk, Renae; Seefelt, Jennifer L; Cepress, Sandy L; Vandello, Joseph A

    2008-03-01

    Two studies examine the prevalence and effects of rape myths in the print media covering a real-life case of alleged sexual assault. Study 1 was an archival study of 156 sources from around the country. Articles about the Kobe Bryant case were coded for instances of rape myths, among other variables. Of the articles, 65 mentioned at least one rape myth (with "she's lying" being the single most common myth perpetuated). Study 2 assessed participants' (N = 62) prior knowledge of the Bryant case and exposed them to a myth-endorsing or myth-challenging article about the case. Those exposed to the myth-endorsing article were more likely to believe that Bryant was not guilty and the alleged victim was lying. The implications for victim reporting and reducing sexual assault in general are discussed.

  1. The Birth of Regenerative Myths in Iran’s Mythical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علیرضا مظفری

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The belief in certain fundamental myths in an investigation of different peoples and nations’ mythologies is plausible. These fundamental myths are the origins and prototypes of the more recent ones. There are several reasons why fundamental myths, either or partially, may be forgotten. However, they will never become entirely extinct. Over long periods in history and in the process of dusting the collective unconscious, they will be recreated and reconstructed within other mythical narratives. As an example, one may refer to the reconstruction of “Djam-e Djam” in “Kay Khosrow” myth. Like fitting pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, through examination of more recent mythologies we may put the forgotten parts of the fundamental myths in order to gain access to their essence. In this paper, the mythical account of “Djamshid” has been examined as a fundamental myth for the birth of regenerative myths.

  2. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  3. Water Budget Analysis in Arid Regions, Application to the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Gonzalez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and economic development have impacted the capacity of water resources to meet demands in a number of arid countries. This study focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE where low rainfall, high rate of growth and agricultural development are resulting in a dramatic depletion of groundwater resources and an increased dependence on desalination. A water budget for the region was developed. It represents the variations in groundwater storage as a balance of total precipitation, desalinated water and evapotranspiration. The components of the water budget are obtained from ground observations, documented information, models and remote sensing data, using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites to estimate changes in groundwater storage and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellites and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS data to obtain precipitation and soil moisture respectively. Results show a negative trend of 0.5 cm/year in groundwater levels corresponding to an average decrease of 0.86 km3/year during the study period (2003 to 2012. This negative trend indicates that the aquifers are not being recharged fast enough to compensate for human withdrawals. Most of the precipitation was found to be lost through evapotranspiration. A discussion of the current water budget components is presented and propositions are made for a sustainable use of water resources in the UAE, including a more efficient use of recycled water. This analysis is applicable to other Gulf countries and it can help to determine the optimal allocation of water resources to optimize agricultural productivity.

  4. THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    combating high inflation , experiencing nearly 17% inflation in 2015. The steep decline in fossil fuel prices has hurt Russian budget revenues, and the...19.2 million Russians living in poverty in 2015, or 13.4% of the population, according to Russian Federal Statistics Service.20 Furthermore, capital...demographic crisis. For over 30 years, Russia has maintained negative population trends, most significantly in negative birth rate and low life expectancy.29

  5. A Comparison of Groundwater Storage Using GRACE Data, Groundwater Levels, and a Hydrological Model in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Amber; Brandt, William; Randall, Joshua; Floyd, Bridget; Bourai, Abdelwahab; Newcomer, Michelle; Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measures changes in total water storage (TWS) remotely, and may provide additional insight to the use of well-based data in California's agriculturally productive Central Valley region. Under current California law, well owners are not required to report groundwater extraction rates, making estimation of total groundwater extraction difficult. As a result, other groundwater change detection techniques may prove useful. From October 2002 to September 2009, GRACE was used to map changes in TWS for the three hydrological regions (the Sacramento River Basin, the San Joaquin River Basin, and the Tulare Lake Basin) encompassing the Central Valley aquifer. Net groundwater storage changes were calculated from the changes in TWS for each of the three hydrological regions and by incorporating estimates for additional components of the hydrological budget including precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, snow pack, and surface water storage. The calculated changes in groundwater storage were then compared to simulated values from the California Department of Water Resource's Central Valley Groundwater- Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM) and their Water Data Library (WDL) Geographic Information System (GIS) change in storage tool. The results from the three methods were compared. Downscaling GRACE data into the 21 smaller Central Valley sub-regions included in C2VSIM was also evaluated. This work has the potential to improve California's groundwater resource management and use of existing hydrological models for the Central Valley.

  6. Metaphors and myths in pharmaceutical advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Marjorie

    2013-04-01

    It should come as no surprise that the ancient Greek word for drug, pharmakon, meant remedy. But this same word also meant poison as well as magical charm. We speak of heart attacks and of a long road to recovery. These meanings and phrases are reflective of how society conceives of illness and medical therapies. Metaphors and myths of magic, sports and journey are prevalent in medical terminology and they permeate pharmaceutical advertising. This research investigates the conceptual metaphors that are present in advertisements for pharmaceuticals, both those directed to consumers as well as those directed to physicians, for a broad range of drugs and medical conditions. This research employed a content analysis of advertisements appearing in popular consumer magazines as well as in physician journals and an analysis of online consumer drug reviews. The research concludes with a discussion of the similarities and differences among the conceptual metaphors in consumer versus physician ads, across different medical conditions, and the impact of specific metaphors on consumers' understanding of illness and drug therapies.

  7. Pancreatic cancer and depression: myth and truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various studies reported remarkable high incidence rates of depression in cancer patients compared with the general population. Pancreatic cancer is still one of the malignancies with the worst prognosis and therefore it seems quite logical that it is one of the malignancies with the highest incidence rates of major depression. However, what about the scientific background of this relationship? Is depression in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer just due to the confrontation with a life threatening disease and its somatic symptoms or is depression in this particular group of patients a feature of pancreatic cancer per se? Discussion Several studies provide evidence of depression to precede the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and some studies even blame it for its detrimental influence on survival. The immense impact of emotional distress on quality of life of cancer patients enhances the need for its early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Knowledge about underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is required to provide the optimal therapy. Summary A review of the literature on this issue should reveal which are the facts and what is myth.

  8. [Tattoos and medical imaging: issues and myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Tattooing is characterized by the introduction in the dermis of exogenous pigments to obtain a permanent design. Whether it is a traditional tattoo applied on the skin or a cosmetic one (permanent make-up), its prevalence has boomed for the past 20 years. The increased prevalence of tattooed patients along with medical progresses, in the field of therapeutics or diagnostic means have lead to the discovery of "new" complications and unexpected issues. Medical imaging world has also been affected by the tattoo craze. It has been approximately 20 years when the first issues related to tattooing and permanent make-up aroused. However, cautions and questions as well as anecdotal severe case reports have sometimes led to an over-exaggerated response by some physicians such as the systematic avoidance of RMN imaging for tattooed individuals. This review is intended to summarize the risks but also the "myths" associated with tattoo in the daily practice of the radiologist for RMN, CT scan, mammography, Pet-scan and ultrasound imaging.

  9. The Myth, the Truth, the NASA IRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, M. D.; Flores, M. P.; Neutzler, V. P.; Schlegel, T. T.; Platts, S. H.; Lioyd, C. W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to review research activities involving human subjects to ensure that ethical standards for the care and protection of human subjects have been met and research activities are in compliance with all pertinent federal, state and local regulations as well as NASA policies. NASA IRB's primary role is the protection of human subjects in research studies. Protection of human subjects is the shared responsibility of NASA, the IRB, and the scientific investigators. Science investigators who plan to conduct NASA-funded human research involving NASA investigators, facilities, or funds must submit and coordinate their research studies for review and approval by the NASA IRB prior to initiation. The IRB has the authority to approve, require changes in, or disapprove research involving human subjects. Better knowledge of the NASA IRB policies, procedures and guidelines should help facilitate research protocol applications and approvals. In this presentation, the myths and truths of NASA IRB policies and procedures will be discussed. We will focus on the policies that guide a protocol through the NASA IRB and the procedures that principal investigators must take to obtain required IRB approvals for their research studies. In addition, tips to help ensure a more efficient IRB review will be provided. By understanding the requirements and processes, investigators will be able to more efficiently prepare their protocols and obtain the required NASA IRB approval in a timely manner.

  10. Psychological myths in e-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donald

    2002-11-01

    Traditional education and training has paid scant attention to the psychology of learning. Despite detailed research into motivation, distribution and reinforcement, most current methods of delivery still rely on a supply-led, lecture and classroom-based model that flies in the face of the theory. With e-learning we have a chance to reflect on this gap between theory and practice. E-learning, in the sense of web-based learning, is a new discipline but the psychology of learning has a much longer pedigree. This paper relates some common myths about e-learning back to some major themes in the psychology of learning. Is e-learning faster and more effective? Many people get the wrong learning at the wrong time. Can e-learning help with prerequisite knowledge? Should the learning be massed or distributed, i.e. all at once or little and often? There are also the issues of motivation and cognitive engagement. How can e-learning motivate learners or how can we motivate learners into using this new medium? What type of cognitive engagement is necessary for learning? Traditional 'sheep-dip' methods of learning are poor on reinforcement. Can e-learning help reinforce learning?

  11. China's Developing Arctic Policies: Myths and Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lanteigne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and Far North regions of the world have grown in importance for China's international interests in recent years, and in 2013 China became an observer state in the Arctic Council. Beijing has sought to develop an Arctic policy based on scientific research and partnerships, including in the areas of environmental studies and climate change issues, as well as development and economic issues. As the Arctic gains more international attention due to the effects of ice melting and the possibility of the region becoming a new source of resources, concerns have been raised about a scramble for riches and economic advantages. China, as a rising political and economic power, has been subject to much scrutiny, especially from the West, about its emerging agenda in the Arctic region. Although China is not an Arctic state, the concerns are based on predictions that Beijing is seeking to play a stronger and perhaps even dominant role in the Arctic, and this has led to many misconceptions about China's Arctic policy. The result has been a "clash of identities" between Chinese and Western perceptions, and in order to understand why these diverging views have appeared, it is necessary to first examine the origins of "myths" about China's regional Arctic policies, and then examine their roles, using constructivist theory, before suggesting ways for both China and the international community to address this divergence.

  12. Modern moisturizer myths, misconceptions, and truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2013-06-01

    Xerosis is a highly prevalent condition that can be caused by environmental factors, age, or various diseases. Although the causes, symptoms, and severity of dry skin vary widely, moisturizers form the mainstay of treatment in simple cases and can be used as adjunctive therapy in more serious clinical cases. The market now contains a plethora of moisturizing formulations from which consumers can choose, but dermatologists need to distinguish among marketing claims, anecdotal evidence, and proven clinical effects when recommending moisturizers to their patients. Many lesser-quality moisturizers were never designed to mitigate dry skin or more serious skin conditions in a therapeutically relevant manner and are unlikely to provide clinically adequate moisturizing therapy. This article aims to clarify some common prevailing myths and misconceptions about moisturizers in the dermatology community. Recent advances in research have revealed that natural moisturizing factor (NMF), ceramides, and aquaporins (AQPs) are key factors in skin hydration. The impact of these advances on the ingredients that are being used in moisturizers is discussed, along with the importance of dermatologists choosing clinically proven products released by laboratories with demonstrated track records in research.

  13. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  14. Glukus himeros: pederastic influence on the myth of Ganymede.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Vernon

    2005-01-01

    Pederastic influence on the myth of Ganymede enables it to evolve, in a continuous line of development easily traced in the history of Greek literature from Homer to Plato, into a homoerotic emblem of the spiritual union of the human and divine. Continuity in this history is marked by the thematic use of the Homeric phrase gammalambdaupsilonkappaùvarsigma 'ímicroepsilonrhoomicronvarsigma (glukus himeros, sweet longing) to describe sexual desire in association with the Ganymede myth in the Hymn to Aphrodite, Pindar and Plato.

  15. Myths, magic and reality in nursing ethics: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin, V

    1998-01-01

    Ethics, especially in nursing, tends to be surrounded by myths and ideas that have more in common with magic than reality. This article argues from quotes of two medieval men, Thomas Aquinas and Meister Eckhart, that ethical behaviour among nurses is not something difficult or far-fetched, but something immediate, everyday, and often very simple. The more weighty ethical dilemmas are not diminished by this. Aspects of justice, compassion and courage are discussed from the point of view of relationships with clients and colleagues, and the need for (helpful) myths is stressed.

  16. Bruno, Galileo, Einstein: The Value of Myths in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    Usually, historical myths are portrayed as something to be avoided in a physics classroom. Instead, I will discuss the positive function of myths and how they can be used to improve physics education. First, on the basis of historical research from primary sources and significant new findings about the Catholic Inquisition, I will discuss how to use the inspirational story of Giordano Bruno when discussing cosmology. Next, I will discuss the recurring story about Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Finally, I will discuss how neglected stories about the young Albert Einstein can help to inspire students.

  17. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  18. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  19. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  20. The Status of Budget Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the breadth of the current forecast literature as it relates to public budget making. It serves to provide summary information to decision-makers who otherwise do not have the resources to learn more than a small amount focused on much more narrowly defined areas of forecasting (such as the politics of forecast bias. Next, it serves those who perform forecasting related to budgeting by reviewing the current methods and practices commonly used in this domain. It also provides a ground level for future public budget forecasting research. Finally, this article identifies several areas in which the public forecasting literature needs additional development. Several of these areas, such as the effectiveness of nonregression-based forecasting techniques, are quite important to the majority of governments in the United States and other subnational jurisdictions, where budget offices are limited and resource investments in technology are scarce.

  1. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  2. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  3. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  4. US physics suffers budget setbacks

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "The US has slashed funding for the International Linear Collider (ILC) by 75% as the budget for 2008 has been finally agreed between the Republican Bush Administration and Democratic Cngress. The new budget legislation, which US president George W. Bush is expected to signe by 31 December, will see up to 200 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilag) lose their jobs." (2 pages)

  5. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    resulting simulated lake stage and water budgets to stages and water budgets from the calibrated model. Simulated lake water budgets and water level changes illustrate the importance of understanding the position of a lake within the hydrologic system (headwater or downstream), the type of lake (surface-water drainage or seepage lake), and the role of groundwater in dampening the effects of large-scale changes in weather patterns on lake levels. Areas contributing recharge to drinking-water supply wells on the Reservation were delineated using forward particle tracking from the water table to the well. Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses were used to produce maps showing the probability of groundwater capture for areas around each well nest. At the Main Pumphouse site near the Village of Lac du Flambeau, most of the area contributing recharge to the wells occurs downgradient from a large wetland between the wells and the wastewater infiltration lagoons. Nonetheless, a small potential for the wells to capture infiltrated wastewater is apparent when considering uncertainty in the model parameter values. At the West Pumphouse wells south of Flambeau Lake, most of the area contributing recharge is between the wells and Tippecanoe Lake. The extent of infiltrated wastewater from two infiltration lagoons was tracked using the groundwater flow model and Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses. Wastewater infiltrated from the lagoons flows predominantly south toward Moss Lake as it integrates with the regional groundwater flow system. The wastewater-plume-extent simulations support the area-contributing-recharge simulations, indicating that there is a possibility, albeit at low probability, that some wastewater could be captured by water-supply wells. Comparison of simulated water-table contours indicate that the lagoons may mound the water table approximately 4 ft, with diminishing levels of mounding outward from the lagoons. Four scenarios, representing potential alternatives for wastewater

  6. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  7. Russia’s State Budget in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Belev; Tatiana Tischenko; Ilya Sokolov

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 2012 Russia's state budget. Authors speak about general characteristics of the budget system in Russia. They analyse revenues from major taxes and main parameters of the federal budget in 2012 and for 2012-2014, explain budget expenditures and give prospects of the budgetary and tax policy in Russia..

  8. Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Ehrenberg, Randy A.; Smith, Christopher L.; Zhang, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Our article analyzes historical data for New York State on the percentage of school board budget proposals that are defeated each year and panel data that we have collected on budget vote success for individual school districts in the state. We find that changes in state aid have little impact on budget vote success. Defeating a budget in one year…

  9. Quantification of the Beauce's Groundwater contribution to the Loire River discharge using satellite infrared imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lalot

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven Landsat Thermal InfraRed (TIR images, taken over the period 2000–2010, were used to establish longitudinal temperature profiles of the middle Loire River, where it flows above the Beauce aquifer. Results showed that 75% of the temperature differences, between in situ observations and TIR image based estimations, remained within the ±1 °C interval. The groundwater discharge along the River course was quantified for each identified groundwater catchment areas using a heat budget based on the Loire River temperature variations, estimated from the TIR images. The main discharge area of the Beauce aquifer into the Loire River was located between river kilometers 630 and 650. This result confirms what was obtained using a groundwater budget and spatially locates groundwater input within the Middle sector of the Loire River. According to the heat budgets, groundwater discharge is higher during winter period (13.5 m3 s−1 than during summer (5.3 m3 s−1. Groundwater input is also higher during the flow recession periods of the Loire River.

  10. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  11. Features of Budget Execution in Public Institutions’ Budgets Entirely Funded by Public and Local Budgets; Case Study in an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Budgeting, a set of steps taken by state competent bodies in order to materialize the financial policy applied by governmental authority, takes place in the following stages: setting out the budget statement, approving the budget, budget execution, budget execution completion, controlling and approving budget execution completion. Budget execution is described in specialized literature especially as a stage in the budgeting process in the components of the national public budget (public budge...

  12. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  13. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  14. Adverse effects of statins - myths and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimić, Iveta; Reiner, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Statins reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as well as cardiovascular events in patients with a very high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and also in subjects with high or moderate risk by reducing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although they are considered to be drugs with a very good safety profile, because of their wide use there are many concerns that their adverse effects might compromise their proven beneficial effects. Therefore this article reviews all the data and provides an evidence- based insight what are the proven adverse effects of statins and what are the "myths" about them. The most important side effects include myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Another side effect is increased activity of liver tests which occurs occasionally and is reversible. However, recent studies even suggest that statin therapy can improve hepatic steatosis. It is beyond any doubt that statins do slightly increase the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with two or more components of metabolic syndrome but the cardiovascular benefits of such a treatment by far exceed this risk. Statin therapy has also been associated with some adverse renal effects, eg. acute renal failure, but recent data suggest even a possible protective effect of these drugs on renal dysfunction. Concerns that statins might increase cancer have not been proven. On the contrary, several studies have indicated a possible benefit of these drugs in patients with different types of cancer. Early concerns about cognitive dysfunction and memory loss associated with statins use could not be proven and most recent data even suggest a possible beneficial effect of statins in the prevention of dementia. Systematic reviews and clinical guidelines suggest that the cardiovascular benefits of statins by far out-weight non-cardiovascular harms in patients with cardiovascular risk.

  15. Carl Sagan: Cosmic Evolution vs. the Creationist Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Considers the dichotomy between the cosmic perspective and the creationist view. Presents an overview of various current explanations of the origin and nature of the universe, including scientific explanations, fundamentalist beliefs, and creation myths from other cultures. The article is based on comments made by Carl Sagan at the American…

  16. Disrupting Myths of Poverty in the Face of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Katina; Lopez, Ann; Joshee, Reva

    2013-01-01

    This case disrupts some of the prevalent myths about families from low-income and poor households held by educators. Recognizing the inherent tensions, this case demonstrates the importance of creating equitable and inclusive learning environments. We presented some of the challenges faced by Marcus, a progressive principal, as he attempts to…

  17. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Joy

    2008-01-01

    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  18. Children's Librarians: Managing in the Midst of Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Caroline M.

    1978-01-01

    Since children's librarianship developed as a specialty, children's librarians have perpetuated beliefs and behavior patterns that may lead to the elimination, downgrading, or ostracism of children's services. New goals and workable plans are needed if children's services are to be managed wisely and avoid being trapped by these myths. (JPF)

  19. Review of Bottici (2007 A Philosophy of Political Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Souroujon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una reseña del libro Philosphy of political Myth en la cual se señala los puntos más salientes del argumento sostenido por la autora, así como ciertas reflexiones personales de las virtudes que el mismo presenta.

  20. Uses of Erotica and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perse, Elizabeth M.

    1994-01-01

    Explores two models of the effects of sexually explicit materials on college students. Considers the connection between reasons for using sexually explicit materials and beliefs in gender-role stereotypes and acceptance of date-rape myths. Identifies four motives for college students using erotica and connects these reasons to stereotypes. (HB)

  1. Myths and Realities of U.S. Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    Offers a clarification of competitiveness within international trade, particularly its impact upon the mix of goods produced in the United States. Dispels some of the myths about competitiveness that emanate from the false correlation between specific businesses and their country-of-origin. Discusses high productivity as both a cause and an effect…

  2. Introduction: myth, truth, and narrative in Herodotus' Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baragwanath, E.; de Bakker, M.; Baragwanath, E.; de Bakker, M.

    2012-01-01

    This introductory chapter focuses on myth and its multiple relationships with the concepts of truth and narrative, both within Herodotus' Histories and between the work and its context. First, it discusses the problematic reception in modern history of the material deemed mythical in Herodotus'

  3. Zero Net Energy Myths and Modes of Thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Diamond, Rick; Burke, Bill

    2010-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), and a number of professional organizations have established a target of zero net energy (ZNE) in buildings by 2030. One definition of ZNE is a building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. The push to ZNE is a response to research indicating that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the eighteenth century, resulting in a gradual warming of the Earth?s climate. A review of ZNE policies reveals that the organizations involved frame the ZNE issue in diverse ways, resulting in a wide variety of myths and a divergent set of epistemologies. With federal and state money poised to promote ZNE, it is timely to investigate how epistemologies, meaning a belief system by which we take facts and convert them into knowledge upon which to take action, and the propagation of myths might affect the outcome of a ZNE program. This paper outlines myths commonly discussed in the energy efficiency and renewable energy communities related to ZNE and describes how each myth is a different way of expressing"the truth." The paper continues by reviewing a number of epistemologies common to energy planning, and concludes that the organizations involved in ZNE should work together to create a"collaborative rationality" for ZNE. Through this collaborative framework it is argued that we may be able to achieve the ZNE and greenhouse gas mitigation targets.

  4. Dylan's Biographical Rhetoric and the Myth of the Outlaw Hero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makay, John J.; Gonzalez, Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how Bob Dylan's biographical songs promote the myth of the outlaw-hero and offer powerful cultural criticism by appealing to three ethical traits: resistance to corrupt authority, integrity of the self, and simplicity. Shows how Dylan's biographical rhetoric defines a social context that appeals to a vast audience. (JD)

  5. Two Birds with One Myth-Debunking Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCaille, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Misconceptions of psychological phenomena are widespread and often not easily eliminated--even among students completing college-level psychology courses. As part of a research methods psychology course, students developed public-service-announcement-style posters as part of a psychology myth-debunking campaign and presented these to students…

  6. The Myth of Modern Politics : An Impossible Constitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in pre-modern communities, we consider our democracies to be rationally constituted. Philosopher Aukje van Rooden wonders whether the greatest myth of contemporary politics isn’t our assumption that we can function without a mythological structure. Perhaps that denial is precisely what underl

  7. POOF! Myth and Fable Appear as Human Development Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequet, Marc

    1992-01-01

    Serious trainers are using myths and fables in an attempt to focus workers on their conscious and unconscious assumptions about quality, diversity, job satisfaction, and other issues and to help them redirect their workplace energy more productively. Followers of Carl Jung argue that the approach used to help patients resolve inner conflicts can…

  8. The astronomy of Andean myth: The history of a cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William F.

    It is shown that Andean myth, on one level, represents a technical language recording astronomical observations of precession and, at the same time, an historical record of simultaneous social and celestial transformations. Topographic and architectural terms of Andean myth are interpreted as a metaphor for the organization of and locations on the celestial sphere. Via ethoastronomical date, mythical animals are identified as stars and placed on the celestial sphere according to their topographical location. Tested in the planetarium, these arrays generate cluster of dates - 200 B.C. and 650 A.D. Analysis of the names of Wiraqocha and Manco Capac indicates they represent Saturn and Jupiter and that their mythical meeting represents their conjunction in 650 A.D. The astronomy of Andean myth is then used as an historical tool to examine how the Andean priest-astronomers recorded the simultaneous creation of the avllu and of this distinctive astronomical system about 200 B.C. The idea that the agricultural avllu, with its double descent system stressing the importance of paternity, represents a transformation of society from an earlier matrilineal/horticultural era is examined in light of the sexual imagery employed in myth. Wiraqocha's androgyny and the division of the celestial sphere into male (ecliptic) and female (celestial equator = earth) are interpreted as cosmological validations of the new social structure.

  9. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  10. Correcting the Money Myth: Re-Thinking School Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, W. Norton

    2010-01-01

    The Money Myth is the contention that any education problem requires increased spending and, conversely, that reform is impossible without more funding. However, increased funding works for only certain kinds of school resources. Many reforms require resources that money cannot buy. What is needed are reforms that build the capacity of schools to…

  11. Level of Sexual Myths Level in Premature Ejaculation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine level of belief in sexual myths in the cases of premature ejacula­tion (PE which is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Methods: This study included 100 cases who applied Di­cle University Faculty of Medicine hospitals meet prema­ture ejaculation criteria of DSM-5 and 70 healthy controls. Sociodemographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rat­ing Scale (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAS, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASES-Men form and Sexual Myths Evaluation Form were applied to partici­pants. Results: In the study, rate of belief in sexual myths in PE cases was found significantly higher than healthy controls. In the PE cases, education time less than 10 years, the presence of comorbid sexual dysfunction were found to be statistically significant factors that increase the level of belief in sexual myths in the PE cases, HDS (p=0.0002, HAS (p=0.0001, ASES (p=0.0004 scores were statisti­cally significantly higher than the control group. In the loss of sexual desire in men with comorbid ASES (p=0.0001, with ED, ASES (p=0.001 and HDS (p=0.040 scores were found statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Sexual information should be given in the appropriate age by educated person in educational insti­tutions.

  12. Tolkien's Creation Myth in "The Silmarillion"--Northern or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, John

    1999-01-01

    Notes that J.R.R. Tolkien's work is commonly supposed to be greatly influenced by Norse mythology and legend. Compares Tolkien's account of the creation of Middle Earth to the Norse myth of Yggdrasil. Concludes that Tolkien took qualities of language, a code of bravery and honor, and many incidental Norse details and absorbed them into a very…

  13. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Joy

    2008-01-01

    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  14. Hyperborea: The Arctic Myth of Contemporary Russian Radical Nationalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Shnirelman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the disintegration of the Soviet Union Russians had to search for a new identity. This was viewed as an urgent task by ethnic Russian nationalists, who were dreaming of a ‘pure Russian country’, or at least of the privileged status of ethnic Russians within the Russian state. To mobilise people they picked up the obsolete Aryan myth rooted in both occult teachings and Nazi ideology and practice. I will analyse the main features of the contemporary Russian Aryan myth developed by radical Russian intellectuals. While rejecting medieval and more recent Russian history as one of oppression implemented by ‘aliens’, the advocates of the Aryan myth are searching for a Golden Age in earlier epochs. They divide history into two periods: initially the great Aryan civilisation and civilising activity successfully developed throughout the world, after which a period of decline began. An agent of this decline is identified as the Jews, or ‘Semites’, who deprived the Aryans of their great achievements and pushed them northwards. The Aryans are identified as the Slavs or Russians, who suffer from alien treachery and misdeeds. The myth seeks to replace former Marxism with racism and contributes to contemporary xenophobia. 

  15. Myths about Critical Literacy: What Teachers Need to Unlearn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheu-jey

    2011-01-01

    By discussing commonly held myths, this paper attempts to clarify a number of important issues in the area of critical literacy education. These include the distinction between critical thinking and critical literacy, the audience critical literacy is meant for, the philosophical underpinnings of critical literacy, and the relationship between…

  16. Eschatological narrative in Plato: between logos and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Casadesús Bordoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In his dialogues, Plato frequently resorted to alternate and intertwine his dialectic expositions with images and allegories, aiming to illustrate his arguments. This paper analyses in detail his use of the opposition between logos and myth tointroduce his descriptions of Hades

  17. Practice of contraception in this modern world: still a myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Bansiwal

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Practice of contraception is still a myth. There is a great need to strengthen the awareness among people by various programmes and the target group should be both males and females. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 674-677

  18. Challenging Myths of the Deficit Perspective: Honoring Children's Literacy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Dinah; Long, Susi

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss some myths about culture and literacy based on the deficit perspective, and add their voices to those advocating a contrasting transformational perspective. They present evidence for the importance of looking closely and respectfully at interactions among children and families to better understand their many…

  19. A Modern Myth - The "Pyramids" of Güímar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Antonio; Esteban, César

    We discuss about the construction of a modern myth where archaeoastronomy has played an essential role: the Pyramids of Güímar, located in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands). We summarize the results of archaeoastronomical, archaeological, historical, and ethnographic studies devoted to them as well as our hypothesis for explaining the motivation of their astronomical alignments.

  20. Two Birds with One Myth-Debunking Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCaille, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Misconceptions of psychological phenomena are widespread and often not easily eliminated--even among students completing college-level psychology courses. As part of a research methods psychology course, students developed public-service-announcement-style posters as part of a psychology myth-debunking campaign and presented these to students…

  1. Translation and "Myth": Norwegian Children's Literature in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudvin, Mette

    1994-01-01

    Argues that books from minor language communities/cultures are selected not only according to merit but also according to whether the literature in question conforms with the myths about these smaller nations in the dominant culture. Illustrates this point by examining translations of Norwegian children's literature into English, noting in…

  2. Correcting the Money Myth: Re-Thinking School Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, W. Norton

    2010-01-01

    The Money Myth is the contention that any education problem requires increased spending and, conversely, that reform is impossible without more funding. However, increased funding works for only certain kinds of school resources. Many reforms require resources that money cannot buy. What is needed are reforms that build the capacity of schools to…

  3. Psychiatry in Africa: the myths, the exotic, and the realities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    myths commonly result from the fact that research activity is still relatively ... observations other than the highly selected clinical cases that ... different from that in other cultures (World Health Organization ... Africa which makes the possibility of one explanatory model ... community …is regarded as a valuable asset by his clan.

  4. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... with contingencies as perceived environmental uncertainty, size or decentralization. Instead increased competitive pressure is associated with supplementing the budget with rolling forecasts....

  5. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  6. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  7. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  8. Groundwater Depletion and Long term Food Security in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, R.; Lall, U.; Modi, V.; Siegfried, T. U.; Narula, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    Unsustainable extraction of groundwater has led water tables to decline in many parts of India - the same parts that tend to produce most of the country’s food. Government policies like procurement and price guarantees for water intensive grains as well as subsidies on energy for pumping, originally intended to ensure national self-sufficiency in grain, are partly responsible for unsustainable groundwater extraction. The resulting groundwater depletion is associated with increasing burdens on state budgets and farmer incomes, and also risks irreversible damages to aquifers as a result of saline intrusion and other forms of pollution, processes that can undermine the prospects of long term food security. We discuss the policies and proposed solutions that might be able to maintain food security in the face of this impending crisis.

  9. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  10. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  11. The Myth of White Skin: A Postcolonial Review of Cosmetics Ads in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and c...

  12. Crab burrows as conduits for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary conduit for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread conduits for groundwater recharge.

  13. Geologic influence on groundwater salinity drives large seawater circulation through the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holly A.; Scott, Kaileigh C.; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Yu, Xuan; Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Li, Katie

    2016-10-01

    Observations of offshore freshened groundwater and saline groundwater discharge along continental shelves have important implications for water resources, ecosystem function, and the composition of the ocean, but they cannot be explained by basic theory. We show that these independent observations are linked and result from processes that drive variable-density groundwater flow through the spatial heterogeneity that is ubiquitous in geologic formations. We use lithologic data to develop geostatistical models that mimic the architecture of coastal aquifers. Simulation of groundwater flow and salt transport through these random realizations shows that heterogeneity produces spatially complex subsurface salinity distributions that extend tens of kilometers offshore, even at steady state. The associated density gradients drive high saline groundwater circulation rates that cannot be predicted by equivalent homogeneous models. Results suggest that these phenomena may be common along continental shelves, potentially altering estimates of ocean chemical budgets and impacting coastal water management for future generations.

  14. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we provid

  15. Water and nutrient budgets for Vancouver Lake, Vancouver, Washington, October 2010-October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Foreman, James R.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    Vancouver Lake, a large shallow lake in Clark County, near Vancouver, Washington, has been undergoing water-quality problems for decades. Recently, the biggest concern for the lake are the almost annual harmful cyanobacteria blooms that cause the lake to close for recreation for several weeks each summer. Despite decades of interest in improving the water quality of the lake, fundamental information on the timing and amount of water and nutrients entering and exiting the lake is lacking. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year field study to quantify water flows and nutrient loads in order to develop water and nutrient budgets for the lake. This report presents monthly and annual water and nutrient budgets from October 2010–October 2012 to identify major sources and sinks of nutrients. Lake River, a tidally influenced tributary to the lake, flows into and out of the lake almost daily and composed the greatest proportion of both the water and nutrient budgets for the lake, often at orders of magnitude greater than any other source. From the water budget, we identified precipitation, evaporation and groundwater inflow as minor components of the lake hydrologic cycle, each contributing 1 percent or less to the total water budget. Nutrient budgets were compiled monthly and annually for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate; and, nitrogen loads were generally an order of magnitude greater than phosphorus loads across all sources. For total nitrogen, flow from Lake River at Felida, Washington, made up 88 percent of all inputs into the lake. For total phosphorus and orthophosphate, Lake River at Felida flowing into the lake was 91 and 76 percent of total inputs, respectively. Nutrient loads from precipitation and groundwater inflow were 1 percent or less of the total budgets. Nutrient inputs from Burnt Bridge Creek and Flushing Channel composed 12 percent of the total nitrogen budget, 8 percent of the total phosphorus budget, and 21 percent

  16. Identifying the groundwater basin boundaries, using environmental isotopes: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroğlu, Muhterem

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater, which is renewable under current climatic conditions separately from other natural sources, in fact is a finite resource in terms of quality and fossil groundwater. Researchers have long emphasized the necessity of exploiting, operating, conserving and managing groundwater in an efficient and sustainable manner with an integrated water management approach. The management of groundwater needs reliable information about changes on groundwater quantity and quality. Environmental isotopes are the most important tools to provide this support. No matter which method we use to calculate the groundwater budget and flow equations, we need to determine boundary conditions or the physical boundaries of the domain. The Groundwater divide line or basin boundaries that separate the two adjacent basin recharge areas from each other must be drawn correctly to be successful in defining complex groundwater basin boundary conditions. Environmental isotope data, as well as other methods provide support for determining recharge areas of the aquifers, especially for karst aquifers, residence time and interconnections between aquifer systems. This study demonstrates the use of environmental isotope data to interpret and correct groundwater basin boundaries giving as an example the Yeniçıkrı basin within the main Sakarya basin.

  17. Identifying the groundwater basin boundaries, using environmental isotopes: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroğlu, Muhterem

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater, which is renewable under current climatic conditions separately from other natural sources, in fact is a finite resource in terms of quality and fossil groundwater. Researchers have long emphasized the necessity of exploiting, operating, conserving and managing groundwater in an efficient and sustainable manner with an integrated water management approach. The management of groundwater needs reliable information about changes on groundwater quantity and quality. Environmental isotopes are the most important tools to provide this support. No matter which method we use to calculate the groundwater budget and flow equations, we need to determine boundary conditions or the physical boundaries of the domain. The Groundwater divide line or basin boundaries that separate the two adjacent basin recharge areas from each other must be drawn correctly to be successful in defining complex groundwater basin boundary conditions. Environmental isotope data, as well as other methods provide support for determining recharge areas of the aquifers, especially for karst aquifers, residence time and interconnections between aquifer systems. This study demonstrates the use of environmental isotope data to interpret and correct groundwater basin boundaries giving as an example the Yeniçıkrı basin within the main Sakarya basin.

  18. EXECUTION OF BUDGET INDICATORS IN ROMANIA’S PUBLIC BUDGET; IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA POPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the aspects concerning the budget process are laid down in Law 500/2002 regarding public finance. According to this law, budget inputs and outputs as well as the specific regulations of a fiscal year are provided and authorized for a budget year by an annual budget law. As to the budgets making up the general consolidated budget, it should be mentioned that only two of them act as laws; they are the law of public budget and the law of public social insurance budget (and implicitly their amending laws. The present paper envisages the analysis of how effective the execution methods of budget indicators is in the public budget which from the perspective of revenues and expenses means the most important component of the general consolidated budget.

  19. The Era of Budget Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    What began as an idea from an Internet posting is now set to sweep through China Asingle posting on the Internet gave birth to a large budget hotel brand.In 2001, the founder of ctrip.com, Ji Qi, noticed an online friend com-plaining that ctrip.com’s hotel reser-

  20. Medicare: FY2009 Budget Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-06

    Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and...9 Short-Term Power Wheelchair Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Current Law...five- year budget window. Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription

  1. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  2. Budgeting for Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, John P.; Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia, runs a food service operation responsible for serving 100,000 student lunches at 179 school locations each day. In addition, meals are provided by contractual agreement to day care centers and private schools. The budget process is explained and illustrated with a chart. (MLF)

  3. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  4. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  5. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  6. Groundwater data network interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Booth, Nathaniel; Boisvert, Eric; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Water data networks are increasingly being integrated to answer complex scientific questions that often span large geographical areas and cross political borders. Data heterogeneity is a major obstacle that impedes interoperability within and between such networks. It is resolved here for groundwater data at five levels of interoperability, within a Spatial Data Infrastructure architecture. The result is a pair of distinct national groundwater data networks for the United States and Canada, and a combined data network in which they are interoperable. This combined data network enables, for the first time, transparent public access to harmonized groundwater data from both sides of the shared international border.

  7. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  9. Spatial frequency domain error budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D

    1998-08-27

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine

  10. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  11. Mythes occidentaux, contes africains et propagande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Chouillou

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Au début du XXe siècle, dans une Allemagne en plein bouleversement politique, une nouvelle problématique des récits voit le jour. L’époque tente de se définir dans le miroir des histoires. Deux auteurs, un philosophe (Theodor Lessing et un ethnologue (Leo Frobenius, envisagent le récit comme terrain d’expérimentation. Leurs approches marquent par leur lucidité sur les potentialités parfois dangereuses de l’exploitation des récits. Entre grands mythes historiques ayant dominé le siècle précédent et débuts de la communication politique à grande échelle fondée sur l’appel aux réflexes et aux affects, la maîtrise du discours devient un enjeu de pouvoir que Lessing a diagnostiqué très tôt. Quant à Frobenius, il cherche à retrouver dans les contes africains la spontanéité que l’Occident a perdue. Cet article cherche à analyser les points de rencontre de ces deux penseurs, en faisant la part entre ce qu’il y a de novateur dans leur conception des récits et ce qui relève de la recherche trouble d’une troisième voie, dans une nostalgie mythique.Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts, in einem Deutschland inmitten des politischen Umbruchs, stellt sich eine neue Problematik bezüglich der Erzählkunst. Die Epoche versucht sich im Spiegelbild von Geschichten zu definieren. So ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass in dieser Zeit zwei Autoren, ein Philosoph (Theodor Lessing und ein Ethnologe (Leo Frobenius, die Erzählung als ein neues Forschungsgebiet betrachten. Ihr Ansatz überzeugt durch seine Klarheit über die (manchmal gefährlichen Möglichkeiten der Verwendung von Erzählungen. Zwischen den großen historischen Mythen, die das vorangehende Jahrhundert bestimmten, und den Anfängen der politischen Kommunikation im großen Stil, die sich auf den Appell an Reflexe und Affekte stützt, wird die Beherrschung des Diskurses zur Machtfrage. Lessing erkennt dies schon sehr frühzeitig. Frobenius seinerseits versucht in den

  12. Groundwater depletion in Central Mexico: Use of GRACE and InSAR to support water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Rivera, Alfonso; Huang, Jianliang; Pavlic, Goran; Calderhead, Angus I.; Chaussard, Estelle; Garfias, Jaime; Salas, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater deficits occur in several areas of Central Mexico, where water resource assessment is limited by the availability and reliability of field data. In this context, GRACE and InSAR are used to remotely assess groundwater storage loss in one of Mexico's most important watersheds in terms of size and economic activity: the Lerma-Santiago-Pacifico (LSP). In situ data and Land Surface Models are used to subtract soil moisture and surface water storage changes from the total water storage change measured by GRACE satellites. As a result, groundwater mass change time-series are obtained for a 12 years period. ALOS-PALSAR images acquired from 2007 to 2011 were processed using the SBAS-InSAR algorithm to reveal areas subject to ground motion related to groundwater over-exploitation. In the perspective of providing guidance for groundwater management, GRACE and InSAR observations are compared with official water budgets and field observations. InSAR-derived subsidence mapping generally agrees well with official water budgets, and shows that deficits occur mainly in cities and irrigated agricultural areas. GRACE does not entirely detect the significant groundwater losses largely reported by official water budgets, literature and InSAR observations. The difference is interpreted as returns of wastewater to the groundwater flow systems, which limits the watershed scale groundwater depletion but suggests major impacts on groundwater quality. This phenomenon is enhanced by ground fracturing as noticed in the field. Studying the fate of the extracted groundwater is essential when comparing GRACE data with higher resolution observations, and particularly in the perspective of further InSAR/GRACE combination in hydrogeology.

  13. Faulkner's Myth and the ″Peculiar Institution″: Shaping Yoknapatawpha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles A.Peek

    2005-01-01

    During the 1930s, Faulkner made radical adjustments in the shaping of his mythical Yoknapatawpha country to accommodate his deepening understanding of America's ″peculiar institution.″ That peculiar institution, of course, was slavery, and in his fiction of the period Faulkner portrays it through a radical critique of the myth of ″the Old Plantation.″ Doing so meant he both had to challenge the myths about plantation slavery in which he had been raised and had to alter his own apocryphal vision of the institution that haunted America like a ghost. Replacing the Sartoris family with the McCaslin family as the family that would represent the Faulkners' in his fiction, Faulkner created a fiction better able to bear the weight of history, both the history of the South and of his own family.

  14. The Customer Rules and Other e-Shopping Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Rachel; Richardson, Helen

    This chapter discusses self-service and the Internet in the context of two studies, based in the UK, and undertaken during 1998-2005. They are united by a common framework of critically analysing discourses of e-shopping in the ‘ digital age ’. Firstly, myths surrounding e-shopping are deconstructed with a view to analysing the ‘sovereign consumer’ and the e-shopping experience. The second study considers home e-shopping in the UK. In an atmosphere where we are urged to engage with ICTs (information communication technologies) in all spheres of our lives, the domestication of ICTs necessitates consideration of the gendered family in gendered households. In conclusion, we argue those self-service aspects of e-shopping are not signs of empowerment and self-determination. The notion of the sovereign consumer exercising power and control globally is an enduring myth.

  15. Fredom and Responsibility in the Myth of Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Berzons McCoy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plato uses the myth of Er in the Republic in order to carve out space for political freedom and responsibility for human freedom in the ordinary polis. While much of the Republic concentrates on the development of an ideal city in speech, that city is fundamentally a mythos presented in order for Socrates and his friends to learn something about political and individual virtue. The city in which Socrates and his friends exist is an imperfect city and myth of Er is intended for those audience members. Its emphasis on the necessity for personal responsibility in the midst of freedom can be understood as a political claim about the place of individual choice in a world that is constrained by both political and cosmic "necessity".

  16. Monstres et murailles, Alexandre et bicornu, mythes et bon sens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Bacqué-Grammont

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les mythes récurrents à travers les lieux et les âges, celui du bâtisseur de murailles défendant une humanité civilisée contre l'Autre, sous ses aspects les plus effrayants, a connu une durable fortune depuis le prototype d'un Alexandre le Grand légendaire jusqu'à des avatars composites, bien vivaces dans nombre de littératures islamiques.En trois points différents de cet inépuisable domaine de recherche, chacun des auteurs a procédé à un sondage sommaire. Il en ressort maint exemple de continuités, de parallélismes et de confluences complexes, mais aussi les premiers signes d'érosion des mythes sous l'effet d'un esprit critique attisé par le vent d'Occident.

  17. Myths about type 1 diabetes: Awareness and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kanungo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Not all healthcare professionals (HCPs are aware of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and various myths still exist in the society and among HCPs. The medical challenge in treating T1DM is the confusion between T1DM and T2DM and its management, which is very common and is observed with both general practitioners and parents of children with diabetes. There are multiple medical and social myths associated with diabetes, especially T1DM, prevalent in society. Diabetes management requires support and collaboration from family, school and society, which is sometimes difficult, as they are more discouraging than positive. The launch of the Changing Diabetes in Children program in India has created a lot of awareness and is helping patients and their parents understand the disease.

  18. Maths meets myths quantitative approaches to ancient narratives

    CERN Document Server

    MacCarron, Máirín; MacCarron, Pádraig

    2017-01-01

    With an emphasis on exploring measurable aspects of ancient narratives, Maths Meets Myths sets out to investigate age-old material with new techniques. This book collects, for the first time, novel quantitative approaches to studying sources from the past, such as chronicles, epics, folktales, and myths. It contributes significantly to recent efforts in bringing together natural scientists and humanities scholars in investigations aimed at achieving greater understanding of our cultural inheritance. Accordingly, each contribution reports on a modern quantitative approach applicable to narrative sources from the past, or describes those which would be amenable to such treatment and why they are important. This volume is a unique state-of-the-art compendium on an emerging research field which also addresses anyone with interests in quantitative approaches to humanities.

  19. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture.

  20. Cinema, myth and representation in Sub-saharian Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aresta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinematographic productions in Africa often draw on the oral and written literature that is part of the continent’s immense cultural heritage, offering not only new hermeneutic keys to ancestral tales but also reflections on the dynamics of contemporary African society in the light of the individual and collective stories and of the precepts contained in these tales. The purpose of this essay is to provide an interpretation of the myth of Sundiata Keita, founder of the greatest pre-colonial empire in western sub-Saharan Africa, through considerations on the dynamics of collective memory, the role assigned to griots, the modes of narrative and the connections between myth and rite.

  1. Ending the myth of the St Petersburg Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vivian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas Bernoulli suggested the St Petersburg game, nearly 300 years ago, which is widely believed to produce a paradox in decision theory.  This belief stems from a long standing mathematical error in the original calculation of the expected value of the game.   This article argues that, in addition to the mathematical error, there are also methodological considerations which gave rise to the paradox.   This article explains these considerations and why because of the modern computer, the same considerations, when correctly applied, also demonstrate that no paradox exists.  Because of the longstanding belief that a paradox exists it is unlikely the mere mathematical correction will end the myth.  The article explains why it is the methodological correction which will dispel the myth.

  2. O mito fascista da romanidade The fascist myth of romanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giardina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio procura analisar como o mito de Roma foi utilizado por Mussolini para criar uma "especificidade" fascista que coincidisse com uma "especificidade" da nação italiana. Práticas rituais, gestos, valores, símbolos foram retomados, de forma variamente arbitrária, para construir um mito que gerava novas ambigüidades, e que constituiu, à diferença do nazismo, um empecilho para a própria sobrevivência da "romanidade" após Mussolini.This essay aims to analyze how the myth of Rome was used by Mussolini to create a fascist specificity that coincided with a specificity of the Italian nation. Ritual practices, gestures, values and symbols were retaken, sometimes arbitrarily, in order to build a myth that generated new ambiguities and that, different from Nazism, constituted a hindrance to the survival of "romanity" after Mussolini.

  3. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  4. A Content Analysis of Defense Budget Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    President’s budget. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Defense Budget, Content Analysis, Political Discourse, Budget Rhetoric, Political Communication , Senate Armed...represent the most recent paradigm shift in political communication research (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 10). These three models combine to construct...this study was to fill the gap on political communication by examining whether Congress was responsive to framing by the President’s budget. To

  5. A Multi-Methodology for improving Adelaide's Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Okke; Banks, Eddie; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Breciani, Etienne; Cook, Peter; Cranswick, Roger; Smith, Stan; Turnadge, Chris; Partington, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Pool Ramirez, Maria; Werner, Adrian; Xie, Yueqing; Yang, Yuting

    2015-04-01

    through aquitard. Risk assessment of water resources status by 2050 is achieved via uncertainty quantification of potential future scenarios. This includes several development scenarios (current or increased extraction rate) as well as different outputs from climate change predictions. It is shown that groundwater in the fractured aquifer bedrock in the hills is significantly younger than groundwater in the Adelaide plains area, indicating that the Adelaide groundwater system is, at least, partially recharged by lateral flow from water infiltrated in the hills. However, increasing ages with depth, are indicative of vertical infiltration from rainfall and possible inter-aquifer leakage. A better understanding of processes controlling these two sources of fresh groundwater, as well as evaluating their relative importance to Adelaide's groundwater budget is being thoroughly investigated using the regional numerical groundwater model. The salinity distribution along the coastline is shown not to be simply an equilibrium situation with an intruded seawater wedge extending inland. Tertiary aquifers can still contain old freshwater near the coast, and in deeper layers a hypersaline brine has been identified, which could constitute a previously-overlooked source of salinity. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the groundwater resources within the Adelaide environment and supports strongly integrated water management of the resource.

  6. TEXT OF THE MYTH BULU GELES IN THE VILLAGE OF TAMBAKAN, KUBUTAMBAHAN DISTRICT, BULELENG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Puspawati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tambakan Village Community, District Kubutambahan, Buleleng believe the tradition of myth sampi bulu geles text contained in that village that vows payment using calf (bulu geles as offerings at Pura Dalem. Text tradition believed myth sampi bulu geles existence for generations. Currently not only Tambakan villagers who professed and offer bulu geles, but is also done by people from outside the village of Tambakan. This text of myth bulu geles tradition passed down from older generations to younger generation until now. Text of myth bulu geles contain bulu geles, I dewa offering. This kind of offering appear when troops from Buleleng kingdom and padanguah people lost in battle with Bangli kingdom and hide beneath the forest in Belong area. Belong area is the origin of Tambakan Village. The kind of this research is qualitative with source of primary and secondary data. Data is collected using observation, interview, and literature study technique. Text of myth Bulu geles tradition need to reviewed because this text of myth is unique and the review is focused in four matter there are first the structure of text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village? Second text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village function? Third text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village meaning? Fourth the bequeathing system of text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village? In term of issues reviewed, function, semiotic, and transmission theory are used. The result of the analysis gained that text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village has a narrative structure that is straight plot, primary and secondary figure, contain offering theme with place and time background. The sequence of ceremony in text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village that is cow release ceremony, calling process, catching and ended with bulu geles slaughter in mungkah wali ceremony. The function text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village that connected with context consist of rite function, social

  7. Canada's groundwater resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for life in arid and semiarid region. It is also important in humid regions, and is one of the fundamental requirements for the maintenance of natural landscapes and aquatic ecosystem...

  8. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  9. Social Darwinism: from reality to myth and from myth to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquemont, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Considering the variety of contradictory definitions which have been attributed to the term in the course of more than a century, one may be tempted to admit that 'Social Darwinism' can be reduced to a social myth. But it seems nevertheless necessary to answer the question: what has been called 'Social Darwinism' for more than one century and why was the expression used in a negative way to express contradictory opinions which sometimes have nothing to do with Darwin's theory. What we still call 'Social Darwinism' is the result of a misunderstanding: the theories expressed under that phrase have little to do with the Darwinian concepts of natural selection or descent with modification. They have their origin in a pre-darwinian conception of the struggle for existence, which Darwin used in a metaphorical sense. This confusion will then appear to refer clearly to the relationship we establish between biology and society, whether biological laws are directly prolonged in society, or more or less intermingle in a close network. The issue of the definition of Social Darwinism depends obviously on the possible answers to this question, and so does the issue of redefining Darwinism at large.

  10. Myth-free space advocacy part I-The myth of innate exploratory and migratory urges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, James S. J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses the ;myth; that we have an innate drive to explore or to migrate into space. Three interpretations of the claim are considered. According to the ;mystical interpretation,; it is part of our ;destiny; as humans to explore and migrate into space. Such a claim has no rational basis and should play no role in rationally- or evidence-based space advocacy. According to the ;cultural interpretation,; exploration and migration are essential features of human culture and society. These are not universal features because there are cultures and societies that have not encouraged exploration and migration. Moreover, the cultures that have explored have seldom conducted exploration for its own sake. According to the ;biological interpretation; there is a psychological or genetic basis for exploration or migration. While there is limited genetic evidence for such a claim, that evidence suggests that genes associated with exploratory behavior were selected for subsequent to migration, making it unlikely that these genes played a role in causing migration. In none of these senses is it clearly true that we have an innate drive to explore or migrate into space; and even if we did it would be fallacious to argue that the existence of such a drive justified spaceflight activities.

  11. Stephen Knight, The Politics of Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Serafini

    2016-01-01

    The Politics of Myth rappresenta, per alcuni versi, il punto di arrivo della carriera di Stephen Knight, professore onorario presso l’Università di Melbourne, Australia. Questo libro raccoglie il lavoro di una vita intorno al ‘mito’, rivisitato non in chiave archeologica, ma in quanto forza attiva nel nostro presente che ci permette di ripensare «the structures, values and human roles within the societies that live by and realise themselves through that culture» (1).

  12. Science Fiction and a Rhetorical Analysis of the 'Literature Myth'

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald; Vandermeersche, Geert

    2011-01-01

    In their article "Science Fiction and a Rhetorical Analysis of the 'Literature Myth'" Kris Rutten, Ronald Soetaert, and Geert Vandermeersche discuss what we can learn from science fiction about cultural literacy in general and literary culture in particular. From a theoretical and methodological perspective the authors start from the work of rhetorician Kenneth Burke. First, the authors conceptualize literature as "equipment for living" followed by a discussion of science fiction as "equipmen...

  13. The SCAMPI Appraisal Method: Top Ten Myths (2004 Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University , Software Engineering...Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense © 2004 by Carnegie Mellon University This material is approved for public...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 © 2004 by Carnegie Mellon University CMMI ® MYTHS - Disclaimer Presented in no particular order No scientific or

  14. Dispelling myths to support breastfeeding in women with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Tonia; Bowen, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the possible connection between infant feeding practices and postpartum depression. Nurses caring for women and their families in the postpartum period might wonder how to best support the breastfeeding relationship if a woman has a history of depression. Using evidence from the scientific literature, this article dispels some myths regarding breastfeeding and depression, and provides suggested dialogue nurses can use when counseling women about depression and breastfeeding. © 2014 AWHONN.

  15. [Curing power, or the restoring myth (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, R

    1981-01-01

    Nowadays, occidental or traditional healers are gaining more attention. The author aimed at demonstrate that the healer can be classified between the physician and the soothsayer. Six manners of healing are described through examples: -- operating allurement (Quesalid); -- trip in the unconscious to subdue its forces (the Chaman); -- domination of Powers under hallucinogen substance(s) (Peytol); -- symbolic efficacity of words (Mûu); -- cathartic confession and trance through reintegration into a mythic structure. In every historical technique, a personage is found whose "doing" and "saying" express an exceptional experience, constituting a magical and therapeutic area, facilitating the inscription in a mythical structure, which provides a sense. Several kinds of healers are shortly described, as well as their personality and their patients. The border lines of their power are contiguous to the Sacred and the Religious (which mythical fragments are many "power-allurements") as well as articulated with credulity and belief, and finally built on the pattern of magical thoughts and acts. Healer and/or quack? Healer and/or physician? What are the analogies or differences according to the pattern of the relation "physician-patient"? It is not a "restoring-myth", universal, whose actuality is spotted every time for each act of healing (by a healer)? -- even if this myth is not clearly definite or legible. The power of the healer articulates itself on the pregnancy of this myth which guides the sufferer towards this personage whose power is nothing else but the power the sufferer hopes the healer possesses. It is this hope which the "restoring-myth" contains.

  16. Lead Fragment Ingestion by Birds: Shooting Down Another Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lead Fragment Ingestion by Birds: Shooting Down Another Myth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...considerable proportion maybe  A brief background to the (perceived) “problem” . . . • Birds display grit- ingesting behavior. Avian digestion in a...Birds display grit- ingesting behavior. • Lead particles in the environment (e.g., spent shot, bullet fragments) approximate the size of

  17. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  18. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  19. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  20. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  1. The myth about the origin of the Karo House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juara R. Ginting

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Karo people in North Sumatra (Indonesia consider areas in the Karo regency and those in other regencies as part of Taneh Karo (the Karolands, despite the fact that these areas comprise different administrative territories. This paper focuses on how the idea of Taneh Karo is articulated in a special Karo myth. Scholarly research has discovered that the notion of Taneh Karo originated in pre-colonial times, but an analysis of a local myth which established the concept of Taneh Karo remains an interesting anthropological study. This study is significant as it endeavours to comprehend the traditional ways of life of the Karo people, and it is a crucial attempt to map out the inter-group relations in the Karo area, where the Acehnese, the Batak, and the Malay people take part. It is interesting to note that the myth of Karo has positioned the Karo community and land in a distinctive site within the network of inter-related groups. This is precisely the position which would determine the formation of the Karolands.

  2. Myths of the state in the West European Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first centuries of the barbarian kingdoms the most striking feature is the gens, the tribe, as the principle of unity, even if the ethnic homogeneity often was missing. The myth of the Germanic State of the early Middle Ages was in the first place a myth of the common origin of the gens.These histories of tribal origins have some times been influenced by powerful Ancient literary patterns, especially the Trojan myth of Virgil. But the concern of presenting the origin of the gens in mythical form is no doubt Germanic. And it seems probable that the tribal origins are more ancient than the genealogies of royal families with alleged divine ancestors. The kingship among the Germanic tribes was secondary in relation to the tribe. The king was rex Francorum; the king of a certain country or geographic territory is a later conception. The power comes from below; the king is an exponent of the tribe. All the Germanic words for "king" are derivations from terms for "kin, people, tribe." The limitation of the power of the king is also indicated by institutions like the right to resistence, the possibility to depose the king, the participation by all free men in the judicial and criminal procedure through self-help and blood feud.

  3. Newton’s apple and other myths about science

    CERN Document Server

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    A falling apple inspired Isaac Newton’s insight into the law of gravity—or so the story goes. Is it true? Perhaps not. But the more intriguing question is why such stories endure as explanations of how science happens. Newton’s Apple and Other Myths about Science brushes away popular misconceptions to provide a clearer picture of great scientific breakthroughs from ancient times to the present. Among the myths refuted in this volume is the idea that no science was done in the Dark Ages, that alchemy and astrology were purely superstitious pursuits, that fear of public reaction alone led Darwin to delay publishing his theory of evolution, and that Gregor Mendel was far ahead of his time as a pioneer of genetics. Several twentieth-century myths about particle physics, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and more are discredited here as well. In addition, a number of broad generalizations about science go under the microscope of history: the notion that religion impeded science, that scientists typically a...

  4. MYTH-REFERRED MOTIFS IN LEZGHIN FICTION: THE EURASIAN DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. ABDURAKHMANOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered the topical issue of alterations incurred to myth-referred conceptions reflected in Lezghin fiction pieces in prose, and relation between one‟s own ethno-specific identity and alien ethnic identities in the framework of the Eurasian (identity perception of unique  ontributions of various ethnic groups into the cultural heritage. The main task the author set up is exploring a new paradigm of contemporary literature/ fiction once rooted in raising the actualized ethno-cultural selves, and intensifying the dialogue with the Russian and Western European literature/ fiction, while perceiving the specifics of reflecting the archaic and myth-referred conceptions in ethno-specific fiction pieces, and principles of introducing myth-referred elements into the wording. The study revealed in the samples of fiction pieces some fusion of ethno-cultural traditions proper for the Orient and West, as well as conventional stories and images newly interpreted by the contemporary Lezghin literature/ fiction.

  5. Unravelling Popular Myths in the Rheology of Entangled Polymer Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, Richard P.

    2014-03-01

    Myth No 1: Constraint release and Chain End Fluctuation coupled with Reptation dominate stress relaxation of highly entangled chains. Fact: Experiments show that Percolation processes account for about 50% of the relaxation, coupled with deGennes Reptation dynamics. In fact, the random coils are not relaxed (via Neutrons) when the stress (Birefringence) goes to zero, a critical prediction of the percolation mechanism, which is not in violation of the stress-optical law.. Myth No 2: The Packing Length Entanglement Modelfor the critical entanglement molecular weight, Me = 354 p3, provides a fundamental description of entanglements at the molecular level. Fact: Experiments show that the Packing Length model is fundamentally incorrect in all its predictions of rheological properties via Me ~ [ Mo/C∞]3, especially at the nanoscale, as well as the bulk. This is due to an incidental relationship between the monomer molecular weight Mo and the characteristic ratio C∞ for vinyl type polymers. The correct entanglement model is given by Me ~ C ∞Mo. Myth No 3: The Glass Transition Tgis dominated by Segmental Dynamics and Free Volume: Fact: Experiments show that Tg is dominated by the cluster dynamics of anharmonically interacting fractal aggregates which range from 1-100 nm in size (ave ~ 5 nm), as described by the TFT. In nanoconfined thin films, the segmental dynamics does not change much while huge decreases in Tg can be observed due to cluster size effects.

  6. Fibrinolysis in Trauma: "Myth," "Reality," or "Something in Between".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mark; Shreve, Jacob; Thomas, Scott; Moore, Ernest; Moore, Hunter; Hake, Daniel; Pohlman, Tim; Davis, Patrick; Ploplis, Victoria; Piscoya, Andres; Wegner, Julie; Bryant, John; Crepinsek, Anton; Lantry, James; Sheppard, Forest; Castellino, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The emphasis on fibrinolysis as an important contributor to trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has led to a debate regarding the relative clinical significance of fibrinolysis in the setting of trauma. The debate has centered on two camps. The one camp defines fibrinolysis in trauma by standard coagulation tests as well as fibrin split products, D-dimers, and plasmin/antiplasmin levels. This camp favors a more liberal use of tranexamic acid and attributes more significance to hyperfibrinolysis in TIC. The other camp favors a definition of fibrinolysis based on the viscoelastic tests (VET), rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and thromboelastography (TEG). These whole blood assays define hyperfibrinolysis at a higher threshold than plasma-based tests. Therefore, this VET camp reserves antifibrinolytic treatment for patients who demonstrate severe coagulopathy associated with hyperfibrinolysis. This bimodal attribution of the clinical relevance of fibrinolysis in trauma suggests that there may be an underlying "Myth" of the concept of TIC that was historically defined by plasma-based tests and a future "Reality" of the concept of TIC that is grounded on an understanding of TIC based on a VET-defined "fibrinolytic spectrum" of TIC. This narrative review explores this "Myth" and "Reality" of fibrinolysis in TIC and proposes a direction that will allow a "Future" interpretation of TIC that incorporates both the past "Myth" and present "Reality" of fibrinolysis TIC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  8. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-03-10

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3

  9. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  10. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  11. Analytical Study of the Status of Myth in the Creation of Literary and Artistic Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Sedigheh Sherkat; Abai, Andia

    2016-01-01

    The prevalent question raised in literary theories has been the quiddity of literature. However, the question of "what is literature?" is a philosophical issue. On the other hand, the relationship between myth and literature has always been raised by most scholars and many have considered literature a subtype of myths. In this paper,…

  12. Not so great: ten important myths about food advertising targeted to children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene; Cook, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Rising rates of childhood obesity have led to a greater concern over the impact of food advertising on children's health. Although public policy interventions seek to mitigate the impact of advertising on children, several pervasive myths often sidetrack effective discussions. This Perspective outlines and responds to ten common myths.

  13. Electoral Politics and Visions of Community: Jimmy Carter, Virtue, and the Small Town Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    States that progressive and conservative voices in America have argued whether national or local community could assure a virtuous citizenry. Describes how Jimmy Carter invented a progressive discourse shaped by the small town myth in his 1976 presidential campaign. Examines the failure of the big city myth and the ideological paradox of the small…

  14. The Diffusion of the Learning Pyramid Myths in Academia: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letrud, Kåre; Hernes, Sigbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the diffusion and present day status of a family of unsubstantiated learning-retention myths, some of which are referred to as "the learning pyramid". We demonstrate through an extensive search in academic journals and field-specific encyclopaedias that these myths are indeed widely publicised in academia and that…

  15. The historical interpretation of myth in the context of popular Islam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.; Binsbergen, W.M.J.; Schoffeleers, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The myth, the author focus upon, is that of Sidi Mhammad, a local saint venerated in N.W. Tunisia. After presenting the myth and briefly indicating the relatively ahistorical elements, the author builds up a framework which opens out the historical content for analysis. This framework is informed by

  16. The historical interpretation of myth in the context of popular Islam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Schoffeleers, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The myth, the author focus upon, is that of Sidi Mhammad, a local saint venerated in N.W. Tunisia. After presenting the myth and briefly indicating the relatively ahistorical elements, the author builds up a framework which opens out the historical content for analysis. This framework is informed by

  17. The Making of a Political Myth : Stability “Po-Stolypinski”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijermars, Mariëlle

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the emergence of the political myth of Pëtr Stolypin and its recent institutionalization as an exemplary image for Russian politics. The article considers the memory of Stolypin together with the myth of the Time of Troubles, that served the Putin regime well in its first and s

  18. A Narrative Review of Greek Myths as Interpretative Metaphors in Educational Research and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cano, Antonio; Torralbo, Manuel; Vallejo, Monica; Fernandez-Guerrero, Ines M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a series of Greek myths put forward as cultural narratives that could be used as metaphors or interpretative similes for explanatory and evaluative purposes in educational research and evaluation. These myths have been used in educational research literature, and most of them were found by carrying out an exhaustive search of…

  19. The Rhetoric of Masculinity: Origins, Institutions, and the Myth of the Self-Made Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, James V.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the myth of the self-made man commits a fundamental error by downplaying the importance of social definition and equating masculine growth with an escape from the boundaries of origins (race, class, sex) and institutions. Discusses the myth in terms of its history and writing pedagogies employed in some classrooms. (TB)

  20. Myth 17: Gifted and Talented Individuals Do Not Have Unique Social and Emotional Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2009-01-01

    Empirical and clinical literatures have challenged the myth that gifted students do not have unique social and emotional concerns. When this myth prevails, pertinent concerns are not recognized and addressed formally or informally, proactively or reactively. Educators, parents, coaches, and even counselors may miss indications of distress. Lack of…

  1. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m³ per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction.

  2. Limits to global groundwater consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest accessible freshwater resource worldwide and is of critical importance for irrigation, and so for global food security. For many regions of the world where groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge, persistent groundwater depletion occurs. A direct consequence of depletion is falling groundwater levels, reducing baseflows to rivers, harming ecosystems. Also, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence can occur. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable limits with all the associated problems. Here, we estimated past and future trends (1960-2050) in groundwater levels resulting from changes in abstractions and climate and predicted when limits of groundwater consumption are reached. We explored these limits by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that low that groundwater becomes unattainable for abstractions and how river flows are affected. Water availabilities, abstractions, and lateral groundwater flows are simulated (5 arcmin. resolution) using a coupled version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and a groundwater model based on MODFLOW. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of the worlds confined and unconfined aquifer systems, needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Results show that, next to the existing regions experiencing groundwater depletion (like India, Pakistan, Central Valley) new regions will develop, e.g. Southern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Using a limit that reflects present-day feasibility of groundwater abstraction, we estimate that in 2050 groundwater becomes unattainable for 20% of the global population, mainly in the developing countries and pumping cost will increase significantly. Largest impacts are found

  3. New York State budget update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The New York State Assembly proposed a 1999-2000 spending plan that rejected Governor George Pataki's sweeping cuts in funding for AIDS and other health-related programs. The proposal would add $12.4 million to AIDS services, including $10 million for community-based HIV-related services. The State Senate has not yet issued its proposed budget. The Governor is expected to be the biggest obstacle to the funding; he used his veto power extensively last year.

  4. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  5. "Reflection": Fighting Five Food Myths About the “Good Old Days”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Boris; Larsen, Morten Hedegaard

    2015-01-01

    This reflection piece addresses and dismantles five myths strongly associated with the food cultures of yesteryears in most developed countries. The myths are: (1) The decline of the family meal; (2) The myth of the happy (nuclear) family eating together; (3) The “kitchen illiterate” children...... of today; (4) Danish and northern European consumers low food expenditure as something solely negative; (5) Good tasting and fresh food products as something belonging to the past and never to be found in industrialized agriculture. The main reasons the authors of this reflection piece address...... and dismantle these five myths are to facilitate change in our present food culture and systems without necessary resorting to an overt idealization of our foods and food habits of the “good old days,” while also steering clear of the many myths concerning the supposed cline of our present food culture....

  6. Marketing the Count's way: how Dracula's myth can revive Romanian tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism destinations associated with the place myth phenomena often experience increased visitation and marketing opportunities. Considering the popularity of the Dracula myth worldwide, Romania has a great opportunity to improve its image as a unique destination on the international tourism market. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the exploitation of the Dracula myth in the Romanian tourism context, as well as the managerial and marketing implications of such an approach. It begins with an overview of the imaginary and historical links between Romania and the Dracula myth. Further on, it reviews the national initiatives to develop Dracula tourism, from both private and governmental perspectives. The paper concludes by highlighting the opportunities of developing Dracula tourism in Romania and embracing the Dracula myth as a unique competitive advantage of the country as a tourism destination.

  7. Analytical Study of the Status of Myth in the Creation of Literary and Artistic Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sherkat Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalent question raised in literary theories has been the quiddity of literature. However, the question of “what is literature?” is a philosophical issue. On the other hand, the relationship between myth and literature has always been raised by most scholars and many have considered literature a subtype of myths. In this paper, while pointing transiently to the concepts and definitions of myth from the perspective of the great thinkers, with a different view, the role of myth in creation of artistic works is discussed. In this review, the critic attempts to interpret the literary work - or some sources in the text - to its prototype or archetype with its deep structure. With the help of this method, tracing the old or new mythology, distorted or worn, it is understood how they have passed over the whole cultural field and have found their specific formation. Keywords: Literature, Myth, Creation, Imagination, Démythologisation, Remythification, Gilbert Durand

  8. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  9. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  10. Myth and Biblical Imagery in De Profundis Mythe et imaginaire biblique dans De Profundis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos Gay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available De la même façon que le théâtre de boulevard français représente la base thématique de la composition des comédies de société d’Oscar Wilde, l’imaginaire biblique doit être considéré comme une source d’inspiration essentielle pour des reformulations ultérieures dans son œuvre, caractérisées par l’influence et la subversion de textes originaux. Le but de cet article est d’analyser la dualité qui oscille entre la création littéraire et les contraintes vitales dans De Profundis, à partir d’une interprétation de la légende biblique en tant qu’expression artistique de la résignation et du désespoir de l’auteur. Le passage progressif de l’aveu épistolaire à l’incarnation personnelle des idéaux moraux met en évidence la recréation subjective de Wilde de son idéal du Christ ainsi que la construction d’un nouveau « je », articulé sur un processus d’épuration intérieure fondé sur des paramètres bibliques. L’Écriture Sainte devient alors aussi bien le moyen que l’expression de la transition unitive s’opérant entre le dramaturge et le mythe, entraînant la renaissance de l’auteur et de son inspiration.

  11. Funding Survival Toolkit: 3 Fiscal Cliff Myths, Debunked

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In the face of annual budget deficits, sequestration means automatic, across-the-board spending cuts to all federal agencies. This drastic step allows Congress to limit the size of the budget and gives it the right to make mandatory cuts if the cost of running the government exceeds the cap. On March 1, we all watched as Congress was unable to…

  12. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  13. Laser weapons-myths and prospects%激光武器-谬论与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    APOLLONOV V V

    2014-01-01

    过去几年总结的战略激光系统的设计经验和实现高能激光武器发展目标的强大信念有助于加快新技术领域的工作步伐。 World press博客平台最近发布的文章表明,反导机载激光器项目遇到了成本超支和拖期的问题,可能会成为削减预算的牺牲品。随后,大众媒体立即报道了五角大楼拒绝研制作战激光器。因此,出现了一些关于作战激光器的谬论。本文旨在通过充分的论证与分析来反对这些谬论。%The experience of designing strategic laser systems in the previous years and a strong belief in the attainability of the goal—the development of high-power laser weapons—help to significantly accelerate the pace of work in the field of new technologies .World press has recently published the articles where it was sug-gested that the anti-missile airborne laser project suffers cost overruns and delays or may fall victim to budget cuts.Just after that mass media immediately reported that the Pentagon refuses to develop combat lasers .As a result, there has appeared an epic set of myths about combat lasers .The task of this paper is to consider the most ridiculous statements and to reject them by sufficient analysis .

  14. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  15. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  16. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...

  17. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  18. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  19. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  20. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  1. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies being synthesised in RECCAP. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: Net Primary Production (NPP; Net Ecosystem Production (NEP; fire; Land Use Change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial.

    The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 29 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 31 ± 5 Tg C yr−1 and 18 ± 7 Tg C yr−1 respectively. The resultant Net Biome Production (NBP of 31 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 Tg C yr−1 by 32 ± 36%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  2. Characterization of the shallow groundwater system in an alpine watershed: Handcart Gulch, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, K.G.; Ge, S.; Caine, J.S.; Manning, A.

    2008-01-01

    Water-table elevation measurements and aquifer parameter estimates are rare in alpine settings because few wells exist in these environments. Alpine groundwater systems may be a primary source of recharge to regional groundwater flow systems. Handcart Gulch is an alpine watershed in Colorado, USA comprised of highly fractured Proterozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks with wells completed to various depths. Primary study objectives include determining hydrologic properties of shallow bedrock and surficial materials, developing a watershed water budget, and testing the consistency of measured hydrologic properties and water budget by constructing a simple model incorporating groundwater and surface water for water year 2005. Water enters the study area as precipitation and exits as discharge in the trunk stream or potential recharge for the deeper aquifer. Surficial infiltration rates ranged from 0.1-6.2??0-5 m/s. Discharge was estimated at 1.28??10-3 km3. Numerical modeling analysis of single-well aquifer tests predicted lower specific storage in crystalline bedrock than in ferricrete and colluvial material (6.7??10-5-2.10??0-3 l/m). Hydraulic conductivity in crystalline bedrock was significantly lower than in colluvial and alluvial material (4.3??10-9 -2.0??10-4 m/s). Water budget results suggest that during normal precipitation and temperatures water is available to recharge the deeper groundwater flow system. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  3. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  4. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  5. Network interdiction with budget constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Nankakishore [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for efficient network interdiction algorithms. Applications are varied, including computer network security, prevention of spreading of Internet worms, policing international smuggling networks, controlling spread of diseases and optimizing the operation of large public energy grids. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particularly interesting practical form of the interdiction question which we show to be computationally tractable. A polynomial time algorithm is then presented for this problem.

  6. REINFORCEMENT OF THE MYTH OF MANGUNI IN MINAHASAN COMMUNITY, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayske Rinny Liando

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral traditions may be found in many regions. One of them which enriches the treasure of local culture is the oral tradition of the myth of manguni (owl, which, in Minahasa, North Sulawesi, is purified and constitutes part of the local traditions which may help the local people overcome their problems. The oral tradition of the myth of manguni constitutes one of the local cultural products which may be potentially created, as can be seen in the creative industries currently motivated by the government of Indonesia. This present study was particularly intended to identify the form, ideology, and implication of the reinforcement of the myth of manguni in the community of Minahasa, North Sulawesi.   The result of the present study showed that the myth of manguni was reinforced by the community in Minahasa, North Sulawesi, not only in the form of the creative industry of souvenirs, which are highly economically valuable, but also in various forms of symbols. The reinforcement of the myth of manguni in the community of Minahasa, North Sulawesi, contained the ideology of heroism, the myth of the origin of Minahasa, amusement, the communication between human beings and the Creator, conservation, and commodification. The implication of the reinforcement of the myth of manguni in the community of Minahasa, North Sulawesi, on the socio-culture of the Minahasan people included the aspect of ideological superstructure, the aspect of socio-culture and the aspect of material infrastructure.   

  7. [Carl Gustav Jung, the myth of a man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Julieta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to get closer to the myth of Jung, this is part of the inner experiences that took place in his first childhood, and in which we can already see the foundation of his work and the development of key concepts as: the unconscious, Self, archetype and individuation process. His life is the display of his unconscious and this is what his work is about. We cannot understand Jung without taking into account the fundamental importance that he gives to the inner world: the dreams and fantasies; and the direct contact that he has had with these aspects since he was a little boy.

  8. Dispelling myths and focusing on notable concepts in HIV pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jay A

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of HIV over three decades ago, major efforts have been made to control and perhaps eliminate HIV infection worldwide. During these studies, certain myths or misconceptions about this infectious disease have been emphasized and other potentially beneficial concepts have received less attention. A true long-term solution to HIV infection merits an appreciation of alternative ideas and findings that could be beneficial in the ultimate control of HIV/AIDS. Here, I discuss six issues and call for more attention to the science of HIV and well-designed clinical trials.

  9. Vampires and vampirism: pathological roots of a myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Tiziani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many cultures have developed myths and legends about vampires and hematofages with different features and behaviours. These tales have many common elements, as the dualism between "life" and "death". According to some anthropogical currents, these symbols don't come up from nothing, but follow a process of transformation drawing elements from real experience, which are intersected in the cultural tissue and are transformed depending on the message they are meant to spread.Vampires include several characteristics referable to those illnesses and diseases which have mostly marked human history, both from the psychological and the physical point of view.

  10. Myths and Prehispanic Astronomy: A Look from the Colonial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Gallut, María Elena

    2016-11-01

    The information from the documents written during colonial times by Spanish friars attempted to provide an overview of the thought of Mesoamerican indigenous societies. These ideas are permanently imprinted religious concepts that ordered the culture, and that signal the efforts of men to find its role in the world and give sense to the astronomical and natural phenomena that are integrated into their religion, particularly in the creation of myths. The generation of the gods, their tasks and areas of action are explored here through the texts of Fray Andres del Olmo.

  11. China's High-tech Exports: Myth and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Yuqing

    2011-01-01

    China’s leading position in high-tech exports is a myth created by outdated trade statistics, which are inconsistent with the trade based on global supply chains. Assembled high-tech products, made with imported key parts and components, accounted for 82% of China’s high-tech exports. Current trade statistics mistakenly credit entire values of these assembled products to China, thus greatly inflate the export value. For instance, in 2009 China’s export in the iPhone amounted US$4.6 billion, o...

  12. O mito fascista da romanidade The fascist myth of romanity

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Giardina

    2008-01-01

    Este ensaio procura analisar como o mito de Roma foi utilizado por Mussolini para criar uma "especificidade" fascista que coincidisse com uma "especificidade" da nação italiana. Práticas rituais, gestos, valores, símbolos foram retomados, de forma variamente arbitrária, para construir um mito que gerava novas ambigüidades, e que constituiu, à diferença do nazismo, um empecilho para a própria sobrevivência da "romanidade" após Mussolini.This essay aims to analyze how the myth of Rome was used ...

  13. Danish TV Christmas calendars: Folklore, myth and cultural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal......This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...

  14. Jung's view on myth and post-modern psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raya A

    2003-11-01

    Post-modern psychology embodies two core themes, the social mind and the narrative self. Whereas the social-mind thesis seems diametrically opposed to Jung's position regarding human nature, the narrative-self thesis is associated with research and theorizing about personal myth and mythmaking in ways that could make contact with Jung's concerns. Jung's view is examined here with particular attention to McAdams' theory of narrative identity. It is suggested that the ostensible differences between Jung and post-modern psychology might reflect divergent interests, rather than necessarily irreconcilable worldviews.

  15. Creation Stories: Myths about the Origin of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Desan, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A myth about the origins of money has long organized modern approaches to the medium. According to that creation story, money is the natural product of human exchange. It can be analogized to a commodity like silver that comes to hand out of the decentralized activity of trading or a convention like language that arises out of a consensus about the value of an item. But if we consider clues about money’s origins and extrapolate from its continuing practice, another story comes into focus. It ...

  16. [Eubiosis and dysbiosis of gastrointestinal tract: myths and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimmerman, Ia S

    2013-01-01

    Current data on eubiosis and dysbiosis of gastrointestinal tract are discussed along with the role of its microflora in human body under normal and pathological conditions. Certain debatable problems are discussed. Classification of colonic dysbiosis is presented with reference to its stages, functions of normal flora, "myths" related to the science of eubiosis and dysbiosis, the authors views of the problem. Diagnostic methods and their informative value are described. The main diseases and syndromes associated with intestinal dysbiosis are discussed. In conjunction with approaches to its correction.

  17. Human reproduction in art: from myths to history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Felice; Bettini, Maurizio

    2010-08-01

    Conception, gestation, and birth, including maternal-fetal health, have been the subject of narrative and art since early human history. Myth and histories related to pregnancy were represented by sculptors and painters as well as the subject of several operas: the mystery of reproduction was always a fascinating theme. This mystery was commonly represented across cultures and time, in the old world, from Egypt to India, to Greece and Rome continuing until the Renaissance and the Modern period. To be an artist meant also to be a scientist in several societies. The current paper reports 12 examples of the fusion of art and reproductive science.

  18. “China’s Jobless Growth” Is a Myth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴要武; 赵泉

    2007-01-01

    Recently,China’s economic growth pattern was criticized because it has not engendered corresponding employment growth.We analyze a number of factors such as changing employment elasticity,labour demand and wage level to assess employment growth in the non-agricultural sector, finding that the employment rate has increased rapidly in the past decade. The notion that China doesn’t have any employment growth is a myth. The forthcoming Lewis Turning-Point in China’s labous market will be a great challenge for the next stage of sustainable growth.

  19. Pre-big bang cosmology end of a myth?

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    1999-01-01

    The myth according to which the Universe-and time itself-started with /near a big bang singularity is questioned. Superstring theory, through its duality symmetries, favours a pre- (rather than a post-) big bang solution to standard cosmology's puzzles. Sufficiently homogeneous, flat, and hot baby universes naturally spring out of asymptotically trivial (but otherwise generic) initial conditions, after a long period of dilaton-driven inflation. Several characteristic observable consequences should soon provide stringent tests of this new cosmological scenario. (30 refs).

  20. String cosmology and the beginning-of-time myth

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    The myth according to which the Universe-and time itself-started with a big bang will be challenged. Classical and quantum gravitational instabilities, can, respectively, inflate and warm up a primordial pre-bangian Universe satisfying a superstring-motivated principle of "asymptotic past triviality". Properties of the pre-bangian Universe can be probed through its observable relics, which include: (i) a (possibly observable) stochastic gravitational-wave background; (ii) a (possible) new mechanism for seeding the galactic magnetic fields; (iii) a (possible) new source of large-scale structure and CMB anisotropy. (33 refs).