WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater assessment program

  1. Results of the groundwater quality assessment program at the 216-A-29 ditch RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votava, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the groundwater quality assessment program for the 216-A-29 Ditch. The information presented in this report Ditch have affected the quality of the groundwater in the unconfined aquifer beneath the facility. The results indicate that the 216-A-29 Ditch is the source of elevated specific conductance in well 299-E25-35 and that the source is nonhazardous. This report describes the current monitoring status of the 216-A-29 Ditch, groundwater chemical data interpretation, and recommends the reinstatement of an indicator-evaluation monitoring program in accordance with 40 CFR 265.93(d)(6)

  2. Assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The following report contains an assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) for the Y-12 National Security Complex at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The GWPP is administered by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. for the purpose of groundwater surveillance monitoring. After over 20 years of extensive site characterization and delineation efforts, groundwater in the three hydrogeologic areas that comprise the Y-12 Complex requires a long-term monitoring network strategy that will efficiently satisfy surveillance monitoring objectives set forth in DOE Order 450.1. The GWPP assessment consisted of two phases, a qualitative review of the program and a quantitative evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software methodology. The specific objective of the qualitative section of the review of the GWPP was to evaluate the methods of data collection, management, and reporting and the function of the monitoring network for the Y-12 facility using guidance from regulatory and academic sources. The results of the qualitative review are used to suggest modifications to the overall program that would be consistent with achieving objectives for long-term groundwater monitoring. While cost minimization is a consideration in the development of the monitoring program, the primary goal is to provide a comprehensive strategy to provide quality data to support site decision making during facility operations, long-term resource restoration, and property redevelopment. The MAROS software is designed to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network by applying statistical techniques to existing historic and current site analytical data. The MAROS methodology also considers hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors. The software identifies trends and suggests components for an improved monitoring plan by analyzing individual monitoring wells in the current

  3. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  4. Assessment model validity document. NAMMU: A program for calculating groundwater flow and transport through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliffe, K.A.; Morris, S.T.; Porter, J.D.

    1998-05-01

    NAMMU is a computer program for modelling groundwater flow and transport through porous media. This document provides an overview of the use of the program for geosphere modelling in performance assessment calculations and gives a detailed description of the program itself. The aim of the document is to give an indication of the grounds for having confidence in NAMMU as a performance assessment tool. In order to achieve this the following topics are discussed. The basic premises of the assessment approach and the purpose of and nature of the calculations that can be undertaken using NAMMU are outlined. The concepts of the validation of models and the considerations that can lead to increased confidence in models are described. The physical processes that can be modelled using NAMMU and the mathematical models and numerical techniques that are used to represent them are discussed in some detail. Finally, the grounds that would lead one to have confidence that NAMMU is fit for purpose are summarised

  5. Groundwater Assessment Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Podgorski, Joel; Berg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Groundwater Assessment Platform is a free, interactive online GIS platform for the mapping, sharing and statistical modeling of groundwater quality data. The modeling allows users to take advantage of publicly available global datasets of various environmental parameters to produce prediction maps of their contaminant of interest.

  6. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  7. Groundwater protection management program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ''Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan'' (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program's significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1

  8. Assessment model validity document - HYDRASTAR. A stochastic continuum program for groundwater flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, B. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Lars [Equa Simulation AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The prevailing document addresses validation of the stochastic continuum model HYDRASTAR designed for Monte Carlo simulations of groundwater flow in fractured rocks. Here, validation is defined as a process to demonstrate that a model concept is fit for its purpose. Preferably, the validation is carried out by comparison of model predictions with independent field observations and experimental measurements. In addition, other sources can also be used to confirm that the model concept gives acceptable results. One method is to compare results with the ones achieved using other model concepts for the same set of input data. Another method is to compare model results with analytical solutions. The model concept HYDRASTAR has been used in several studies including performance assessments of hypothetical repositories for spent nuclear fuel. In the performance assessments, the main tasks for HYDRASTAR have been to calculate groundwater travel time distributions, repository flux distributions, path lines and their exit locations. The results have then been used by other model concepts to calculate the near field release and far field transport. The aim and framework for the validation process includes describing the applicability of the model concept for its purpose in order to build confidence in the concept. Preferably, this is made by comparisons of simulation results with the corresponding field experiments or field measurements. Here, two comparisons with experimental results are reported. In both cases the agreement was reasonably fair. In the broader and more general context of the validation process, HYDRASTAR results have been compared with other models and analytical solutions. Commonly, the approximation calculations agree well with the medians of model ensemble results. Additional indications that HYDRASTAR is suitable for its purpose were obtained from the comparisons with results from other model concepts. Several verification studies have been made for

  9. Assessment of groundwater management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the groundwater management and environmental monitoring programs at the Hanford reservation was initiated in 1973. A large number of recommendations made as a result of this review are summarized. The purpose of the Hanford Hydrology Program is to maintain a groundwater surveillance network to assess contamination of the natural water system. Potential groundwater contamination is primarily a function of waste management decisions. The review revealed that although the hydrology program would greatly benefit from additional improvements, it is adequate to predict levels of contaminants present in the groundwater system. Studies are presently underway to refine advanced mathematical models to use results of the hydrologic investigation in forecasting the response of the system to different long-term management decisions. No information was found which indicates that a hazard through the groundwater pathway presently exists as a result of waste operations at Hanford. (CH)

  10. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant, 1990: Data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report is a detailed assessment of groundwater quality at several hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites are located in an area defined as the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes that have been defined at the Y-12 Plant in an effort to unify and coordinate site-specific monitoring activities for planning and reporting purposes. Section 2.0 contains background information regarding the monitored sites and a discussion of the program objectives. An overview of the complex hydrogeologic system in the BCHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1990 assessment data, a review of groundwater geochemistry and background water quality, detailed descriptions of groundwater contaminant plumes, and a discussion regarding the quality of groundwater and surface water exiting the BCHR are presented in Section 4.0. Findings of the 1990 assessment program are summarized in Section 5.0. Modification to the assessment monitoring program proposed for 1991 are in Section 6.0, and a list of references (Section 7.0) concludes the report. 20 refs., 23 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: Data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report is a detailed assessment of groundwater quality at several hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites are located in an area defined as the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes that have been established at the Y-12 Plant in an effort to unify and coordinate site-specific monitoring activities for planning and reporting purposes. Section 2.0 contains background information and a discussion of the 1990 program objectives. An overview of the complex hydrogeologic system in the UEFPCHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1990 assessment data, a review of groundwater geochemistry and background water quality, detailed descriptions of groundwater contaminant plumes, and a discussion regarding the quality of groundwater exiting the UEFPCHR are presented in Section 4.0. Findings of the 1990 assessment program are summarized in Section 5.0. Modifications to the assessment monitoring program proposed for 1991 are presented in Section 6.0, and a list of references (Section 7.0) concludes the report. 20 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Hydrogeological characterization and assessment of groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this perspective, assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of the ... contributes about 60% of the total wastewater that gets discharged from ...... tern and effective groundwater management; Proc. Indian. Nat. Sci. Acad.

  13. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  14. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  15. TRING: a computer program for calculating radionuclide transport in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1984-12-01

    The computer program TRING is described which enables the transport of radionuclides in groundwater to be calculated for use in long term radiological assessments using methods described previously. Examples of the areas of application of the program are activity transport in groundwater associated with accidental spillage or leakage of activity, the shutdown of reactors subject to delayed decommissioning, shallow land burial of intermediate level waste and geologic disposal of high level waste. Some examples of the use of the program are given, together with full details to enable users to run the program. (author)

  16. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  18. The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, Stuart P.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has monitored groundwater on the Hanford Site since the 1940s to help determine what chemical and radiological contaminants have made their way into the groundwater. As regulatory requirements for monitoring increased in the 1980s, there began to be some overlap between various programs. DOE established the Groundwater Performance Assessment Project (groundwater project) in 1996 to ensure protection of the public and the environment while improving the efficiency of monitoring activities. The groundwater project is designed to support all groundwater monitoring needs at the site, eliminate redundant sampling and analysis, and establish a cost-effective hierarchy for groundwater monitoring activities. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the groundwater project. This QA Plan is based on the QA requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--General Provisions/Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the groundwater project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The groundwater project has determined that the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan

  19. Environmental Sciences Division Groundwater Program Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This first edition of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems GWPO for fiscal year (FY) 1993. This introductory section describes the GWPO's staffing, organization, and funding sources. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater program at the three Oak Ridge facilities [ORNL, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], and the PGDP and PORTS, respectively. Several years ago, Energy systems senior management recognized that the manner in which groundwater activities were conducted at the five facilities could result in unnecessary duplication of effort, inadequate technical input to decisions related to groundwater issues, and could create a perception within the regulatory agencies of a confusing and inconsistent approach to groundwater issues at the different facilities. Extensive interactions among management from Environmental Compliance, Environmental Restoration (ER), Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Safety and Health, and the five facilities ultimately led to development of a net technical umbrella organization for groundwater. On April 25, 1991, the GWPO was authorized to be set up within ORNL thereby establishing a central coordinating office that would develop a consistent technical and administrative direction for the groundwater programs of all facilities and result in compliance with all relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations such as RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as well as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and orders. For example, DOE Order 5400.1, issued on November 9, 1988, called for each DOE facility to develop an environmental monitoring program for all media (e.g., air, surface water, and groundwater)

  20. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  1. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  2. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  3. Assessment and uncertainty analysis of groundwater risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fawen; Zhu, Jingzhao; Deng, Xiyuan; Zhao, Yong; Li, Shaofei

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater with relatively stable quantity and quality is commonly used by human being. However, as the over-mining of groundwater, problems such as groundwater funnel, land subsidence and salt water intrusion have emerged. In order to avoid further deterioration of hydrogeological problems in over-mining regions, it is necessary to conduct the assessment of groundwater risk. In this paper, risks of shallow and deep groundwater in the water intake area of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Tianjin, China, were evaluated. Firstly, two sets of four-level evaluation index system were constructed based on the different characteristics of shallow and deep groundwater. Secondly, based on the normalized factor values and the synthetic weights, the risk values of shallow and deep groundwater were calculated. Lastly, the uncertainty of groundwater risk assessment was analyzed by indicator kriging method. The results meet the decision maker's demand for risk information, and overcome previous risk assessment results expressed in the form of deterministic point estimations, which ignore the uncertainty of risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  5. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    applied models for groundwater vulnerability assessment mapping. The appraoches .... The overall 'pollution potential' or DRASTIC index is established by applying the formula: DRASTIC Index: ... affected by the structure of the soil surface.

  6. Development and implementation of a comprehensive groundwater protection program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The major goals of the groundwater protection program are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of Savannah River Plant operations, to take corrective measures as required to restore or protect groundwater quality, and to ensure that future operations do not adversely affect the quality or availability of the groundwater resources at the site. The specific elements of this program include (1) continuation of an extensive groundwater monitoring program, (2) assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality, (3) implementation of mitigative actions, as required, to restore or protect groundwater quality, (4) incorporation of groundwater protection concepts in the design of new production and waste management facilities, and (5) review of site utilization of groundwater resources to ensure compatibility with regional needs. The major focal points of the groundwater protection program are the assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality and the implementation of remedial action projects. Many locations at SRP have been used as waste disposal sites for a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Field investigations are ongoing to determine the nature and extent of any contamination in the sediments and groundwater at these waste sites on a priority basis. Remedial action has been initiated. Certain aspects of the groundwater protection program have been identified as key to the success in achieving the desired objectives. Key elements of the program have included early identification of all the potential sources for groundwater contamination, development of an overall strategy for waste site assessment and mitigation, use of a flexible computerized system for data base management, and establishing good relationships with regulatory agencies. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  7. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  8. Optimized remedial groundwater extraction using linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater extraction systems are typically installed to remediate contaminant plumes or prevent further spread of contamination. These systems are expensive to install and maintain. A traditional approach to designing such a wellfield uses a series of trial-and-error simulations to test the effects of various well locations and pump rates. However, the optimal locations and pump rates of extraction wells are difficult to determine when objectives related to the site hydrogeology and potential pumping scheme are considered. This paper describes a case study of an application of linear programming theory to determine optimal well placement and pump rates. The objectives of the pumping scheme were to contain contaminant migration and reduce contaminant concentrations while minimizing the total amount of water pumped and treated. Past site activities at the area under study included disposal of contaminants in pits. Several groundwater plumes have been identified, and others may be present. The area of concern is bordered on three sides by a wetland, which receives a portion of its input budget as groundwater discharge from the pits. Optimization of the containment pumping scheme was intended to meet three goals: (1) prevent discharge of contaminated groundwater to the wetland, (2) minimize the total water pumped and treated (cost benefit), and (3) avoid dewatering of the wetland (cost and ecological benefits). Possible well locations were placed at known source areas. To constrain the problem, the optimization program was instructed to prevent any flow toward the wetland along a user-specified border. In this manner, the optimization routine selects well locations and pump rates so that a groundwater divide is produced along this boundary

  9. 100-N pilot project: Proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, J.V.; Hartman, M.J.; Lutrell, S.P.; Perkins, C.J.; Zoric, J.P.; Tindall, S.C.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program for the 100-N Pilot Project. This program is the result of a cooperative effort between the Hanford Site contractors who monitor the groundwater beneath the 100-N Area. The consolidation of the groundwater monitoring programs is being proposed to minimize the cost, time, and effort necessary for groundwater monitoring in the 100-N Area, and to coordinate regulatory compliance activities. The integrity of the subprograms requirements remained intact during the consolidation effort. The purpose of this report is to present the proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program and to summarize the process by which it was determined

  10. Work plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory groundwater program: Continuous groundwater collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The continuous collection of groundwater data is a basic and necessary part of Lockeheed Martin Energy Systems' ORNL Environmental Restoration Area-Wide Groundwater Program. Continuous groundwater data consist primarily of continually recorded groundwater levels, and in some instances, specific conductivity, pH, and/or temperature measurements. These data will be collected throughout the ORNL site. This Work Plan (WP) addresses technical objectives, equipment requirements, procedures, documentation requirements, and technical instructions for the acquisition of the continuous groundwater data. Intent of this WP is to provide an approved document that meets all the necessary requirements while retaining the flexibility necessary to effectively address ORNL's groundwater problems

  11. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  12. 100-D Ponds groundwater quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-D Ponds facility is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The pH of groundwater in a downgradient well is statistically different than local background, triggering an assessment of groundwater contamination under 40 CFR 265.93. Results of a similar assessment, conducted in 1993, show that the elevated pH is caused by the presence of alkaline ash sediments beneath the ponds, which are not part of the RCRA unit. The 100-D Ponds should remain in indicator evaluation monitoring

  13. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  14. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents

  15. Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study is to assess the qualitative aspect of drinking water supply of Firozabad city (India) through index method and comparing it with existing standards for important parameters. The main components of the study include a field sampling analysis of groundwater collected from three different sites viz.

  16. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  18. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  20. Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site

  1. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task

  2. Considering groundwater use to improve the assessment of groundwater pumping for irrigation in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Amichi, Farida; Ameur, Fatah; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia; Bouarfa, Sami; Kuper, Marcel; Habaieb, Hamadi; Hartani, Tarik; Hammani, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater resources in semi-arid areas and especially in the Mediterranean face a growing demand for irrigated agriculture and, to a lesser extent, for domestic uses. Consequently, groundwater reserves are affected and water-table drops are widely observed. This leads to strong constraints on groundwater access for farmers, while managers worry about the future evolution of the water resources. A common problem for building proper groundwater management plans is the difficulty in assessing individual groundwater withdrawals at regional scale. Predicting future trends of these groundwater withdrawals is even more challenging. The basic question is how to assess the water budget variables and their evolution when they are deeply linked to human activities, themselves driven by countless factors (access to natural resources, public policies, market, etc.). This study provides some possible answers by focusing on the assessment of groundwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture at three sites in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria). Efforts were made to understand the different features that influence irrigation practices, and an adaptive user-oriented methodology was used to monitor groundwater withdrawals. For each site, different key factors affecting the regional groundwater abstraction and its past evolution were identified by involving farmers' knowledge. Factors such as farmer access to land and groundwater or development of public infrastructures (electrical distribution network) are crucial to decode the results of well inventories and assess the regional groundwater abstraction and its future trend. This leads one to look with caution at the number of wells cited in the literature, which could be oversimplified.

  3. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  4. Innovative technique for assessment of groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, M.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2001-07-01

    Groundwater quality of a part of Chaj Doab has been assessed with innovative techniques which are not reported in literature. The concept of triangular coordinates is modified by multi-rectangular ones for the classification of major cations and anions analysed in the ground water. A Multi-Rectangular Diagram (MRD) has been developed with the combination of rectangular coordinates by virtue of which milli-equivalent per liter percentages (meq/1%) of major cations and anions could be classified into different categories more efficiently as compared to classical trilinear diagrams. Both Piper diagram and MRD are used for the assessment of 259 data sets analysed from ground water of Chaj Doab area, Pakistan. The differentiated ground water types with MRD in the study area are calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sulfate. Sodium bicarbonate type emerges as the most abundant type of ground water in the study area. A map showing spatial variation of groundwater quality has been constructed with the help of MRD. This map shows that, in the vicinity of rivers Chenab and Jhelum, calcium bicarbonate type of waters occur while the central area is mainly covered by sodium bicarbonate dominant waters. Groundwaters near the upper Jhelum canal are dominant in sodium sulfate. An important relation between calcium and sodium is proposed which explains the movement history of groundwater in the aquifer. Hydrogeochemical processes have been evaluated with new methods. Ion exchange between calcium and sodium, precipitation of calcium bicarbonate and dissolution of rock forming minerals are the major delineated hydrogeochemical processes. (author)

  5. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  6. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  7. A Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Samples around a Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling station in Diobu area of Port Harcourt for four years at intervals of two years with a view to determine the level of groundwater pollution. It examines the physiochemical, major ions and heavy metal aspect of groundwater quality around the study ...

  8. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and sensitivity to pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution caused by human activity is a serious environmental problem in cities. Pollution vulnerability assessment of groundwater resources provides information on how to protect areas vulnerable to pollution. The present study is a detailed investigation of the potential for groundwater contamination through ...

  9. Assessment of Hydrochemistry for Use as Groundwater Age Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; Daughney, Chris; Jackson, Bethanna; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating can aid groundwater management by providing information on groundwater flow, mixing and residence-, storage- and exposure-time of groundwater in the subsurface. Groundwater age can be inferred from environmental tracers, such as tritium, SF6 and CFCs (CFC-12, -11 and -113). These tracers often need to be applied complementarily, since they have a restricted application range and ambiguous age interpretations can be obtained. Some tracers, such as the CFCs, will become of limited use in near future, due their fading out atmospheric concentration. As a consequence of these limitations, there is a need for additional, complementary tracers to ensure groundwater dating in future. Hydrochemistry parameters, such as the concentrations and ratios of major ions, appear to be promising candidates. Hydro-chemistry data at various spatial and temporal scales are widely available through local, regional and national groundwater monitoring programmes. Promising relationships between hydrochemistry parameters and groundwater residence time or aquifer depth have been found in near piston flow environments. However, most groundwater samples contain proportions of different aged water, due to mixing of water emerging from different flow lines during sampling or discharge, which complicates the establishment of hydrochemistry-time relationships in these environments. In this study, we establish a framework to infer hydrochemistry - (residence) time relationships in non-piston flow environments by using age information inferred from environmental tracer data and lumped parameter models (LPMs). The approach involves the generation of major element concentrations by 'classic' Monte Carlo simulation and subsequent comparison of simulated and observed element concentrations by means of an objective function to establish hydrochemistry-time relationships. The framework also allows for assessment of the hydrochemistry-time relationships with regards to their potential to

  10. Assessing regional groundwater stress for nations using multiple data sources with the groundwater footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource for agricultural production, ecosystems, drinking water and industry, yet groundwater depletion is accelerating, especially in a number of agriculturally important regions. Assessing the stress of groundwater resources is crucial for science-based policy and management, yet water stress assessments have often neglected groundwater and used single data sources, which may underestimate the uncertainty of the assessment. We consistently analyze and interpret groundwater stress across whole nations using multiple data sources for the first time. We focus on two nations with the highest national groundwater abstraction rates in the world, the United States and India, and use the recently developed groundwater footprint and multiple datasets of groundwater recharge and withdrawal derived from hydrologic models and data synthesis. A minority of aquifers, mostly with known groundwater depletion, show groundwater stress regardless of the input dataset. The majority of aquifers are not stressed with any input data while less than a third are stressed for some input data. In both countries groundwater stress affects agriculturally important regions. In the United States, groundwater stress impacts a lower proportion of the national area and population, and is focused in regions with lower population and water well density compared to India. Importantly, the results indicate that the uncertainty is generally greater between datasets than within datasets and that much of the uncertainty is due to recharge estimates. Assessment of groundwater stress consistently across a nation and assessment of uncertainty using multiple datasets are critical for the development of a science-based rationale for policy and management, especially with regard to where and to what extent to focus limited research and management resources. (letter)

  11. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, T.O.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Management Plan is to define the function, organizational structure (including associated matrix organizations), interfaces, roles and responsibilities, authority, and relationship to the Department of Energy for the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO). GWPO is charged with the responsibility of coordinating all components of the groundwater program for Energy Systems. This mandate includes activities at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants

  12. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, T.O.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Management Plan is to define the function, organizational structure (including associated matrix organizations), interfaces, roles and responsibilities, authority, and relationship to the Department of Energy for the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO). GWPO is charged with the responsibility of coordinating all components of the groundwater program for Energy Systems. This mandate includes activities at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants.

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  14. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment to Pesticides and Their Ranking and Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abrishamchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the different methods for groundwater vulnerability assessment to pesticides contamination and their uncertainties were introduced. Then, the groundwater vulnerability of agricultural regions of Pasha-Kolaa dam (Mazandaran province to 7 pesticides has been assessed by the mobility potential indices in the typical conditions of pesticide properties (t1/2 and KOC and the zonation maps of groundwater vulnerability in this region have been generated in the GIS environment.  According to the uncertainty of the pesticide properties and the lack of necessary data for uncertainty analysis in the region of study, the mobility potential indices in different scenarios of pesticide properties (worst and best conditions of pesticide properties (t1/2 and KOC have been calculated, mapped and zoned. The zonation maps in three scenarios (best, typical and worst conditions of pesticide properties were compared. Next, according to the regional values of mobility potential indices, generated for different scenarios, the pesticides are ranked using the composite programming method. Finally, the pesticides are clustered to three groups (suitable, transitional and unsuitable by the combination of the results of previous sections. The clustering results showed that among of studied pesticides, 2,4 D Acid, Dimethoate and Fenvalerate are suitable ,and Metsulfuron and Triclopyr are unsuitable pesticides for region of study. The other pesticides showed transitional condition.

  15. Difficulty in assessing low 3H, 14C and 36Cl concentrations in old groundwaters and its implication for groundwater dating - ANDRA 2007/2008 drilling program (Meuse/Haute-Marne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourre, E.; Dapoigny, A.; Michelot, J.L.; Massault, M.; Noret, A.; Rebeix, R.; Le Gal La Salle, C.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Vinsot, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In 2007-2008, the French Nuclear Waste Agency (Andra) carried out a drilling campaign in the vicinity of its underground laboratory of Bure (Meuse/Haute-Marne), over an area of ∼400 km 2 . The objective was to obtain a detailed description of the geophysical, geological and transport properties of the 150 m thick Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay layer in order to check the homogeneity of this geological formation which is potentially suitable for establishing a nuclear waste deep repository. As part of this program, water samples were taken from the two limestone formations adjacent to the COx, to analyse the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of these two deep aquifers and investigate their interactions with the COx layer. Multiple permeable layers were identified in the thickness of the carbonate formations which offered the very interesting opportunity to investigate groundwater circulation in individual permeable layers within the aquifer. As the age of these groundwaters is clearly beyond the detection limit for tritium and also presumably for radiocarbon, the analysis of both tracers was designed as a check of the quality of the samples and possible mixing with younger waters within the boreholes. Besides, CFC and SF 6 samples were collected in the same purpose. Tritium was measured at the LSCE-Saclay noble gas facility using helium-3 mass spectrometry, with a limit of detection limit of 0.1 TU (the detection limit is defined as the minimum concentration of a substance being analyzed that has a 99 percent probability of being identified, thus corresponding to 3-sigma at the blank level). The radiocarbon samples were prepared at IDES (Orsay) and measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LMC14 (Saclay, Artemis facility, INSU national service). The detection limit was usually lower than 0.2 pmC, corresponding to a radiocarbon apparent age of ∼50 Kyr. CFC and SF 6 were measured at Geosciences

  16. Attempts for an integrative (ecological) assessment of groundwater ecosystems status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Jürgen Hahn, Hans; Stein, Heide; Brielmann, Heike; Berkhoff, Sven; Fuchs, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Today the assessment of the ecological status of surface waters is routine and made its way into national and international (e.g. European Water Framework Directive) regulations. For groundwater and aquifers a comparable approach, considering ecological aspects, is still missing. In contrast, groundwater monitoring and management schemes follow exclusively physical-chemical and quantitative criteria. However, groundwater systems are, although persistently neglected, ecosystems harboring diverse communities of microorganisms and invertebrates. Directly linked to the biological components, groundwater systems provide various ecosystem services of societal relevance (natural production of clean drinking water). In the recent past, we developed a first concept of an ecologically sound assessment scheme for groundwater systems. Work included (1) the selection of appropriate biological/ecological criteria, (2) set-up of a groundwater ecosystem typology, (3) deduction of natural biological groundwater background values and definition of reference conditions for selected sites, and (4) a first evaluation model. Groundwater has been analyzed repeatedly of more than 100 wells distributed over five investigation areas spread all over Germany. The investigated sites could be assigned to different natural regions, geological regions, hydrogeological units, and aquifer types. The mismatch of groundwater faunal communities with the established classification schemes led to the proposal of 'stygoregions' for Germany. The presentation introduces a number of microbial and faunistic assessment criteria, which have been tested and natural background values which have been deduced. Finally, a tiered framework for assessing groundwater ecosystem status which allows an easy and fast evaluation is introduced.

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  18. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  19. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table

  20. Aquifer Characterization and Groundwater Potential Assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Keywords: Aquifer Characterization, Groundwater Potential, Electrical Resistivity, Lithologic Logs ... State Water Corporation currently cannot meet the daily water ... METHOD OF STUDY ... sections which were constrained with the available.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New Mexico Administrative Code), 'Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,'specifically 40 CFR 264.90 through 264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  3. Groundwater sustainability assessment in coastal aquifers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work investigates the response of shallow, coastal unconfined aquifers to anticipated overdraft conditions and climate change effect using numerical simulation. The groundwater flow model MODFLOW and variable density groundwater model SEAWAT are used for this investigation. The transmissivity and ...

  4. Quality assessment of groundwater from shallow aquifers in Hong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality assessment of groundwater from shallow aquifers in Hong area, Adamawa state, northeastern Nigeria. ... The high content of fluoride and iron in the groundwater may have contributed to the high EC and TDS especially during the rainy season when the rate of leaching and infiltration is high. Keywords: Quality ...

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated

  6. Data verification and evaluation techniques for groundwater monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, T.M.; Turner, R.R.

    1990-12-01

    To ensure that data resulting from groundwater monitoring programs are of the quality required to fulfill program objectives, it is suggested that a program of data verification and evaluation be implemented. These procedures are meant to supplement and support the existing laboratory quality control/quality assurance programs by identifying aberrant data resulting from a variety of unforeseen circumstances: sampling problems, data transformations in the lab, data input at the lab, data transfer, end-user data input. Using common-sense principles, pattern recognition techniques, and hydrogeological principles, a computer program was written which scans the data for suspected abnormalities and produces a text file stating sample identifiers, the suspect data, and a statement of how the data has departed from the expected. The techniques described in this paper have been developed to support the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan

  7. Groundwater sustainability assessment in coastal aquifers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    draft conditions and climate change effect using numerical simulation. The groundwater flow model ...... '98 Conference at the International Ground Water Model- ing Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. Harbaugh A W, Banta ...

  8. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM−2), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM−2). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  9. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H; Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; McMahon, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM(-2)), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM(-2)). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. All rights reserved Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-12

    Dec 12, 2017 ... Pollution vulnerability assessment of groundwater resources provides information on how to protect areas ... the application of DRASTIC model, the relationship ..... mathematical structure of consistent matrices and the.

  11. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  12. Results of RCRA groundwater quality assessment at the 216-B-3 Pond Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Teel, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes a groundwater quality assessment of the 216-B-3 pond system, a Resources Conservation and Recovery act of 1976 (RCRA) waste facility. In 1990, sampling and chemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility indicated that the contamination indicator parameters, total organic halogens (TOX), and total organic carbon (TOC) had exceeded established limits in two wells. This discovery placed the facility into RCRA groundwater assessment status and subsequently led to a more detailed hydrochemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility. Comprehensive chemical analyses of groundwater samples from 1994 through 1996 revealed one compound, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRIS2CH), that may have contributed to elevated TOX concentrations. No compound was identified as a contributor to TOC. Detailed evaluations of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH and comparison of occurrences of these parameters led to conclusions that (1) with few exceptions, these constituents occur at low concentrations below or near limits of quantitation; (2) it is problematic whether the low concentrations of TRIS2CH represent a contaminant originating from the facility or if it is a product of well construction; and (3) given the low and diminishing concentration of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH, no further investigation into the occurrent of these constituents is justified. Continued groundwater monitoring should include an immediate recalculation of background critical means of upgradient/downgradient comparisons and a return to seminannual groundwater monitoring under a RCRA indicator parameter evaluation program

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Zanzibar Municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were .... urbanized area. Although more than 70% of the municipality residents are connected to public water system, it does not meet the demand (Table 1) and as such there are many private ...

  14. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravi, occupies an oval shaped depression between two major orogenic axis of ..... tion well network that showed water-level increase due to rapid groundwater ... Other issues such as ecological and social issues need to be taken into account ...

  15. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  16. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  17. Health risk assessment of groundwater arsenic pollution in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Residents of the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan, use groundwater for drinking. However, monitoring results showed that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration higher than the safe drinking water regulation of 10 μg/L. Considering residents of the Pingtung Plain continue to use groundwater for drinking, this study attempted to evaluate the exposure and health risk from drinking groundwater. The health risk from drinking groundwater was evaluated based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target risk (TR) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the 95th percentile of HQ exceeded 1 and TR was above the safe value of threshold value of 10 -6 . To illustrate significant variability of the drinking water consumption rate and body weight of each individual, health risk assessments were also performed using a spectrum of daily water intake rate and body weight to reasonably and conservatively assess the exposure and health risk for the specific subgroups of population of the Pingtung Plain. The assessment results showed that 0.01-7.50 % of the population's HQ levels are higher than 1 and as much as 77.7-93.3 % of the population being in high cancer risk category and having a TR value >10 -6 . The TR estimation results implied that groundwater use for drinking purpose places people at risk of As exposure. The government must make great efforts to provide safe drinking water for residents of the Pingtung Plain.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  19. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan

  20. Preliminary Groundwater Assessment using Electrical Method at Quaternary Deposits Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Raqib, A. G. A.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Khaidir, A. T. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Rosli, S.; Fakhrurrazi, I. M.; Izzaty, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Alternative water sources using groundwater has increasingly demand in recent years. In the past, proper and systematic study of groundwater potential was varies due to several constraints. Conventionally, tube well point was drilled based on subjective judgment of several parties which may lead to the uncertainties of the project success. Hence, this study performed an electrical method to investigate the groundwater potential at quaternary deposits area particularly using resistivity and induced polarization technique. Electrical method was performed using ABEM SAS4000 equipment based on pole dipole array and 2.5 m electrode spacing. Resistivity raw data was analyzed using RES2DINV software. It was found that groundwater was able to be detected based on resistivity and chargeability values which varied at 10 - 100 Ωm and 0 - 1 ms respectively. Moreover, suitable location of tube well was able to be proposed which located at 80 m from the first survey electrode in west direction. Verification of both electrical results with established references has shown some good agreement thus able to convince the result reliability. Hence, the establishment of electrical method in preliminary groundwater assessment was able to assist several parties in term groundwater prospective at study area which efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  1. Regional Assessment of Groundwater Recharge in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lacombe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge remains almost totally unknown across the Mekong River Basin, hindering the evaluation of groundwater potential for irrigation. A regional regression model was developed to map groundwater recharge across the Lower Mekong Basin where agricultural water demand is increasing, especially during the dry season. The model was calibrated with baseflow computed with the local-minimum flow separation method applied to streamflow recorded in 65 unregulated sub-catchments since 1951. Our results, in agreement with previous local studies, indicate that spatial variations in groundwater recharge are predominantly controlled by the climate (rainfall and evapotranspiration while aquifer characteristics seem to play a secondary role at this regional scale. While this analysis suggests large scope for expanding agricultural groundwater use, the map derived from this study provides a simple way to assess the limits of groundwater-fed irrigation development. Further data measurements to capture local variations in hydrogeology will be required to refine the evaluation of recharge rates to support practical implementations.

  2. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  4. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTs) associated with the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surfacewater quality monitoring. Section 2.0 of this report contains background information regarding groundwater monitoring at the waste-management sites and USTs located in the UEFPCHR. An overview of the hydrogeologic system in the UEFPCHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1991 assessment data, and detailed descriptions of groundwater quality are presented in Section 4.0. Findings of the 1991 monitoring program are summarized in Section 5.0. Proposed modifications to the groundwater quality monitoring program in the UEFPCHR are presented

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality around a petroleum tank farm, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the physical and chemical properties of groundwater around a Petroleum Tank Farm was carried out between January and August, 2015 to assess the suitability of the borehole water for drinking and other domestic uses. The results show that pH of water was acidic with values ranging from 4.62 to 6.87, EC ...

  6. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the groundwater and surface-water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. These sites are southwest of the Y-12 plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR) which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring. Section 2.0 of this report contains background information regarding groundwater monitoring at the waste-management sites located in the BCHR. An overview of the hydrogeologic system in the BCHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1991 assessment data and detailed descriptions of groundwater and surface-water quality in the regime are presented in Section 4.0. Findings of the 1991 monitoring program are summarized in Section 5.0. Proposed modifications to the groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring program in the BCHR are presented

  7. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  8. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  9. Carbon footprint assessment of Western Australian Groundwater Recycling Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Andrew; Hamilton, Stacey; Biswas, Wahidul K.

    2017-04-01

    This research has determined the carbon footprint or the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) of potable water production from a groundwater recycling scheme, consisting of the Beenyup wastewater treatment plant, the Beenyup groundwater replenishment trial plant and the Wanneroo groundwater treatment plant in Western Australia, using a life cycle assessment approach. It was found that the scheme produces 1300 tonnes of CO2 eq per gigalitre (GL) of water produced, which is 933 tonnes of CO2 eq higher than the desalination plant at Binningup in Western Australia powered by 100% renewable energy generated electricity. A Monte Carlo Simulation uncertainty analysis calculated a Coefficient of Variation value of 5.4%, thus confirming the accuracy of the simulation. Electricity input accounts for 83% of the carbon dioxide equivalent produced during the production of potable water. The chosen mitigation strategy was to consider the use of renewable energy to generate electricity for carbon intensive groundwater replenishment trial plant. Depending on the local situation, a maximum of 93% and a minimum of 21% greenhouse gas saving from electricity use can be attained at groundwater replenishment trial plant by replacing grid electricity with renewable electricity. In addition, the consideration of vibrational separation (V-Sep) that helps reduce wastes generation and chemical use resulted in a 4.03 tonne of CO2 eq saving per GL of water produced by the plant.

  10. Carbon footprint assessment of Western Australian Groundwater Recycling Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Andrew; Hamilton, Stacey; Biswas, Wahidul K

    2017-04-01

    This research has determined the carbon footprint or the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 eq) of potable water production from a groundwater recycling scheme, consisting of the Beenyup wastewater treatment plant, the Beenyup groundwater replenishment trial plant and the Wanneroo groundwater treatment plant in Western Australia, using a life cycle assessment approach. It was found that the scheme produces 1300 tonnes of CO 2 eq per gigalitre (GL) of water produced, which is 933 tonnes of CO 2 eq higher than the desalination plant at Binningup in Western Australia powered by 100% renewable energy generated electricity. A Monte Carlo Simulation uncertainty analysis calculated a Coefficient of Variation value of 5.4%, thus confirming the accuracy of the simulation. Electricity input accounts for 83% of the carbon dioxide equivalent produced during the production of potable water. The chosen mitigation strategy was to consider the use of renewable energy to generate electricity for carbon intensive groundwater replenishment trial plant. Depending on the local situation, a maximum of 93% and a minimum of 21% greenhouse gas saving from electricity use can be attained at groundwater replenishment trial plant by replacing grid electricity with renewable electricity. In addition, the consideration of vibrational separation (V-Sep) that helps reduce wastes generation and chemical use resulted in a 4.03 tonne of CO 2 eq saving per GL of water produced by the plant.

  11. Groundwater monitoring program evaluation For A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Bollinger, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken with the primary purpose of assessing the groundwater monitoring program within the A/M Area to identify ways in which the monitoring program could be improved. The task was difficult due to the large number of wells located within the A/M Area and the huge database of analytical data. It was recognized early in this investigation that one of the key tasks was to develop a way to gain access to the groundwater databases so that recommendations could be made. To achieve this, geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to extract pertinent groundwater quality information from the Geochemical Information Management System (GIMS) groundwater database and display the extracted information spatially. GIS technology was also used to determine the location of well screen and annular material zones within the A/M Area hydrostratigraphy and to identify wells that may breach confining units. Recommendations developed from this study address: (1) wells that may not be providing reliable data but continue to be routinely sampled (2) wells that may be inappropriately located but continue to be routinely sampled and (3) further work that should be undertaken, including well development, evaluation of wells that may be breaching confining units, and development of an automated link to GIMS using GIS so that GIMS data can easily be accessed and displayed geographically

  12. Groundwater assessment in water resources management at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: sabrinamoura@usp.br, E-mail: joyce.marques@usp.br, E-mail: luciremo@uol.com.br, E-mail: thamistellato@gmail.com, E-mail: tatianebscs@live.com, E-mail: mainarag@usp.br, E-mail: douglas.sbatista@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To comply with the guidelines for environmental control and legal requirements, the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/ CNEN - Brazil/ SP) performs the Environmental Monitoring Program for Chemical Stable Compounds (PMA-Q) since 2007, in attendance to the Term for the Adjustment of Conduct (TAC) signed between IPEN and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). The PMA-Q program includes the assessment of the IPEN's wastewater released in water body, and the groundwater assessment, which is carried out in nine monitoring wells. In groundwater is analyzed, by ion chromatography, species regulated by CONAMA 396/08 [01] fluoride, chloride, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, sulfate, sodium, potassium, ammonium, magnesium and calcium, besides other parameters. Furthermore, based on legal requirements, each year the program is reviewed and improvement actions are planned and implemented. Therefore, the integrated monitoring of groundwater should provide information on the quality and dynamics of the aquifer compared to seasonal variations and anthropogenic effects. Thus, this study intends to evaluate the chemical features of the institute groundwater, evaluating the database of the monitoring program from 2011 to 2014, for the ions chloride, nitrate-N, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and bicarbonate, using these information diagrams will be developed for the characterization of the wells. This assessment will be essential to support the control actions of environmental pollution and the management of water resources. Making possible the establishment of groundwater Quality Reference Figures (QRF), according to the CONAMA 396/08 [01] rating, in order to demonstrate that the activities developed at IPEN are not affecting on the aquifer features. (author)

  13. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk using hazard quantification, a modified DRASTIC model and groundwater value, Beijing Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; He, Jiangtao; Chen, Honghan

    2012-08-15

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment is an effective tool for groundwater management. Most existing risk assessment methods only consider the basic contamination process based upon evaluations of hazards and aquifer vulnerability. In view of groundwater exploitation potentiality, including the value of contamination-threatened groundwater could provide relatively objective and targeted results to aid in decision making. This study describes a groundwater contamination risk assessment method that integrates hazards, intrinsic vulnerability and groundwater value. The hazard harmfulness was evaluated by quantifying contaminant properties and infiltrating contaminant load, the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability was evaluated using a modified DRASTIC model and the groundwater value was evaluated based on groundwater quality and aquifer storage. Two groundwater contamination risk maps were produced by combining the above factors: a basic risk map and a value-weighted risk map. The basic risk map was produced by overlaying the hazard map and the intrinsic vulnerability map. The value-weighted risk map was produced by overlaying the basic risk map and the groundwater value map. Relevant validation was completed by contaminant distributions and site investigation. Using Beijing Plain, China, as an example, thematic maps of the three factors and the two risks were generated. The thematic maps suggested that landfills, gas stations and oil depots, and industrial areas were the most harmful potential contamination sources. The western and northern parts of the plain were the most vulnerable areas and had the highest groundwater value. Additionally, both the basic and value-weighted risk classes in the western and northern parts of the plain were the highest, indicating that these regions should deserve the priority of concern. Thematic maps should be updated regularly because of the dynamic characteristics of hazards. Subjectivity and validation means in assessing the

  14. Update on the National Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, A.

    1992-01-01

    The national Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP), supported jointly by government and the petroleum industry, targets research on innovative ways to clean up groundwater and soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, and conducts technology transfer sessions. Within its broad context as an initiative for research, development and demonstration of innovative cleanup technologies, GASReP now targets basic applied research and/or technology development only. Industry partners and other government programs will be encouraged to extend GASReP research findings to the final stage of technology demonstration. During 1991-92 GASReP shifted its attention from starting new projects to evaluating the program, setting a new direction, and establishing a better way to seek ideas for projects. Unlike previous years, only three projects began during this period. Two technology development projects are iron and manganese pre-treatment for pump and treat clean-up systems, and surface bioreactor to clean soil/waste contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The one technology assessment project dealt with a review of six technologies for in-situ bioremediation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) in groundwater. Current program direction, interests, and research needs are summarized, and candidate proposals for project selection in 1992-93 are listed

  15. Health Risk Assessment of Groundwater Arsenic Pollution in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the residents in Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, where more than 50% of people extracts groundwater to meet the drinking purpose and monitoring groundwater shows that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration of more than safe drinking water guideline of 10μg/L-1. Exposure and risk assessment are carried out in accordance with the provisional daily intake (PTDI) recommended by the FAO/WHO as well as hazard quotient and cancer risk standards based on the US Environmental Protection Agency. The variability of body weights and drinking water consumption scenarios are considered in exposure and risk assessment. Results shows that daily intake exceeds 2.1μg day-1 kg-1 BW for 2% of population, HQ level above unity for 20% , and can risk greater than 10-6 for 80%. These results implies that drinking water directly from groundwater will place many people at the risk of exposure and any efforts to supply safe drinking water is imperial for governing in order to protect the human health of inhabitants in Pingtung Plain.

  16. Assessment of groundwater potential in Ankobra River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarkoh, Charles Prince

    2011-08-01

    Ankobra river basin is endowed with many rich natural resources. The mining activities in the basin and the proposed hydropower generation on the Ankobra river as well as oil discovery in the Western Region would lead to the establishing of new industries in the basin. These would certainly lead to potential population growth. As a result of these developments, there would be stress on surface water resources and therefore there would be demand for ground water. A research was carried out to assess groundwater supply. Hydrogeological data was used to evaluate the ground water storage in the basement complex, regolith. The relevant aquifer characteristics/parameters (extent of the study area, thickness of the ground water zone in the regolith, the porosity and specific capacity of the aquifer zones) were used to compute total groundwater storage and recoverable storage. The groundwater contribution to stream flow was computed using mean monthly discharge data from the filled data and hydrograph drawn. The base flow was then determined from the hydrograph separation using the straight line method. The groundwater potential in the Ankobra basin is 45.82*10 9 m 3 while the recoverable groundwater storage is 29.39*10 9 m 3 . The base flow computed was 13.75m 3/ s. Investigations into groundwater chemistry with particular references to physico-chemical parameters (quality) was analysed. The constituents fall within the acceptable limits of the Ghana Standard Board (GSB) for drinking water standard and are satisfactory for human consumption. However, Tamso, Wantenem, Gyaman, Beyim communities exceeded the GSB'S recommended values of PH (6.5-8.5) and chloride ( 250 mg/I) respectively for drinking water standard.(author)

  17. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate

  18. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  19. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-U-14 Ditch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, K.M.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater impact assessments are conducted at liquid effluent receiving sites on the Hanford Site to determine hydrologic and contaminant impacts caused by discharging wastewater to the soil column. The assessments conducted are pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Ecology et al. 1992). This report assesses impacts on the groundwater and vadose zone from wastewater discharged to the 216-U-14 Ditch. Contemporary effluent waste streams of interest are 242-S Evaporator Steam Condensate and UO{sub 3}/U Plant wastewater.

  20. Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater used for irrigation in Rumphi and Karonga districts, Northern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Gulula, Lewis C.; Phiri, Ambrose

    Irrigation water quality is an essential component of sustainable agriculture. Irrigation water quality concerns have often been neglected over concerns of quantity in most irrigation projects in Malawi. In this study, a hydrochemical assessment of groundwater was carried out to characterize, classify groundwater and evaluate its suitability for irrigation use in Karonga and Rumphi districts, Northern Malawi. Groundwater samples were collected during wet (January-April 2011) and dry (July-September 2011) seasons from 107 shallow wells and boreholes drilled for rural water supply using standard sampling procedures. The water samples were analysed for pH, major ions, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity (EC), using standard methods. Multivariate chemometric (such as Kruskal Wallis test), hydrographical methods (i.e. Piper diagram) and PHREEQC geochemical modelling program were used to characterise the groundwater quality. Electrical conductivity, percentage sodium ion (% Na+), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Kelly’s ratio (KR) and permeability index (PI) were used to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation. It was established that groundwater is neutral to alkaline and mostly freshwater (TDS management is suggested for sustainable development of the water resources for better plant growth, long-term as well as maintaining human health in the study area.

  1. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  2. Groundwater quality assessment of urban Bengaluru using multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgundi, Mohammad Shahid; Shetty, Amba

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater quality deterioration due to anthropogenic activities has become a subject of prime concern. The objective of the study was to assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality and to identify the sources in the western half of the Bengaluru city using multivariate statistical techniques. Water quality index rating was calculated for pre and post monsoon seasons to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The post-monsoon samples show signs of poor quality in drinking purpose compared to pre-monsoon. Cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to the groundwater quality data measured on 14 parameters from 67 sites distributed across the city. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) grouped the 67 sampling stations into two groups, cluster 1 having high pollution and cluster 2 having lesser pollution. Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied to delineate the most meaningful parameters accounting for temporal and spatial variations in groundwater quality of the study area. Temporal DA identified pH as the most important parameter, which discriminates between water quality in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and accounts for 72% seasonal assignation of cases. Spatial DA identified Mg, Cl and NO3 as the three most important parameters discriminating between two clusters and accounting for 89% spatial assignation of cases. Principal component analysis was applied to the dataset obtained from the two clusters, which evolved three factors in each cluster, explaining 85.4 and 84% of the total variance, respectively. Varifactors obtained from principal component analysis showed that groundwater quality variation is mainly explained by dissolution of minerals from rock water interactions in the aquifer, effect of anthropogenic activities and ion exchange processes in water.

  3. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  4. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres

  5. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  8. Environmental quality assessment of groundwater resources in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kalbani, Mohammed Saif; Price, Martin F.; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Abahussain, Asma; O'Higgins, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted to assess the quality of groundwater resources of Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. 11 drinking water sources were sampled during summer and winter seasons during 2012-2013 to evaluate their physico-chemical quality indicators; and assess their suitability for drinking and other domestic purposes. Sample collection, handling and processing followed the standard methods recommended by APHA and analyzed in quality assured laboratories using appropriate analytical methods and instrumental techniques. The results show that the quality parameters in all drinking water resources are within the permissible limits set by Omani and WHO standards; and the drinking water quality index is good or medium in quality based on NFS-WQI classification criteria, indicating their suitability for human consumption. There is an indication of the presence of high nitrate concentrations in some groundwater wells, which require more investigations and monitoring program to be conducted on regular basis to ensure good quality water supply for the residents in the mountain. The trilinear Piper diagram shows that most of the drinking water resources of the study area fall in the field of calcium and bicarbonate type with some magnesium bicarbonate type indicating that most of the major ions are natural in origin due to the geology of the region. This study is a first step towards providing indicators on groundwater quality of this fragile mountain ecosystem, which will be the basis for future planning decisions on corrective demand management measures to protect groundwater resources of Al Jabal Al Akhdar.

  9. Regional scale groundwater resource assessment in the Australian outback - Geophysics is the only way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, T. J.; Davis, A. C.; Gilfedder, M.; Annetts, D.

    2015-12-01

    Resource development, whether in agriculture, mining and/or energy, is set to have significant consequences for the groundwater resources of Australia in the short to medium term. These industry sectors are of significant economic value to the country and consequently their support remains a priority for State and Federal Governments alike. The scale of potential developments facilitated in large part by the Government Programs, like the West Australian (WA) Government's "Water for Food" program, and the South Australian's Government's PACE program, will result in an increase in infrastructure requirements, including access to water resources and Aboriginal lands to support these developments. However, the increased demand for water, particularly groundwater, is likely to be compromised by the limited information we have about these resources. This is particularly so for remote parts of the country which are targeted as primary development areas. There is a recognised need to expand this knowledge so that water availability is not a limiting factor to development. Governments of all persuasions have therefore adopted geophysical technologies, particularly airborne electromagnetics (AEM), as a basis for extending the hydrogeological knowledge of data poor areas. In WA, the State Government has employed regional-scale AEM surveys as a basis for defining groundwater resources to support mining, regional agricultural developments whilst aiming to safeguard regional population centres, and environmental assets. A similar approach is being employed in South Australia. These surveys are being used to underpin conceptual hydrogeological frameworks, define basin-scale hydrogeological models, delimit the extent of saltwater intrusion in coastal areas, and to determine the groundwater resource potential of remote alluvial systems aimed at supporting new, irrigation-based, agricultural developments in arid parts of the Australian outback. In the absence of conventional

  10. Groundwater modelling of Aespoe using the ECLIPSE program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokil, H.

    1995-06-01

    The pre-investigations indicated that the dominant rocks ranged in composition from true granite to dioritic or gabbroic rocks. In conjunction with these investigations at the area, a number of indications were obtained of high transmissive fracture zones. To be able to understand the fracture zone NE-1 as well as possible, a number of hydraulic tests were performed, for example a tracer test. The program ECLIPSE 100 is one of the standard programs in the oil industry which is used to simulate oil fields. ECLIPSE 100 is a multi-facility simulator and it can be used to simulate 1, 2 and 3 phase systems, one option is oil, two phase options are oil/gas, oil/water or gas/water, and the third option is oil/gas/water. Good results were obtained from the simulator match of the tracer concentration versus time to the measured values from the tracer test of the fracture zone NE-1. The simulation was less successful in modelling the draw-down of water in the wells. We were also unable to reach a balance situation for the water pressure prior to injecting the tracer in order to accommodate several weeks of leakage into the tunnel prior to the tracer test. As a main conclusion, we found the results of the simulation to be satisfactory and we believe that further work should be done to adapt the program completely for groundwater simulation. 19 refs, 10 tabs, 13 figs

  11. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  12. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure

  13. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell tank waste management Area U at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Area U (WMA U) includes the U Tank Farm, is currently regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations, and is scheduled for closure probably post-2030. Groundwater monitoring has been under an evaluation program that compared general contaminant indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from upgradient wells. One of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in one downgradient well triggering a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The objective of the first phase of this assessment program is to determine whether the increased concentrations of nitrate and chromium in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Based on the results of the first determination, if WMA U is not the source of contamination, then the site will revert to detection monitoring. If WMA U is the source, then a second part of the groundwater quality assessment plan will be prepared to define the rate and extent of migration of contaminants in the groundwater and their concentrations

  14. Monitoring and Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Vegetation Health in Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, M. M.; Ulrich, C.; Howard, J.; Sweet, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater management is important for preserving our economy, society, and environment. Groundwater supports important habitat throughout California, by providing a reliable source of water for these Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDEs). Groundwater is particularly important in California since it supplies an additional source of water during the dry summer months and periods of drought. The drought and unsustainable pumping practices have, in some areas, lowered groundwater levels causing undesirable results to ecosystems. The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act requires local agencies to avoid undesirable results in the future, but the location and vulnerabilities of the ecosystems that depend on groundwater and interconnected surface water is often poorly understood. This presentation will feature results from a research study conducted by The Nature Conservancy and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that investigated how changes in groundwater availability along an interconnected surface water body can impact the overall health of GDEs. This study was conducted in California's Central Valley along the Cosumnes River, and situated at the boundary of a high and a medium groundwater basin: South American Basin (Sacramento Hydrologic Region) and Cosumnes Basin (San Joaquin Hydrologic Region). By employing geophysical methodology (electrical resistivity tomography) in this study, spatial changes in groundwater availability were determined under groundwater-dependent vegetation. Vegetation survey data were also applied to this study to develop ecosystem health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation. Health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation were found to directly correlate with groundwater availability, such that greater availability to groundwater resulted in healthier vegetation. This study provides a case study example on how to use hydrological and biological data for setting appropriate minimum thresholds and

  15. Risk assessment guidance document for the UMTRA project groundwater remediation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the groundwater remedial activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites is to reduce, control, or eliminate risks to human health and the environment. This is in accordance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 192. According to this regulation, the need for groundwater restoration is based upon US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-defined groundwater cleanup standards and must be consistent with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Risk assessments will be used in the UMTRA Groundwater Program to aid in the evaluation of sites. Risk assessments are conducted for four purposes: (1) Preliminary risk assessments are used to aid in prioritizing sites, scope data collection, end determine if a site presents immediate health risks. (2) Baseline risk assessments provide a comprehensive integration and interpretation of demographic, geographic, physical, chemical, and biological factors at a site to determine the extent of actual or potential harm. This information Is used to determine the need for remedial action. (3) Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives is performed to evaluate risks to humans or the environment associated with the various remedial strategies. (4) After remediation, an evaluation of residual risks is conducted. The information gathered for each of these risk evaluations is used to determine the need for subsequent evaluation. Several sites may be eliminated after a preliminary risk assessment if there is no current or future threat to humans or the environment. Likewise, much of the data from a baseline risk assessment can be used to support alternate concentration limits or supplemental standards demonstrations, or identify sensitive habitats or receptors that may be of concern in selecting a remedy

  16. Groundwater quality assessment plan for the 1324-N/NA Site: Phase 1 (first determination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1998-05-01

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond (1324-N/NA Site) are treatment/storage/disposal sites regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). They are located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, and were used to treat and dispose of corrosive waste from a water treatment plant. Groundwater monitoring under an interim-status detection program compared indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from an upgradient well. One of the indicator parameters, total organic carbon (TOC), exceeded its background value in one downgradient well, triggering an upgrade from a detection program to an assessment program. This plan presents the first phase of the assessment program

  17. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 3. Program listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This is the third of 3 volumes of the description of the VTT (Variable Thickness Transient) Groundwater Hydrologic Model - second level (intermediate complexity) two-dimensional saturated groundwater flow

  18. NRC performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) performance assessment program includes the development of guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on preparation of a license application and on conducting the studies to support a license application. The nature of the licensing requirements of 10 CFR Part 60 create a need for performance assessments by the DOE. The NRC and DOE staffs each have specific roles in assuring the adequacy of those assessments. Performance allocation is an approach for determining what testing and analysis will be needed during site characterization to assure that an adequate data base is available to support the necessary performance assessments. From the standpoint of establishing is implementable methodology, the most challenging performance assessment needed for licensing is the one that will be used to determine compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) containment requirement

  19. Program GWPROB: Calculation of inflow to groundwater measuring points during sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleris, V.

    1990-01-01

    The program GWPROB was developed by the DFG task group for modelling of large-area heat and pollutant transport in groundwater at the Institute of Hydrological Engineering, Hydraulics and Groundwater Department. The project was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. (BBR) [de

  20. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  1. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  2. MRI assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The MRI Assessment Program involves installation and operation of five MRI units in Australian public hospitals and the evaluation at each unit of the cost and efficacy of the technology over a period of two years. This first report in a series presents preliminary usage and cost data for the year to 30 June 1987 as well as describing the background and the data set. 6 figs., tabs

  3. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  4. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  5. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  6. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  7. Using Groundwater physiochemical properties for assessing potential earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Reuveni, Yuval; Anker, Yaakov; Guttman, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide studies reports pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic reaction of groundwater to earthquakes. The unique hydrological and geological situation in Israel resulted in relatively deep water wells which are located close to seismically active tectonic plate boundary. Moreover, the Israeli experience show that anomalies may occurs 60-90 minutes prior to the seismic event (Guttman et al., 2005; Anker et al., 2016). Here, we try to assess the possible connection between changes in physiochemical parameters of groundwater and earthquakes along the Dead Sea Transform (DST) region. A designated network of monitoring stations was installed in MEKOROT abandoned deep water wells, continuously measuring water table, conductivity and temperature at a sampling rate of 1 minute. Preliminary analysis compares changes in the measured parameters with rain events, tidal effects and earthquake occurrences of all measured magnitudes (>2.5Md) at monitoring area surroundings. The acquired data set over one year recorded simultaneous abrupt changes in several wells which seems disconnected from standard hydrological occurrences such as precipitation, abstraction or tidal effects. At this stage, our research aims to determine and rationalize a baseline for "normal response" of the measured parameters to external occurrences while isolating those cases in which "deviations" from that base line is recorded. We apply several analysis techniques both in time and frequency domain with the measured signal as well as statistical analysis of several measured earthquake parameters, which indicate potential correlations between earthquakes occurrences and the measured signal. We show that at least in one seismic event (5.1 Md) a potential precursor may have been recorded. Reference: Anker, Y., N. Inbar, A. Y. Dror, Y. Reuveni, J. Guttman, A. Flexer, (2016). Groundwater response to ground movements, as a tool for earthquakes monitoring and a possible precursor. 8th International Conference

  8. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2017-12-29

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, which have the potential for natural gas development, underlie Pike County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, conducted a study that expanded on a previous more limited 2012 study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Pike County prior to possible extensive shale-gas development. Seventy-nine water wells ranging in depths from 80 to 610 feet were sampled during June through September 2015 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality in the various bedrock geologic units throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low values in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. All groundwater samples collected in 2015 were analyzed for bacteria, dissolved and total major ions, nutrients, selected dissolved and total inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane. Additionally, samples from 20 wells distributed throughout the county were analyzed for selected man-made volatile organic compounds, and samples from 13 wells where waters had detectable gross alpha activity were analyzed for radium-226 on the basis of relatively elevated gross alpha-particle activity.Results of the 2015 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards for constituents and properties included in analyses, but groundwater samples from some wells had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, manganese, pH, bacteria, sodium, chloride, sulfate

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  10. Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the leachate from the landfill has a minimal impact on the groundwater resource and this can be attributed to the existing soil stratigraphy at the site consisting of clay which is deduced to have a significant influence on the natural attenuation of leachate into groundwater. Keywords: Groundwater ...

  11. Assessing and forecasting groundwater development costs in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greater use of groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa is a pre-requisite for improved human welfare; however, the costs associated with groundwater development are prohibitively high and poorly defined. This study identifies and disaggregates the costs of groundwater development in 11 Sub-Saharan African countries, while ...

  12. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  14. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 766-square-mile South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The SCRC study unit was the 25th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. The SCRC study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the SCRC study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 70 wells in two study areas (Basins and Uplands) in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 15 wells were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). In addition to

  15. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  16. MRI assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    Usage, cost and efficacy data from the MRI Assessment Program to 30 March 1988 is presented, as a continuation of an earlier analysis. Analysis has been performed on data from 8565 examinations relating to 7997 patients at 4 hospitals. MRI was used mainly for examination of the head and spine. Some details of the follow up studies being conducted on selected patients and disease categories are given. A consensus statement is included which summaries the view of the Technical Committee on the potential applications of MRI in Australia. The MRI unit quench incident at Royal Adelaide Hospital is described. Refs., 10 figs., tabs

  17. Groundwater impact assessment for the 216-U-17 Crib, 200 West Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Johnson, V.G.; Kline, N.W.

    1993-06-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact to groundwater from discharge of process condensate to the ground at the 216-U-17 Crib. The assessment considers impacts associated with moisture movement through soil beneath the crib and the potential transport of contaminants to the groundwater

  18. The Groundwater Assessment for the Young Seo Model by EPM Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Mi-Seon; Hwang, Yong-Soo

    2007-01-01

    One of the options being considered by several countries for the long term disposal of radioactive waste material is deep burial in stable geological formations. In Korea it is intended that spent nuclear fuel(SNF) and long-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes will be disposed in a deep repository. In order to achieve long-term safety, the repository system is designed so as to ensure that several factors contribute to the overall performance. The part of the repository system concerned with the waste form, containers and the immediate physical and chemical environment of the repository is generally referred to as the near-field. The transport pathways and dilution and retardation mechanisms in the rocks between the repository and the biosphere, i.e. the far-field mechanisms of transport through the geosphere generally make a very important contribution to the overall performance of the repository. Finally, the distribution of radionuclides in the biosphere and the consequent exposure pathways also play an important role in an evaluation of overall performance. Analysis and understanding of the groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in and around a site for a radioactive waste repository will play important roles in a performance assessment. The radionuclides from the wastes will dissolve in the groundwater and may then be transported back to man's immediate environment by the groundwater flowing through the geological formation. Groundwater flows slowly, particularly in regions that are considered suitable for the location of a repository. Thus the timescales of interest are very long and the only method available for assessing the consequences of this groundwater pathway is mathematical modeling of the physical and chemical process involved. However, the models are often too complicated to solve analytically and so they must be incorporated into computer programs. It is very important to ensure that features of the site and processes occurring at the

  19. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, (delta) 15 N values greater than 10(per t housand) indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO 3 L -1 . In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low (delta) 15 N value (3.1(per t housand)) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer

  20. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program: Groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis plan for Calendar Year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1998 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These monitoring activities are managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmental Compliance Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed during CY 1998 to comply with: (1) requirements specified in Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) post-closure permits regarding RCRA corrective action monitoring and RCRA detection monitoring; (2) Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste management facilities; and (3) DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway monitoring. Data from some of the sampling locations in each regime will be used to meet the requirements of more than one of the monitoring drivers listed above. Modifications to the CY 1998 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Second Quarter 1998 (April through June 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J B

    1999-02-10

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during second quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for the program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  2. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results

  3. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bowen, Esther E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support utility-scale solar energy development at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone (SEZ), as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program.

  4. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Connor, Ben L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tompson, Andrew F.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support the utility-scale solar energy development at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) solar energy program.

  5. Integrating groundwater stress in life-cycle assessments – An evaluation of water abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Ryle Nørskov; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Henriksen, H. J.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding groundwater abstraction effects is vital for holistic impact assessments in areas depending on groundwater resources. The objective of our study was to modify the state-of-the-art AWaRe (available water remaining), freshwater impact assessment specifically for use in LCAs in areas...... and adjusts demarcations in order to improve the representation of the heterogeneity of groundwater catchments. The applicability of AGWaRe was demonstrated on three groundwater systems producing 5 million m3 water for the city of Copenhagen, namely Advanced Treatment of Groundwater, Simple Treatment...... of Groundwater and Infiltration of Reclaimed water. Results were normalised to compare with other effects of supplying water to an average Danish person. The normalised impacts for drinking water for one person ranged between 0.1 and 39 PE (person equivalent) for the three systems, which indicates that effects...

  6. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera-Chowchilla study unit (MADCHOW) was investigated in April and May 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within MADCHOW, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. Thirty of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and five more were selected to provide additional sampling density to aid in understanding processes affecting groundwater quality (flow-path wells). Detection summaries in the text and tables are given for grid wells only, to avoid over-representation of the water quality in areas adjacent to flow-path wells. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane [DBCP] and 1,2-dibromoethane [EDB], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], perchlorate, and low-level 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen

  7. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 25,500-square-mile Sierra Nevada study unit was investigated in June through October 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Sierra Nevada study was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for public and community drinking-water supplies. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. In the Sierra Nevada study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 84 wells (and springs) in Lassen, Plumas, Butte, Sierra, Yuba, Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Alpine, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Madera, Mariposa, Fresno, Inyo, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The wells were selected on two overlapping networks by using a spatially-distributed, randomized, grid-based approach. The primary grid-well network consisted of 30 wells, one well per grid cell in the study unit, and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality throughout the entire study unit. The lithologic grid-well network is a secondary grid that consisted of the wells in the primary grid-well network plus 53 additional wells and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality in each of the four major lithologic units in the Sierra

  8. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These sites lie in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant within the boundaries of the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring. The Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources. The annual GWQR for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, summarizes the status and findings of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  9. An introduction to geographic information systems as applied to a groundwater remediation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammock, J.K.; Lorenz, R.

    1989-01-01

    While the attention to environmental issues has grown over the past several years, so has the focus on groundwater protection. Addressing the task of groundwater remediation often involves a large-scale program with numerous wells and enormous amounts of data. This data must be manipulated and analyzed in an efficient manner for the remediation program to be truly effective. Geographic Information System's (GIS) have proven to be an extremely effective tool in handling and interpreting this type of groundwater information. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the audience to GIS technology, describe how it is being used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to handle groundwater data and demonstrate how it may be used in the corporate Westinghouse environment

  10. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  12. A GIS/Remote Sensing-based methodology for groundwater potentiality assessment in Tirnavos area, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidis, D.; Dimogianni, S.; Kazakis, N.; Voudouris, K.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the groundwater potentiality combining Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing with data obtained from the field, as an additional tool to the hydrogeological research. The present study was elaborated in the broader area of Tirnavos, covering 419.4 km2. The study area is located in Thessaly (central Greece) and is crossed by two rivers, Pinios and Titarisios. Agriculture is one of the main elements of Thessaly's economy resulting in intense agricultural activity and consequently increased exploitation of groundwater resources. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) were used in order to create a map that depicts the likelihood of existence of groundwater, consisting of five classes, showing the groundwater potentiality and ranging from very high to very low. The extraction of this map is based on the study of input data such as: rainfall, potential recharge, lithology, lineament density, slope, drainage density and depth to groundwater. Weights were assigned to all these factors according to their relevance to groundwater potential and eventually a map based on weighted spatial modeling system was created. Furthermore, a groundwater quality suitability map was illustrated by overlaying the groundwater potentiality map with the map showing the potential zones for drinking groundwater in the study area. The results provide significant information and the maps could be used from local authorities for groundwater exploitation and management.

  13. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  14. Fiscal Year 2005 Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Performance Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, JoAnne T.; Hartman, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored in hundreds of wells at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of requirements. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various purposes, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users. DOE manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Performance Assessment Project, which is the responsibility of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The groundwater project integrates monitoring for various objectives into a single sampling schedule to avoid redundancy of effort and to improve efficiency of sample collection.This report documents the purposes and objectives of groundwater monitoring at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State

  15. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part I consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part I GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1995 Part I GWQR for the East Fork Regime to the TDEC in February 1996. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality

  16. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  17. Modelling assessment of regional groundwater contamination due to historic smelter emissions of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Griffioen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Historic emissions from ore smelters typically cause regional soil contamination. We developed a modelling approach to assess the impact of such contamination on groundwater and surface water load, coupling unsaturated zone leaching modelling with 3D groundwater transport modelling. Both historic

  18. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  19. How Sustainable is Groundwater Abstraction? A Global Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, R.; Gleeson, T. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible freshwater resource and is of critical importance for irrigation, and thus for global food security. For regions with high demands, groundwater abstractions often exceed recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The direct effects of depletion are falling groundwater levels, increased pumping costs, land subsidence, and reduced baseflows to rivers. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development, and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable economic and environmental limits. In this study we estimated trends over 1960-2100 in groundwater levels, resulting from changes in demand and climate. We explored the limits of groundwater abstraction by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that deep that groundwater gets unattainable for abstraction (economic limit) or, that groundwater baseflows to rivers drop below environmental requirements (environmental limit). We used a global hydrological model coupled to a groundwater model, meaning lateral groundwater flows, river infiltration and drainage, and infiltration and capillary-rise are simulated dynamically. Historical data and projections are used to prescribe water demands and climate forcing to the model. For the near future we used RCP8.5 and applied globally driest, average, and wettest GCM to test climate sensitivity. Results show that in general environmental limits are reached before economic limits, for example starting as early as the 1970s compared to the 1980s for economic limits in the upper Ganges basin. Economic limits are mostly related to regions with depletion, while environmental limits are reached also in regions were groundwater and surface water withdrawals are significant but depletion is not taking place (yet), for example in Spain and Portugal. In the near future

  20. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: First quarter 1993, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the first quarter of 1993. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  1. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-17

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the fourth quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  2. Risk assessment of groundwater environmental contamination: a case study of a karst site for the construction of a fossil power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuming; Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Huang, Junyi; Tang, Yukun; Qin, Jianbo; Zhou, Wan-Huan

    2017-12-20

    This paper presents a demonstration of an integrated risk assessment and site investigation for groundwater contamination through a case study, in which the geologic and hydrogeological feature of the site and the blueprint of the fossil power plant (FPP) were closely analyzed. Predictions for groundwater contamination in case of accidents were performed by groundwater modeling system (GMS) and modular three-dimensional multispecies transport model (MT3DMS). Results indicate that the studied site area presents a semi-isolated hydrogeological unit with multiplicity in stratum lithology, the main aquifers at the site are consisted of the filled karst development layer with a thickness between 6.0 and 40.0 m. The poor permeability of the vadose zone at the FPP significantly restricted the infiltration of contaminants through the vadose zone to the subsurface. The limited influence of rarely isotropic porous karstified carbonate rocks on the groundwater flow system premised the simulate scenarios of plume migration. Analysis of the present groundwater chemistry manifested that that the groundwater at the site and the local area are of the HCO 3 -Ca, HCO 3 , and SO 4 -Ca types. A few of the water samples were contaminated by coliform bacteria and ammonia nitrogen as a result of the local cultivation. Prediction results indicate that the impact of normal construction and operation processes on the groundwater environment is negligible. However, groundwater may be partly contaminated within a certain period in the area of leakage from the diesel tanks, the industrial wastewater pool, and the cooling tower water tank in case of accidents. On a positive note, none of the plumes would reach the local sensitive areas for groundwater using. Finally, an anti-seepage scheme and a monitoring program are proposed to safeguard the groundwater protection. The integrated method of the site investigation and risk assessment used in this case study can facilitate the protection of

  3. State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA) is the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) first national data collection on state Medicaid program...

  4. Groundwater-quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, January through December 2014 and select quality-control data from May 2012 through December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Kingsbury, James A.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Fleming, Brandon J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-10-05

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 559 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from January through December 2014. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which are used to assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which are used to evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radionuclides, and some constituents of special interest (arsenic speciation, chromium [VI] and perchlorate). These groundwater-quality data, along with data from quality-control samples, are tabulated in this report and in an associated data release.

  5. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by applying the modified DRASTIC model in Beihai City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; Ma, Chuanming

    2018-05-01

    This study assesses vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Beihai City, China, as a support of groundwater resource protection. The assessment result not only objectively reflects potential possibility of groundwater to contamination but also provides scientific basis for the planning and utilization of groundwater resources. This study optimizes the parameters consisting of natural factors and human factors upon the DRASTIC model and modifies the ratings of these parameters, based on the local environmental conditions for the study area. And a weight of each parameter is assigned by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to reduce the subjectivity of humans to vulnerability assessment. The resulting scientific ratings and weights of modified DRASTIC model (AHP-DRASTLE model) contribute to obtain the more realistic assessment of vulnerability of groundwater to contaminant. The comparison analysis validates the accuracy and rationality of the AHP-DRASTLE model and shows it suits the particularity of the study area. The new assessment method (AHP-DRASTLE model) can provide a guide for other scholars to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination. The final vulnerability map for the AHP-DRASTLE model shows four classes: highest (2%), high (29%), low (55%), and lowest (14%). The vulnerability map serves as a guide for decision makers on groundwater resource protection and land use planning at the regional scale and that it is adapted to a specific area.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  7. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in karstic aquifers using COP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, Somayeh; Kalantari, Nasrollah; Nobandegani, Amir Fadaei; Derakhshan, Zahra; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Ferrante, Margherita; Malekahmadi, Roya

    2018-05-02

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is amongst the important indicators of development in each society, and water scarcity is one of the challenges and limitations affecting development at national and regional levels and social life and economic activity areas. Generally, there are two types of drinking water sources: the first type is surface waters, including lakes, rivers, and streams and the second type is groundwaters existing in aquifers. Amongst aquifers, karst aquifers play an important role in supplying water sources of the world. Therefore, protecting these aquifers from pollution sources is of paramount importance. COP method is amongst the methods to investigate the intrinsic vulnerability of this type of aquifers, so that areas susceptible to contamination can be determined before being contaminated and these sources can be protected. In the present study, COP method was employed in order to spot the regions that are prone to contamination in the region. This method uses the properties of overlying geological layers above the water table (O factor), the concentration of flow (C factor), and precipitation (P factor) over the aquifer, as the parameters to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater resources. In this regard, geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) were utilized to prepare the mentioned factors and the intrinsic vulnerability map was obtained. The results of COP method indicated that the northwest and the west of the region are highly and very vulnerable. This study indicated that regions with low vulnerability were observed in eastern areas, which accounted for 15.6% of the area. Moderate vulnerability was 40% and related to the northeast and southeast of the area. High vulnerability was 38.2% and related to western and southwestern regions. Very high vulnerability was 6.2% and related to the northwest of the area. By means of the analysis of sensitivity of the model, it was determined that the focus

  8. Emergy assessment of ecological compensation of groundwater overexploitation in Xuchang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, C.; Ling, M.; Cao, Q.; Guo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent 30 years, the amount of groundwater extraction in China is increasing at a rate of 2.5 billion m3 per year. And the growing amount led to form a predatory exploitation in many parts, and caused serious exploitation problems, such as land subsidence, sea water intrusion, surface runoff reduction, vegetation decline, groundwater pollution, and so on. Ecological compensation of overexploitation has become an important mean to adjust the environmental benefits distribution relationship related to the groundwater system and to alleviate the problem of groundwater overexploitation. Based on the ecological economics emergy value theory and analysis method, the emergy loss value calculation method of eco-environmental problems caused by groundwater overexploitation, such as environmental land subsidence (collapse), salt (sea) water intrusion, surface runoff reduction, vegetation deterioration and groundwater pollution, is established, and the assessment method, which takes emergy loss value as the quantity of ecological compensation of groundwater overexploitation, is put forward. This method can reflect the disaster loss degree of groundwater overexploitation more intuitively, and it helps to improve, manage and restore a series of problems caused by groundwater overexploitation, construct a scientific and reasonable groundwater ecological compensation mechanism, and provide good ecological security for the sustainable and healthy development of national economy in our country. Taking Xuchang city as an application example, the results showed that the ecological economic loss of groundwater overexploitation was 109 million in 2015, accounting for 0.3% of the total GDP. Among them, the ecological economic loss of land subsidence is the largest, which was 77 million, accounting for 70.3% of the total loss, the second one is surface runoff reducing loss, which was 27 million, accounting for 24.7% of the total loss, and underground water pollution loss is the

  9. hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in sagamu area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABDULRASHEED

    alkaline indices (CAI), were calculated for irrigation purposes. The results were presented as spatial distribution maps for interpretation and further inferences. Comparison of the groundwater quality in the area with local and international ...

  10. Assessment of groundwater salinity in Nellore district using multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water samples at six locations close to the electrical resistivity survey sites also suggest high ... Electrical resistivity imaging; Nellore district; groundwater salinity; geochemistry. ..... Sasaki Y 1992 Resolution of resistivity tomography inferred.

  11. Groundwater governance in South Africa: A status assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the project were conducted in India, Kenya, Peru, Morocco,. Philippines and Tanzania. ... the process of formulating a National Groundwater Strategy. (DWA, 2010). ..... solid-waste disposal when it is placed into or on any land, open surface ...

  12. a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home

    considerably degraded by physical, chemical and bacterial ... chemical and bacterial constituents of groundwater is ... Samples were collected in clean 1 liter plastic bottle from each borehole. ... bottles were kept on ice pack and the unstable.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  14. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  15. Groundwater Quality Data for the Tahoe-Martis Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Tahoe-Martis study unit was investigated in June through September 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the Tahoe-Martis study unit (Tahoe-Martis) and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in El Dorado, Placer, and Nevada Counties. Forty-one of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 11 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, strontium isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 240 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at 12 percent of the wells, and the

  16. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  17. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  18. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  19. Groundwater vulnerability assessment: from overlay methods to statistical methods in the Lombardy Plain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stevenazzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is among the most important freshwater resources. Worldwide, aquifers are experiencing an increasing threat of pollution from urbanization, industrial development, agricultural activities and mining enterprise. Thus, practical actions, strategies and solutions to protect groundwater from these anthropogenic sources are widely required. The most efficient tool, which helps supporting land use planning, while protecting groundwater from contamination, is represented by groundwater vulnerability assessment. Over the years, several methods assessing groundwater vulnerability have been developed: overlay and index methods, statistical and process-based methods. All methods are means to synthesize complex hydrogeological information into a unique document, which is a groundwater vulnerability map, useable by planners, decision and policy makers, geoscientists and the public. Although it is not possible to identify an approach which could be the best one for all situations, the final product should always be scientific defensible, meaningful and reliable. Nevertheless, various methods may produce very different results at any given site. Thus, reasons for similarities and differences need to be deeply investigated. This study demonstrates the reliability and flexibility of a spatial statistical method to assess groundwater vulnerability to contamination at a regional scale. The Lombardy Plain case study is particularly interesting for its long history of groundwater monitoring (quality and quantity, availability of hydrogeological data, and combined presence of various anthropogenic sources of contamination. Recent updates of the regional water protection plan have raised the necessity of realizing more flexible, reliable and accurate groundwater vulnerability maps. A comparison of groundwater vulnerability maps obtained through different approaches and developed in a time span of several years has demonstrated the relevance of the

  20. Assessment and Monitoring of Nutrient Management in Irrigated Agriculture for Groundwater Quality Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Davis, R.; Smart, D. R.; Brown, P. H.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient fluxes to groundwater have been subject to regulatory assessment and control only in a limited number of countries, including those in the European Union, where the Water Framework Directive requires member countries to manage groundwater basis toward achieving "good status", and California, where irrigated lands will be subject to permitting, stringent nutrient monitoring requirements, and development of practices that are protective of groundwater. However, research activities to rigorously assess agricultural practices for their impact on groundwater have been limited and instead focused on surface water protection. For groundwater-related assessment of agricultural practices, a wide range of modeling tools has been employed: vulnerability studies, nitrogen mass balance assessments, crop-soil-system models, and various statistical tools. These tools are predominantly used to identify high risk regions, practices, or crops. Here we present the development of a field site for rigorous in-situ evaluation of water and nutrient management practices in an irrigated agricultural setting. Integrating groundwater monitoring into agricultural practice assessment requires large research plots (on the order of 10s to 100s of hectares) and multi-year research time-frames - much larger than typical agricultural field research plots. Almonds are among the most common crops in California with intensive use of nitrogen fertilizer and were selected for their high water quality improvement potential. Availability of an orchard site with relatively vulnerable groundwater conditions (sandy soils, water table depth less than 10 m) was also important in site selection. Initial results show that shallow groundwater concentrations are commensurate with nitrogen leaching estimates obtained by considering historical, long-term field nitrogen mass balance and groundwater dynamics.

  1. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of long

  2. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2018-02-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  3. Probabilistic health risk assessment for arsenic intake through drinking groundwater in Taiwan's Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    An abundant and inexpensive supply of groundwater is used to meet drinking, agriculture and aquaculture requirements of the residents in the Pingtung Plain. Long-term groundwater quality monitoring data indicate that the As content in groundwater in the Pingtung Plain exceeds the maximum level of 10 g/L recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The situation is further complicated by the fact that only 46.89% of population in the Pingtung Plain has been served with tap water, far below the national average of 92.93%. Considering there is a considerable variation in the measured concentrations, from below the detection limit (consumption rate and body weight of the individual, the conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for health risk management. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the drinking groundwater by local residents in the Pingtung Plain. The probabilistic risk assessment for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the drinking groundwater is achieved using Monte Carlo simulation technique based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of inorganic As intake through drinking groundwater consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who drink high As content groundwater.

  4. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Groundwater Characterization Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to conduct a program to characterize groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, in accordance with a 1987 DOE memorandum stating that all past, present, and future nuclear test sites would be treated as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites (Memorandum from Bruce Green, Weapons Design and Testing Division, June 6, 1987). DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0532) to evaluate the environmental consequences associated with the proposed action, referred to as the Groundwater Characterization Project (GCP). This proposed action includes constructing access roads and drill pads, drilling and testing wells, and monitoring these wells for the purpose of characterizing groundwater at the NTS. Long-term monitoring and possible use of these wells in support of CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, is also proposed. The GCP includes measures to mitigate potential impacts on sensitive biological, cultural and historical resources, and to protect workers and the environment from exposure to any radioactive or mixed waste materials that may be encountered. DOE considers those mitigation measures related to sensitive biological, cultural and historic resources as essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, and DOE has prepared a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) that explains how such mitigations will be planned and implemented. Based on the analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI

  6. Environmental assessment for the Groundwater Characterization Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to conduct a program to characterize groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, in accordance with a 1987 DOE memorandum stating that all past, present, and future nuclear test sites would be treated as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites (Memorandum from Bruce Green, Weapons Design and Testing Division, June 6, 1987). DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0532) to evaluate the environmental consequences associated with the proposed action, referred to as the Groundwater Characterization Project (GCP). This proposed action includes constructing access roads and drill pads, drilling and testing wells, and monitoring these wells for the purpose of characterizing groundwater at the NTS. Long-term monitoring and possible use of these wells in support of CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, is also proposed. The GCP includes measures to mitigate potential impacts on sensitive biological, cultural and historical resources, and to protect workers and the environment from exposure to any radioactive or mixed waste materials that may be encountered. DOE considers those mitigation measures related to sensitive biological, cultural and historic resources as essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, and DOE has prepared a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) that explains how such mitigations will be planned and implemented. Based on the analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  8. Regional Groundwater Flow Assessment in a Prospective High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of nuclear energy will result in high-level radioactive waste (HLRW, which brings potential environmental dangers. Selecting a proper disposal repository is a crucial step in the development of nuclear energy. This paper introduces firstly the hydrogeological conditions of the Beishan area in China. Next, a regional groundwater model is constructed using a multiphase flow simulator to analyze the groundwater flow pattern in the Beishan area. Model calibration shows that the simulated and observed hydraulic heads match well, and the simulated regional groundwater flow pattern is similar to the surface flow pattern from the channel network, indicating that the groundwater flow is mainly dependent on the topography. In addition, the simulated groundwater storage over the period from 2003 to 2014 is similar to the trend derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite-derived results. Last, the established model is used to evaluate the influences of the extreme climate and regional faults on the groundwater flow pattern. It shows that they do not have a significant influence on the regional groundwater flow patterns. This study will provide a preliminary reference for the regional groundwater flow assessment in the site of the HLRW in China.

  9. Groundwater quality assessment of one former industrial site in Belgium using a TRIAD-like approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Debacker, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Celia; Gobert, Sylvie; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dejonghe, Winnie; Martin, Patrick; Thome, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Contaminated industrial sites are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, aquatic and groundwater ecosystems. An effect-based approach to evaluate and assess pollution-induced degradation due to contaminated groundwater was carried out in this study. The new concept, referred to as 'Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like' (GwQT) approach, is adapted from classical TRIAD approaches. GwQT is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. These components are combined in the GwQT using qualitative and quantitative (using zero to one subindices) integration approaches. The TRIAD approach is applied for the first time on groundwater from one former industrial site located in Belgium. This approach will allow the classification of sites into categories according to the degree of contaminant-induced degradation. This new concept is a starting point for groundwater characterization and is open for improvement and adjustment. - Highlights: → This study presents the first application of the TRIAD approach on groundwater system. → Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like approach is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. → None of the three TRIAD components could reliably predict the other one. - This study presents the first application of the TRIAD approach on groundwater system. None of the TRIAD components (chemistry, physico-chemistry and ecotoxicity) could reliably predict the other one.

  10. Geostatistical modeling of groundwater properties and assessment of their uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinya; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Makoto; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hiroya; Sugita, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of groundwater properties is important for understanding of the deep underground hydrogeological environments. This paper proposes a geostatistical system for modeling the groundwater properties which have a correlation with the ground resistivity data obtained from widespread and exhaustive survey. That is, the methodology for the integration of resistivity data measured by various methods and the methodology for modeling the groundwater properties using the integrated resistivity data has been developed. The proposed system has also been validated using the data obtained in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Additionally, the quantification of uncertainties in the estimated model has been tried by numerical simulations based on the data. As a result, the uncertainties of the proposal model have been estimated lower than other traditional model's. (author)

  11. Assessment Methods of Groundwater Overdraft Area and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanan; Xing, Liting; Zhang, Xinhui; Cao, Qianqian; Lan, Xiaoxun

    2018-05-01

    Groundwater is an important source of water, and long-term large demand make groundwater over-exploited. Over-exploitation cause a lot of environmental and geological problems. This paper explores the concept of over-exploitation area, summarizes the natural and social attributes of over-exploitation area, as well as expounds its evaluation methods, including single factor evaluation, multi-factor system analysis and numerical method. At the same time, the different methods are compared and analyzed. And then taking Northern Weifang as an example, this paper introduces the practicality of appraisal method.

  12. Assessing the velocity of the groundwater flow in bedrock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taivassalo, V.; Poteri, A.

    1994-10-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is studying the crystalline bedrock in Finland for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from its two reactors in Olkiluoto. Preliminary site investigations for five areas were carried out during 1987-1992. One part of the investigation programme was three-dimensional groundwater flow modelling. The numerical site-specific flow simulations were based on the concept of an equivalent porous continuum. The results include hydraulic head distributions, average groundwater flow rate routes. In this study, a novel approach was developed to evaluate the velocities of the water particles flowing in the fractured bedrock. (17 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.)

  13. Assessing dissolved methane patterns in central New York groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. McPhillips

    2014-07-01

    New hydrological insights for this region: There was no significant difference between methane concentrations in valleys versus upslope locations, in water wells less than or greater than 1 km from a conventional gas well, and across different geohydrologic units. Methane concentrations were significantly higher in groundwater dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate compared with groundwater dominated by calcium bicarbonate, indicating bedrock interactions and lengthy residence times as controls. A multivariate regression model of dissolved methane using only three variables (sodium, hardness, and barium explained 77% of methane variability, further emphasizing the dominance of geochemistry and hydrogeology as controls on baseline methane patterns.

  14. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Office. Annual report for fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This edition of the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO) for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater programs at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants (PGDP and PORTS, respectively.) This report describes the administrative framework of the GWPO including staffing, organization, and funding sources. In addition, summaries are provided of activities involving the Technical Support staff at the five facilities. Finally, the results of basic investigations designed to improve our understanding of the major processes governing groundwater flow and contaminant migration on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are reported. These investigations are conducted as part of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Studies (ORRHAGS) program. The relevance of these studies to the overall remediation responsibilities of Energy Systems is discussed

  15. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  16. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program 1991 well installation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report is a summary of the well and environmental soil boring information compiled for the groundwater monitoring program of the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1991. It includes discussion of environmental soil borings, surveying, well installations, abandonments, maintenance, and stabilization

  19. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain

  20. Major ion chemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in Haripur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Tariq, J.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-07-01

    Study was conducted for investigating chemical composition of groundwater, identifying the compositional types of groundwater, delineating the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry and assessing the groundwater quality for drinking / irrigation uses. Groundwater samples collected from shallow (hand pumps, open well, motor pumps) and deep (tube wells) aquifers were analyzed for major cations (Na/sup +/,K/sup +, Ca/sup 2+/, Mg/sup 2+/) and anions (HCO/sub 3/, Cl/sup '/, SO/sub 4/). The data indicated that Ca/sub 2/ is the dominant cation in most of the samples followed by Mg/sup 2+/ whereas HCO/sub 3/ is the most abundant anion in all samples. Hydrochemistry provides a clear indication of active recharge of shallow and deep aquifers by modern meteoric water. Carbonate dissolution was found to be the prevailing process controlling the groundwater chemistry. Chemical quality was assessed for drinking purpose by comparing with WHO, Indian and national standards, and for irrigation purpose using empirical indices such as SAR and RSC. The results show that groundwater meets the norms of good quality drinking water and can be safely used for irrigation. (author)

  1. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  2. Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport modelling using CONNECTFLOW in support of the SR Can assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Cox, Ian; Holton, David; Hunter, Fiona; Joyce, Steve; Gylling, Bjoern; Lindgren, Maria

    2004-09-01

    fluxes in the DFN adjacent to canisters and in the EDZ, for input to near-field source term models. Output from these models has been used to calculate performance measures (PMs) such as canister flux, travel time, and exit locations that are required as input to performance safety assessment (PSA) calculations. Since the above set of models offer greater resolution of both near-field parameters such as flows in the fractures intersecting a deposition hole and far-field parameters such as F-quotient through a DFN, then new concepts are required for how such information can be incorporated in the PSA calculations. Hence, consideration is also given to how PSA calculations should be performed using the COMP23 and FARF31 programs, based on output from CONNECTFLOW. This illustrates the capacity of CONNECTFLOW to integrate with SKB's existing software in order to provide an overall methodology for the groundwater flow and PSA calculations. The study has shown the development of the complete model chain from fracture network data, fracture conceptual model analysis, regional-scale paleo-hydrogeology to the use of detailed nested models to obtain performance measures for the near-field, far-field and biosphere as required by safety assessment. The methodology has shown to be tractable and to yield more realistic and detailed distribution of PMs than has been possible in the past. A number of scenarios have been considered including release from canisters at different times, different backfill properties, and quite distinct interpretations of the underlying fracture network data. This demonstrates the robustness and flexibility of the approach. For the original DFN interpretation the fracture network connectivity is relatively good and may be analogous to the situation at Oskarshamn to some extent

  3. Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau area constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Tahoe and Martis Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tahoe and Martis Basins and surrounding watersheds constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  5. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  6. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  9. Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality at the Nigerian Institute for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to ascertain the suitability of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research's groundwater resources for aquaculture purposes. The samples were subjected to physico-chemical analyses and the parameters analyzed are Iron, pH, Sulphide ion Total Ammonia, Dissolved Oxygen, ...

  13. Assessment of groundwater pollution by nitrates using intrinsic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientists are deeply concerned with the state of vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs. It is a complex task because of the difficulties in determining the degree of pollution of the ground water. Many methods have been adopted like DRASTIC, GOD, SI, SINTACS, etc. The present article targets the determination of the ...

  14. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in ... The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total ... Generally, water pollution not only affects water quality ..... regardless of the natural geology and human activities, it has.

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality of Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of groundwater of Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated between February and July 2008. Water samples were collected from functional bore holes from five locations (stations 1 – 5) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including heavy metals. Data obtained were compared with World ...

  16. groundwater quality assessment of wells in ifewara, osun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    influences as a result of factors such as overpopulation and activities (including agriculture, indiscriminate refuse disposal and use of septic tanks, soak away and latrines) which are capable of producing run-offs and leachate which could infiltrate into and pollute groundwater formation. Many households depend on wells ...

  17. Assessment of shallow groundwater quality and its suitability for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, water for drinking should be treated mildly, due to low pH and high iron content. Polyvinyl chloride materials (PVC) and other non-corrosive materials should be used for the construction of boreholes within the area to reduce damage to plumbing materials. Groundwater monitoring, effective and holistic ...

  18. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment of the Tarkwa Mining Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the extensive mining in the Tarkwa area, quality of groundwater has become an important issue. This study estimates aquifer vulnerability by applying the SINTACS model which uses seven environmental parameters to evaluate aquifer vulnerability and geographical information system (GIS) in the Tarkwa mining ...

  19. Groundwater governance in South Africa: A status assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater governance provisions and arrangements in South Africa were studied at national level and at local level for a highly productive aquifer, the Botleng Dolomite Aquifer. Technical, legal, institutional and operational governance provisions were found to be reasonable at the national level but weak with regards to ...

  20. Groundwater availability in the United States: the value of quantitative regional assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Kevin F.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Cunningham, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of water resources is under continued threat from the challenges associated with a growing population, competing demands, and a changing climate. Freshwater scarcity has become a fact in many areas. Much of the United States surface-water supplies are fully apportioned for use; thus, in some areas the only potential alternative freshwater source that can provide needed quantities is groundwater. Although frequently overlooked, groundwater serves as the principal reserve of freshwater in the US and represents much of the potential supply during periods of drought. Some nations have requirements to monitor and characterize the availability of groundwater such as the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (EPCEU 2000). In the US there is no such national requirement. Quantitative regional groundwater availability assessments, however, are essential to document the status and trends of groundwater availability for the US and make informed water-resource decisions possible now and in the future. Barthel (2014) highlighted that the value of regional groundwater assessments goes well beyond just quantifying the resource so that it can be better managed. The tools and techniques required to evaluate these unique regional systems advance the science of hydrogeology and provide enhanced methods that can benefit local-scale groundwater investigations. In addition, a significant, yet under-utilized benefit is the digital spatial and temporal data sets routinely generated as part of these studies. Even though there is no legal or regulatory requirement for regional groundwater assessments in the US, there is a logical basis for their implementation. The purpose of this essay is to articulate the rationale for and reaffirm the value of regional groundwater assessments primarily in the US; however, the arguments hold for all nations. The importance of the data sets and the methods and model development that occur as part of these assessments is stressed

  1. An assessment of groundwater potential and vulnerability in the Upper Manyame Sub-Catchment of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misi, Alfred; Gumindoga, Webster; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    2018-06-01

    Severe depletion and pollution of groundwater resources are of rising concern in the Upper Manyame Sub-Catchment (UMSC); Zimbabwe's most urbanised sub-catchment. Despite groundwater playing a pivotal role in the provision of potable water in the sub-catchment, it is under serious threat from anthropogenic stressors which include sewage effluents and leachates from landfills, among others. Inadequate scientific knowledge pertaining to the spatio-temporal variability of groundwater storage and vulnerability in the UMSC is further compromising its sustainability. Therefore, comprehensive assessments of UMSC's Groundwater Potential (GP) and vulnerability are crucial for its effective management. This study assessed GP and vulnerability in the UMSC using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing techniques. Groundwater conditioning factors: geology, slope, land-use, drainage density, topographic index, altitude, recharge and rainfall were used to develop GP zones. Validation of the GP map was done by correlating estimated GP with historical borehole yields. An assessment of groundwater vulnerability was done at micro-catchment level (Marimba) using the GOD model; a three parameter Index Overlay Model. Marimba is the most urbanised and has the second highest borehole density. It also exhibits similar landuse characteristics as the UMSC. Furthermore, groundwater quality in Marimba was assessed from 15 sampling sites. Fifteen drinking water parameters were analysed based on the standard methods for Water and Wastewater Examination. The potability of groundwater was then assessed by comparing the measured water quality parameters with the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ) drinking water standards and/or WHO guidelines for drinking water. Repeated Measures ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to assess the spatio-temporal variations in groundwater quality and to identify key parameters, respectively. About 72% (2725.9 km2) of the UMSC was

  2. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  3. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  4. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area

  5. Scoping assessment of groundwater doses to biota at the Sellafield site, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Gleizon, P.; Coleman, I.A.; Watts, S.J.; Batlle, L.V.; Smith, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    In the current climate of investigating the impact of discharges from the nuclear industry on non-human biota, much attention has been given to biota in marine and terrestrial environments in receipt of authorised discharges of liquid and gaseous effluent. Relatively little attention to date has been given to the exposure of biota to groundwater containing man-made radio-nuclides. This area of interest is growing especially in the field of nuclear waste repositories. A scoping assessment has been performed here to determine the impacts due to radiological contamination on organisms living within or coming into contact with groundwater at the Sellafield site, UK. The following potential exposure routes to biota were identified: 1) Organisms living within groundwater; 2) Groundwater discharges to the surface at beach springs (i.e. emerging above the low water line; 3) Groundwater discharges to nearby surface water bodies (e.g. rivers); 4) Groundwater discharges directly to the Irish Sea.. In order to evaluate impacts on organisms living within, contacting or ingesting groundwater, it was necessary to determine the activity concentration of radio-nuclides in the groundwater. For time periods up to 2120, modeling of contaminant release from in-ground inventories and transport in groundwater was carried out for this scoping study using a relatively simple assessment methodology with the MONDRIAN modeling suite. Screening assessments of radiological impacts upon wildlife have been performed for liquid discharges to groundwater from the Sellafield Ltd reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria. Impacts have been considered for biota at sites within reach of the groundwater flow network. Most calculated total weighted absorbed doses appear to be of no radiological significance whatsoever in relation to the new Environment Agency freshwater ecosystem trigger level (40 microGy h -1 ), thereby obviating the need to conduct further investigations. The one exception to this is

  6. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  7. Environmental Sciences Division Groundwater Program Office report for fiscal years 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, D.D.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Groundwater Program Office in fiscal years 1995--1997 and document technical results achieved. One of the first contributions of the project was development and publication of a conceptual hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This framework then served to guide research to fill important gaps in knowledge and suggest the most cost-effective approaches to site characterization and remediation. Examples of major goals include: quantitative characterization of the role of matrix diffusion in slowing transport of contaminants and impacting the practicality of pump and treat options for aquifer restoration; the importance of geologic structure and preferred flow pathways in the near surface zone (including the role of stormflow); evaluation of the importance of the deep groundwater system in contaminant migration; and acquisition of three-dimensional groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulation capability for fractured porous media

  8. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  9. MODLP program description: A program for solving linear optimal hydraulic control of groundwater contamination based on MODFLOW simulation. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfeld, D.P.; Dougherty, D.E.

    1994-11-01

    MODLP is a computational tool that may help design capture zones for controlling the movement of contaminated groundwater. It creates and solves linear optimization programs that contain constraints on hydraulic head or head differences in a groundwater system. The groundwater domain is represented by USGS MODFLOW groundwater flow simulation model. This document describes the general structure of the computer program, MODLP, the types of constraints that may be imposed, detailed input instructions, interpretation of the output, and the interaction with the MODFLOW simulation kernel

  10. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination

  11. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@nju.edu.cn; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl{sup −} concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM{sub (ZS)} is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl{sup -} concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup -} concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM{sub (ZS)} based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl{sup −} concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup −} concentration.

  12. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl − concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM (ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl - concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl - concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM (ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl − concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl − concentration

  13. Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in groundwater in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Chihhao [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Wang, G.-S. [Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-C. [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County, Taiwan (China); Ko, C.-H. [School of Forest and Resources Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chunhank@ntu.edu.tw

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the risks from exposure to 14 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in selected groundwater sites in Taiwan. The study employs the multimedia environment pollutant assessment system (MEPAS) model to calculate the specific non-cancer and cancer risks at an exposure level of 1 {mu}g/L of each VOC for a variety of exposure pathways. The results show that the highest specific non-cancer risk is associated with water ingestion of vinyl chloride (VC) and that the highest specific cancer risk is associated with indoor breathing of VC. The three most important exposure pathways for risk assessment for both non-cancer and cancer risks are identified as water ingestion, dermal absorption when showering, and indoor breathing. Excess tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and VC are detected in the groundwater aquifers of one dump site and one factory. However, the study suggests that the pollutants in the contaminated groundwater aquifers do not travel extensively with groundwater flow and that the resulting VOC concentrations are below detectable levels for most of the sampled drinking-water treatment plants. Nevertheless, the non-cancer and cancer risks resulting from use of the contaminated groundwater are found to be hundred times higher than the general risk guidance values. To ensure safe groundwater utilisation, remediation initiatives for soil and groundwater are required. Finally, the study suggests that the current criteria for VOCs in drinking water might not be capable of ensuring public safety when groundwater is used as the primary water supply; more stringent quality criteria for drinking water are proposed for selected VOCs.

  14. Finite-element three-dimensional ground-water (FE3DGW) flow model - formulation, program listings and users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-12-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This document consists of the description of the FE3DGW (Finite Element, Three-Dimensional Groundwater) Hydrologic model third level (high complexity) three-dimensional, finite element approach (Galerkin formulation) for saturated groundwater flow

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  17. Surface and groundwater quality assessment of Marikina river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Pena, Jowell P.; Pael, Limela G.

    2009-03-01

    The study used the physico-chemical characteristics to determine the degree of pollution in different surface and groundwater sources in Marikina. The hydrogen ion concentration in all the stations for surface water was generally basic ranging from 7.24 to 7.44, while conductivity was observed to be highest in Royal Ville station that has a value of 253 μ/cm. Among the four stations in groundwater which obtained an acidic pH, Brgy. Singkamas deep-well has a neutral value. The conductivity was observed to be highest in Brgy. Conception which has a value of 1026 μ/cm. The major ions result showed that the three stations from Marikina River have conformed to the water quality criteria for fresh waters set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, while results from different deep-well stations showed that among four stations, Brgy. Singkamas and Conception deep-well have exceeded the recommended value concentration for drinking water quality standards. The multi-element results were obtained from an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Results showed that significant concentrations of metals like Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, and Pb in both surface and groundwater stations have exceeded the maximum concentrations set by both DENR and PNSDW. The significant differences in the concentrations of physico-chemical components facilitate detection of contamination from domestic and industrial wastes. (author)

  18. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SUNAMGANJ OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raihan, J. B. Alam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, groundwater quality in Sunamganj of Bangladesh was studied based on different indices for irrigation and drinking uses. Samples were investigated for sodium absorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, electrical conductance, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio, total hardness, permeability index, residual sodium bi-carbonate to investigate the ionic toxicity. From the analytical result, it was revealed that the values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that ground water of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there was neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, so that ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. Average Total Hardness of the samples in the study area was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. Average total hardness of the samples was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. It was shown based on GIS analysis that the groundwater quality in Zone-1 could be categorized of "excellent" class, supporting the high suitability for irrigation. In Zone-2 and Zone-3, the groundwater quality was categorized as "risky" and "poor" respectively. The study has also made clear that GIS-based methodology can be used effectively for ground water quality mapping even in small catchments.

  19. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  1. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  4. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  5. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The report contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non- hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  6. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The report contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non- hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP)

  7. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy Y- 12 Plant. These sites are located south of the Y- 12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring. Section 2.0 of this report contains background information regarding groundwater monitoring at the waste-management sites located in the CRHR. An overview of the hydrogeologic system in the CRHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1991 assessment data and detailed descriptions of groundwater quality in the regime are presented

  8. Assessing groundwater depletion and dynamics using GRACE and InSAR: Potential and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Galloway, Devin L.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing of the temporal variation of ground level and gravity has improved our understanding of groundwater dynamics and storage. Mass changes are measured by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites, whereas ground deformation is measured by processing synthetic aperture radar satellites data using the InSAR (Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar) techniques. Both methods are complementary and offer different sensitivities to aquifer system processes. GRACE is sensitive to mass changes over large spatial scales (more than 100,000 km2). As such, it fails in providing groundwater storage change estimates at local or regional scales relevant to most aquifer systems, and at which most groundwater management schemes are applied. However, InSAR measures ground displacement due to aquifer response to fluid-pressure changes. InSAR applications to groundwater depletion assessments are limited to aquifer systems susceptible to measurable deformation. Furthermore, the inversion of InSAR-derived displacement maps into volume of depleted groundwater storage (both reversible and largely irreversible) is confounded by vertical and horizontal variability of sediment compressibility. During the last decade, both techniques have shown increasing interest in the scientific community to complement available in situ observations where they are insufficient. In this review, we present the theoretical and conceptual bases of each method, and present idealized scenarios to highlight the potential benefits and challenges of combining these techniques to remotely assess groundwater storage changes and other aspects of the dynamics of aquifer systems.

  9. Hydrogeological and quantitative groundwater assessment of the Basaltic Aquifer, Northern Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shaibani, A.; Abokhodair, Abdulwahab A.; Lloyd, J.W.; Al-Ahmari, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Northern Harrat Rahat consists of 300m basalt lavas covering some 2000 km2 to the south-east of Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia. Like many basalt sequences, the Rahat basalts form an important aquifer and groundwater resource. The aquifer has a saturated thickness of up to 60m and made up of the weathered upper part of underlying basement, pre-basalt sands and gravels and the fractured basalts. Since 1992, groundwater has been abstracted from the aquifer as part of the Al-Madinah water supply. To assess the potential of the aquifer an assessment has been made based on pumping tests of 70 wells. The hydraulic parameters have been shown to be highly variable typical of the fractured domain. The aquifer contains good-quality water in storage, but receives limited recharge. Groundwater temperature anomalies indicate remnant volcanic activity locally. A numerical groundwater model has been constructed, which has been calibrated using limited groundwater head measurements, but with good abstraction records. Prediction of groundwater heads and the examination of several abstraction scenarios indicate that the aquifer can continue to support part of the Al-Madinah demand for the next several years, if certain well distributions are adopted. The predictions also show that the aquifer can only support the total demand of the city for a few days as a contingency resource. (author)

  10. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high

  11. Laboratory Cooperative Program: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The Laboratory Cooperative Program (Lab Coop Program) was initiated by the US AEC over 20 years ago to promote the transfer of technical information from the national laboratories to the academic community utilizing the facilities and staff capabilities of the labs. Under the AEC, ERDA and DOE, the goals of the program have broadened gradually. Therefore, the program was examined to determine the extent to which it contributes to the current objectives of the DOE and to develop recommendations for any program changes. The assessment of the Lab Coop Program was based on a combination of review of program activity data and publications, review of general information regarding laboratory operations, and extensive interviews. The major findings of this evaluation were that: the program lacks a clear statement of purpose; program plans, priorities, and procedures are not explicit and operations tend to follow historical patterns; and the program is generally accepted as beneficial, but its benefits are difficult to quantify. It is recommended that the focus of the Lab Coop Program be limited and clearly defined, that performance plans be developed and measured against accomplishments, and that a national informational effort be initiated

  12. California GAMA Program: A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Bakersfield Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MTBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin that underlies Bakersfield, in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water

  13. Integrated assessment of groundwater - surface water exchange in the hillslope - riparian interface of a montane catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheliga, Bernhard; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Nuetzmann, Gunnar; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater-surface water dynamics play an important role in runoff generation and the hydrologic connectivity between hillslopes and streams. Here, we present findings from a suite of integrated, empirical approaches to increase our understanding of groundwater-surface water interlinkages in a 3.2 km ^ 2 experimental catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The montane catchment is mainly underlain by granite and has extensive (70%) cover of glacial drift deposits which are up to 40 m deep and form the main aquifer in the catchment. Flat valley bottom areas fringe the stream channel and are characterised by peaty soils (0.5-4 m deep) which cover about 10% of the catchment and receive drainage from upslope areas. The transition between the hillslopes and riparian zone forms a critical interface for groundwater-surface water interactions that controls both the dynamics of riparian saturation and stream flow generation. We nested observations using wells to assess the groundwater - surface water transition, LiDAR surveys to explore the influence of micro-topography on shallow groundwater efflux and riparian wells to examine the magnitude and flux rates of deeper groundwater sources. We also used electrical resistivity surveys to assess the architecture and storage properties of drift aquifers. Finally, we used isotopic tracers to differentiate recharge sources and associated residence times as well as quantifying how groundwater dynamics affect stream flow. These new data have provided a novel conceptual framework for local groundwater - surface water exchange that is informing the development of new deterministic models for the site.

  14. Application of multivariate statistical technique for hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater within the Lower Pra Basin, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. K.; Hayford, E. K.; Hodgson, I. O. A.

    2017-06-01

    Multivariate statistical technique and hydrogeochemical approach were employed for groundwater assessment within the Lower Pra Basin. The main objective was to delineate the main processes that are responsible for the water chemistry and pollution of groundwater within the basin. Fifty-four (54) (No) boreholes were sampled in January 2012 for quality assessment. PCA using Varimax with Kaiser Normalization method of extraction for both rotated space and component matrix have been applied to the data. Results show that Spearman's correlation matrix of major ions revealed expected process-based relationships derived mainly from the geochemical processes, such as ion-exchange and silicate/aluminosilicate weathering within the aquifer. Three main principal components influence the water chemistry and pollution of groundwater within the basin. The three principal components have accounted for approximately 79% of the total variance in the hydrochemical data. Component 1 delineates the main natural processes (water-soil-rock interactions) through which groundwater within the basin acquires its chemical characteristics, Component 2 delineates the incongruent dissolution of silicate/aluminosilicates, while Component 3 delineates the prevalence of pollution principally from agricultural input as well as trace metal mobilization in groundwater within the basin. The loadings and score plots of the first two PCs show grouping pattern which indicates the strength of the mutual relation among the hydrochemical variables. In terms of proper management and development of groundwater within the basin, communities, where intense agriculture is taking place, should be monitored and protected from agricultural activities. especially where inorganic fertilizers are used by creating buffer zones. Monitoring of the water quality especially the water pH is recommended to ensure the acid neutralizing potential of groundwater within the basin thereby, curtailing further trace metal

  15. Supplemental investigations in support of environmental assessments by the Idaho INEL Oversight Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document reports on the status of supplemental investigations in support of environmental assessments by the Idaho INEL Oversight Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included is information on hydrology studies in wells open through large intervals, unsaturated zone contamination and transport processes, surface water-groundwater interactions, regional groundwater flow, and independent testing of air quality data

  16. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  18. Viewpoint of defining the groundwater chemistry for the performance assessment on geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the viewpoint of defining the groundwater chemistry for performance assessment of the second progress report for research and development on geological disposal. Based on the results of statistical analysis (binary scatter plots) of the measured data in addition to the consideration of the first progress report, we defined the five hypothetically modeled groundwaters considering the general geological conditions and importance for performance assessment. In order to evaluate the priority of groundwater chemistries, we have analyzed the above five hypothetical groundwaters by considering the results of multivariate statistical analyses, data reliability, evidence for geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry and exclusion criteria for potential repository sites in Japan. As a result, the fresh reducing high pH (FRHP) type groundwater has been selected for the Reference Case analysis, and the saline reducing high pH (SRHP) type groundwater has been selected for the Alternative Geological Environmental Case analysis, respectively. (author)

  19. Establishing indices for groundwater contamination risk assessment in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Li Jinhui; Chen Shusheng; Diao Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by leachate is the most damaging environmental impact over the entire life of a hazardous waste landfill (HWL). With the number of HWL facilities in China rapidly increasing, and considering the poor status of environmental risk management, it is imperative that effective environmental risk management methods be implemented. A risk assessment indices system for HWL groundwater contamination is here proposed, which can simplify the risk assessment procedure and make it more user-friendly. The assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: source term, underground media, leachate properties, risk receptors and landfill management quality, and a risk assessment indices system consisting of 38 cardinal indicators was established. Comparison with multimedia models revealed that the proposed indices system was integrated and quantitative, that input data for it could be easily collected, and that it could be widely used for environmental risk assessment (ERA) in China. - Highlights: ► No comprehensive environmental risk assessment method for hazardous waste management is proposed in China. ► An assessment indices system is established for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfill. ► All indicators are quantitative and applicable in China. - Capsule: This research identified critical indices and established a system for environmental risk assessment for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of HWLs in China.

  20. Assessment of Groundwater Chemical Quality, Using Inverse Distance Weighted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ashraf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation technique, ordinary Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters in Damghan plain of Iran. According to Scofield guidelines for TDS value, 60% of the water samples were harmful for irrigation purposes. Regarding to EC parameter, more than 60% of studied area was laid in bad range for irrigation purposes. The most dominant anion was Cl- and 10% of water samples showed a very hazardous class. According to Doneen guidelines for chloride value, 100% of collected water from the aquifer had slight to moderate problems for irrigation water purposes. The predominant cations in Damghan plain aquifer were according to Na+> Ca++> Mg++> K+. Sodium ion was the dominant cation and regarding to Na+ content guidelines, almost all groundwater samples had problem for foliar application. Calcium ion distribution was within usual range. The magnesium ion concentration is generally lower than sodium and calcium. The majority of the samples showed Mg++amount within usual range. Also K+ value ranged from 0.1 to 0.23 meq/L and all the water samples had potassium values within the permissible limit. Based on SAR criterion 80 % of collected water had slight to moderate problems. The SSP values were found from 2.87 to 6.87%. According to SAR value, thirty percent of ground water samples were doubtful class. The estimated amounts of RSC were ranged from 0.4-2 and based on RSC criterion, twenty percent of groundwater samples had slight to moderate problems.

  1. The assessment of the required groundwater quantity for the conservation of ecosystems and the achievement of a good ecological status of surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Mitja Janža; Dejan Šram; Kim Mezga; Mišo Andjelov; Jože Uhan

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the available quantity of groundwater is of essential importance for its sustainable use. Modern approaches for estimation of groundwater availability take into account all potential impacts of abstractions, including impacts on groundwater dependent ecosystems and impacts on surface waters ecological status. Groundwater body is in good quantitative status if groundwater abstractions do not cause signifiant damages to groundwater dependent ecosystems and signifiant d...

  2. Methods for assessing the long term radiological consequences of radionuclide entry into groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The methods have been developed to model the transport of radionuclides in groundwater, based on an analytical approach to the governing transport equations, are sufficiently general to enable assessments to be made of the long term radiological significance of groundwater contamination for a range of possible problems. Although the methods are not as flexible as those based on numerical solutions of the transport equations, they have several advantages, including reduced computing time. The methods described can be used to identify critical parameters and assess the significance of data uncertainties in ground-water transport calculations. Such an analysis, combined with experimental measurements where necessary, can provide a sound basis for assessing potential radiation hazards. (U.K.)

  3. Assessing groundwater availability and the response of the groundwater system to intensive exploitation in the North China Plain by analysis of long-term isotopic tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Cheng, Zhongshuang; Wei, Wen; Chen, Zongyu

    2018-03-01

    The use of isotope tracers as a tool for assessing aquifer responses to intensive exploitation is demonstrated and used to attain a better understanding of the sustainability of intensively exploited aquifers in the North China Plain. Eleven well sites were selected that have long-term (years 1985-2014) analysis data of isotopic tracers. The stable isotopes δ18O and δ2H and hydrochemistry were used to understand the hydrodynamic responses of the aquifer system, including unconfined and confined aquifers, to groundwater abstraction. The time series data of 14C activity were also used to assess groundwater age, thereby contributing to an understanding of groundwater sustainability and aquifer depletion. Enrichment of the heavy oxygen isotope (18O) and elevated concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and nitrate were found in groundwater abstracted from the unconfined aquifer, which suggests that intensive exploitation might induce the potential for aquifer contamination. The time series data of 14C activity showed an increase of groundwater age with exploitation of the confined parts of the aquifer system, which indicates that a larger fraction of old water has been exploited over time, and that the groundwater from the deep aquifer has been mined. The current water demand exceeds the sustainable production capabilities of the aquifer system in the North China Plain. Some measures must be taken to ensure major cuts in groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers after a long period of depletion.

  4. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraqs Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing: A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues, recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, and descriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  5. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pei-Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including chloride, sulphate, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solid (TDS, total hardness (TH, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, fluoride, total iron (Tfe, arsenic, iodine, aluminum, nitrite, metasilicic acid and free carbon dioxide. At last a zoning map of different water quality was drawn. Information entropy weight makes WQI perfect and makes the assessment results more reasonable. The WQI for 74 samples ranges from 12.40 to 205.24 and over 90% of the samples are below 100. The excellent quality water area covers nearly 90% of the whole region. The high value of WQI has been found to be closely related with the high values of TDS, fluoride, sulphate, nitrite and TH. In the medium quality water area and poor quality water area, groundwater needs some degree of pretreated before consumption. From the groundwater conservation view of point, the groundwater still need protection and long term monitoring in case of future rapid industrial development. At the same time, preventive actions on the agricultural non point pollution sources in the plain area are also need to be in consideration.

  6. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Petroleum Leakage in Groundwater of the Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Shadizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of petroleum leakage at oil refineries is vital for environmental study of water and soil pollution. Abadan Refinery is located between the Arvandrud and Bahmanshir rivers in the highly populated area of Abadan city. These rivers supply domestic, industrial, and agricultural water toAbadancity. During the war betweenIranandIraq, enormous volumes of oil and petroleum products leaked from storage tanks and pipelines at Abadan Refinery into the surrounding environment. The resulting pollution is a serious threat and a growing environmental concern for the region. In this work, twenty boreholes were dug to investigate petroleum leaks into the surrounding area both during and after the war. The thickness of petroleum floating on underground waters at the refinery was measured by sampling underground water over a period of one year along with measuring the piezometric heads of groundwater monitoring wells. Also, groundwater movement pattern at Abadan Refinery was determined by measuring the water table in each well over the same period. The results of sampling indicate that oil leaks were observed in just two wells; namely, wells No.3 and No.11. The results also show that the greatest portion of the oil spill in underground layers at Abadan Refinery was absorbed into clay soil.

  8. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  9. Assessment of Groundwater quality in Krishnagiri and Vellore Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundharam, A.; Kalpana, G.; Mahapatra, S. R.; Sudharson, E. R.; Jayaprakash, M.

    2017-07-01

    Groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation has been assessed in north and eastern part of Krishnagiri district, South-western part of Vellore district and contiguous with Andhra Pradesh states, India. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected in the study area. The groundwater quality assessment has been carried out by evaluating the physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, {HCO}3^{ - }, Cl-, {SO}4^{2 - }, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+. The dominant cations are in the order of Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ while the dominant anions have the trends of Cl- > {HCO}3^{ - } > {SO}4^{2 - } > CO3. The quality of the water is evaluated using Wilcox diagram and the results reveals that most of the samples are found to be suitable for irrigation. Based on these parameters, groundwater has been assessed in favor of its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-01-01

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria

  11. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  12. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Chemical Quality, Using Inverse Distance Weighted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ashraf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation technique, ordinary Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters in Damghan plain of Iran. According to Scofield guidelines for TDS   value, 60% of the water samples were harmful for irrigation purposes. Regarding to EC parameter, more than 60% of studied area was laid in bad range for irrigation purposes. The most dominant anion was Cl- and 10% of water samples showed a very hazardous class. According to  Doneen  guidelines for  chloride value, 100%  of  collected  water  from the  aquifer  had  slight to moderate problems  for  irrigation water purposes. The predominant cations in Damghan plain aquifer were according to Na+> Ca++> Mg++> K+. Sodium ion was the dominant cation and regarding to Na+ content guidelines, almost all groundwater samples had problem for foliar application. Calcium ion distribution was within usual range. The magnesium ion concentration is generally lower than sodium and calcium. The majority of the samples showed   Mg++amount within usual range. Also K+ value ranged from 0.1 to 0.23 meq/L and all the water samples had potassium values within the permissible limit. Based on SAR criterion 80 % of collected water had slight to moderate problems. The SSP values were found from 2.87 to 6.87%. According to SAR value, thirty percent of ground water samples were doubtful class. The estimated amounts of RSC were ranged from 0.4-2 and based on RSC criterion, twenty percent of groundwater samples had slight to moderate problems Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font

  14. Waste isolation safety assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.

    1979-05-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Among the analyses required for isolation system evaluation is the detailed assessment of the post-closure performance of nuclear waste repositories in geologic formations. This assessment is essential, since it is concerned with aspects of the nuclear power program which previously have not been addressed. Specifically, the nature of the isolation systems (e.g., involving breach scenarios and transport through the geosphere), and the time-scales necessary for isolation, dictate the development, demonstration and application of novel assessment capabilities. The assessment methodology needs to be thorough, flexible, objective, and scientifically defensible. Further, the data utilized must be accurate, documented, reproducible, and based on sound scientific principles

  15. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Realistic Human Exposure Assessment of Indoor Radon released from Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Dong Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2002-01-01

    The work presents a realistic human exposure assessment of indoor radon released from groundwater in a house. At first, a two-compartment model is developed to describe the generation and transfer of radon in indoor air from groundwater. The model is used to estimate radon concentrations profile of indoor air in a house using by showering, washing clothes, and flushing toilets. Then, the study performs an uncertainty analysis of model input parameters to quantify the uncertainty in radon concentration profile. In order to estimate a daily internal dose of a specific tissue group in an adult through the inhalation of such indoor radon, a PBPK(Physiologically-Based Pharmaco-Kinetic) model is developed. Combining indoor radon profile and PBPK model is used to a realistic human assessment for such exposure. The results obtained from this study would be used to the evaluation of human risk by inhalation associated with the indoor radon released from groundwater

  17. Environmental Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Water Mines (Porto, NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Afonso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary approach was developed to estimate urban groundwater vulnerability to contamination combining hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, subterranean hydrogeotechnics, groundwater ecotoxicology and isotope tracers. Paranhos and Salgueiros spring waters in Porto City were used as a case study. Historical and current vulnerability scenarios were compared using hydrogeological GIS-based modelling. Potential contamination sources were mapped around the spring galleries. Most of these were point sources and their potential contamination load was moderate. The ecotoxicological assessment indicated a low acute toxicity potential. Groundwater radionuclides appeared to be mainly controlled by geological factors and biomineralisation. Vulnerability maps suggest that most of the area has a moderate to low vulnerability to contamination. However, some surface sources such as sewage systems cause contamination and contribute to increased vulnerability. This integrated approach was demonstrated to be adequate for a better knowledge of urban hydrogeological processes and their dynamics, and highlighted the importance of a vulnerability assessment in urban areas.

  18. Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) was initiated in 1993 as a result of US congressional concern over the disposal of nuclear materials by the former Soviet Union into the Arctic marine environment. The program is comprised of appr. 70 different projects. To date appr. ten percent of the funds has gone to Russian institutions for research and logistical support. The collaboration also include the IAEA International Arctic Seas Assessment Program. The major conclusion from the research to date is that the largest signals for region-wide radionuclide contamination in the Arctic marine environment appear to arise from the following: 1) atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a practice that has been discontinued; 2) nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes carried in the Arctic from reprocessing facilities in Western Europe, and 3) accidents such as Chernobyl and the 1957 explosion at Chelyabinsk-65

  19. Quarterly RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Data for the Period April Through June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2006-11-01

    This report provides information about RCRA groundwater monitoring for the period April through June 2006. Seventeen RCRA sites were sampled during the reporting quarter. Sampled sites include seven monitored under groundwater indicator evaluation (''detection'') programs, eight monitored under groundwater quality assessment programs, and two monitored under final-status programs.

  20. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  1. Proceedings of the fifth international groundwater conference on the assessment and management of groundwater resources in hard rock systems with special reference to basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangarajan, M.; Mayilswami, C.; Kulkarni, P.S.; Singh, V.P.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater resources in hard rock regions with limited renewable potential have to be managed judiciously to ensure adequate supplies of dependable quantity and quality. It is a natural resource with economic, strategic and environmental value, which is under stress both due to changing climatic and anthropogenic factors. Therefore the management strategies need to be aimed at sustenance of this limited resource. In India, and also elsewhere in the world major parts of the semi-arid regions are characterized by hard rocks and it is of vital importance to understand the nature of the aquifer systems and its current stress conditions. Though the achievements through scientific development in exploration and exploitation are commendable, it has adversely affected the hard rock aquifer system, both in terms of quantity and quality; which is of major concern today. In order to reverse the situation, better management strategy of groundwater resources needs to be devised for prevention of further degradation of quality and meeting out the future demand of quantity. This necessitates: understanding the flow mechanism, evaluating the potential and evolving optimal utilization schemes, and assessing and monitoring quality in the changing scenario of anthropogenically induced agricultural, urban, industrial and climatic change. The groundwater flow mechanism through fractures in hard rocks is yet to be fully understood in terms of fracture geometry and its relation to groundwater flow. The characterization of flow geometry in basaltic aquifer is yet to be fully explored. Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic factors is very slow process with long-term impacts on carbon cycle and global climatic change on one hand and quality on the other. It is generally recognized that the prevention of groundwater pollution is cheaper than its remedial measures in the long run. Furthermore, because of the nature of groundwater flow and the complexity and management uncertainty of

  2. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    analyzed for toxicity characteristic contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Beginning with the sample from July 31, 2013, pH and specific conductance were also measured. Leachate analysis results show no evidence of contamination. Results for toxicity characteristic contaminants are all below regulatory levels and analysis quantification limits. No quantifiable PCB levels were detected in any sample. Results for pH and specific conductance are also within expected ranges. After analysis, leachate was pumped from the collection tank and used in Cell 18 for dust control. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  3. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  4. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Lee, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 18 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11. WAG 11 (White Wing Scrap Yard) is located on the west end of East Fork Ridge between White Wing Road and the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The scrap yard is approximately 25 acres in size. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled and developed between January 1990 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. Detailed procedures for well construction were specified by the Engineering Division to ensure that the wells would provide water samples representative of the aquifer. To ensure conformance with the specifications, Energy Systems Construction Engineering and ERCE provided continuous oversight of field activities. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 11. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  5. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

  6. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant

  7. Environment tracers application to groundwater circulation assessment in an alluvial aquifer in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Maurizio; Vitale, Stefania

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important tool in order to plan any groundwater protection strategy. The aim of this study is to experiment a specific approach to give a conceptual model about groundwater circulation characterization. This approach has been applied to a suspected contaminated site in a large alluvial plan, made of sediments coming from weathered volcanic rocks, laying on marine sediments, where more than thirty years ago had been built a very important urban waste solid landfill. In referring to this case history it has been pointed out the importance of natural chemical interaction between ground water and rock mass, especially when pyroclastic origin sediments are involved. The landfill had been isolated from the surrounding environment, especially to protect aquifers, by a waterproof diaphragm This land is characterised by intensive agricultural and industrial activities (oil refineries, medical waste incinerators, concrete production, tar factory). The study will highlight the importance of environmental tracers which provide information about the flow and mixing processes of water coming from different sources. They are also useful to point out directions of groundwater flow and to determine origin Environmental tracers are natural chemical and isotopic substances that can be measured in groundwater and used to understand hydrologic properties of aquifers. They may be input into the hydrological system from the atmosphere at recharge and/or are added/lost/exchanged inherently as waters flow over and through materials. Variations in their chemical abundances and isotopic compositions can be used as tracers to determine sources (provenance), pathways (of reaction or interaction) and also timescales (dating) of environmental processes. In combination with these, the basic idea is to use. In this case enviromental tracers have been integrated by temperature and electric conductivity logs, to better investigate different levels of faster

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  11. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  12. Soil and groundwater remediation through the program of energy research and development at Environment Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research and development in groundwater and soil remediation within the federal Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) are conducted in the context of activities related to the oil and gas industry. Contamination of groundwater and soil by the oil and gas sector affects the health of ecosystems and the economic viability of impacted lands. This paper presented an outline of remediation research and development activities associated with PERD, as well as an overview of PERD's development of improved generic remediation technologies and approaches for use by industries. In addition, issues concerning the development of key guidelines, methods and protocols for use by regulators were discussed. Science and technology efforts within PERD contribute to the development of national standards and guidelines concerning public safety and environmental needs

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  14. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  16. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggie, Bernadietta; Subiyanto, Arief, Ulfah Mediaty; Djuniadi

    2018-03-01

    Improved shrimp farming affects the groundwater quality conditions. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality conventionally has less accuracy. This paper presents the implementation of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for assessing shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality. The data used is the impact data of shrimp farming in one of the regions in Indonesia from 2006-2016. Criteria used in this study were 8 criteria and divided into 49 sub-criteria. The weighting by AHP performed to determine the importance level of criteria and sub-criteria. Final priority class of shrimp farming impact were obtained from the calculation of criteria's and sub-criteria's weights. The validation was done by comparing priority class of shrimp farming impact and water quality conditions. The result show that 50% of the total area was moderate priority class, 37% was low priority class and 13% was high priority class. From the validation result impact assessment for shrimp farming has been high accuracy to the groundwater quality conditions. This study shows that assessment based on AHP has a higher accuracy to shrimp farming impact and can be used as the basic fisheries planning to deal with impacts that have been generated.

  17. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  19. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 2000 (January through March 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.

    2000-11-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during first quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  20. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program Third Quarter 2000 (July through September 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-05-02

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during third quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program Second Quarter 2000 (April through June 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-04-17

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during second quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  2. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  3. Establishing indices for groundwater contamination risk assessment in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Shusheng; Diao, Weihua

    2012-06-01

    Groundwater contamination by leachate is the most damaging environmental impact over the entire life of a hazardous waste landfill (HWL). With the number of HWL facilities in China rapidly increasing, and considering the poor status of environmental risk management, it is imperative that effective environmental risk management methods be implemented. A risk assessment indices system for HWL groundwater contamination is here proposed, which can simplify the risk assessment procedure and make it more user-friendly. The assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: source term, underground media, leachate properties, risk receptors and landfill management quality, and a risk assessment indices system consisting of 38 cardinal indicators was established. Comparison with multimedia models revealed that the proposed indices system was integrated and quantitative, that input data for it could be easily collected, and that it could be widely used for environmental risk assessment (ERA) in China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Jorge Luiz; Wendland, Edson

    2009-11-01

    The groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil were assessed through a numeric model. The study area (6,748 km2) comprises Jacaré-Guaçú and Jacaré-Pepira River watersheds, tributaries of the Tietê River in the central region of the state. GIS based tools were used in the storage, processing and analysis of data. Main hydrologic phenomena were selected, leading to a groundwater conceptual model, taking into account the significant outcrops occurring in the study area. Six recharge zones were related to the geologic formation and structures of the semi-confined and phreatic aquifer. The model was calibrated against the baseflows and static water levels of the wells. The results emphasize the strong interaction of groundwater flows between watersheds and the groundwater inflow into the rivers. It has been concluded that lateral groundwater exchanges between basins, the deep discharges to the regional system, and well exploitation were not significant aquifer outflows when compared to the aquifer recharge. The results have shown that the inflows from the river into the aquifer are significant and have the utmost importance since the aquifer is potentially more vulnerable in these places.

  5. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical......The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the groundwater-surface water interaction zone. A gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of evaluating and prioritising point sources...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...

  6. Development and application of a novel method for regional assessment of groundwater contamination risk in the Songhua River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Erik; Sun, Yuanyuan; Lin, Mao; Kolditz, Olaf

    2017-12-15

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the groundwater contamination risk of Songhua River Basin by applying a novel approach of integrating public datasets, web services and numerical modelling techniques. To our knowledge, this study is the first to establish groundwater risk maps for the entire Songhua River Basin, one of the largest and most contamination-endangered river basins in China. Index-based groundwater risk maps were created with GIS tools at a spatial resolution of 30arc sec by combining the results of groundwater vulnerability and hazard assessment. Groundwater vulnerability was evaluated using the DRASTIC index method based on public datasets at the highest available resolution in combination with numerical groundwater modelling. As a novel approach to overcome data scarcity at large scales, a web mapping service based data query was applied to obtain an inventory for potential hazardous sites within the basin. The groundwater risk assessment demonstrated that contamination risk. These areas were mainly located in the vast plain areas with hotspots particularly in the Changchun metropolitan area. Moreover, groundwater levels and pollution point sources were found to play a significantly larger impact in assessing these areas than originally assumed by the index scheme. Moderate contamination risk was assigned to 27% of the aquifers, predominantly associated with less densely populated agricultural areas. However, the majority of aquifer area in the sparsely populated mountain ranges displayed low groundwater contamination risk. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that this novel method is valid for regional assessments of groundwater contamination risk. Despite limitations in resolution and input data consistency, the obtained groundwater contamination risk maps will be beneficial for regional and local decision-making processes with regard to groundwater protection measures, particularly if other data availability is limited. Copyright

  7. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 2,170-square-mile Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March to July 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The WSJV study unit was the twenty-ninth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Western San Joaquin Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the WSJV study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the WSJV study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 58 wells in 2 study areas (Delta-Mendota subbasin and Westside subbasin) in Stanislaus, Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Kings Counties. Thirty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 wells were selected to aid in the understanding of aquifer-system flow and related groundwater-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level fumigants, and pesticides and pesticide degradates

  8. Assessing the impact of dairy waste lagoons on groundwater quality using a spatial analysis of vadose zone and groundwater information in a coastal phreatic aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, S; Kurtzman, D; Ronen, Z; Peeters, A; Dahan, O

    2014-01-01

    Dairy waste lagoons are considered to be point sources of groundwater contamination by chloride (Cl(-)), different nitrogen-species and pathogens/microorganisms. The objective of this work is to introduce a methodology to assess the past and future impacts of such lagoons on regional groundwater quality. The method is based on a spatial statistical analysis of Cl(-) and total nitrogen (TN) concentration distributions in the saturated and the vadose (unsaturated) zones. The method provides quantitative data on the relation between the locations of dairy lagoons and the spatial variability in Cl(-) and TN concentrations in groundwater. The method was applied to the Beer-Tuvia region, Israel, where intensive dairy farming has been practiced for over 50 years above the local phreatic aquifer. Mass balance calculations accounted for the various groundwater recharge and abstraction sources and sinks in the entire region. The mass balances showed that despite the small surface area covered by the dairy lagoons in this region (0.8%), leachates from lagoons have contributed 6.0% and 12.6% of the total mass of Cl(-) and TN (mainly as NO3(-)-N) added to the aquifer. The chemical composition of the aquifer and vadose zone water suggested that irrigated agricultural activity in the region is the main contributor of Cl(-) and TN to the groundwater. A low spatial correlation between the Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N concentrations in the groundwater and the on-land location of the dairy farms strengthened this assumption, despite the dairy waste lagoon being a point source for groundwater contamination by Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N. Mass balance calculations, for the vadose zone of the entire region, indicated that drying of the lagoons would decrease the regional groundwater salinization process (11% of the total Cl(-) load is stored under lagoons). A more considerable reduction in the groundwater contamination by NO3(-)-N is expected (25% of the NO3(-)-N load is stored under lagoons). Results

  9. A national-scale assessment of micro-organic contaminants in groundwater of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; Stuart, Marianne; Talbot, John; Lapworth, Dan; Hart, Alwyn

    2016-10-15

    A large variety of micro-organic (MO) compounds is used in huge quantities for a range of purposes (e.g. manufacturing, food production, healthcare) and is now being frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Interest in the occurrence of MO contaminants in the terrestrial and aquatic environments continues to grow, as well as in their environmental fate and potential toxicity. However, the contamination of groundwater resources by MOs has a limited evidence base compared to other freshwater resources. Of particular concern are newly 'emerging contaminants' such as pharmaceuticals and lifestyle compounds, particularly those with potential endocrine disrupting properties. While groundwater often has a high degree of protection from pollution due to physical, chemical and biological attenuation processes in the subsurface compared to surface aquatic environments, trace concentrations of a large range of compounds are still detected in groundwater and in some cases may persist for decades due to the long residence times of groundwater systems. This study provides the first national-scale assessment of micro-organic compounds in groundwater in England and Wales. A large set of monitoring data was analysed to determine the relative occurrence and detected concentrations of different groups of compounds and to determine relationships with land-use, aquifer type and groundwater vulnerability. MOs detected including emerging compounds such as caffeine, DEET, bisphenol A, anti-microbial agents and pharmaceuticals as well as a range of legacy contaminants including chlorinated solvents and THMs, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and other industrial compounds. There are clear differences in MOs between land-use types, particularly for urban-industrial and natural land-use. Temporal trends of MO occurrence are assessed but establishing long-term trends is not yet possible. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ModelArchiver—A program for facilitating the creation of groundwater model archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Richard B.

    2018-03-01

    ModelArchiver is a program designed to facilitate the creation of groundwater model archives that meet the requirements of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) policy (Office of Groundwater Technical Memorandum 2016.02, https://water.usgs.gov/admin/memo/GW/gw2016.02.pdf, https://water.usgs.gov/ogw/policy/gw-model/). ModelArchiver version 1.0 leads the user step-by-step through the process of creating a USGS groundwater model archive. The user specifies the contents of each of the subdirectories within the archive and provides descriptions of the archive contents. Descriptions of some files can be specified automatically using file extensions. Descriptions also can be specified individually. Those descriptions are added to a readme.txt file provided by the user. ModelArchiver moves the content of the archive to the archive folder and compresses some folders into .zip files.As part of the archive, the modeler must create a metadata file describing the archive. The program has a built-in metadata editor and provides links to websites that can aid in creation of the metadata. The built-in metadata editor is also available as a stand-alone program named FgdcMetaEditor version 1.0, which also is described in this report. ModelArchiver updates the metadata file provided by the user with descriptions of the files in the archive. An optional archive list file generated automatically by ModelMuse can streamline the creation of archives by identifying input files, output files, model programs, and ancillary files for inclusion in the archive.

  11. Modelling the distribution of tritium in groundwater across South Africa to assess the vulnerability and sustainability of groundwater resources in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Jared; Miller, Jodie; Watson, Andrew; Butler, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is critical for sustaining human populations, especially in semi-arid to arid areas, where surface water availability is low. Shallow groundwater is usually abstracted for this purpose because it is the easiest to access and assumed to be renewable and regularly recharged by precipitation. Renewable, regularly recharged groundwater is also called modern groundwater, ie groundwater that has recently been in contact with the atmosphere. Tritium can be used to determine whether or not a groundwater resource is modern because the half-life of tritium is only 12.36 years and tritium is dominantly produced in the upper atmosphere and not in the rock mass. For this reason, groundwater with detectable tritium activities likely has a residence age of less than 50 years. In this study, tritium activities in 277 boreholes distributed across South Africa were used to develop a national model for tritium activity in groundwater in order to establish the extent of modern groundwater across South Africa. The tritium model was combined with modelled depth to water using 3079 measured static water levels obtained from the National Groundwater Archive and validated against a separate set of 40 tritium activities along the west coast of South Africa. The model showed good agreement with the distribution of rainfall which has been previously documented across the globe (Gleeson et al., 2015), although the arid Karoo basin in south west South Africa shows higher than expected tritium levels given the very low regional precipitation levels. To assess the vulnerability of groundwater to degradation in quality and quantity, the tritium model was incorporated into a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) model which incorporated other indicators of groundwater stress including mean annual precipitation, mean annual surface temperature, electrical conductivity (as a proxy for groundwater salinization), potential evaporation, population density and cultivated land usage. The MCE model

  12. A new four-step hierarchy method for combined assessment of groundwater quality and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Henghua; Ren, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhizheng

    2017-12-28

    A new four-step hierarchy method was constructed and applied to evaluate the groundwater quality and pollution of the Dagujia River Basin. The assessment index system is divided into four types: field test indices, common inorganic chemical indices, inorganic toxicology indices, and trace organic indices. Background values of common inorganic chemical indices and inorganic toxicology indices were estimated with the cumulative-probability curve method, and the results showed that the background values of Mg 2+ (51.1 mg L -1 ), total hardness (TH) (509.4 mg L -1 ), and NO 3 - (182.4 mg L -1 ) are all higher than the corresponding grade III values of Quality Standard for Groundwater, indicating that they were poor indicators and therefore were not included in the groundwater quality assessment. The quality assessment results displayed that the field test indices were mainly classified as grade II, accounting for 60.87% of wells sampled. The indices of common inorganic chemical and inorganic toxicology were both mostly in the range of grade III, whereas the trace organic indices were predominantly classified as grade I. The variabilities and excess ratios of the indices were also calculated and evaluated. Spatial distributions showed that the groundwater with poor quality indices was mainly located in the northeast of the basin, which was well-connected with seawater intrusion. Additionally, the pollution assessment revealed that groundwater in well 44 was classified as "moderately polluted," wells 5 and 8 were "lightly polluted," and other wells were classified as "unpolluted."

  13. Integrating geochemical investigations and geospatial assessment to understand the evolutionary process of hydrochemistry and groundwater quality in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Alharbi, Talal; Mansour, Basma

    2018-04-12

    Groundwater is the key for life in arid areas. Aquifer overexploitation and climatic conditions can significantly deteriorate groundwater quality. The Al-Qassim area in central Saudi Arabia is characterized by dense agricultural use and is irrigated mainly by fossil groundwater from the Saq Aquifer. Understanding the area's hydrochemistry, major factors governing groundwater quality, and alternative uses of the groundwater are the main goals of this study. Groundwater samples were collected and examined for major, minor, and trace elements. Ionic relationships, hydrochemical facies, geospatial distributions, and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the hydrochemical processes at play. The salinity and nitrate concentrations of the Saq Aquifer's groundwater were found to increase in the outcrop areas more than the confined areas. The spatial distributions were fragmented by three main factors: (i) modern recharge by relatively brackish water, (ii) irrigation return flow in intensive farming areas, and (iii) overexploitation and draining of deep and relatively saline zones of the aquifer. Seven water types were found representing the alkaline water with a predominance of sulfate-chloride ions and earth alkaline water with a predominance of sulfate and chloride. Mixing between fresh and brackish water, dissolution of mineral phases, silicate weathering, and reverse ion exchange were recognized as the evolutionary processes, while evaporation played a minor role. Cluster analyses characterized the fresh groundwater zone, modern groundwater recharge zone, and anthropogenic influence zone. In the confined areas, nearly all the groundwater was appropriate for domestic use and irrigation. In the outcrop areas, some limitations were found due to unsuitable conditions.

  14. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. Third quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  15. Biosolids recycling : a proposed methodology for the assessment of the impact on groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    A groundwater risk assessment protocol is needed for land restoration schemes using recycled biosolids. A hydrogeological risk assessment for the Darnconner site in East Ayrshire [NS5723 to NS5823] has been used as a case study to develop the protocol. The proposed outline for developing the protocol included the following components: 1. Gather available geological information for the site and environs from 1: 50 000 scale geological maps and more detailed information where ava...

  16. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at Savannah River Plant. Volume 1. Site geohydrology, and solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Gordon, D.E.

    1983-12-01

    The program for protecting the quality of groundwater underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is described in this technical summary report. The report is divided into two volumes. Volume I contains a discussion of the general site geohydrology and of both active and inactive sites used for disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. Volume II includes a discussion of radioactive waste disposal. Most information contained in these two volumes is current as of December 1983. The groundwater quality protection program has several elements which, taken collectively, are designed to achieve three major goals. These goals are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of SRP operations, to restore or protect groundwater quality by taking corrective action as necessary, and to ensure disposal of waste materials in accordance with regulatory guidelines

  17. Assessment of groundwater response to droughts in a complex runoff-dominated watershed by using an integrated hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, L. R.; Hevesi, J. A.; Nishikawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is an important component of the water supply, especially during droughts, within the Santa Rosa Plain watershed (SRPW), California, USA. The SRPW is 680 km2 and includes a network of natural and engineered stream channels. Streamflow is strongly seasonal, with high winter flows, predominantly intermittent summer flows, and comparatively rapid response time to larger storms. Groundwater flow is influenced primarily by complex geology, spatial and temporal variation in recharge, and pumping for urban, agricultural, and rural demands. Results from an integrated hydrologic model (GSFLOW) for the SRPW were analyzed to assess the effect of droughts on groundwater resources during water years 1976-2010. Model results indicate that, in general, below-average precipitation during historical drought periods reduced groundwater recharge (focused within stream channels and diffuse outside of channels on alluvial plains), groundwater evapotranspiration (ET), and groundwater discharge to streams (baseflow). In addition, recharge during wet periods was not sufficient to replenish groundwater-storage losses caused by drought and groundwater pumping, resulting in an overall 150 gigaliter loss in groundwater storage for water years 1976-2010. During drought periods, lower groundwater levels from reduced recharge broadly increased the number and length of losing-stream reaches, and seepage losses in streams became a higher percentage of recharge relative to the diffuse recharge outside of stream channels (for example, seepage losses in streams were 36% of recharge in 2006 and 57% at the end of the 2007-09 drought). Reductions in groundwater storage during drought periods resulted in decreased groundwater ET (loss of riparian habitat) and baseflow, especially during the warmer and dryer months (May through September) when groundwater is the dominant component of streamflow.

  18. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk in an agricultural area in north Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Bartzas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a specific approach is followed, considering the Pesticide DRASTIC and Susceptibility index (SI methods and a GIS framework, to assess groundwater vulnerability in the agricultural area of Albenga, in north Italy. The results indicate “high” to “very high” vulnerability to groundwater contamination along the coastline and the middle part of the Albenga plain, for almost 49% and 56% of the total study area for Pesticide DRASTIC and SI methods, respectively. These sensitive regions depict characteristics such as shallow depth to groundwater, extensive deposits of alluvial silty clays, flat topography and intensive agricultural activities. The distribution of nitrates concentration in groundwater in the study area is slightly better correlated with the SI (0.728 compared to Pesticide DRASTIC (0.693, thus indicating that both methods are characterized by quite good accuracy. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to acknowledge statistical uncertainty in the estimation of each parameter used, assess its impact and thus identify the most critical parameters that require further investigation in the future. Depth to water is the parameter that exhibited the largest impact on the Pesticide DRASTIC vulnerability index followed by the impact of the vadose zone and topography. On the other hand, the SI method is more sensitive to the removal of the topography parameter followed by the aquifer media and the depth to water parameters.

  19. Groundwater vulnerability to climate change: A review of the assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Rana Ammar; Shrestha, Sangam; Pandey, Vishnu Prasad

    2018-01-15

    Impacts of climate change on water resources, especially groundwater, can no longer be hidden. These impacts are further exacerbated under the integrated influence of climate variability, climate change and anthropogenic activities. The degree of impact varies according to geographical location and other factors leading systems and regions towards different levels of vulnerability. In the recent past, several attempts have been made in various regions across the globe to quantify the impacts and consequences of climate and non-climate factors in terms of vulnerability to groundwater resources. Firstly, this paper provides a structured review of the available literature, aiming to critically analyse and highlight the limitations and knowledge gaps involved in vulnerability (of groundwater to climate change) assessment methodologies. The effects of indicator choice and the importance of including composite indicators are then emphasised. A new integrated approach for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability to climate change is proposed to successfully address those limitations. This review concludes that the choice of indicator has a significant role in defining the reliability of computed results. The effect of an individual indicator is also apparent but the consideration of a combination (variety) of indicators may give more realistic results. Therefore, in future, depending upon the local conditions and scale of the study, indicators from various groups should be chosen. Furthermore, there are various assumptions involved in previous methodologies, which limit their scope by introducing uncertainty in the calculated results. These limitations can be overcome by implementing the proposed approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Groundwater assessment and environmental impact in the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyé, Julien; Picard-Lesteven, Tanguy; Zouhri, Lahcen; El Amari, Khalid; Hibti, Mohamed; Benkaddour, Abdelfattah

    2017-12-01

    Many questions about the soil pollution due to mining activities have been analyzed by numerous methods which help to evaluate the dispersion of the Metallic Trace Elements (MTE) in the soil and stream sediments of the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco). The transport of these MTE could have an important role in the degradation of groundwater and the health of people who are living in the vicinity. The present paper aims to evaluate the groundwater samples from 15 hydrogeological wells. This evaluation concerns the hydrogeological parameters, pH, Electrical conductivity, temperature and the groundwater level, and the geochemical assessment of Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb. Furthermore, the Metallic Trace Elements are transported in the saturated zone via the fractures network. The groundwater flow is from the north-east to south-west. The spatial distribution of As, Fe, Zn and Mn is very heterogeneous, with high values observed in the north, upstream, of the mine site. This distribution is maybe related to: i) the existence of hydrogeological structures (dividing and drainage axes); ii) the individualization of the fractures network that affects the shaly lithostratigraphical formation; iii) the transport of the contaminants from the soil towards groundwater; and iv) interaction water/rocks. Some MTE anomalies are linked to the lithology and the fracturation system of the area. Therefore, the groundwater contamination by Arsenic is detected in the hydrogeological wells (E1 and E2). This pollution which is higher than guideline standards of Moroccan drinking water could affect the public health. The hydrogeological and geochemical investigations favor the geological origin (mafic rocks) of this contamination rather than mining activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Assessment of groundwater quality in Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anindita; Nag, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater resources of Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Twenty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, major anions (CO3 2-, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, F-) and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Na+, K+). Study results reveal that the groundwater of the area is mostly acidic in nature. The trend amongst average ionic concentrations of cations and anions is Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > Fe2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3 - > CO3 2- > SO4 2- > F- respectively during the post monsoon whereas the trend for cations and anions are Mg2+ > Ca2+> Na+ > K+ > Fe and Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > F- > CO3 - in pre monsoon session, respectively. To explore the ionic toxicity of the study area, the derived parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated. The hydro geochemical data suggest that weathering of rock forming minerals along with secondary contributions from agricultural and anthropogenic sources are mainly controlling the groundwater composition of Kashipur Block, Purulia District. According to piper diagram, water samples of most of the area of the block are fresh water and in some areas sulphate rich throughout the year. All samples are distributed to central rock dominance category. Groundwater chemistry of this block is mainly controlled by the interaction existing between the litho units and the percolating water into the subsurface domain. However, the groundwater quality and suitability of this study area can be termed as good to moderate with a few exceptions which have been encountered on a local scale.

  2. Application of Isotope Techniques in the Assessment of Groundwater Resource in Water Resources Region 10, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Castañeda, Soledad S.; Abaño, Susan P.; Rongavilla, Luis S.; Castro, Joey

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater has been the primary source of drinking water of about 50% of the people in the Philippines and the numbers continue to rise. However, data and information on groundwater resources are generally spasmodic or sparse in the country. A specific remedy to address this gap is the use of isotope hydrological techniques. A pilot project utilizing this technique was done in Water Resources Region X with the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of these approach in groundwater resources assessment. When optimized, the technique will be replicated in other areas of the country. Groundwater samples from springs deep wells hand pumps and dug wells and river water were collected within the study area from September 2012 to June 2014. Monthly integrated precipitation samples were also collected at different points within the study area from October 2012 to March 2015. Samples were analyzed for stable isotope (δ”2H and δ”1”8O) using Laser Water Isotope Analyzer and tritium for groundwater dating. Results showed that aquifers in the study area are recharged by infiltrated rain during the heavy rainfall moths (May to November for Cagayan-Tagaloan Basin, and December to April for Agusan Basin). Water in Agusan Basin is isotopically enriched compared with the water in Cagayan-Tagaloan Basin. There appears to be interaction between shallow unconfined aquifer and deep semi-confined aquifer in Cagayan de Oro City. Shallow aquifers appear to be recharged by local precipitation. Groundwater in the study area is of Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type, which is characteristic of dynamic water with short residence time. Tritium-helium aging puts the water at ages between 18 to 72 years. Recharged rates of 422 to 625 mm/year were calculated for Cagayan de Oro City.(author)

  3. Assessing the groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Lin, Zih-Ciao; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2014-05-01

    The flooded paddy fields can be considered as a major source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in this area. To respond to agricultural water shortage caused by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation is the substantial resolution. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was developed as a set of insights and practices used in growing irrigated rice. Based on the water-saving irrigation practice of SRI, impacts of the new methodology on the reducing of groundwater recharge were assessed in central Taiwan. The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge under different irrigation schemes. According to local climatic and environmental characteristics associated with SRI methodology, the change of infiltration rate was evaluated and compared with the traditional irrigation schemes, including continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that the average infiltration rate in the rice growing season decreased when applying the SRI methodology, and the total groundwater recharge amount of SRI with a 5-day irrigation interval reduced 12% and 9% compared with continuous irrigation (6cm constant ponding water depth) and rotational scheme (5-day irrigation interval with 6 cm initial ponding water depth), respectively. The results could be used as basis for planning long-term adaptive water resource management strategies to climate change in Central Taiwan. Keywords: SRI, Irrigation schemes, Groundwater recharge, Infiltration

  4. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xinguo

    2014-01-01

    . A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) approach is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocations and water curtailments. Dynamic allocation problems with inclusion of groundwater resources proved to be more complex to solve with SDP than pure surface water allocation problems due...... to head-dependent pumping costs. These dynamic pumping costs strongly affect the total costs and can lead to non-convexity of the future cost function. The water user groups (agriculture, industry, domestic) are characterized by inelastic demands and fixed water allocation and water supply curtailment...

  5. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  6. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2......) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...

  7. Temporal comportment assessment of metals in groundwater on the campus at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustino, Mainara G.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Marques, Joyce R.; Pires, Maria A.F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B., E-mail: mainarag@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Since 2006, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) performs yearly the Environmental Monitoring Program of Stable Chemical Compounds (PMA-Q).Among other parameters, metals and semi metals in groundwater, collected at IPEN’s facility, are evaluated. The monitoring is conducted in nine wells, in attendance to the current Brazilian environmental legislation, which requires the monitoring of metals and semi metals in groundwater, in accordance with CETESB and CONAMA’s resolutions. CETESB is the Sao Paulo State environmental regulatory agency and CONAMA is the Environmental National Council, both agencies that regulate environmental standards in Brazil and regulate IPEN’s environmental activities. Besides these two environmental regulators, IPEN have to follow the request of the Term for the Adjustment of Conduct (TAC) from (IBAMA), in order to support programs to prevent and control pollution resulting from activities of IPEN’s facilities. In the current PMA-Q, Aluminum (Al) Antimony (Sb), Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Zinc (Zn), Boron (B), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg) and Nickel (Ni) are analyzed by using sensitive analytical techniques as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). These elements results are in this paper evaluated. Both internal and external quality controls that uses data from interlaboratory programs are discussed here. It was possible to conclude that IPEN’s groundwater attends national standards and IPEN’s monitoring system operates under controlled quality conditions. (author)

  8. Temporal comportment assessment of metals in groundwater on the campus at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustino, Mainara G.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Marques, Joyce R.; Pires, Maria A.F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) performs yearly the Environmental Monitoring Program of Stable Chemical Compounds (PMA-Q).Among other parameters, metals and semi metals in groundwater, collected at IPEN’s facility, are evaluated. The monitoring is conducted in nine wells, in attendance to the current Brazilian environmental legislation, which requires the monitoring of metals and semi metals in groundwater, in accordance with CETESB and CONAMA’s resolutions. CETESB is the Sao Paulo State environmental regulatory agency and CONAMA is the Environmental National Council, both agencies that regulate environmental standards in Brazil and regulate IPEN’s environmental activities. Besides these two environmental regulators, IPEN have to follow the request of the Term for the Adjustment of Conduct (TAC) from (IBAMA), in order to support programs to prevent and control pollution resulting from activities of IPEN’s facilities. In the current PMA-Q, Aluminum (Al) Antimony (Sb), Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Zinc (Zn), Boron (B), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg) and Nickel (Ni) are analyzed by using sensitive analytical techniques as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). These elements results are in this paper evaluated. Both internal and external quality controls that uses data from interlaboratory programs are discussed here. It was possible to conclude that IPEN’s groundwater attends national standards and IPEN’s monitoring system operates under controlled quality conditions. (author)

  9. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Gunnison Baseline Risk Assessment for Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site was performed to determine if long-term use of groundwater from domestic wells near the site has a potential for adverse health effects. The risk assessment was based on the results of sampling domestic wells during 1989--1990. A risk assessment evaluates health risks by comparing the amount of a contaminant taken in by a person with the amount of the contaminant that may be toxic. The Gunnison Risk Assessment used high intake values to estimate the maximum levels a person might be exposed to. The results of the risk assessment are divided into cancer (carcinogenic) risks and non-carcinogenic risks. Five key contaminants were evaluated for adverse health risks: uranium, manganese, lead antimony, and cadmium. Due to the potential health risks and the unavoidable uncertainties associated with limited groundwater and toxicity data, it is prudent public health policy to provide a permanent alternate water supply. Additionally, providing a permanent alternate water supply is cost-effective compared to long-term routine monitoring

  10. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  11. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow

  12. Understanding groundwater - students' pre-conceptions and conceptual change by means of a theory-guided multimedia learning program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterbruner, Ulrike; Hilberg, Sylke; Schiffl, Iris

    2016-06-01

    Education on the subject of groundwater is crucial for sustainability. Nevertheless, international studies with students across different age groups have shown that the basic hydrogeological concept of groundwater defined as water within porous and permeable rocks is not an established everyday notion. Drawing from international research, a multimedia learning program Zwischen Regenwolke und Wasserhahn (between the rain cloud and the tap) was developed, which incorporates specific insights from the fields of conceptual change research, multimedia research, and the model of educational reconstruction. The effectiveness of the learning program was ascertained by means of two studies with Austrian seventh grade pupils as well as teacher-training students from the fields of biology and geography in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the learning program. Using a quasi-experimental research design, the participants' conceptions and knowledge of groundwater were determined in a pre- and post-test. The pupils and students greatly benefitted from working through the learning software independently. Their knowledge of groundwater increased significantly compared to the control group and there was a highly significant increase in the number of scientifically correct notions of groundwater. The acceptance of the program was also generally very high. The results indicate that theory-guided multimedia learning programs can play an important role in the transfer of research results to classroom settings, especially in science education.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  14. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay shallow aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2018-02-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  15. Assessing Alternative Endpoints for Groundwater Remediation at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Soil – Land disposal restrictions for chemicals New Bedford 1 ROD 9/25/98 Surface water and seafood – Clean Water Act and Food, Drug and Cosmetic ...DNAPL longevity through biological flux enhancement. Prepared for Environmental Security Technology Certification Program by Rice University...NJDEP and EPA began site investigation after black tar-like material is found in soil near a sewer pipe 1998 Removal activities, mulch and

  16. The DECADE performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Thompson, J.; Rowley, J.E.; Filios, P.; Babineau, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs

  17. The DECADE performance assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, B V; Ottinger, P F; Commisso, R J [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; Goyer, J R; Kortbawi, D [Physics International Co., Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, J [Maxwell Labs., San Diego, CA (United States); Rowley, J E; Filios, P [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Babineau, M A [Sverdlup Technology, Tullahoma, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  19. Climate change impact assessment in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Rizzi, J; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impact assessment on water resources has received high international attention over the last two decades, due to the observed global warming and its consequences at the global to local scale. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose a great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. The close link of global warming with water cycle alterations encourages research to deepen current knowledge on relationships between climate trends and status of water systems, and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution model simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according to IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant

  20. Toxic aluminium and heavy metals in groundwater of middle Russia: health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momot, Olga; Synzynys, Boris

    2005-08-01

    Two approaches are distinguished in modern ecological monitoring. The first one is physicochemical analysis of environmental objects with respect to maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of chemical substances, which is performed by standards methods in accordance with state regulations. The second approach (biological monitoring) is based on the methodology of biotesting and bio indication. The task of this work is to create biotests for estimation of Al and other metals toxicity in ground water and to compare these results with physicochemical analysis dates. Risk assessment for heavy metals contaminated groundwater was also performed. Risk assessment was performed accordingly EPA US recommendation and gave results about 90 per 100000 citizens for Al and 402 per 100000 for mixture of different heavy metals. For comparison: risk for earth background radiation for Middle Russia is (Individual dose 1 millisivert per year) consist 5 per 100000 people. It was shown that groundwater consist HCO3- ions (360 mg/l), sometimes Al compounds 0.21-0.65 mg/l (MAC for Al is 0.5 mg/l for Russia). Other groundwater contain Hg - 0.004 mg/l (MAC - 0.0005 mg/l); Cr - 0.072 mg/l (MAC - 0.05 mg/l); As - less than 0.03 mg/l (MAC - 0.05 mg/l). We developed plant biotest for estimation of groundwater quality with barley roots, tradescatia and others. Some biotests parameters correlate with HCO3-, Cl-, SO(4)2- and metal ions content positively, for another biotest this correlation is strongly negative. The quality of groundwater near Obninsk and in Kaluga Region is very different but hasnit been changed since the year 1998.

  1. Groundwater quality assessment for domestic and agriculture purposes in Puducherry region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, M.; Senthil Nathan, D.

    2017-11-01

    Totally about 174 groundwater samples have been collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season to study the suitability for domestic and agriculture purposes along the coastal aquifers of Puducherry region. Parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), bicarbonate (HCO3), chloride (Cl) and sulfate (SO4) were analyzed to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purposes. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSC), soluble sodium percentage (Na%), permeability index (PI) and chlorinity index were assessed for irrigation purposes. The higher concentration of ions such as Na, Ca, Cl and So4 indicates seawater intrusion, mineral dissolution, intense agricultural practices and improper sewage disposal. The level of EC, TDS and hardness in the water samples indicates that maximum of them are suitable for drinking and domestic purposes. The parameters such as SAR, Na%, PI, MAR and Chlorinity index indicates that majority of water sample are very good to moderately suitable for agriculture. In pre-monsoon, RSC of about 5.7% of samples was higher which when used for a longer time alter the soil properties and reduce crop production. Wilcox diagram suggests that water samples are of medium saline to low sodium type indicating that groundwater is suitable for irrigation. Temporal variation of groundwater quality shows significant increasing trend in EC, TDS and ions like Mg, K and Cl in the last decade, mainly due to anthropogenic activities with little geogenic impact in the quality of groundwater.

  2. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  3. Assessing Contamination Potential of Nitrate-N in Groundwater of Lanyang Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Tu, Yu-Lin; Lin, Chien-Wen; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2013-04-01

    Nitrate-N pollution is often relevant to agricultural activities such as the fertilization of crops. Significant increases in the nitrate-N pollution of groundwater are found in natural recharging zones of Taiwan. The increasing nitrate-N contamination seriously threatens public drinking water supply and human health. Constructing a correct map of aquifer contamination potential is an effective and feasible way to protect groundwater for quality assessment and management. Therefore, in this study, we use DRASTIC model with the help of geographic information system (GIS) to assess and predict the contamination potential of nitrate-N in the aquifer of Lanyang Plain, Taiwan. Seven factors of hydrogeology and hydrology, which includes seven parameters - Depth to groundwater, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic Conductivity, are considered to carry out this assessment. The validity of the presented model is established by comparing the results with the measured nitrate concentration in wells within the study area. Adjusting factor weightings via the discriminant analysis is performed to improve the assessment and prediction. The analyzed results can provide residents with suggestive strategies against nitrate-N pollution in agricultural regions and government administrators with explicit information of Nitrate-N pollution extents when plans of water resources are considered.

  4. User Guide and Documentation for Five MODFLOW Ground-Water Modeling Utility Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Litke, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents five utility programs designed for use in conjunction with ground-water flow models developed with the U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW ground-water modeling program. One program extracts calculated flow values from one model for use as input to another model. The other four programs extract model input or output arrays from one model and make them available in a form that can be used to generate an ArcGIS raster data set. The resulting raster data sets may be useful for visual display of the data or for further geographic data processing. The utility program GRID2GRIDFLOW reads a MODFLOW binary output file of cell-by-cell flow terms for one (source) model grid and converts the flow values to input flow values for a different (target) model grid. The spatial and temporal discretization of the two models may differ. The four other utilities extract selected 2-dimensional data arrays in MODFLOW input and output files and write them to text files that can be imported into an ArcGIS geographic information system raster format. These four utilities require that the model cells be square and aligned with the projected coordinate system in which the model grid is defined. The four raster-conversion utilities are * CBC2RASTER, which extracts selected stress-package flow data from a MODFLOW binary output file of cell-by-cell flows; * DIS2RASTER, which extracts cell-elevation data from a MODFLOW Discretization file; * MFBIN2RASTER, which extracts array data from a MODFLOW binary output file of head or drawdown; and * MULT2RASTER, which extracts array data from a MODFLOW Multiplier file.

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure.

  6. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  7. Risk assessment using ICP-MS of heavy metals in groundwater in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Bassioni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to assess the pollution of groundwater as it makes up about twenty percent of the world’s freshwater supply. Environmental laws in Egypt are correlated with protecting water resources from contamination and generally set the maximum limits for the concentration of different hazardous components in wastewater before it is discharged to sea water, rivers, groundwater and the public sewer system. Groundwater from Samalout, Al Minya governorate, Egypt, is studied by analysing its heavy metal content using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Furthermore, the obtained heavy metal concentrations are compared with permissible limits set by environmental organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA. Comparing the heavy metal concentrations with the groundwater in question clearly demonstrated that the water in this resource should not be directly used for drinking and requires some degree of treatment before usage. For example, concentrations of chromium and lead are far above the maximum permissible limit. The consequent health risks due to the usage of contaminated water are identified in this study as well.

  8. Preliminary assessment of water chemistry related to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig J.; Eckhardt, David A.; Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Water-quality samples collected in an area prone to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, were analyzed and assessed to better understand the hydrologic system and to aid in the assessment of contributing water sources. Above average rainfall over the past decade, and the presence of a pressurized water tunnel that passes about 700 feet beneath Wawarsing, could both contribute to groundwater flooding. Water samples were collected from surface-water bodies, springs, and wells and analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents, dissolved gases, age tracers, and stable isotopes. Distinct differences in chemistry exist between tunnel water and groundwater in unconsolidated deposits and in bedrock, and among groundwater samples collected from some bedrock wells during high head pressure and low head pressure of the Rondout-West Branch Tunnel. Samples from bedrock wells generally had relatively higher concentrations of sulfate (SO42-), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and lower concentrations of calcium (Ca) and bicarbonate (HCO3-), as compared to unconsolidated wells. Differences in stable-isotope ratios among oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 (δ18O), hydrogen-2 to hydrogen-1 (δ2H), sulfur-34 to sulfur-32(δ34S) of SO42-, Sr-87 to Sr-86 (87Sr/86Sr), and C-13 to C-12 (δ13C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) indicate a potential for distinguishing water in the Delaware-West Branch Tunnel from native groundwater. For example, 87Sr/86Sr ratios were more depleted in groundwater samples from most bedrock wells, as compared to samples from surface-water sources, springs, and wells screened in unconsolidated deposits in the study area. Age-tracer data provided useful information on pathways of the groundwater-flow system, but were limited by inherent problems with dissolved gases in bedrock wells. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and (or) chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) apparent recharge years of most water samples from wells screened in unconsolidated deposits and springs ranged

  9. Understanding groundwater - students' pre-conceptions and conceptual change by a theory-guided multimedia learning program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterbruner, U.; Hilberg, S.; Schiffl, I.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater is a crucial topic in education for sustainable development. Nevertheless, international studies with students of different ages have shown that the basic hydrogeological concept of groundwater defined as water within porous and permeable rocks is not an established everyday notion. Building upon international research a multimedia learning program ("Between the raincloud and the tap") was developed. Insights from the fields of conceptual change research, multimedia research, and the Model of Educational Reconstruction were specifically implemented. Two studies were conducted with Austrian pupils (7th grade) and teacher training students from the fields of biology and geography in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the learning program. Using a quasi-experimental research design, the participants' conceptions and knowledge regarding groundwater were determined in a pre- and post-test. The pupils and students greatly profited from independently working through the learning software. Their knowledge of groundwater increased significantly compared to the control group and there was a highly significant increase in the number of scientifically correct notions of groundwater. The acceptance of the program was also generally very high. The results speak for the fact that theory-guided multimedia learning programs can play an important role in the transfer of research results into the classroom, particularly in science education.

  10. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  11. PHAST Version 2-A Program for Simulating Groundwater Flow, Solute Transport, and Multicomponent Geochemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Charlton, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    The computer program PHAST (PHREEQC And HST3D) simulates multicomponent, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated groundwater flow systems. PHAST is a versatile groundwater flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. Major enhancements in PHAST Version 2 allow spatial data to be defined in a combination of map and grid coordinate systems, independent of a specific model grid (without node-by-node input). At run time, aquifer properties are interpolated from the spatial data to the model grid; regridding requires only redefinition of the grid without modification of the spatial data. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated groundwater systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock/water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, or density-dependent flow. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux (specified-flux), and leaky (head-dependent) conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers, drains, and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association or Pitzer specific interaction thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange sites, surface complexation sites, solid solutions, and gases; and

  12. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  13. Systematic Assessment for University Sexuality Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westefeld, John S.; Winkelpleck, Judy M.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests systematic empirical assessment is needed to plan university sexuality programing. Proposes the traditional approach of asking about students' attitudes, knowledge, and behavior is useful for developing specific programing content. Presents an assessment model emphasizing assessment of students' desires for sexuality programing in terms…

  14. Construction and calibration of a groundwater-flow model to assess groundwater availability in the uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Williston Basin, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Long, Andrew J.

    2018-05-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater-flow model for the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability in the area. The assessment was done because of the potential for increased demands and stresses on groundwater associated with large-scale energy development in the area. As part of this assessment, a three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed as a tool that can be used to simulate how the groundwater-flow system responds to changes in hydrologic stresses at a regional scale.The three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s numerical finite-difference groundwater model with the Newton-Rhapson solver, MODFLOW–NWT, to represent the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems for steady-state (mean) hydrological conditions for 1981‒2005 and for transient (temporally varying) conditions using a combination of a steady-state period for pre-1960 and transient periods for 1961‒2005. The numerical model framework was constructed based on existing and interpreted hydrogeologic and geospatial data and consisted of eight layers. Two layers were used to represent the glacial aquifer system in the model; layer 1 represented the upper one-half and layer 2 represented the lower one-half of the glacial aquifer system. Three layers were used to represent the lower Tertiary aquifer system in the model; layer 3 represented the upper Fort Union aquifer, layer 4 represented the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit, and layer 5 represented the lower Fort Union aquifer. Three layers were used to represent the Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the model; layer 6 represented the upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit, layer 7 represented the lower Hell Creek aquifer, and layer 8 represented the Fox

  15. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  16. Groundwater quality assessment of the quaternary unconsolidated sedimentary basin near the Pi river using fuzzy evaluation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Adam Khalifa; Liu, Dan; Mohamed, Mohamed A. A.; Song, Kai

    2018-05-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the groundwater quality for drinking purposes in the Quaternary Unconsolidated Sedimentary Basin of the North Chengdu Plain, China. Six groups of water samples (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6) are selected in the study area. These samples were analyzed for 19 different physicochemical water quality parameters to assess groundwater quality. The physicochemical parameters of groundwater were compared with China's Quality Standards for Groundwater (GB/T14848-93). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. Total hardness and total dissolved solid values show that the investigated water is classified as very hard and fresh water, respectively. The sustainability of groundwater for drinking purposes was assessed based on the fuzzy mathematics evaluation (FME) method. The results of the assessment were classified into five groups based on their relative suitability for portable use (grade I = most suitable to grade V = least suitable), according to (GB/T 14848-93). The assessment results reveal that the quality of groundwater in most of the wells was class I, II and III and suitable for drinking purposes, but well (S2) has been found to be in class V, which is classified as very poor and cannot be used for drinking. Also, the FME method was compared with the comprehensive evaluation method. The FME method was found to be more comprehensive and reasonable to assess groundwater quality. This study can provide an important frame of reference for decision making on improving groundwater quality in the study area and nearby surrounding.

  17. Assessing the impact of future climate change on groundwater recharge in Galicia-Costa, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Juan Ramón; Dafonte, Jorge; Molinero, Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Climate change can impact the hydrological processes of a watershed and may result in problems with future water supply for large sections of the population. Results from the FP5 PRUDENCE project suggest significant changes in temperature and precipitation over Europe. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge in the hydrological district of Galicia-Costa, Spain. Climate projections from two general circulation models and eight different regional climate models were used for the assessment and two climate-change scenarios were evaluated. Calibration and validation of the model were performed using a daily time-step in four representative catchments in the district. The effects on modeled mean annual groundwater recharge are small, partly due to the greater stomatal efficiency of plants in response to increased CO2 concentration. However, climate change strongly influences the temporal variability of modeled groundwater recharge. Recharge may concentrate in the winter season and dramatically decrease in the summer-autumn season. As a result, the dry-season duration may be increased on average by almost 30 % for the A2 emission scenario, exacerbating the current problems in water supply.

  18. Assessing Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Groundwater in Southeastern Brazil using Regional Hydroclimate Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Fernandes, M.; Silva, G. C., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Aquifers can be key players in regional water resources. Precipitation infiltration is the most relevant process in recharging the aquifers. In that regard, understanding precipitation changes and impacts on the hydrological cycle helps in the assessment of groundwater availability from the aquifers. Regional modeling systems can provide precipitation, near-surface air temperature, together with soil moisture at different ground levels from coupled land-surface schemes. More accurate those variables are better the evaluation of the precipitation impact on the groundwater. Downscaling of global reanalysis very often employs regional modeling systems, in order to give more detailed information for impact assessment studies at regional scales. In particular, the regional modeling system, Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), might improve the accuracy of hydrometeorological variables in regions with spatial and temporal scarcity of in-situ observations. SRDAS combines assimilation of precipitation estimates from gauge-corrected satellite-based products with spectral nudging technique. The SRDAS hourly outputs provide monthly means of atmospheric and land-surface variables, including precipitation, used in the calculations of the hydrological budget terms. Results show the impact of changes in precipitation on groundwater in the aquifer located near the southeastern coastline of Brazil, through the assessment of the water-cycle terms, using a hydrological model during dry and rainy periods found in the 15-year numerical integration of SRDAS.

  19. Groundwater modeling of source terms and contaminant plumes for DOE low-level waste performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Wilson, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Under US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, all sites within the DOE complex must analyze the performance of planned radioactive waste disposal facilities before disposal takes place through the radiological performance assessment process. These assessments consider both exposures to the public from radionuclides potentially released from disposal facilities and protection of groundwater resources. Compliance with requirements for groundwater protection is often the most difficult to demonstrate as these requirements are generally more restrictive than those for other pathways. Modeling of subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow and transport was conducted for two such assessments for the Savannah River site. The computer code PORFLOW was used to evaluate release and transport of radionuclides from different types of disposal unit configurations: vault disposal and trench disposal. The effectiveness of engineered barriers was evaluated in terms of compliance with groundwater protection requirements. The findings suggest that, due to the limited lifetime of engineered barriers, overdesign of facilities for long-lived radionuclides is likely to occur if compliance must be realized for thousands of years

  20. Specialization-Specific Course Assessments Integrated for Program Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Qurban A. Memon; Adnan Harb; Shakeel Khoja

    2012-01-01

    The program assessment process combines assessments from individual courses to generate final program assessment to match accreditation benchmarks. In developing countries, industrial environment is not diversified to allow graduating engineers to seek jobs in all disciplines or specializations of an engineering program. Hence, it seems necessary to seek evolution of an engineering program assessment for specialized requirements of the industry. This paper describes how specialization-specifi...

  1. Assessment of Groundwater Susceptibility to Non-Point Source Contaminants Using Three-Dimensional Transient Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Weissmann, Gary S; Fogg, Graham E; Lu, Bingqing; Sun, HongGuang; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-06-05

    Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, while groundwater quality evolution (or deterioration globally) can be a long-term process that may last for decades and exhibit strong temporal variations. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3- d ), transient index map built upon physical models to characterize the complete temporal evolution of deep aquifer susceptibility. For illustration purposes, the previous travel time probability density (BTTPD) approach is extended to assess the 3- d deep groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination within a sequence stratigraphic framework observed in the Kings River fluvial fan (KRFF) aquifer. The BTTPD, which represents complete age distributions underlying a single groundwater sample in a regional-scale aquifer, is used as a quantitative, transient measure of aquifer susceptibility. The resultant 3- d imaging of susceptibility using the simulated BTTPDs in KRFF reveals the strong influence of regional-scale heterogeneity on susceptibility. The regional-scale incised-valley fill deposits increase the susceptibility of aquifers by enhancing rapid downward solute movement and displaying relatively narrow and young age distributions. In contrast, the regional-scale sequence-boundary paleosols within the open-fan deposits "protect" deep aquifers by slowing downward solute movement and displaying a relatively broad and old age distribution. Further comparison of the simulated susceptibility index maps to known contaminant distributions shows that these maps are generally consistent with the high concentration and quick evolution of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in groundwater around the incised-valley fill since the 1970s'. This application demonstrates that the BTTPDs can be used as quantitative and transient measures of deep aquifer susceptibility to non-point source contamination.

  2. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to acidification in the Krusne hory Mts. (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostracka, B.

    2003-04-01

    Several decades of acid precipitation have substantially damaged natural ecosystems in some parts of the Czech Republic. Deterioration of forest quality in the Krusne hory Mts. (NW Bohemia, part of the so-called 'Black Triangle') began as a consequence of acidification at the end of 60's. The acid atmospheric deposition (wet and dry) has changed considerably the quality of groundwater. The groundwater vulnerability is analyzed in the maps using GIS. Various factors affecting acidification are depicted in the separate layers. These factors are geology, type of soils, vegetation cover, altitude, influence of morphology and prevailing direction of winds, and precipitation. Influence of each factor is represented by a corresponding weight coefficient expressing participation of the given factor in the total acidification with respect to the others. Assessment of these weight coefficients is based on the groundwater quality monitoring in the Krusne hory Mts. Chemical data provides evidence of the real spreading of acid groundwater. Acidification is characterized by a low concentration of bicarbonates that have locally almost disappeared in the apical parts of the mountain range. The pH value is very low too (about 4.5). The pH decrease is accompanied by a significant increase in the contents of Al. Concentrations of sulfates and nitrates increase substantially as well. These parameters are used for a determination of the weight coefficients of the above-mentioned individual factors. The proposed analysis of these six factors (characterizing behavior of the individual components separately) enables to derive the resulting map of the groundwater vulnerability to acidification respecting mutual interaction of the individual factors.

  3. Regional assessment of groundwater resources (hydrogeological map of Younggwang area, Korea vol.8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S H; Kim, Y K; Hong, Y K; Cho, M J; Lee, D W; Bae, D J; Lee, C W; Kim, H C; Kim, S J; Park, S W; Lee, P K; Yum, B W; Moon, S H; Lee, S K; Lee, S R; Park, Y S; Lim, M T; Sung, K S; Park, I H; Ham, S Y; Kim, Y J; Woo, N C [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This study is objected to characterize groundwater resources, to assess groundwater contamination, and to produce hydrogeological and related thematic maps of the study area. The study area, Younggwang County, Chonnam Province, covers the area of 460 km{sup 2}. To accomplish the objectives various studies have been carried out including general and structural geology, GIS, hydrogeology, geophysics and hydrogeochemical analysis. Geophysical explorations, dipole-dipole resistivity, Schulumberger sounding and magnetic method, were executed for investigating geologic structure and determining test borehole sites. Some test boreholes such as, Honggok, Donggan, Weolsan and Seolmae hit aquifer structures. Geophysical logging, such as gamma ray, temperature, water conductivity, electrical resistivity, self-potential were also executed for petrological differentiation and in out flow of groundwater. The recharge rate of granitic region is more than the others, which derived by the analysis of 7 low-flow measurements in 10 small watersheds in the area. The recharge rate has been estimated at 7.2%(99.3 mm/year) in the vicinity. Well inventory of the area included 197 deep wells and 43 shallow wells. In addition, 10 stream samples and one spring were surveyed for water level, water temperature, pH, EC, TDS and the concentration of dissolved oxygen(DO). Regional groundwater pollution susceptibility was analyzed using GIS technique. A standard method, `DRASTIC` developed by US EPA, was applied to evaluate groundwater pollution potential and aquifer susceptibility. Resulting DRASTIC indices ranged from 52 to 141, and the Pesticide indices from 61 to 187. Seawater intrusion phenomena in Sangsari-Hasari are considered and evaluated by well inventory and the selected borehole`s electric conductivity(EC) logging. Seawater intrusion to the vulnerable coastal alluvium aquifers is generally depleted with time. The amount of potential groundwater resources in the study area is estimated

  4. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    index-based methodology to assess the groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). • GPI assessment includes PSH assessment and GIV assessment. • Measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution based on GPI assessment. • An index-based methodology for prevention and control technologies (PCT) screening. • PCT screening based on GPI assessment results and TOPSIS method.

  5. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    index-based methodology to assess the groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). • GPI assessment includes PSH assessment and GIV assessment. • Measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution based on GPI assessment. • An index-based methodology for prevention and control technologies (PCT) screening. • PCT screening based on GPI assessment results and TOPSIS method.

  6. Groundwater recharge assessment at local and episodic scale in a soil mantled perched karst aquifer in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, V.; De Vita, P.; Manna, F.; Nimmo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge assessment of karst aquifers, at various spatial and temporal scales, is a major scientific topic of current importance, since these aquifers play an essential role for both socio-economic development and fluvial ecosystems.

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  8. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  9. Assessment of Long-Term Evolution of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics Using Multiple Approaches: A Case Study in Cangzhou, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is severe in the North China Plain (NCP. In addition to a deficiency of water resources, deterioration of groundwater quality should be of great concern. In this study, hydrogeological analysis was conducted in combination with principal component analysis, correlation analysis and the co-kriging method to identify factors controlling the content of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS in areal shallow and deep groundwater and to assess groundwater evolution in Cangzhou, China. The results suggested that groundwater quality degradation occurred and developed in the study area, as indicated by increasing concentrations of major ions, TDS and hardness in both shallow and deep groundwater. In shallow groundwater, whose hydrochemical water types changed from HCO3–Ca.Na.Mg and HCO3.Cl–Na in the west (Zone II to Cl.SO4–Na and Cl–Na in the east (Zone III. Areas with TDS concentrations between 1500 and 2000 mg/L occupied 79.76% of the total in the 1980s, while areas with a TDS concentration ranging from 2500 to 3000 mg/L comprised 59.11% of the total in the 2010s. In deep groundwater, the area with TDS over 1000 mg/L expanded from 5366.39 km2 in the 1960s to 7183.52 km2 in the 2010s. Natural processes (water-rock interactions and anthropogenic activities (groundwater exploitation were the dominant factors controlling the major ions’ content in local groundwater. Dissolution of dolomite, calcite, feldspar and gypsum were the primary sources of major ions in groundwater, and the ion exchange reaction had a strong effect on the cation content, especially for deep groundwater.

  10. The assessment of processes controlling the spatial distribution of hydrogeochemical groundwater types in Mali using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Souleymane; Zhonghua, Tang

    2017-10-01

    Sustainable management of groundwater resources is a major issue for developing countries, especially in Mali. The multiple uses of groundwater led countries to promote sound management policies for sustainable use of the groundwater resources. For this reason, each country needs data enabling it to monitor and predict the changes of the resources. Also given the importance of groundwater quality changes often marked by the recurrence of droughts; the potential impacts of regional and geological setting of groundwater resources requires careful study. Unfortunately, recent decades have seen a considerable reduction of national capacities to ensure the hydrogeological monitoring and production of qualit data for decision making. The purpose of this work is to use the groundwater data and translate into useful information that can improve water resources management capacity in Mali. In this paper, we used groundwater analytical data from accredited, laboratories in Mali to carry out a national scale assessment of the groundwater types and their distribution. We, adapted multivariate statistical methods to classify 2035 groundwater samples into seven main groundwater types and built a national scale map from the results. We used a two-level K-mean clustering technique to examine the hydro-geochemical records as percentages of the total concentrations of major ions, namely sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3), and sulphate (SO4). The first step of clustering formed 20 groups, and these groups were then re-clustered to produce the final seven groundwater types. The results were verified and confirmed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and RockWare (Aq.QA) software. We found that HCO3 was the most dominant anion throughout the country and that Cl and SO4 were only important in some local zones. The dominant cations were Na and Mg. Also, major ion ratios changed with geographical location and geological, and climatic

  11. Assessment Practices in Undergraduate Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Anna L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined accounting program assessment plans at 102 colleges and universities in the United States. The research focused on identifying assessment practices in undergraduate accounting programs by examining the skills and competencies assessed and determining the methods of assessment used. The study also investigated what course and/or…

  12. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using hydrogeologic and geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing at Igbara Oke, Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, T. E.; Omosuyi, G. O.; Akinlalu, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out at Igbara Oke Southwestern Nigeria, with a view to classify the area into vulnerability zones, by applying the electrical resistivity method, using Schlumberger electrode arrays with maximum electrode separation (AB/2) of 65 m in (41) different locations for data acquisition. Geoelectric parameters (layer resistivity and thickness) were determined from the interpreted data. The study area comprises four geoelectric layers (topsoil, lateritic layer, weathered/fractured layer and fresh basement). The geoelectric parameters of the overlying layers across the area were used to assess the vulnerability of the underlying aquifers to near-surface contaminants with the aid of vulnerability maps generated. Three models were compared by maps using geo-electrically derived models; longitudinal conductance, GOD (groundwater occurrence, overlying lithology and depth to the aquifer) and GLSI (geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing). The total longitudinal conductance map shows the north central part of the study area as a weakly protected (0.1-0.19) area, while the northern and southern parts have poor protective capacity (septic tank, refuse dump should be cited far from groundwater development area.

  13. Biosensor-based diagnostics of contaminated groundwater: assessment and remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Jessica; Read, David; Amos, Sean; Dooley, Stephen; Killham, Kenneth; Paton, Graeme I.

    2005-01-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath a former airfield site in southern England has been heavily contaminated with a wide range of chlorinated solvents. The feasibility of using bacterial biosensors to complement chemical analysis and enable cost-effective, and focussed sampling has been assessed as part of a site evaluation programme. Five different biosensors, three metabolic (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens 10568 and Escherichia coli HB101) and two catabolic (Pseudomonas putida TVA8 and E. coli DH5α), were employed to identify areas where the availability and toxicity of pollutants is of most immediate environmental concern. The biosensors used showed different sensitivities to each other and to the groundwater samples tested. There was generally a good agreement with chemical analyses. The potential efficacy of remediation strategies was explored by coupling sample manipulation to biosensor tests. Manipulation involved sparging and charcoal treatment procedures to simulate remediative engineering solutions. Sparging was sufficient at most locations. - Luminescent bacteria complement chemical analysis and support remediation technology

  14. Physically-Based Assessment of Intrinsic Groundwater Resource Vulnerability in AN Urban Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, T.; Therrien, R.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Several methods exist to assess intrinsic groundwater (re)source vulnerability for the purpose of sustainable groundwater management and protection. However, several methods are empirical and limited in their application to specific types of hydrogeological systems. Recent studies suggest that a physically-based approach could be better suited to provide a general, conceptual and operational basis for groundwater vulnerability assessment. A novel method for physically-based assessment of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability is currently under development and tested to explore the potential of an integrated modelling approach, combining groundwater travel time probability and future scenario modelling in conjunction with the fully integrated HydroGeoSphere model. To determine the intrinsic groundwater resource vulnerability, a fully coupled 2D surface water and 3D variably-saturated groundwater flow model in conjunction with a 3D geological model (GoCAD) has been developed for a case study of the Rivière Saint-Charles (Québec/Canada) regional scale, urban watershed. The model has been calibrated under transient flow conditions for the hydrogeological, variably-saturated subsurface system, coupled with the overland flow zone by taking into account monthly recharge variation and evapotranspiration. To better determine the intrinsic groundwater vulnerability, two independent approaches are considered and subsequently combined in a simple, holistic multi-criteria-decision analyse. Most data for the model comes from an extensive hydrogeological database for the watershed, whereas data gaps have been complemented via field tests and literature review. The subsurface is composed of nine hydrofacies, ranging from unconsolidated fluvioglacial sediments to low permeability bedrock. The overland flow zone is divided into five major zones (Urban, Rural, Forest, River and Lake) to simulate the differences in landuse, whereas the unsaturated zone is represented via the model

  15. Exposure assessment of groundwater transport of tritium from the Central Nevada Test Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, K.; Chapman, J.; Andricevic, R.

    1995-04-01

    This exposure assessment provides a range of possible human health risk at two locations due to groundwater transport from the Faultless underground nuclear test. These locations correspond to the boundary of the land under DOE control (where no wells currently exist) and the closest existing well (Six Mile Well). The range in excess risk is within the EPA goal for excess risk due to environmental contaminants (10 -6 ) at Six Mile Well. Calculations considering high spatial variability in hydraulic properties and/or high uncertainty in the mean groundwater velocity are also within the EPA goal. At the DOE boundary, the range in excess risk exceeds the EPA goal, regardless of the values of spatial variability and uncertainty. The range in values of excess risk can be reduced with additional field data from the site; however, incorporation of additional data, which would likely be obtained at great expense, is unlikely to result in significant refinement of the results

  16. Risk assessing heavy metals in the groundwater-surface water interface at a contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigi, Giovanni; McKnight, Ursula S.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    such as surface water and groundwater (EC, 2017). The current study quantified and assessed the contamination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the shallow aquifer, hyporheic zone, stream water and streambed sediments at Rådvad site, a former metal manufacturing industrial area located in Denmark, investigating...... in the soil). Stream water was sampled in 12 points, while groundwater was sampled in 4 wells close to the stream where the interaction was suspected. Sediments and hyporheic zone were sampled in pair, where upward hydraulic heads have been detected. A drain discharging in the river was also sampled....... Sediments were divided in different layers and both heavy metal total concentration and chemical partitioning were analysed. Redox species and dissolved organic matter were also analysed in the water samples, while fraction of organic carbon was investigated in the extracted sediments. Results showed a high...

  17. Comparison of different methods to assess natural backgrond levels in groundwater bodies in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Parrone, Daniele; Ghergo, Stefano; Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Oliveira, Juana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the natural background levels (NBLs) of a substance or element is important to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in groundwater bodies. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. Rainfall composition, water-rock interactions in both vadose and saturated zone, exchanges with other water bodies and residence time also contribute to determine the groundwater natural composition. Nowadays there are different methods to assess NBLs but the main concern is that they may provide different results. In the European legislative context, the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) requests to EU Member States to derive appropriate threshold values (TV) for several potentially harmful substances, taking into account NBLs when necessary, in order to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies. In the framework of a common project between Italy (CNR) and Portugal (FCT), several groundwater bodies were taken into account in different regions of Italy (Latium and Campania) and Portugal. The general objective is the definition of a sound comprehensive methodology for NBL assessment at groundwater body scale, suitable to different hydrogeological settings through comparing diverse case studies and different approaches. The Italian case studies are located in volcanic or volcano-sedimentary geological contexts, where high concentrations of substances such as As, F, Fe, Mn among others in groundwater are well known. The Portuguese case studies are located in carbonate and porous media aquifers. Several data sets were explored with the use of statistical as well as mathematical procedures in order to determine a threshold between natural and anthropogenic concentration. Today essentially two groups of methods are proposed, the first ascribed to the probability plots (PP method), the second based on the selection of the

  18. Groundwater mapping program in Denmark - Exemplified by a 450 km2 area in Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Thomsen, Peter

    Due to an ambitious groundwater mapping programme in Denmark the consultancy company Ramboll has attained expertise and technologies for surveying, integrated water resources modelling and decision making systems. The groundwater mapping programme was initiated in 1998 when the Danish Government...

  19. Assessing submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and nitrate fluxes in highly heterogeneous coastal karst aquifers: Challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Daniel; Dimova, Natasha; Andreo, Bartolomé; Prieto, Jorge; García-Orellana, Jordi; Rodellas, Valentí

    2018-02-01

    Groundwater discharge in coastal karst aquifers worldwide represents a substantial part of the water budget and is a main pathway for nutrient transport to the sea. Groundwater discharge to the sea manifests under different forms, making its assessment very challenging particularly in highly heterogeneous coastal systems karst systems. In this study, we present a methodology approach to identify and quantify four forms of groundwater discharge in a mixed lithology system in southern Spain (Maro-Cerro Gordo) that includes an ecologically protected coastal area comprised of karstic marble. We found that groundwater discharge to the sea occurs via: (1) groundwater-fed creeks, (2) coastal springs, (3) diffuse groundwater seepage through seabed sediments, and (4) submarine springs. We used a multi-method approach combining tracer techniques (salinity, 224Ra, and 222Rn) and direct measurements (seepage meters and flowmeters) to evaluate the discharge. Groundwater discharge via submarine springs was the most difficult to assess due to their depth (up to 15 m) and extensive development of the springs conduits. We determined that the total groundwater discharge over the 16 km of shoreline of the study area was at least 11 ± 3 × 103 m3 d-1 for the four types of discharge assessed. Groundwater-derived nitrate (NO3-) fluxes to coastal waters over ∼3 km (or 20%) in a highly populated and farmed section of Maro-Cerro Gordo was 641 ± 166 mol d-1, or ∼75% of the total NO3- loading in the study area. We demonstrate in this study that a multi-method approach must be applied to assess all forms of SGD and derived nutrient fluxes to the sea in highly heterogeneous karst aquifer systems.

  20. Assessment of ground-water contamination from a leaking underground storage tank at a defense supply center near Richmond, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.D.; Wright, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988-89, 24 wells were installed in the vicinity of the post-exchange gasoline station on the Defense General Supply Center, near Richmond, Virginia, to collect and analyze groundwater samples for the presence of gasoline contamination from a leaking underground storage tank. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene were as high as 8.2 mg/L and 9,000 microg/L, respectively, in water from wells in the immediate vicinity of the former leaking tank, and benzene concentrations were as high as 2,300 microg/L in a well 600 ft down gradient from the gasoline station. Groundwater flow rate are estimated to be about 60 to 80 ft/yr; on the basis of these flow rates, the contaminants may have been introduced into the groundwater as long as 7-10 yrs ago. Groundwater might infiltrate a subsurface storm sewer, where the sewer is below the water table, and discharge into a nearby stream. Preliminary risk assessment for the site identified no potential human receptors to the groundwater contamination because there were no groundwater users identified in the area. Remediation might be appropriate if exposure of future potential users is concern. Alternatives discussed for remediation of groundwater contamination in the upper aquifer at the PX Service Station include no-action, soil vapor extraction, and groundwater pumping and treatment alternatives

  1. Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic for Groundwater Extraction on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The overall goal of environmental remediation is to protect human health and the environment. Implementing renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) in groundwater extraction and pump-and-treat (P&T) systems may help minimize the environmental footprint of remediation efforts. The first step in considering solar PV for powering Hanford groundwater extraction is assessing the technical and economic feasibility and identifying potential target locations where implementation would be most successful. Accordingly, a techno-economic assessment of solar PV for Hanford groundwater extraction was completed in FY15. Multiple solar PV alternatives ranging in size from 1.2 to 22.4 kWp DC were evaluated and compared against traditional grid-powered systems. Results indicate that the degree to which solar PV alternatives are feasible is primarily a function of the distance of avoided power cable costs and the inclusion of an energy storage component. Standalone solar PV systems provide an energy source at the well and avoid the costs and logistics associated with running long lengths of expensive power cable to the well-head. When solar PV systems include a battery storage component, groundwater can be pumped continuously day and night in a year-round schedule. However, due to the high cost premium of the energy storage component, a fully solar-powered solution could not provide an economic direct replacement for line-powered pumping systems. As a result, the most ideal target locations for successful implementation of solar PV on the Hanford Site are remote or distant extraction wells where the primary remedial objective is contaminant mass removal (as opposed to hydraulic containment) and three-season (March through October) intermittent pumping is acceptable (e.g. remediation of hexavalent chromium in 200-UP-1).

  2. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-Z-20 Crib, 200 West Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.G.

    1993-10-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order ([Tri-Party Agreement] Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharges to the 216-Z-20 Crib on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein extends the initial analysis conducted from 1989 through 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report. Three primary issues are addressed in response to regulator concerns with the initial analysis: The magnitude and status of the soil column transuranic inventory. Potential interactions of wastewater with carbon tetrachloride from adjacent facilities. Preferential pathways created by unsealed monitoring wells

  3. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-Z-20 Crib, 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.G.

    1993-10-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order ([Tri-Party Agreement] Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharges to the 216-Z-20 Crib on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein extends the initial analysis conducted from 1989 through 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report. Three primary issues are addressed in response to regulator concerns with the initial analysis: The magnitude and status of the soil column transuranic inventory. Potential interactions of wastewater with carbon tetrachloride from adjacent facilities. Preferential pathways created by unsealed monitoring wells.

  4. Assessment of solubility and speciation of U, Pu, Np, and Th in natural groundwaters: theory, thermodynamic data, and primary applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweingruber, M

    1981-11-01

    The computer code MINEQL was adapted and extended to assess the solubility and speciation of radioactive waste nuclides in groundwaters under conditions which are expected to exist in the surroundings of planned underground repositories. By means of an additional data base including standard reaction enthalpies and heat capacities at 25/sup 0/C, the relevant equilibrium constants at 25/sup 0/C can be converted to other temperatures using Ulich's formulae. The activitiy coefficients for dissolved species are modelled with a temperature dependent function of the Davies' approximation type. The report is segmented in three main parts: (1) a review of the MINEQL fundamentals and a summary of the theory needed for the extensions; (2) an outline of the general program structure and of criteria applied to the selection of thermodynamic data; (3) a discussion of the results from first model applications to evaluate the solubility and speciation of U, Pu, Np and Th in two Swiss groundwaters, based either on the approach of negligible chemical disturbance or on a solid/solution titration concept. All thermodynamic data involved in this study are collected in an appendix, together with a compilation of references.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain.

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  7. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  12. Risk assessment to groundwater of pit latrine rural sanitation policy in developing country settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Jan O; Rivett, Michael O; Hinz, Laura B; Mackay, Nyree; Wanangwa, Gift J; Phiri, Owen L; Songola, Chrispine Emmanuel; Thomas, Mavuto A S; Kumwenda, Steve; Nhlema, Muthi; Miller, Alexandra V M; Kalin, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    Parallel global rise in pit-latrine sanitation and groundwater-supply provision is of concern due to the frequent spatial proximity of these activities. Study of such an area in Malawi has allowed understanding of risks posed to groundwater from the recent implementation of a typical developing-country pit-latrine sanitation policy to be gained. This has assisted the development of a risk-assessment framework approach pragmatic to regulatory-practitioner management of this issue. The framework involves water-supply and pit-latrine mapping, monitoring of key groundwater contamination indicators and surveys of possible environmental site-condition factors and culminates in an integrated statistical evaluation of these datasets to identify the significant factors controlling risks posed. Our approach usefully establishes groundwater-quality baseline conditions of a potentially emergent issue for the study area. Such baselines are foundational to future trend discernment and contaminant natural attenuation verification critical to policies globally. Attribution of borehole contamination to pit-latrine loading should involve, as illustrated, the use of the range of contamination (chemical, microbiological) tracers available recognising none are ideal and several radial and capture-zone metrics that together may provide a weight of evidence. Elevated, albeit low-concentration, nitrate correlated with some radial metrics and was tentatively suggestive of emerging latrine influences. Longer term monitoring is, however, necessary to verify that the commonly observed latrine-borehole separation distances (29-58m), alongside statutory guidelines, do not constitute significant risk. Borehole contamination was limited and correlation with various environmental-site condition factors also limited. This was potentially ascribed to effectiveness of attenuation to date, monitoring of an emergent problem yet to manifest, or else contamination from other sources. High borehole usage

  13. Climate change impacts on risks of groundwater pollution by herbicides: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karin; Moeys, Julien; Lindström, Bodil; Kreuger, Jenny; Lewan, Elisabet; Jarvis, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contributes nearly half of the Swedish drinking water supply, which therefore needs to be protected both under present and future climate conditions. Pesticides are sometimes found in Swedish groundwater in concentrations exceeding the EU-drinking water limit and thus constitute a threat. The aim of this study was to assess the present and future risks of groundwater pollution at the regional scale by currently approved herbicides. We identified representative combinations of major crop types and their specific herbicide usage (product, dose and application timing) based on long-term monitoring data from two agricultural catchments in the South-West of Sweden. All these combinations were simulated with the regional version of the pesticide fate model MACRO (called MACRO-SE) for the periods 1970-1999 and 2070-2099 for a major crop production region in South West Sweden. To represent the uncertainty in future climate data, we applied a five-member ensemble based on different climate model projections downscaled with the RCA3-model (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In addition to the direct impacts of changes in the climate, the risks of herbicide leaching in the future will also be affected by likely changes in weed pressure and land use and management practices (e.g. changes in crop rotations and application timings). To assess the relative importance of such factors we performed a preliminary sensitivity analysis which provided us with a hierarchical structure for constructing future herbicide use scenarios for the regional scale model runs. The regional scale analysis gave average concentrations of herbicides leaching to groundwater for a large number of combinations of soils, crops and compounds. The results showed that future scenarios for herbicide use (more autumn-sown crops, more frequent multiple applications on one crop, and a shift from grassland to arable crops such as maize) imply significantly greater risks of herbicide

  14. Application of Geospatial Techniques for Groundwater Quality and Availability Assessment: A Case Study in Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuddithamby Gunaalan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources in the northern coastal belt of Sri Lanka, as there are no major water supply schemes or perennial rivers. Overexploitation, seawater intrusion and persistent pollution of this vital resource are threatening human health as well as ecosystems in the Jaffna Peninsula. Therefore, the main intent of the present paper is to apply geospatial techniques to assess the spatial variation of groundwater quality and availability for the sustainable management of groundwater in the coastal areas. The electrical conductivity (EC and depth to water (DTW of 41 wells were measured during the period from March to June 2014, which represents the dry period of the study area. Surface interpolation, gradient analysis, a local indicators of spatial autocorrelations (LISA and statistical analysis were used to assess the quality and availability of groundwater. The results revealed that the drinking and irrigation water quality in the study area were poor and further deteriorated with the progression of the dry season. Good quality and availability of groundwater were observed in the western zone compared to other zones of the study area. A negative correlation was identified between depth to water and electrical conductivity in the western zone. Hence, relatively deep wells in the western zone of the study area can be used to utilize the groundwater for drinking, domestic and agricultural purposes. The outcomes of this study can be used to formulate policy decisions for sustainable management of groundwater resources in Jaffna Peninsula.

  15. Assessment of On-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamar, Rafat; Jangam, C.; Veligeti, J.; Chintalapudi, P.; Janipella, R.

    2017-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of the On-site sanitation system on the groundwater sources in its vicinity. The study has been undertaken in the Agra city of Yamuna sub-basin. In this context, sampling sites (3 nos) namely Pandav Nagar, Ayodhya Kunj and Laxmi Nagar were selected for sampling. The groundwater samples were analyzed for major cations, anions and faecal coliform. Critical parameters namely chloride, nitrate and Faecal coliform were considered to assess the impact of the On-site sanitation systems. The analytical results shown that except for chloride, most of the samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standard limits for drinking water for all the other analyzed parameters, i.e., nitrate and faecal coliform in the first two sites. In Laxmi Nagar, except for faecal coliform, all the samples are below the BIS limits. In all the three sites, faecal coliform was found in majority of the samples. A comparison of present study indicates that the contamination of groundwater in alluvial setting is less as compared to hard rock where On-site sanitation systems have been implemented.

  16. Incorporating variations in pesticide catabolic activity into a GIS-based groundwater risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posen, Paulette; Lovett, Andrew; Hiscock, Kevin; Evers, Sarah; Ward, Rob; Reid, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The catabolic activity of incumbent microorganisms in soil samples of eleven dissimilar soil series was investigated, with respect to the herbicide isoproturon. Soils were collected from a 30 x 37 km area of river catchment to the north-west of London, England. Catabolic activity in each soil type during a 500 h assay was determined by 14 C-radiorespirometry. Results showed four soils that exhibited high levels of catabolic activity (33-44% mineralisation) while the remaining seven soils showed lower levels of catabolic activity (12-16% mineralisation). There was evidence to suggest that soils exhibiting high catabolic activity had low ( 14 C-radiorespirometric results were used to produce a GIS layer representing levels of catabolic activity for the dissimilar soils across the study area. This layer was combined with other GIS layers relating to pesticide attenuation, including soil organic carbon content, depth to groundwater and hydrogeology, to produce a map showing risk of groundwater contamination by isoproturon. The output from this approach was compared with output from an attenuation-only approach and differences appraised. Inclusion of the catabolism layer resulted in a lowering of risk in the model in 15% of the study area. Although there appears to be limited benefit in including pesticide catabolic activity in this regional-scale groundwater risk model, this type of addition could be useful in a site-specific risk assessment

  17. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Western Aquifers of Mauritius Using Isotope Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dindyal, D.; Brizmohun, R.; Fanny, J. O.Y. [National Environmental Laboratory, Reduit (Mauritius); Sacchi, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Pavia (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    This contribution reports the results obtained in the IAEA TC project Mar/8/007, initiated in 2007. Fourteen boreholes were sampled during three sampling campaigns (rainy season, winter and summer): analyses include major ions, trace elements, stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C) and a microbiological assessment (TC and E. coli). Results indicate that groundwater quality is generally good. Recharge mostly occurs in the central plateau area, but the increase in nitrates along the groundwater flow and the common presence of E. coli indicate that a minor recharge occurs all over the aquifer's extension. Infiltration is rapid and favoured by the presence of vertical fractures in the basalts. Discharge occurs at a lower altitude and is marked by a different stable isotope content and lower nitrates. In addition to validating the general groundwater circulation model, these results show that aquifers are not adequately protected against a possible input of pollutants from the surface. (author)

  18. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water Quality Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Olatunji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in Nigeria. Therefore, the need to ascertain the continuing potability of the sources cannot be over emphasised. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of selected groundwater samples from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, using the water quality index (WQI method. Twenty two water samples were collected, 10 samples from boreholes and 12 samples from hand dug wells. All these were analysed for their physico – chemical properties. The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total dissolved solid, calcium, fluoride, iron, potassium, sulphate, nitrate and carbonate. The water quality index for the twenty two samples ranged from 0.66 to 756.02 with an average of 80.77. Two of the samples exceeded 100, which is the upper limit for safe drinking water. The high values of WQI from the sampling locations are observed to be due to higher values of iron and fluoride. This study reveals that the investigated groundwaters are mostly potable and can be consumed without treatment. Nonetheless, the sources identified to be unsafe should be treated before consumption.

  19. Groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons in the soil vapour phase - risk assessment at a former dry cleaner site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzer, J. [Boden-und-Grundwasser GbR, Sonthofen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g. Perchloroethene (PCE) were commonly used for dry cleaning purposes among other ones. Since they have a significant toxic potential they impose a serious risk to groundwater quality. Due to their physico-chemical properties - particularly high volatility and medium to high water solubility - and their low biodegradation potential they are highly mobile within the unsaturated soil (vapour phase) as well as within the groundwater. This poster (paper) presents data and calculations of a consultant's ''virtual every day'' work in order to assess the risk of groundwater contamination at a former dry cleaner site. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Kirana Hills Region, Rabwah, District Chiniot, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Naseer Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to assess the groundwater quality of the area adjacent to Precambrian Kirana Hills, Pakistan. The majority of the people in the area use groundwater from private wells for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to provide an overview of the groundwater quality. This information would be beneficial to local people and the administration for selecting suitable water treatment methods. Samples were collected from different wells of Rabwah town, close to the Kirana Hills. Parameters like EC, pH, alkalinity and total dissolved solids (TDS were determined for 142 samples. While 40 samples were analyzed for hardness, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, NO3, and F. standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO were considered to evaluate the quality of groundwater. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to interpolate analyzed physicochemical parameters. The results showed that EC, TDS, hardness, Cl, SO4, and Ca were very high in the water samples of the area. Fifty-two percent of samples had pH values lower than the permissible limits. Results suggest that the water quality is extremely adverse close to the hills. The poor water quality in the area near the hills may be due to the limited recharge of aquifers because of the hills and shallow basement, which may act as a barrier to subsurface water movement. Some physical and chemical parameters indicated that the quality of water at deeper levels (i.e. >150 ft is relatively better. This may be due to limited exploitation of water from deeper aquifers as compared to shallow aquifers. Hence, proper aquifer management is required to prevent water quality deterioration due to over exploiataion. NO3 was found within the acceptable limits and all water samples were found free of any significant contamination by human activities.

  1. Isotopic assessment of long term groundwater exploitation. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The stress imposed on the available water resources due to man's impact (exploitation, release of pollutants and agricultural practices) has resulted in depletion of the available reserves as well as deterioration of water quality in many parts of the world. Over wide areas, abstractions are exceeding current natural recharge and it is apparent from scientific studies that these water resources are being mined, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Sustainable development and management of those water resources needs long term monitoring records to understand the changes and dynamic responses due to the exploitation. These proceedings provide a synthesis of a series of hydrochemical, isotope and geohydrological data sets which will be used for quantitative assessment of the long term dynamic response of the groundwater system. The results show that both stable and radioactive isotopes are excellent tools for characterizing and understanding aquifer systems that are undergoing long term exploitation. Specific outcomes include establishment of methodologies for monitoring and predicting changes in water quality and quantity that will lead to improved water resources management. This publication is a summary of the results achieved during the coordinated research project (CRP) and the various studies performed by the participating institutions are presented as individual presentations. The overall achievements are presented as an executive summary, and the detailed findings are presented in each contribution. These results were presented in the final coordination meeting held in Vienna, 12-16 May 2003. The results obtained from this CRP will be used to improve the predictions of future behaviour of groundwater resources in response to exploitation. The scientific component of this CRP will be a valuable source of information for isotope hydrologists involved in isotope field applications and a useful guide for groundwater managers involved in groundwater resources

  2. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

  3. Assessing biosynthetic potential of agricultural groundwater through metagenomic sequencing: A diverse anammox community dominates nitrate-rich groundwater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Ludington

    Full Text Available Climate change produces extremes in both temperature and precipitation causing increased drought severity and increased reliance on groundwater resources. Agricultural practices, which rely on groundwater, are sensitive to but also sources of contaminants, including nitrate. How agricultural contamination drives groundwater geochemistry through microbial metabolism is poorly understood.On an active cow dairy in the Central Valley of California, we sampled groundwater from three wells at depths of 4.3 m (two wells and 100 m (one well below ground surface (bgs as well as an effluent surface water lagoon that fertilizes surrounding corn fields. We analyzed the samples for concentrations of solutes, heavy metals, and USDA pathogenic bacteria of the Escherichia coli and Enterococcus groups as part of a long term groundwater monitoring study. Whole metagenome shotgun sequencing and assembly revealed taxonomic composition and metabolic potential of the community.Elevated nitrate and dissolved organic carbon occurred at 4.3m but not at 100m bgs. Metagenomics confirmed chemical observations and revealed several Planctomycete genomes, including a new Brocadiaceae lineage and a likely Planctomycetes OM190, as well novel diversity and high abundance of nano-prokaryotes from the Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR, the Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, Nanohaloarchaea (DPANN and the Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota (TACK superphyla. Pathway analysis suggests community interactions based on complimentary primary metabolic pathways and abundant secondary metabolite operons encoding antimicrobials and quorum sensing systems.The metagenomes show strong resemblance to activated sludge communities from a nitrogen removal reactor at a wastewater treatment plant, suggesting that natural bioremediation occurs through microbial metabolism. Elevated nitrate and rich secondary metabolite biosynthetic capacity suggest

  4. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

  5. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year

  6. Toxic Aluminium and Heavy Metals in Groundwater of Middle Russia: Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Synzynys

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches are distinguished in modern ecological monitoring. The first one is physicochemical analysis of environmental objects with respect to maximum allowable concentrations (MACs of chemical substances, which is performed by standards methods in accordance with state regulations. The second approach (biological monitoring is based on the methodology of biotesting and bio indication. The task of this work is to create biotests for estimation of Al and other metals toxicity in ground water and to compare these results with physicochemical analysis dates. Risk assessment for heavy metals contaminated groundwater was also performed. Risk assessment was performed accordingly EPA US recommendation and gave results about 90 per 100000 citizens for Al and 402 per 100000 for mixture of different heavy metals. For comparison: risk for earth background radiation for Middle Russia is (Individual dose 1 millisivert per year consist 5 per 100000 people. It was shown that groundwater consist HCO3- ions (360 mg/l, sometimes Al compounds 0.21-0.65 mg/l (MAC for Al is 0.5 mg/l for Russia. Other groundwater contain Hg – 0.004 mg/l (MAC – 0.0005 mg/l; Cr – 0.072 mg/l (MAC – 0.05 mg/l; As – less than 0.03 mg/l (MAC – 0.05 mg/l. We developed plant biotest for estimation of groundwater quality with barley roots, tradescatia and others. Some biotests parameters correlate with HCO3-, Cl-, SO42- and metal ions content positively, for another biotest this correlation is strongly negative. The quality of groundwater near Obninsk and in Kaluga Region is very different but hasn’t been changed since the year 1998.

  7. Application of hydrogeology and groundwater-age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at the site of a landfill to the Mahomet Aquifer, near Clinton, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Buszka, Paul M.

    2016-03-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey used interpretations of hydrogeologic conditions and tritium-based groundwater age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at a landfill site near Clinton, Illinois (the “Clinton site”) where a chemical waste unit (CWU) was proposed to be within the Clinton landfill unit #3 (CLU#3). Glacial deposits beneath the CWU consist predominantly of low-permeability silt- and clay-rich till interspersed with thin (typically less than 2 feet in thickness) layers of more permeable deposits, including the Upper and Lower Radnor Till Sands and the Organic Soil unit. These glacial deposits are about 170 feet thick and overlie the Mahomet Sand Member of the Banner Formation. The Mahomet aquifer is composed of the Mahomet Sand Member and is used for water supply in much of east-central Illinois.Eight tritium analyses of water from seven wells were used to evaluate the overall age of recharge to aquifers beneath the Clinton site. Groundwater samples were collected from six monitoring wells on or adjacent to the CLU#3 that were open to glacial deposits above the Mahomet aquifer (the upper and lower parts of the Radnor Till Member and the Organic Soil unit) and one proximal production well (approximately 0.5 miles from the CLU#3) that is screened in the Mahomet aquifer. The tritium-based age estimates were computed with a simplifying, piston-flow assumption: that groundwater moves in discrete packets to the sampled interval by advection, without hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing.Tritium concentrations indicate a recharge age of at least 59 years (pre-1953 recharge) for water sampled from deposits below the upper part of the Radnor Till Member at the CLU#3, with older water expected at progressively greater depth in the tills. The largest tritium concentration from a well sampled by this study (well G53S; 0.32 ± 0.10 tritium units) was in groundwater from a sand deposit in the upper part of the Radnor Till Member; the shallowest permeable unit

  8. Pre/post-closure assessment of groundwater pharmaceutical fate in a wastewater‑facility-impacted stream reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Barber, Larry B.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Duris, Joseph W.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Givens, Carrie E.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Journey, Celeste A.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical contamination of contiguous groundwater is a substantial concern in wastewater-impacted streams, due to ubiquity in effluent, high aqueous mobility, designed bioactivity, and to effluent-driven hydraulic gradients. Wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) closures are rare environmental remediation events; offering unique insights into contaminant persistence, long-term wastewater impacts, and ecosystem recovery processes. The USGS conducted a combined pre/post-closure groundwater assessment adjacent to an effluent-impacted reach of Fourmile Creek, Ankeny, Iowa, USA. Higher surface-water concentrations, consistent surface-water to groundwater concentration gradients, and sustained groundwater detections tens of meters from the stream bank demonstrated the importance of WWTF effluent as the source of groundwater pharmaceuticals as well as the persistence of these contaminants under effluent-driven, pre-closure conditions. The number of analytes (110 total) detected in surface water decreased from 69 prior to closure down to 8 in the first post-closure sampling event approximately 30 d later, with a corresponding 2 order of magnitude decrease in the cumulative concentration of detected analytes. Post-closure cumulative concentrations of detected analytes were approximately 5 times higher in proximal groundwater than in surface water. About 40% of the 21 contaminants detected in a downstream groundwater transect immediately before WWTF closure exhibited rapid attenuation with estimated half-lives on the order of a few days; however, a comparable number exhibited no consistent attenuation during the year-long post-closure assessment. The results demonstrate the potential for effluent-impacted shallow groundwater systems to accumulate pharmaceutical contaminants and serve as long-term residual sources, further increasing the risk of adverse ecological effects in groundwater and the near-stream ecosystem.

  9. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-03-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  11. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  12. Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. -- Highlights: •We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in Cambodian groundwater. •Residents of Kandal (98.7%) and Kratie (12.4%) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects. •Significant positive correlation between As, Mn and Ba in groundwater and hair were found. -- Risk assessment indicated that 98.7% of residents in Kandal and 12.4% of Kratie study areas were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects of multiple elements in groundwater

  13. Assessing the impact of iron ore mining to the groundwater in Goa, using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzoo Ansari, Md.; Sinha, U.K.; Mohokar, H.V.; Deodhar, Archana; Mendhekar, G.N.; Jaryal, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    Goa contributes about 50% of the total iron ore exported from the country. Iron ore share is 95% of total mining and quarrying sector in Goa. It represents the second most important industry next to tourism. The iron ore is predominantly mined by opencast mining throughout Goa. The reduction of the forest cover, huge dumps, dust mineral particles, water contamination and health problems are some of the principal harmful effects of extensive mining which is of great concern to the environment. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of iron ore mining to groundwater in downstream side of the mine pits using isotope hydrological techniques

  14. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    Zambia’s rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area...... in South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using...... both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake...

  15. Assessment of Groundwater Supply Impacts for a Mine Site in Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agartan, E.; Yazicigil, H.

    2010-12-01

    A nickel mine located in Turgutlu town in Western Turkey requires 135 L/s of water for the mining processes. The initial studies pointed out that part of the supply will be met by pumping water from the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. The purpose of this study is to assess the impacts associated with meeting groundwater supply requirements for the mine. Scope of the study involved development of the groundwater flow model of the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system, determination of the alternative groundwater pumping scenarios, assessment of the impacts associated with each scenario and selection of the most feasible scenario in the aspect of environmental and technical factors. Turgutlu town is located in one of the most tectonically active areas in Turkey which is characterized by an E-W trending Gediz Graben formed as a result of N-S directed extension. Gediz River as a major surface water resource in the study area flows from east to west, passes through Gediz Graben and is connected to the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. Quaternary deposits and Neogene rocks, showing better aquifer properties than the other formations of the Gediz Graben, form the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. Quaternary deposits form the principal aquifer, and Neogene rocks form the secondary aquifer in the study area. Therefore, a two layered groundwater flow model of the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system was established using MODFLOW. The model was calibrated under steady state conditions assuming that the conditions in 1991 prior to the significant development represented a pseudo-steady state in the aquifer system. Calibration was carried out for hydraulic conductivity, recharge and boundary conditions. To get today’s groundwater levels, wells being drilled after 1991 were added to the model. In the scope of this study, two potential scenarios were considered, and their effects on the aquifer systems were evaluated. The locations of the scenario wells were determined so that they will

  16. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. Lourdes, E-mail: mlima@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Romanelli, Asunción, E-mail: aromanel@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Massone, Héctor E., E-mail: hmassone@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  17. Assessing New Employee Orientation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jose M.; Yancey, George B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the importance of new employee orientation (NEO) programs, the quality of typical NEOs, and how to improve NEOs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a viewpoint of the importance of new employee orientation programs, the quality of typical NEOs, and how to improve NEOs. Findings: Although western…

  18. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  19. Assessing the recharge of a coastal aquifer using physical observations, tritium, groundwater chemistry and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Isaac R; Zhang, Chenming; Maher, Damien T; Atkins, Marnie L; Holland, Rodney; Morgenstern, Uwe; Li, Ling

    2017-02-15

    Assessing recharge is critical to understanding groundwater and preventing pollution. Here, we investigate recharge in an Australian coastal aquifer using a combination of physical, modelling and geochemical techniques. We assess whether recharge may occur through a pervasive layer of floodplain muds that was initially hypothesized to be impermeable. At least 59% of the precipitation volume could be accounted for in the shallow aquifer using the water table fluctuation method during four significant recharge events. Precipitation events rates were estimated in the area underneath the floodplain clay layer rather than in the sandy area. A steady-state chloride method implied recharge rates of at least 200mm/year (>14% of annual precipitation). Tritium dating revealed long term net vertical recharge rates ranging from 27 to 114mm/year (average 58mm/year) which were interpreted as minimum net long term recharge. Borehole experiments revealed more permeable conditions and heterogeneous infiltration rates when the floodplain soils were dry. Wet conditions apparently expand floodplain clays, closing macropores and cracks that act as conduits for groundwater recharge. Modelled groundwater flow paths were consistent with tritium dating and provided independent evidence that the clay layer does not prevent local recharge. Overall, all lines of evidence demonstrated that the coastal floodplain muds do not prevent the infiltration of rainwater into the underlying sand aquifer, and that local recharge across the muds was widespread. Therefore, assuming fine-grained floodplain soils prevent recharge and protect underlying aquifers from pollution may not be reasonable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using hydrogeologic and geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing at Igbara Oke, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E. Oni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out at Igbara Oke Southwestern Nigeria, with a view to classify the area into vulnerability zones, by applying the electrical resistivity method, using Schlumberger electrode arrays with maximum electrode separation (AB/2 of 65 m in (41 different locations for data acquisition. Geoelectric parameters (layer resistivity and thickness were determined from the interpreted data. The study area comprises four geoelectric layers (topsoil, lateritic layer, weathered/fractured layer and fresh basement. The geoelectric parameters of the overlying layers across the area were used to assess the vulnerability of the underlying aquifers to near-surface contaminants with the aid of vulnerability maps generated. Three models were compared by maps using geo-electrically derived models; longitudinal conductance, GOD (groundwater occurrence, overlying lithology and depth to the aquifer and GLSI (geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing. The total longitudinal conductance map shows the north central part of the study area as a weakly protected (0.1–0.19 area, while the northern and southern parts have poor protective capacity (<0.1; this is in agreement with the GOD method which shows the northern part of the study area as less vulnerable (0–0.1 while the southern part has low/moderate (0.1–0.3 vulnerability to contamination. The longitudinal conductance exaggerates the degree of susceptibility to contamination than the GOD and GLSI models. From the models, vulnerability to contamination can be considered higher at the southern part than the northern part and therefore, sources of contamination like septic tank, refuse dump should be cited far from groundwater development area. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Longitudinal conductance, GOD and GLSI

  1. Uncertainty characteristics of EPA's ground-water transport model for low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Man-Sung

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment is an essential step either in design or in licensing processes to ensure the safety of any proposed radioactive waste disposal facilities. Since performance assessment requires the use of computer codes, understanding the characteristics of computer models used and the uncertainties of the estimated results is important. The PRESTO-EPA code, which was the basis of the Environmental Protection Agency's analysis for low-level-waste rulemaking, is widely used for various performance assessment activities in the country with no adequate information available for the uncertainty characteristics of the results. In this study, the groundwater transport model PRESTO-EPA was examined based on the analysis of 14 C transport along with the investigation of uncertainty characteristics

  2. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (risks. Nevertheless, this study indicates that groundwater contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

  3. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  4. Groundwater quality assessment in the Krachi West District of the Volta region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfo, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    .6); δ 18 O (-3.1 to 4.7)], Lake Volta [δ 2 H (-13.2 to -873); δ 18 O (1.0 to 1.5)] and streams [δ 2 H (-10.6 to 13.3); δ 18 O (-1.4 to 3.3)], revealed that the stable isotopes (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) in groundwater samples from the Krachi West District clustered closely along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) suggesting an integrative and rapid recharge from meteoric origin. Consequently, groundwaters in the Krachi West district are mainly meteoric water with little or no isotopic variation. Piper trilinear plot indicated that waters from the Krachi West district corresponded to the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 - water type. The Piper plot showed HCO 3 - as the main anion. However, no particular cation dominated. All three methods [Wilcox diagram, the Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) and the United States Salinity Laboratory diagram (USSL)] used for assessment of the groundwater suitability for irrigation revealed that the groundwater from the Krachi West District are suitable for irrigation. This observation may be attributed to the low levels of Na [(11.2-43.7 mg/L; (WHO 200 mg/L)] in groundwater indicating that interaction of groundwater with Na-bearing minerals did not result in the dissolution of high amounts of Na. (au)

  5. Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

  6. Outcomes Assessment in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment…

  7. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock–water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. - Highlights: • Hydrochemical investigations were carried out in Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia. • The factors controlling potential groundwater pollution in an arid region were studied. • Chemical and statistical analyses are integrated to assess these factors. • Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. • The chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock–water interactions

  8. Thermal Impact Assessment of Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHPs: Rigorous vs. Simplified Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Piga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHPs are increasingly adopted for air conditioning in urban areas, thus reducing CO2 emissions, and this growth needs to be managed to ensure the sustainability of the thermal alteration of aquifers. However, few studies have addressed the propagation of thermal plumes from open-loop geothermal systems from a long-term perspective. We provide a comprehensive sensitivity analysis, performed with numerical finite-element simulations, to assess how the size of the thermally affected zone is driven by hydrodynamic and thermal subsurface properties, the vadose zone and aquifer thickness, and plant setup. In particular, we focus the analysis on the length and width of thermal plumes, and on their time evolution. Numerical simulations are compared with two simplified methods, namely (i replacing the time-varying thermal load with its yearly average and (ii analytical formulae for advective heat transport in the aquifer. The former proves acceptable for the assessment of plume length, while the latter can be used to estimate the width of the thermally affected zone. The results highlight the strong influence of groundwater velocity on the plume size and, especially for its long-term evolution, of ground thermal properties and of subsurface geometrical parameters.

  9. Physicochemical Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Quality of the Greater Chittagong Region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Ahmed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess surface and groundwater quality of the greater Chittagong (Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar districts and Chittagong Hill Tracts (Rangamati, Khagrachhari and Bandarban districts of Bangladesh. To study the various physicochemical and microbiological parameters, surface water samples from the Karnafuli, Halda, Sangu, Matamuhuri, Bakkhali, Naf, Kasalong, Chingri and Mayani Rivers, Kaptai Lake and groundwater samples from almost every Upazilas, smaller administrative unit of Bangladesh, were collected and analyzed. The statistical methods of sampling were used for collecting samples. Samples were preserved using suitable preservation methods. Water samples from the freshwater resources were collected from different points and tide conditions and at different seasons for continuous monitoring during the hydrological years 2008-2009. The collected samples were analyzed for the following parameters: pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, total suspended solids (TSS, total solids (TS, dissolved oxygen (DO, transparency, acidity, dissolved carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, ammonia-N, hydrogen sulfide, sulphate-S, o-phosphate-P, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total nitrite and nitrate-N, arsenic, iron, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium using the procedure outlined in the standard methods. Average values of maximum physicochemical and microbiological parameters studied for the Karnafuli River were found higher than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline. The maximum water quality parameters of Kaptai Lake and other Rivers of Chittagong region were existed within the permissible limits of WHO guideline. The data showed the water quality slightly differs in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon than monsoon season. The concentration of different constituents of most of

  10. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Figure 17: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards 61 Page vi GAO-17-333SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs...programs. Page 61 GAO-17-333SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs Figure 17: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards Pursuant to a...had direct access to the USD AT&L and other senior acquisition officials, and some approval authorities were delegated to lower levels. For example

  11. Assessment of groundwater recharge potential zone using GIS approach in Purworejo regency, Central Java province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, Daniel Eko; Hardiman, Gagoek

    2018-02-01

    Floods and droughts in Purworejo regency are an indication of problems in groundwater management. The current development progress has led to land conversion which has an impact on the problem of water infiltration in Purworejo regency. This study aims to determine the distribution of groundwater recharge potential zones by using geographic information system as the basis for ground water management. The groundwater recharge potential zone is obtained by overlaying all the thematic maps that affect the groundwater infiltration. Each thematic map is weighted according to its effect on groundwater infiltration such as land-use - 25%, rainfall - 20%, litology - 20%, soil - 15%, slope - 10%, lineament - 5%, and river density - 5% to find groundwater recharge potential zones. The groundwater recharge potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories, viz., very high, high, medium, low and very low zones. The results of this study may be useful for better groundwater planning and management.

  12. Tactical Vulnerability Assessment Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Renis, T.A.; Paulus, W.K.; Winblad, A.G.; Graves, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy sponsors a 9-day training program for individuals who are responsible for evaluating and planning safeguards systems and for preparing DOE Master and Security Agreements (MSSAs). These agreements between DOE headquarters and operations offices establish required levels of protection. The curriculum includes: (1) the nature of potential insider and outsider threats involving theft or diversion of special nuclear material, (2) use of computerized tools for evaluating the effectiveness of physical protection and material control and accountability systems, and (3) methods for analyzing the benefits and costs of safeguards improvements and for setting priorities among proposed upgrades. The training program is varied and high interactive. Presentations are intermixed with class discussions and ''hands-on'' analysis using computer tools. At the end of the program, participants demonstrate what they have learned in a two-and-one-half day ''field exercise,'' which is conducted on a facility scale-model. The training program has been conducted six times and has been attended by representatives of all DOE facilities. Additional sessions are planned at four-month intervals. This paper describes the training program, use of the tools in preparing MSSAs for various DOE sites, and recent extensions and refinements of the evaluation tools

  13. Tactical Vulnerability Assessment Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Renis, T.A.; Paulus, W.K.; Winblad, A.E.; Graves, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy sponsors a 9-day training program for individual who are responsible for evaluating and planning safeguards systems and for preparing DOE Master and Security Agreements (MSSAs). These agreements between DOE headquarters and operations offices establish required levels of protection. The curriculum includes: (1) the nature of potential insider and outsider threats involving theft or diversion of special nuclear material, (2) use of computerized tools for evaluating the effectiveness of physical protection and material control and acoountability systems, and (3) methods for analyzing the benefits and costs of safeguards improvements and for setting priorities among proposed upgrades. The training program is varied and highly interactive. Presentations are intermixed with class discussions and ''hands-on'' analysis using computer tools. At the end of the program, participants demonstrate what they have learned in a two-and-one-half day ''field excercise,'' which is conducted on a facility scale-model. The training programs has been conducted six times and has been attended by representatives of all DOE facilities. Additional sessions are planned at four-month intervals. This paper describes the training program, use of the tools in preparing MSSAs for various DOE sites, and recent extensions and refinements of the evaluation tools

  14. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George L.; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  16. Incorporating variations in pesticide catabolic activity into a GIS-based groundwater risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posen, Paulette [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.posen@uea.ac.uk; Lovett, Andrew [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Hiscock, Kevin [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Evers, Sarah [Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Ward, Rob [Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-31

    The catabolic activity of incumbent microorganisms in soil samples of eleven dissimilar soil series was investigated, with respect to the herbicide isoproturon. Soils were collected from a 30 x 37 km area of river catchment to the north-west of London, England. Catabolic activity in each soil type during a 500 h assay was determined by {sup 14}C-radiorespirometry. Results showed four soils that exhibited high levels of catabolic activity (33-44% mineralisation) while the remaining seven soils showed lower levels of catabolic activity (12-16% mineralisation). There was evidence to suggest that soils exhibiting high catabolic activity had low (< 22%) clay content and tended towards lower organic carbon content (< 2.7%), but that these higher levels of catabolic activity were also related to pre-exposure to isoproturon. The {sup 14}C-radiorespirometric results were used to produce a GIS layer representing levels of catabolic activity for the dissimilar soils across the study area. This layer was combined with other GIS layers relating to pesticide attenuation, including soil organic carbon content, depth to groundwater and hydrogeology, to produce a map showing risk of groundwater contamination by isoproturon. The output from this approach was compared with output from an attenuation-only approach and differences appraised. Inclusion of the catabolism layer resulted in a lowering of risk in the model in 15% of the study area. Although there appears to be limited benefit in including pesticide catabolic activity in this regional-scale groundwater risk model, this type of addition could be useful in a site-specific risk assessment.

  17. Fuzzy model for determination and assessment of groundwater quality in the city of Zrenjanin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski-Milosević Jelena Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the fuzzy logic for determination and assessment of the chemical quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the city of Zrenjanin is presented. The degree of certainty and uncertainties are one of the problems in the most commonly used methods for assessing the water quality. Fuzzy logic can successfully handle these problems. Evaluation of fuzzy model was carried out on the samples from two representative wells that are located at depths of two aquifers from which water is taken to supply the population as drinking water. The samples were analyzed on 8 different chemical water quality parameters. In the research arsenic concentration (As3+, As5+ is considered as the dominant parameter due to its suspecting carcinogenic effects on human health. This type of research is for the first time conducted in the city of Zrenjanin, middle Banat region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. MNTR174009 i br. TR34014

  18. Assessment of village-wise groundwater draft for irrigation: a field-based study in hard-rock aquifers of central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. K.; Syed, T. H.; Saha, Dipankar; Sarkar, B. C.; Patre, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Extracted groundwater, 90% of which is used for irrigated agriculture, is central to the socio-economic development of India. A lack of regulation or implementation of regulations, alongside unrecorded extraction, often leads to over exploitation of large-scale common-pool resources like groundwater. Inevitably, management of groundwater extraction (draft) for irrigation is critical for sustainability of aquifers and the society at large. However, existing assessments of groundwater draft, which are mostly available at large spatial scales, are inadequate for managing groundwater resources that are primarily exploited by stakeholders at much finer scales. This study presents an estimate, projection and analysis of fine-scale groundwater draft in the Seonath-Kharun interfluve of central India. Using field surveys of instantaneous discharge from irrigation wells and boreholes, annual groundwater draft for irrigation in this area is estimated to be 212 × 106 m3, most of which (89%) is withdrawn during non-monsoon season. However, the density of wells/boreholes, and consequent extraction of groundwater, is controlled by the existing hydrogeological conditions. Based on trends in the number of abstraction structures (1982-2011), groundwater draft for the year 2020 is projected to be approximately 307 × 106 m3; hence, groundwater draft for irrigation in the study area is predicted to increase by ˜44% within a span of 8 years. Central to the work presented here is the approach for estimation and prediction of groundwater draft at finer scales, which can be extended to critical groundwater zones of the country.

  19. Reading assessment and training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to ensure ourselves and the general public that the workers in the Nuclear Materials Processing Department (NMPD) could read, follow, and understand procedures. Procedures were randomly selected and analyzed for reading levels. A tenth grade reading level was established as the standard for all NMPD employees. Employees were tested to determine reading levels and approximately 12% could not read at the target level. A Procedure Walk-Through Evaluation was administered to each person not reaching tenth grade reading level. This was a job performance measure given to ensure that the worker was competent in his/her present job, and should remain there while completing reading training. A mandatory Reading Training Program utilizing Computer Based Training was established. This program is self-paced, individualized instruction and provided to the worker on Company time. Results of the CBT Program have been very good. Instruction is supplemented with test-taking skills seminars, practice exams, individual conferences with their own reading specialist, and some self-directed study books. This paper describes the program at Savannah River Site

  20. The assessment of the required groundwater quantity for the conservation of ecosystems and the achievement of a good ecological status of surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Janža

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the available quantity of groundwater is of essential importance for its sustainable use. Modern approaches for estimation of groundwater availability take into account all potential impacts of abstractions, including impacts on groundwater dependent ecosystems and impacts on surface waters ecological status. Groundwater body is in good quantitative status if groundwater abstractions do not cause signifiant damages to groundwater dependent ecosystems and signifiant diminution in the ecological status of surface water bodies. The methodology presented in this paper was developed as an integral part of the assessment of the quantitative status of groundwater bodies in Slovenia and is tailored to the characteristics of the groundwater dependent ecosystems as well as hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in the Slovenian territory. Two different approaches were implemented; for forest habitats on alluvial aquifers, and habitats of amphibians and molluscs in karst areas. Estimates of the required quantity of groundwater for groundwater dependent ecosystems conservation were performed at the level of groundwater bodies and annual averages of temporal variables of the water balance, calculated with the regional water balance model GROWA-SI. In the areas of groundwater bodies with groundwater dependent ecosystems estimated quantity present 0.1 % - 12.4 % of the groundwater recharge. The estimated share of annual renewable quantity of groundwater to maintain the ecological status of surface waters for the entire territory of Slovenia is 23.2 %. The largest share, 30 % is in north-eastern Slovenia and the lowest in the north-west part of Slovenia with a 16.6 % average annual renewable quantity.

  1. The International hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, initiated the international cooperation project HYDROCOIN for the study of groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The objective of HYDROCOIN was to improve knowledge of the influence of various strategies for groundwater flow modelling for the safety assessment of final repositories for radioactive wastes. The study comprised: the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of different solution algorithms, the capabilities of different models to describe field tests and bench-scale experiments, and the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of incorporating various physical phenomena. The work was conducted at three levels addressing code verification (Level 1), model validation (Level 2), and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of groundwater flow calculations (Level 3). This report gives an overview and summary of test cases of HYDROCOIN Level 1, the issue of validation groundwater flow models (HYDROCOIN Level 2), the methodologies used in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (HYDROCOIN Level 3). 108 figs., 24 tabs., 2 appendices

  2. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-10-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock-water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of fluoride in groundwater and urine, and prevalence of fluorosis among school children in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritash, A. K.; Aggarwal, Ankur; Soni, Jigyasa; Sharma, Khyati; Sapra, Mohnish; Singh, Bhupinder

    2018-05-01

    Considering the health effects of fluoride, the present study was undertaken to assess the concentration of fluoride in groundwater, and urine of school children in Bass region of Haryana state. Fluoride in groundwater was observed to vary from 0.5 to 2.4 mg/l with an average concentration of 0.46 mg/l. On the other hand, F- in urine ranged from below the detection limit to 1.8 mg/l among girls and 0.17-1.2 mg/l among the boys. Higher average concentration of fluoride in urine (0.65 mg/l for boys and 0.34 mg/l for girls) may be ascribed to exposure to bioavailable fluoride through food, milk, tea, toothpaste, etc., in addition to intake through groundwater. Relatively more intake of water and food by the boys might be the reason for more cases of severe dental fluorosis (44%) among boys compared to girls (29% cases of moderate to severe dental fluorosis). The groundwater quality for drinking was compromised with respect to dissolved solids, hardness, magnesium ions, and dissolved iron. Hydro-geochemical investigation revealed that rock-water interaction, in terms of direct cation exchange, dominantly regulates groundwater chemistry, and groundwater is of Ca-Na-HCO3 type.

  4. Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere

  5. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality.

  6. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality

  7. Assessment of check-dam groundwater recharge with water-balance calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuma, Hakan; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado; Eliades, Marinos

    2017-04-01

    Studies on the enhancement of groundwater recharge by check-dams in arid and semi-arid environments mainly focus on deriving water infiltration rates from the check-dam ponding areas. This is usually achieved by applying simple water balance models, more advanced models (e.g., two dimensional groundwater models) and field tests (e.g., infiltrometer test or soil pit tests). Recharge behind the check-dam can be affected by the built-up of sediment as a result of erosion in the upstream watershed area. This natural process can increase the uncertainty in the estimates of the recharged water volume, especially for water balance calculations. Few water balance field studies of individual check-dams have been presented in the literature and none of them presented associated uncertainties of their estimates. The objectives of this study are i) to assess the effect of a check-dam on groundwater recharge from an ephemeral river; and ii) to assess annual sedimentation at the check-dam during a 4-year period. The study was conducted on a check-dam in the semi-arid island of Cyprus. Field campaigns were carried out to measure water flow, water depth and check-dam topography in order to establish check-dam water height, volume, evaporation, outflow and recharge relations. Topographic surveys were repeated at the end of consecutive hydrological years to estimate the sediment built up in the reservoir area of the check dam. Also, sediment samples were collected from the check-dam reservoir area for bulk-density analyses. To quantify the groundwater recharge, a water balance model was applied at two locations: at the check-dam and corresponding reservoir area, and at a 4-km stretch of the river bed without check-dam. Results showed that a check-dam with a storage capacity of 25,000 m3 was able to recharge to the aquifer, in four years, a total of 12 million m3 out of the 42 million m3 of measured (or modelled) streamflow. Recharge from the analyzed 4-km long river section without

  8. Assessment of in situ biodegradation of monochlorobenzene in contaminated groundwater treated in a constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckevelt, Mareike; Rokadia, Hemal; Imfeld, Gwenael; Stelzer, Nicole; Paschke, Heidrun; Kuschk, Peter; Kaestner, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-H.; Weber, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of monochlorobenzene (MCB) was assessed in a constructed wetland treating MCB contaminated groundwater using a detailed geochemical characterisation, stable isotope composition analysis and in situ microcosm experiments. A correlation between ferrous iron mobilisation, decreasing MCB concentration and enrichment in carbon isotope composition was visible at increasing distance from the inflow point, indicating biodegradation of MCB in the wetland. Additionally, in situ microcosm systems loaded with 13 C-labelled MCB were deployed for the first time in sediments to investigate the biotransformation of MCB. Incorporation of 13 C-labelled carbon derived from the MCB into bacterial fatty acids substantiated in situ degradation of MCB. The detection of 13 C-labelled benzene indicated reductive dehalogenation of MCB. This integrated approach indicated the natural attenuation of the MCB in a wetland system. Further investigations are required to document and optimise the in situ biodegradation of MCB in constructed and natural wetland systems treating contaminated groundwater. - An integrated approach including isotope composition analysis and in situ microcosm experiments provided evidences for in situ biodegradation of MCB in a wetland system

  9. Assessment of in situ biodegradation of monochlorobenzene in contaminated groundwater treated in a constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeckevelt, Mareike [Departments of Bioremediation, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany); Rokadia, Hemal [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany); Imfeld, Gwenael [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany)]. E-mail: gwenael.imfeld@ufz.de; Stelzer, Nicole [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany); Paschke, Heidrun [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany); Kuschk, Peter [Departments of Bioremediation, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany); Kaestner, Matthias [Departments of Bioremediation, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany); Richnow, Hans-H. [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany); Weber, Stefanie [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig D-04318, Saxonia (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The degradation of monochlorobenzene (MCB) was assessed in a constructed wetland treating MCB contaminated groundwater using a detailed geochemical characterisation, stable isotope composition analysis and in situ microcosm experiments. A correlation between ferrous iron mobilisation, decreasing MCB concentration and enrichment in carbon isotope composition was visible at increasing distance from the inflow point, indicating biodegradation of MCB in the wetland. Additionally, in situ microcosm systems loaded with {sup 13}C-labelled MCB were deployed for the first time in sediments to investigate the biotransformation of MCB. Incorporation of {sup 13}C-labelled carbon derived from the MCB into bacterial fatty acids substantiated in situ degradation of MCB. The detection of {sup 13}C-labelled benzene indicated reductive dehalogenation of MCB. This integrated approach indicated the natural attenuation of the MCB in a wetland system. Further investigations are required to document and optimise the in situ biodegradation of MCB in constructed and natural wetland systems treating contaminated groundwater. - An integrated approach including isotope composition analysis and in situ microcosm experiments provided evidences for in situ biodegradation of MCB in a wetland system.

  10. Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schneider

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example by employing sensor networks that continuously measure physical parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of an instrumentation strategy for monitoring changes in bank filtration, hydrological connectivity, groundwater travel time and quality due to river restoration. We specifically designed and instrumented a network of monitoring wells at the Thur River (NE Switzerland, which is partly restored and has been mainly channelized for more than 100 years. Our results show that bank filtration – especially in a restored section with alternating riverbed morphology – is variable in time and space. Consequently, our monitoring network has been adapted in response to that variability. Although not available at our test site, we consider long-term measurements – ideally initiated before and continued after restoration – as a fundamental step towards predicting consequences of river restoration for groundwater quality. As a result, process-based models could be adapted and evaluated using these types of high-resolution data sets.

  11. Assessment of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater and Health Problems in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of arsenic (As in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative units, is affected. Similar problems exist in many other parts of the world, including the Unites States. This paper presents an assessment of the health hazards caused by arsenic contamination in the drinking water in Bangladesh. Four competing hypotheses, each addressing the sources, reaction mechanisms, pathways, and sinks of arsenic in groundwater, were analyzed in the context of the geologic history and land-use practices in the Bengal Basin. None of the hypotheses alone can explain the observed variability in arsenic concentration in time and space; each appears to have some validity on a local scale. Thus, it is likely that several bio-geochemical processes are active among the region’s various geologic environments, and that each contributes to the mobilization and release of arsenic. Additional research efforts will be needed to understand the relationships between underlying biogeochemical factors and the mechanisms for arsenic release in various geologic settings.

  12. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D. Matthew; Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Vaccaro, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS), Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and to evaluate groundwater availability. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-resource managers and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies and assess the long‑term availability of groundwater. The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the CPRAS was completed with support from the Groundwater Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Groundwater.

  13. Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Saeid; Chizari, Mohammad; Sadighi, Hassan; Bijani, Masoud

    2018-02-01

    Many environmental problems are rooted in human behavior. This study aimed to explore the causal effect of cultural environmental bias on `sustainable behavior' among agricultural groundwater users in Fars province, Iran, according to Klockner's comprehensive model. A survey-based research project was conducted to gathering data on the paradigm of environmental psychology. The sample included agricultural groundwater users ( n = 296) who were selected at random within a structured sampling regime involving study areas that represent three (higher, medium and lower) bounds of the agricultural-groundwater-vulnerability spectrum. Results showed that the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable was a strong determinant of sustainable behavior as it related to groundwater use, and that EnAE had the highest causal effect on the behavior of agricultural groundwater users. The adjusted model explained 41% variance of "groundwater sustainable behavior". Based on the results, the groundwater sustainable behaviors of agricultural groundwater users were found to be affected by personal and subjective norm variables and that they are influenced by casual effects of the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable. The conclusions reflect the Fars agricultural groundwater users' attitude or worldview on groundwater as an unrecoverable resource; thus, it is necessary that scientific disciplines like hydrogeology and psycho-sociology be considered together in a comprehensive approach for every groundwater study.

  14. Spatially explicit groundwater vulnerability assessment to support the implementation of the Water Framework Directive – a practical approach with stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Berkhoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study presented in this paper was to develop an evaluation scheme which is suitable for spatially explicit groundwater vulnerability assessment according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD. Study area was the Hase river catchment, an area of about 3 000 km2 in north-west Germany which is dominated by livestock farming, in particular pig and poultry production. For the Hase river catchment, the first inventory of the WFD led to the conclusion that 98% of the catchment area is "unclear/unlikely" to reach a good groundwater status due to diffuse nitrogen emissions from agriculture. The groundwater vulnerability assessment was embedded in the PartizipA project ("Participative modelling, Actor and Ecosystem Analysis in Regions with Intensive Agriculture", www.partizipa.net, within which a so-called actors' platform was established in the study area. The objective of the participatory process was to investigate the effects of the WFD on agriculture as well as to discuss groundwater protection measures which are suitable for an integration in the programme of measures. The study was conducted according to the vulnerability assessment concept of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, considering sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity was computed using the DRASTIC index of natural groundwater pollution potential. Exposure (for a reference scenario was computed using the STOFFBILANZ nutrient model. Several regional studies were analysed to evaluate the adaptive capacity. From these studies it was concluded that the adaptive capacity in the Hase river catchment is very low due to the economic importance of the agricultural sector which will be significantly affected by groundwater protection measures. As a consequence, the adaptive capacity was not considered any more in the vulnerability assessment. A groundwater vulnerability evaluation scheme is presented which enjoys the advantage that both

  15. Report on the radiochemical and environmental isotope character for monitoring well UE-1-q: Groundwater Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    Well UE-1-q is located in the northeastern portion of area 1 of the Nevada Test Site in southwestern Nevada, 1244.1 meters above sea level. The well was originally an exploratory hole drilled to a depth of 743 meters below the surface (mbs) by LANL in November of 1980. In May 1992, the Groundwater Characterization Program (GCP) extended the total depth to approximately 792.5 mbs. UE-1-q is cased to a total depth of 749.5 mbs, with the remaining uncased depth exposed exclusively to Paleozoicaged carbonate rock, the principle zone of groundwater sampling. Geologic logging indicates approximately 390 meters of tuffaceous and calcareous alluvium overlies 320 meters of Tertiary-aged volcanic ash-flow and bedded tuffs. Paleozoic carbonate lithology extends from 716 mbs to the total well depth and is separated from the overlying Tertiary volcanic deposits by 6 meters of paleocolluvium. This report outlines the results and interpretations of radiochemical and environmental isotopic analyses of groundwater sampled from UE-1-q on July 10, 1992 during the well pump test following well development. In addition, results of the field tritium monitoring performed during the well drilling are reported in Appendix 1. Sampling, analytical techniques, and analytical uncertainties for the groundwater analyses are presented in Appendix 2

  16. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  17. Assessing intrinsic and specific vulnerability models ability to indicate groundwater vulnerability to groups of similar pesticides: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Steven; Dixon, Barnali; Griffin, Dale W.

    2018-01-01

    With continued population growth and increasing use of fresh groundwater resources, protection of this valuable resource is critical. A cost effective means to assess risk of groundwater contamination potential will provide a useful tool to protect these resources. Integrating geospatial methods offers a means to quantify the risk of contaminant potential in cost effective and spatially explicit ways. This research was designed to compare the ability of intrinsic (DRASTIC) and specific (Attenuation Factor; AF) vulnerability models to indicate groundwater vulnerability areas by comparing model results to the presence of pesticides from groundwater sample datasets. A logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the environmental variables and the presence or absence of pesticides within regions of varying vulnerability. According to the DRASTIC model, more than 20% of the study area is very highly vulnerable. Approximately 30% is very highly vulnerable according to the AF model. When groundwater concentrations of individual pesticides were compared to model predictions, the results were mixed. Model predictability improved when concentrations of the group of similar pesticides were compared to model results. Compared to the DRASTIC model, the AF model more accurately predicts the distribution of the number of contaminated wells within each vulnerability class.

  18. Design and testing of a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system for predicting concentrations of agrichemicals in groundwater across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E; Voss, Frank D.

    2016-03-29

    Efforts to assess the likelihood of groundwater contamination from surface-derived compounds have spanned more than three decades. Relatively few of these assessments, however, have involved the use of process-based simulations of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface, or compared the predictions from such models with measured data—especially over regional to national scales. To address this need, a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system was constructed to use transport-and-fate simulations to predict the concentration of any surface-derived compound at a specified depth in the vadose zone anywhere in the conterminous United States. The system was then used to simulate the concentrations of selected agrichemicals in the vadose zone beneath agricultural areas in multiple locations across the conterminous United States. The simulated concentrations were compared with measured concentrations of the compounds detected in shallow groundwater (that is, groundwater drawn from within a depth of 6.3 ± 0.5 meters [mean ± 95 percent confidence interval] below the water table) in more than 1,400 locations across the United States. The results from these comparisons were used to select the simulation approaches that led to the closest agreement between the simulated and the measured concentrations.The P-GWAVA system uses computer simulations that account for a broader range of the hydrologic, physical, biological and chemical phenomena known to control the transport and fate of solutes in the subsurface than has been accounted for by any other vulnerability assessment over regional to national scales. Such phenomena include preferential transport and the influences of temperature, soil properties, and depth on the partitioning, transport, and transformation of pesticides in the subsurface. Published methods and detailed soil property data are used to estimate a wide range of model input parameters for each site, including surface

  19. Assessment of elementary school safety restraint programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify elementary school (K-6) safety belt : education programs in use in the United States, to review their development, and : to make administrative and impact assessments of their use in selected States. : Six...

  20. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  1. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs

  2. Radon contents in groundwater and the uncertainty related to risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Masami [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The United States has proposed 11 Bq/l (300 pCi/l) as the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of radon. Japan has not set up the standards for drinking water. The problems about evaluation of effects of radon on organism and MCLs of radon in groundwater and drinking water in 12 countries were reported. The local area content the high concentrations of radon, but generally it`s low levels were observed in Nigeria, China and Mexico. The countries which content high concentration of radon were Greek, Slovakia, Bornholm Island and Scotland. There are high and low concentration area in US and Japan. I proposed an uncertainty scheme on risk assessment for the exposure by radon. (S.Y.)

  3. Assessing a GTA professional development program

    OpenAIRE

    Alicea-Muñoz, Emily; Masip, Joan Espar; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Schatz, Michael F.

    2018-01-01

    For the last four years, the School of Physics at Georgia Tech have been preparing new Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) through a program that integrates pedagogy, physics content, and professional development strategies. Here we discuss various assessments we have used to evaluate the program, among them surveys, GTA self-reporting, and end-of-semester student evaluations. Our results indicate that GTAs who participate in the program find its practical activities useful, feel better prepa...

  4. A simplified model for assessing the impact to groundwater of swine farms at regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Viterbo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Swine manure can be an excellent source of nutrients for crop production. Several swine farms are present in the territory of Regione Umbria and more than 200.000 of swine heads are present yearly in the whole territory while some municipalities host more than 30.000 heads over a relatively limited land. Municipality with elevated number of swine heads has registered particularly higher Nitrate concentration in groundwater that requires a management plan and intervention in order to determine the maximum allowed N loads in the specific region. Use of manure and fertilizers in agricultural field produce diffuse nitrogen (N) losses that are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters and have been of concern since decades. Excessive nitrate concentrations in groundwater can have toxic effects when used as drinking water and cause eutrophication in surface waters. For management and environmental planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the magnitude of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields and how they are influenced by factors such as management practices, type of fertilizers -organic or inorganic - climate and soil etc. There are several methods for assessing N leaching, they span from methods based on field test to complex models that require many input data. We use a simple index method that accounts for the type of fertilizer used - inorganic, swine or cattle manure- and hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. Hydrological conditions such as infiltration rates are estimated by a fully distributed hydrological model. Data on inorganic and organic fertilization are estimated at municipal level by using the nutrient crops needs and the statistics of swine and cattle heads within the municipality. The index method has been calibrated by using groundwater concentration as a proxy of N losses from agriculture. A time series of three years of data has been analyzed. The application of the simple index method allowed to

  5. UTAP, U Tailings Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ron

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: UTAP carries out probabilistic analyses of the behaviour and environmental effects of uranium mill tailings, following close-out of milling operations. The models have been designed to allow predictions to be made for distances up to 50 kilometers in all directions from the tailings area. The models include features which include the ability to incorporate different receptors and site characteristics and to deal with input parameters which vary with time. 2 - Method of solution: UTAP is composed of a number of modules. These may be classified as either component or control modules. Component modules (or models) are the programs directly concerned with the simulation of a uranium tailings physical system; that is the computer implementation of the mathematical models representing the uranium tailings pile and surrounding environment. Control modules provide the infrastructure for probabilistic analysis using the component modules. These functions include probabilistic sampling of input parameters such as constant, normal, log-normal, uniform, log-uniform, triangular, Weibull, Beta, arbitrary and correlated. The sampling method used is straight Monte Carlo. The radionuclides modelled are: natural uranium, total thorium, radium-226, radon-222 and lead-210. The pH of the reference uranium tailings site and a chained river-lake system are also modelled. For the afore- mentioned radionuclides the following pathways of dose to the receptors modelled: water consumption, fish consumption, radon inhalation, dust inhalation, vegetable consumption, animal produce consumption and ground-shine. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of steps through time allowed is 300

  6. Assessing an Academic Library Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Karen R.; O'Toole, Erin; Sassen, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Professional development programs have been established in many academic libraries to support the research and scholarly activities of librarians. Continuous assessment can contribute to the sustainability and effectiveness of these programs. This study describes how measures of need, participation, satisfaction, and impact were employed to assess…

  7. Argonne program to assess superconducting stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Turner, L.R.; Huang, Y.C.; Dawson, J.W.; Harrang, J.; Hilal, M.A.; Lieberg, M.; Gonczy, J.D.; Kim, S.H.

    1978-01-01

    To assess superconductor stability, a complete program is developed to obtain basic information on the effects of local mechanical perturbations on the cryostatic stability. An analytical model for computing the transient recovery following the mechanical perturbation is developed. A test program is undertaken to develop data needed to verify the conclusions reached through the analytical studies

  8. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  9. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  10. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  11. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water qua