WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater ambient monitoring

  1. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  2. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  3. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  4. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network ...

  5. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a ...

  6. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  7. Ambient groundwater flow diminishes nitrogen cycling in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, M.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Detwiler, R. L.; Boano, F.; Cook, P. L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling and experimental studies demonstrate that ambient groundwater reduces hyporheic exchange, but the implications of this observation for stream N-cycling is not yet clear. We utilized a simple process-based model (the Pumping and Streamline Segregation or PASS model) to evaluate N- cycling over two scales of hyporheic exchange (fluvial ripples and riffle-pool sequences), ten ambient groundwater and stream flow scenarios (five gaining and losing conditions and two stream discharges), and three biogeochemical settings (identified based on a principal component analysis of previously published measurements in streams throughout the United States). Model-data comparisons indicate that our model provides realistic estimates for direct denitrification of stream nitrate, but overpredicts nitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification. Riffle-pool sequences are responsible for most of the N-processing, despite the fact that fluvial ripples generate 3-11 times more hyporheic exchange flux. Across all scenarios, hyporheic exchange flux and the Damkohler Number emerge as primary controls on stream N-cycling; the former regulates trafficking of nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, while the latter quantifies the relative rates of organic carbon mineralization and advective transport in streambed sediments. Vertical groundwater flux modulates both of these master variables in ways that tend to diminish stream N-cycling. Thus, anthropogenic perturbations of ambient groundwater flows (e.g., by urbanization, agricultural activities, groundwater mining, and/or climate change) may compromise some of the key ecosystem services provided by streams.

  8. Calendar Year 2016 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael Marquand [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractoroperated laboratory. National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., manages and operates SNL/NM for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. Two types of groundwater surveillance monitoring are conducted at SNL/NM: (1) on a site-wide basis as part of the SNL/NM Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program’s Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) Groundwater Surveillance Task and (2) on a site-specific groundwater monitoring at LTS/Environmental Restoration (ER) Operations sites with ongoing groundwater investigations. This Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report summarizes data collected during groundwater monitoring events conducted at GMP locations and at the following SNL/NM sites through December 31, 2016: Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern (AOC); Chemical Waste Landfill; Mixed Waste Landfill; Technical Area-V Groundwater AOC; and the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater AOC. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  9. Pickering Nuclear site wide groundwater monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWilde, J.; Chin-Cheong, D.; Lledo, C.; Wootton, R.; Belanger, D.; Hansen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) is continuing its efforts to understand the chemical and physical characteristics of the groundwater flow systems beneath the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). To this end, OPG constructed a site-wide Groundwater Monitoring System (GMS) at the PNGS to provide support to other ongoing environmental investigations and to provide a means to monitor current and future groundwater environmental issues. This paper will present the results of this work, including the development of a state-of-the-art data management system for storage and retrieval of environmental data for the site, which has applications for other power generation facilities. (author)

  10. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  11. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  12. Groundwater monitoring for deep-well injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Y.; Chiu, J.

    1994-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring system for detecting waste migration would not only enhance confidence in the long-term containment of injected waste, but would also provide early warnings of contamination for prompt responses to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Field experiences in Florida have demonstrated monitoring water quality and fluid pressure changes in overlying formations is useful in detecting the upward migration of injected waste. Analytical and numerical solutions indicate changes in these two monitoring parameters can vary on the basis of hydrogeologic characteristics, operation conditions, and the distances from the injection well to the monitoring wells and to the preferential hydrologic conduits. To detect waste migration through defects around the wellbore or the leaky containment interval, groundwater monitoring wells should be placed as close as possible to an injection well. In the vertical direction, a monitoring well completed in a permeable interbed within the containment interval is expected to have the highest potential for detecting upward migration. Another acceptable horizon for groundwater monitoring is the lower portion of the buffer brine aquifer immediately above the containment interval. Monitoring wells in USDWs may be needed when waste has been detected in deeper formations or when leakage out of well casings poses a concern. A monitoring well open to the injection interval is of little value in alleviating the concerns of long-term upward migration. Moreover, the installation of the well could create additional preferential pathways. Complications in groundwater monitoring may arise at existing injection sites, especially with prior releases. It is also important to recognize that monitoring in the vicinity of the wellbore may not be effective for detecting waste migration through unidentified unplugged wells or undetected transmissive fractures

  13. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  14. Continuous Groundwater Monitoring Collocated at USGS Streamgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J. E.; Eddy-Miller, C.; Caldwell, R.; Wheeer, J.; Barlow, J.

    2012-12-01

    USGS Office of Groundwater funded a 2-year pilot study collocating groundwater wells for monitoring water level and temperature at several existing continuous streamgages in Montana and Wyoming, while U.S. Army Corps of Engineers funded enhancement to streamgages in Mississippi. To increase spatial relevance with in a given watershed, study sites were selected where near-stream groundwater was in connection with an appreciable aquifer, and where logistics and cost of well installations were considered representative. After each well installation and surveying, groundwater level and temperature were easily either radio-transmitted or hardwired to existing data acquisition system located in streamgaging shelter. Since USGS field personnel regularly visit streamgages during routine streamflow measurements and streamgage maintenance, the close proximity of observation wells resulted in minimum extra time to verify electronically transmitted measurements. After field protocol was tuned, stream and nearby groundwater information were concurrently acquired at streamgages and transmitted to satellite from seven pilot-study sites extending over nearly 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of the central US from October 2009 until October 2011, for evaluating the scientific and engineering add-on value of the enhanced streamgage design. Examination of the four-parameter transmission from the seven pilot study groundwater gaging stations reveals an internally consistent, dynamic data suite of continuous groundwater elevation and temperature in tandem with ongoing stream stage and temperature data. Qualitatively, the graphical information provides appreciation of seasonal trends in stream exchanges with shallow groundwater, as well as thermal issues of concern for topics ranging from ice hazards to suitability of fish refusia, while quantitatively this information provides a means for estimating flux exchanges through the streambed via heat-based inverse-type groundwater modeling. In June

  15. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  16. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  17. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents

  18. Ambient and Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruser, Christoph; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Wartzek, Tobias; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring vital signs through unobtrusive means is a goal which has attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. This review provides a systematic and comprehensive review over the current state of the field of ambient and unobtrusive cardiorespiratory monitoring. To this end, nine different sensing modalities which have been in the focus of current research activities are covered: capacitive electrocardiography, seismo- and ballistocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography (PPG) and PPG imaging, thermography, methods relying on laser or radar for distance-based measurements, video motion analysis, as well as methods using high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Current trends in these subfields are reviewed. Moreover, we systematically analyze similarities and differences between these methods with respect to the physiological and physical effects they sense as well as the resulting implications. Finally, future research trends for the field as a whole are identified.

  19. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  20. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  1. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P. Evan; Lindberg, Jon W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Thornton, Edward C.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  2. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.; Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories plume and trend tracking, treatment/storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  3. 100-N pilot project: Proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, J.V.; Hartman, M.J.; Lutrell, S.P.; Perkins, C.J.; Zoric, J.P.; Tindall, S.C.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program for the 100-N Pilot Project. This program is the result of a cooperative effort between the Hanford Site contractors who monitor the groundwater beneath the 100-N Area. The consolidation of the groundwater monitoring programs is being proposed to minimize the cost, time, and effort necessary for groundwater monitoring in the 100-N Area, and to coordinate regulatory compliance activities. The integrity of the subprograms requirements remained intact during the consolidation effort. The purpose of this report is to present the proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program and to summarize the process by which it was determined

  4. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  5. Evaluation of a multiport groundwater monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Hall, S.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1991-03-01

    In 1988 and 1989, Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater monitoring system in two wells on the Hanford Site: one near the 216-B-3 Pond in the center of the Hanford Site and one just north of the 300 Area near the Columbia River. The system was installed to provide the US Department of Energy with needed three-dimensional data on the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads on the Hanford Site. This study evaluates the ability of the multiport system to obtain hydrogeologic data at multiple points vertically in a single borehole, and addresses the representativeness of the data. Data collected from the two wells indicate that the multiport system is well suited for groundwater monitoring networks requiring three-dimensional characterization of the hydrogeologic system. A network of these systems could provide valuable information on the hydrogeologic environment. However, the advantages of the multiport system diminish when the system is applied to long-term monitoring networks (30+ years) and to deeper wells (<300 ft). For shallow wells, the multiport system provides data in a cost-effective manner that would not be reasonably obtainable with the conventional methods currently in use at the Hanford Site. 17 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... concentrations over longer periods. The signal was seen to be stable, with regular drift in both laboratory and field test. In the field application, the sensor signal was corrected for drift, and errors were observed to be under 7% of that of conductivity measurements. The study also found that the chloride...

  7. Transfer of European Approach to Groundwater Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Major groundwater development in North China has been a key factor in the huge economic growth and the achievement of self sufficiency in food production. Groundwater accounts for more than 70 percent of urban water supply and provides important source of irrigation water during dry period. This has however caused continuous groundwater level decline and many associated problems: hundreds of thousands of dry wells, dry river beds, land subsidence, seawater intrusion and groundwater quality deterioration. Groundwater levels in the shallow unconfined aquifers have fallen 10m up to 50m, at an average rate of 1m/year. In the deep confined aquifers groundwater levels have commonly fallen 30m up to 90m, at an average rate of 3 to 5m/year. Furthermore, elevated nitrate concentrations have been found in shallow groundwater in large scale. Pesticides have been detected in vulnerable aquifers. Urgent actions are necessary for aquifer recovery and mitigating groundwater pollution. Groundwater quantity and quality monitoring plays a very important role in formulating cost-effective groundwater protection strategies. In 2000 European Union initiated a Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) to protect all waters in Europe. The objective is to achieve good water and ecological status by 2015 cross all member states. The Directive requires monitoring surface and groundwater in all river basins. A guidance document for monitoring was developed and published in 2003. Groundwater monitoring programs are distinguished into groundwater level monitoring and groundwater quality monitoring. Groundwater quality monitoring is further divided into surveillance monitoring and operational monitoring. The monitoring guidance specifies key principles for the design and operation of monitoring networks. A Sino-Dutch cooperation project was developed to transfer European approach to groundwater monitoring in China. The project aims at building a China Groundwater Information Centre. Case studies

  8. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This progress report from the Savannah River Plant for first quarter 1992 includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  9. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This progress report from the Savannah River Plant for second quarter 1992 includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  10. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2007-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater monitoring for FY 2006 on DOE's Hanford Site. Results of groundwater remediation, vadose zone monitoring, and characterization are summarized. DOE monitors groundwater at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Washington Administrative Code (WAC).

  11. Technology review: prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolaranmi, Samuel Olaiya; Ramis Ferrer, Borja; Martinez Lastra, Jose Luis

    2018-05-08

    The monitoring of ambient conditions in indoor spaces is very essential owing to the amount of time spent indoors. Specifically, the monitoring of air quality is significant because contaminated air affects the health, comfort and productivity of occupants. This research work presents a technology review of prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. It involves the research on sensors (for CO 2 , air quality and ambient conditions), IoT platforms, and novel and commercial prototyping platforms. The ultimate objective of this review is to enable the easy identification, selection and utilisation of the technologies best suited for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. Following the review, it is recommended to use metal oxide sensors, optical sensors and electrochemical sensors for IAQ monitoring (including NDIR sensors for CO 2 monitoring), Raspberry Pi for data processing, ZigBee and Wi-Fi for data communication, and ThingSpeak IoT platform for data storage, analysis and visualisation.

  12. Groundwater monitoring systems and groundwater quality in the administrative district of Detmold (North Rhine-Westphalia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabau, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two groundwater monitoring systems for areas of different dimensions in the administrative district of Detmold are introduced. Firstly, the monitoring of groundwater and untreated water by the Water Conservation and Waste Disposal Authority (Amt fuer Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft) in Minden and secondly, the monitoring of groundwater and drinking water by the Water Resources Board (Wasserschutzamt) in Bielefeld. Different approaches and methods are required for the description of groundwater quality on a regional and a local basis, respectively, i.e. for the monitoring of a whole region and the monitoring of parts of such a region. The properties of groundwater in areas of different dimensions are analysed and described by means of an extensive database and with the help of (geo)statistical methods of analysis. Existing hydrochemical data have only limited value as evidence of groundwater properties in the dimensional units ''region'' and ''small investigation area''. They often do not meet the requirements of correct mathematical statistical methods. (orig.)

  13. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports

  14. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  15. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Hartman

    2000-04-11

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports.

  16. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... tons per year of lead is necessary to provide sufficient information about airborne lead levels near... Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead and...

  17. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  18. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  19. Understanding socio-groundwater systems: framework, toolbox, and stakeholders’ efforts for analysis and monitoring groundwater resources

    OpenAIRE

    López Maldonado, Yolanda Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater, the predominant accessible reservoir of freshwater storage on Earth, plays an important role as a human-natural life sustaining resource. In recent decades there has been an increasing concern that human activities are placing too much pressure on the resource, affecting the health of the ecosystem. However, because groundwater it is out of sight, its monitoring on both global and local scales is challenging. In the field of groundwater monitoring, modelling tools have been devel...

  20. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-01-01

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements

  1. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. In 1996 SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include requirements for groundwater monitoring. The major elements of those regulations and their application at Z-Area are discussed. These are a point of compliance, groundwater protection standards, the groundwater monitoring system, sampling and analysis, and data evaluation and reporting

  2. Anisotropic analysis for seismic sensitivity of groundwater monitoring wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Hsu, K.

    2011-12-01

    Taiwan is located at the boundaries of Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The movement of plate causes crustal uplift and lateral deformation to lead frequent earthquakes in the vicinity of Taiwan. The change of groundwater level trigged by earthquake has been observed and studied in Taiwan for many years. The change of groundwater may appear in oscillation and step changes. The former is caused by seismic waves. The latter is caused by the volumetric strain and reflects the strain status. Since the setting of groundwater monitoring well is easier and cheaper than the setting of strain gauge, the groundwater measurement may be used as a indication of stress. This research proposes the concept of seismic sensitivity of groundwater monitoring well and apply to DonHer station in Taiwan. Geostatistical method is used to analysis the anisotropy of seismic sensitivity. GIS is used to map the sensitive area of the existing groundwater monitoring well.

  3. Developing A National Groundwater-Monitoring Network In Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N. J.; Cho, M. J.; Woo, N. C.

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1960's, the groundwater resources of Korea have been developed without a proper regulatory system for monitoring and preservation, resulting in significant source depletion, land subsidence, water contamination, and sea-water intrusion. With the activation of the "Groundwater Law" in June 1994, the government initiated a project to develop a groundwater-monitoring network to describe general groundwater quality, to define its long-term changes, and to identify major factors affecting changes in groundwater quality and yield. In selecting monitoring locations nationwide, criteria considered are 1) spatial distribution, 2) aquifer characteristics of hydrogeologic units, 3) local groundwater flow regime, 4) linkage with surface hydrology observations, 5) site accessibility, and 6) financial situations. A total of 310 sites in 78 small hydrologic basins were selected to compose the monitoring network. Installation of monitoring wells is scheduled to start in 1995 for 15 sites; the remainder are scheduled to be completed by 2001. At each site, a nest of monitoring wells was designed; shallow and deep groundwater will be monitored for water temperature, pH, EC, DO and TDS every month. Water-level fluctuations will also be measured by automatic recorders equipped with pressure transducers. As a next step, the government plans to develop a groundwater-database management system, which could be linked with surface hydrologic data.

  4. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Rieger, J.T.; Webber, W.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Gillespie, B.M.; Luttrell, S.P.; Wurstner, S.K.; Liikala, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Groundwater Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1995 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that impacted groundwater quality on the site. Monitoring of water levels and groundwater chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination, to note trends in contaminant concentrations,a nd to identify emerging groundwater quality problems. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of onsite groundwater quality. A three- dimensional, numerical, groundwater model is being developed to improve predictions of contaminant transport. The existing two- dimensional model was applied to predict contaminant flow paths and the impact of changes on site conditions. These activities were supported by limited hydrogeologic characterization. Water level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Radiological monitoring results indicated that many radioactive contaminants were above US Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington drinking water standards at the Hanford Site. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, cyanide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their US EPA or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels

  6. 1998 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-06-02

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.

  7. CY2003 RCRA GROUNDWATER MONITORING WELL SUMMARY REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINEZ, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the calendar year (CY) 2003 field activities associated with the installation of two new groundwater monitoring wells in the A-AX Waste Management Area (WMA) and four groundwater monitoring wells in WMA C in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. All six wells were installed by Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH) for CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) in support of Draft Hanford Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) M-24-00 milestones and ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' (RCRA) groundwater monitoring requirements. Drilling data for the six wells are summarized in Table 1

  8. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1995-05-23

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring program for the Hanford Site 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT). The 300 APT are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulated unit. The 300 APT are included in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit No. WA890008967, and are subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring. This document describes a compliance monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the 300 APT. This plan describes the 300 APT monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the 300 APT. This plan will be used to meet groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the 300 APT becomes part of the Permit and through the postclosure care period until certification of final closure.

  9. Regional monitoring of temporal changes in groundwater quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broers, H.P.; Grift, B. van der

    2004-01-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are expected to affect groundwater quality by changing the loads of nutrients and salts in recharging groundwater, but regional monitoring networks installed to register the changes often fail to detect them and interpretation of trend analysis results is difficult.

  10. Groundwater detection monitoring system design under conditions of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Landfills represent a wide-spread and significant threat to groundwater quality. In this thesis a methodology was developed for the design of optimal groundwater moni-toring system design at landfill sites under conditions of uncertainty. First a decision analysis approach was presented for optimal

  11. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  12. Regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring networks at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    In the absence of an explicit national mandate to protect groundwater quality, operators of active and inactive hazardous waste sites must use a number of statutes and regulations as guidance for detecting, correcting, and preventing groundwater contamination. The objective of this paper is to provide a framework of the technical and regulatory considerations that are important to the development of groundwater monitoring programs at hazardous waste sites. The technical site-specific needs and regulatory considerations, including existing groundwater standards and classifications, will be presented. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  14. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  15. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  16. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2005-03-01

    This document presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring for fiscal year 2004 (October 2003 through September 2004)on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State.

  17. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  18. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, antimony, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Site. This report presents and discusses the groundwater monitoring results in the H-Area for first quarter 1992

  19. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health ampersand Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a 'capture zone' that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater

  20. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  1. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2006-02-28

    This report is one of the major products and deliverables of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessment Projects detailed work plan for FY 2006, and reflects the requirements of The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan (PNNL-15014). This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2005 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the west-central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas. Technetium-99 and uranium plumes exceeding standards are present in the 200 Areas. A uranium plume underlies the 300 Area. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99/uranium plumes. Resource Conservation and

  2. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V. [eds.] [and others

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems.

  3. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities

  5. Optimizing Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Integrated Statistical and Geostatistical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Krishna Thakur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate new approaches using methods based on statistics and geo-statistics for spatio-temporal optimization of groundwater monitoring networks. The formulated and integrated methods were tested with the groundwater quality data set of Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Spatially, the monitoring network was optimized using geo-statistical methods. Temporal optimization of the monitoring network was carried out using Sen’s method (1968. For geostatistical network optimization, a geostatistical spatio-temporal algorithm was used to identify redundant wells in 2- and 2.5-D Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers. Influences of interpolation block width, dimension, contaminant association, groundwater flow direction and aquifer homogeneity on statistical and geostatistical methods for monitoring network optimization were analysed. The integrated approach shows 37% and 28% redundancies in the monitoring network in Quaternary aquifer and Tertiary aquifer respectively. The geostatistical method also recommends 41 and 22 new monitoring wells in the Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers respectively. In temporal optimization, an overall optimized sampling interval was recommended in terms of lower quartile (238 days, median quartile (317 days and upper quartile (401 days in the research area of Bitterfeld/Wolfen. Demonstrated methods for improving groundwater monitoring network can be used in real monitoring network optimization with due consideration given to influencing factors.

  6. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Plant. This report gives the results of the analyses of groundwater from the H-Area Seepage Basin

  7. Liquid effluent retention facility final-status groundwater monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.; Chou, C.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    The following sections describe the groundwater-monitoring program for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The LERF is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The LERF is included in the open-quotes Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit WA890008967close quotes, (referred to herein as the Permit) (Ecology 1994) and is subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring (WAC 173-303-645). This document describes a RCRA/WAC groundwater detection-monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the LERF. This plan describes the LERF monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the LERF. This plan will be used to meet the groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the LERF becomes part of the Permit and through the post-closure care period, until certification of final closure

  8. Groundwater management based on monitoring of land subsidence and groundwater levels in the Kanto Groundwater Basin, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kazaoka, O.; Kusuda, T.; Nirei, H.

    2015-11-01

    Over 40 million people live on and exploit the groundwater resources of the Kanto Plain. The Plain encompasses metropolitan Tokyo and much of Chiba Prefecture. Useable groundwater extends to the base of the Kanto Plain, some 2500 to 3000 m below sea level. Much of the Kanto Plain surface is at sea level. By the early 1970s, with increasing urbanization and industrial expansion, local overdraft of groundwater resources caused major ground subsidence and damage to commercial and residential structures as well as to local and regional infrastructure. Parts of the lowlands around Tokyo subsided to 4.0 m below sea level; particularly affected were the suburbs of Funabashi and Gyotoku in western Chiba. In the southern Kanto Plain, regulations, mainly by local government and later by regional agencies, led to installation of about 500 monitoring wells and almost 5000 bench marks by the 1990's. Many of them are still working with new monitoring system. Long-term monitoring is important. The monitoring systems are costly, but the resulting data provide continuous measurement of the "health" of the Kanto Groundwater Basin, and thus permit sustainable use of the groundwater resource.

  9. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  11. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  12. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2000 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath each of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. RCRA groundwater monitoring continued during fiscal year 2000. Vadose zone monitoring, characterization, remediation, and several technical demonstrations were conducted in fiscal year 2000. Soil gas monitoring at the 618-11 burial ground provided a preliminary indication of the location of tritium in the vadose zone and in groundwater. Groundwater modeling efforts focused on 1) identifying and characterizing major uncertainties in the current conceptual model and 2) performing a transient inverse calibration of the existing site-wide model. Specific model applications were conducted in support of the Hanford Site carbon tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Technology; to support the performance assessment of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility; and in development of the System Assessment Capability, which is intended to predict cumulative site-wide effects from all significant Hanford Site contaminants.

  13. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Chou, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes

  14. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  15. Ambient assisted living platform for remote monitoring of bedridden people

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, F.; Barros, C.; Carvalho, V.; Machado, José; Leão, Celina Pinto; Soares, Filomena; Bezerra, K.; Matos, Demétrio Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a platform for remote monitoring of bedridden people developed in the context of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). This platform, Medical Care Terminal (MCT), includes the measurement of biomedical data (body temperature, galvanic skin resistance, electrocardiogram and electromyogram, level of oxygen, body position and breathing) as well environmental data (level of alcohol in the air, carbon monoxide level in the air, brightness and temperature). It presents ...

  16. Ambient air monitoring for mercury around an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.R.; Bogle, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Public and scientific interest in mercury in the environment has experienced an upsurge in the past few years, due in part to disclosures that fish in certain waters, which have apparently received no direct industrial discharges, were contaminated with mercury. Atmospheric releases of mercury from fossil fuel energy generators, waste incinerators and other industrial sources are suspected to be contributing to this problem. Such releases can be evaluated in a variety of ways, including stack sampling, material balance studies, soil/vegetation sampling and ambient air monitoring. Ambient air monitoring of mercury presents significant challenges because of the typically low concentrations (ng/m 3 ) encountered and numerous opportunities for sample contamination or analyte loss. There are presently no EPA-approved protocols for such sampling and analysis. Elemental mercury was used in large quantities at a nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee between 1950 and 1963 in a process similar to chloralkali production. Soil and water contamination with mercury were known to be present at the facility but outdoor ambient air contamination had not been investigated prior to the present study. In addition, one large building still contained original process equipment with mercury residuals. The objectives of this study were to establish a monitoring network for mercury which could be used (1) to demonstrate whether or not human health and the environment was being protected, and (2), to establish a decommissioning activities at the facility

  17. Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1997 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. This is the eighth and final sampling event of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This program monitored the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond that had been used to store drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (the predecessor agency to the DOE) and Austral Oil Company (Austral)

  18. Groundwater Level Monitoring using Levelogger and the Importance of Long-Term Groundwater Level Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin

    2016-01-01

    This review paper is focused on groundwater level monitoring using levelogger and the importance of long-term groundwater level data. The levelogger provides an inexpensive and convenient method to measure level, temperature and conductivity all in one probe. It can provide real time view as data is being recorded by the connected data logger. Water-level measurements from observation wells are the principal source of information about the hydrologic stresses acting on aquifers and how these stresses affect ground-water recharge, storage, and discharge. Long-term and systematic measurements of water levels provide essential data needed to evaluate changes in the resource over time to develop ground-water models, forecast trends and monitor the effectiveness of groundwater management. A significant advantage of this method of data collection and reporting are the groundwater level data can be updated real time. The accessibility of water level data is greatly enhanced by the Geographic Information System (GIS) to visually illustrate the locations of observation wells relative to relevant topographic, geologic, or hydrologic features. GIS and internet greatly enhance the capability for retrieval and transmittal of water-level data to potential users. (author)

  19. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2004-04-12

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2003 (October 2002 through September 2003) on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium, nitrate, and some other contaminants continued to exceed drinking water standards in groundwater discharging to the river in some locations. However, contaminant concentrations in river water remained low and were far below standards. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. Uranium exceeds standards in the 300 Area in the south part of the Hanford Site. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act'' is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon

  20. Response of radiation monitors for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    Radiation monitors are used all over the world to evaluate if places with presence of ionising radiation present safe conditions for people. Radiation monitors should be tested according to international or national standards in order to be qualified for use. This work describes a methodology and procedures to evaluate the energy and angular responses of any radiation monitor for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), according to the recommendations of ISO and IEC standards. The methodology and the procedures were applied to the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026, developed by the Instituto em Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), to evaluate and to adjust its response for H*(10), characterizing it as an ambient dose equivalent meter. The tests were performed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), and results showed that the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026 can be used as an EI*(10) meter, in accordance to the IEC 60846 standard requirements. The overall estimated uncertainty for the determination of the MIR 7026 response, in all radiation qualities used in this work, was 4,5 % to a 95 % confidence limit. (author)

  1. Quarterly RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Data for the Period April Through June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2006-11-01

    This report provides information about RCRA groundwater monitoring for the period April through June 2006. Seventeen RCRA sites were sampled during the reporting quarter. Sampled sites include seven monitored under groundwater indicator evaluation (''detection'') programs, eight monitored under groundwater quality assessment programs, and two monitored under final-status programs.

  2. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for Fiscal Year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E. [eds.] [and others

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1997 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction continued in the 200-West Area to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-vapor monitoring, and analysis and characterization of sediments sampled below a vadose-zone monitoring well. Source-term analyses for strontium-90 in 100-N Area vadose-zone sediments were performed using recent groundwater-monitoring data and knowledge of strontium`s ion-exchange properties. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1996 and June 1997. Water levels near the Columbia River increased during this period because the river stage was unusually high. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level.

  3. Groundwater Monitoring and Engineered Geothermal Systems: The Newberry EGS Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, K.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Garrison, G.

    2013-12-01

    Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) represent the next generation of geothermal energy development. Stimulation of multiple zones within a single geothermal reservoir could significantly reduce the cost of geothermal energy production. Newberry Volcano in central Oregon represents an ideal location for EGS research and development. As such, the goals of the Newberry EGS Demonstration, operated by AltaRock Energy, Inc., include stimulation of a multiple-zone EGS reservoir, testing of single-well tracers and a demonstration of EGS reservoir viability through flow-back and circulation tests. A shallow, local aquifer supplied the approximately 41,630 m3 (11 million gals) of water used during stimulation of NWG 55-29, a deep geothermal well on the western flank of Newberry Volcano. Protection of the local aquifer is of primary importance to both the Newberry EGS Demonstration and the public. As part of the Demonstration, AltaRock Energy, Inc. has developed and implemented a groundwater monitoring plan to characterize the geochemistry of the local aquifer before, during and after stimulation. Background geochemical conditions were established prior to stimulation of NWG 55-29, which was completed in 2012. Nine sites were chosen for groundwater monitoring. These include the water supply well used during stimulation of NWG 55-29, three monitoring wells, three domestic water wells and two hot seeps located in the Newberry Caldera. Together, these nine monitoring sites represent up-, down- and cross-gradient locations. Groundwater samples are analyzed for 25 chemical constituents, stable isotopes, and geothermal tracers used during stimulation. In addition, water level data is collected at three monitoring sites in order to better characterize the effects of stimulation on the shallow aquifer. To date, no significant geochemical changes and no geothermal tracers have been detected in groundwater samples from these monitoring sites. The Newberry EGS Demonstration groundwater

  4. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for Fiscal Year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1997 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction continued in the 200-West Area to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-vapor monitoring, and analysis and characterization of sediments sampled below a vadose-zone monitoring well. Source-term analyses for strontium-90 in 100-N Area vadose-zone sediments were performed using recent groundwater-monitoring data and knowledge of strontium's ion-exchange properties. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1996 and June 1997. Water levels near the Columbia River increased during this period because the river stage was unusually high. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level

  5. Groundwater monitoring of hydraulic fracturing in California: Recommendations for permit-required monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Beller, H. R.; Carroll, S.; Cherry, J. A.; Jackson, R. B.; Jordan, P. D.; Madrid, V.; Morris, J.; Parker, B. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Varadharajan, C.; Vengosh, A.

    2015-12-01

    California recently passed legislation mandating dedicated groundwater quality monitoring for new well stimulation operations. The authors provided the State with expert advice on the design of such monitoring networks. Factors that must be considered in designing a new and unique groundwater monitoring program include: Program design: The design of a monitoring program is contingent on its purpose, which can range from detection of individual well leakage to demonstration of regional impact. The regulatory goals for permit-required monitoring conducted by operators on a well-by-well basis will differ from the scientific goals of a regional monitoring program conducted by the State. Vulnerability assessment: Identifying factors that increase the probability of transport of fluids from the hydrocarbon target zone to a protected groundwater zone enables the intensity of permit-required monitoring to be tiered by risk and also enables prioritization of regional monitoring of groundwater basins based on vulnerability. Risk factors include well integrity; proximity to existing wellbores and geologic features; wastewater disposal; vertical separation between the hydrocarbon and groundwater zones; and site-specific hydrogeology. Analyte choice: The choice of chemical analytes in a regulatory monitoring program is guided by the goals of detecting impact, assuring public safety, preventing resource degradation, and minimizing cost. Balancing these goals may be best served by tiered approach in which targeted analysis of specific chemical additives is triggered by significant changes in relevant but more easily analyzed constituents. Such an approach requires characterization of baseline conditions, especially in areas with long histories of oil and gas development. Monitoring technology: Monitoring a deep subsurface process or a long wellbore is more challenging than monitoring a surface industrial source. The requirement for monitoring multiple groundwater aquifers across

  6. Open Source Platform Application to Groundwater Characterization and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Falzone, S.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Slater, L. D.; Robinson, J.; Hammett, S.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater characterization and monitoring commonly rely on the use of multiple point sensors and human labor. Due to the number of sensors, labor, and other resources needed, establishing and maintaining an adequate groundwater monitoring network can be both labor intensive and expensive. To improve and optimize the monitoring network design, open source software and hardware components could potentially provide the platform to control robust and efficient sensors thereby reducing costs and labor. This work presents early attempts to create a groundwater monitoring system incorporating open-source software and hardware that will control the remote operation of multiple sensors along with data management and file transfer functions. The system is built around a Raspberry PI 3, that controls multiple sensors in order to perform on-demand, continuous or `smart decision' measurements while providing flexibility to incorporate additional sensors to meet the demands of different projects. The current objective of our technology is to monitor exchange of ionic tracers between mobile and immobile porosity using a combination of fluid and bulk electrical-conductivity measurements. To meet this objective, our configuration uses four sensors (pH, specific conductance, pressure, temperature) that can monitor the fluid electrical properties of interest and guide the bulk electrical measurement. This system highlights the potential of using open source software and hardware components for earth sciences applications. The versatility of the system makes it ideal for use in a large number of applications, and the low cost allows for high resolution (spatially and temporally) monitoring.

  7. Compliance Groundwater Monitoring of Nonpoint Sources - Emerging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring networks are typically designed for regulatory compliance of discharges from industrial sites. There, the quality of first encountered (shallow-most) groundwater is of key importance. Network design criteria have been developed for purposes of determining whether an actual or potential, permitted or incidental waste discharge has had or will have a degrading effect on groundwater quality. The fundamental underlying paradigm is that such discharge (if it occurs) will form a distinct contamination plume. Networks that guide (post-contamination) mitigation efforts are designed to capture the shape and dynamics of existing, finite-scale plumes. In general, these networks extend over areas less than one to ten hectare. In recent years, regulatory programs such as the EU Nitrate Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act have forced regulatory agencies to also control groundwater contamination from non-incidental, recharging, non-point sources, particularly agricultural sources (fertilizer, pesticides, animal waste application, biosolids application). Sources and contamination from these sources can stretch over several tens, hundreds, or even thousands of square kilometers with no distinct plumes. A key question in implementing monitoring programs at the local, regional, and national level is, whether groundwater monitoring can be effectively used as a landowner compliance tool, as is currently done at point-source sites. We compare the efficiency of such traditional site-specific compliance networks in nonpoint source regulation with various designs of regional nonpoint source monitoring networks that could be used for compliance monitoring. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of the site vs. regional monitoring approaches with respect to effectively protecting groundwater resources impacted by nonpoint sources: Site-networks provide a tool to enforce compliance by an individual landowner. But the nonpoint source character of the contamination

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  9. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  10. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2003-02-28

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2002 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This report is written to meet the requirements in CERCLA, RCRA, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and Washington State Administrative Code.

  11. Statistical application of groundwater monitoring data at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Hodges, F.N.

    1993-09-01

    Effective use of groundwater monitoring data requires both statistical and geohydrologic interpretations. At the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state such interpretations are used for (1) detection monitoring, assessment monitoring, and/or corrective action at Resource Conservation and Recovery Act sites; (2) compliance testing for operational groundwater surveillance; (3) impact assessments at active liquid-waste disposal sites; and (4) cleanup decisions at Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act sites. Statistical tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test are used to test the hypothesis that chemical concentrations from spatially distinct subsets or populations are identical within the uppermost unconfined aquifer. Experience at the Hanford Site in applying groundwater background data indicates that background must be considered as a statistical distribution of concentrations, rather than a single value or threshold. The use of a single numerical value as a background-based standard ignores important information and may result in excessive or unnecessary remediation. Appropriate statistical evaluation techniques include Wilcoxon rank sum test, Quantile test, ''hot spot'' comparisons, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov types of tests. Application of such tests is illustrated with several case studies derived from Hanford groundwater monitoring programs. To avoid possible misuse of such data, an understanding of the limitations is needed. In addition to statistical test procedures, geochemical, and hydrologic considerations are integral parts of the decision process. For this purpose a phased approach is recommended that proceeds from simple to the more complex, and from an overview to detailed analysis

  12. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  13. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  14. Monitoring ambient air for mutagenicity using the higher plant Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schairer, L.A.; Sautkulis, R.C.; Tempel, N.R.

    1982-01-01

    The major emphasis for short-term bioassays has been placed on bacterial and mammalian cell lines. However, for increased perspective on the state-of-the-art of specific in vitro assays it is important to consider the environmental impact on whole organisms by reviewing the contributions made by in vivo assays. This paper will deal exclusively with somatic mutation in the Tradescantia stamen hair: describing the system briefly, demonstrating its relevance to environmental mutagen assessment and discussing its adaptation for in situ ambient atmosphere monitoring

  15. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Hartman; LF Morasch; WD Webber

    2000-05-10

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 1999 on the US. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Measurements for site-wide maps were conducted in June in past years and are now measured in March to reflect conditions that are closer to average. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1998 and March 1999. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of carbon-14, strontium-90, technetium-99, and uranium also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Cesium-137 and plutonium exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in US Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for plutonium, strontium-90, tritium, and uranium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate and carbon tetrachloride are the most extensive chemical contaminants. Chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2dichloroethylene, cyanide, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous wells; however, in most cases, they are believed to represent natural components of groundwater. ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' groundwater monitoring continued at 25 waste management areas during fiscal year 1999: 16 under detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater; 6 under interim status groundwater quality assessment programs to assess contamination; and 2 under final status corrective-action programs. Another site, the 120-D-1 ponds

  16. Comparison of predicted pesticide concentrations in groundwater from SCI-GROW and PRZM-GW models with historical monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Tammara L; Pai, Naresh; Winchell, Michael F

    2016-06-01

    A key factor in the human health risk assessment process for the registration of pesticides by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an estimate of pesticide concentrations in groundwater used for drinking water. From 1997 to 2011, these estimates were obtained from the EPA empirical model SCI-GROW. Since 2012, these estimates have been obtained from the EPA deterministic model PRZM-GW, which has resulted in a significant increase in estimated groundwater concentrations for many pesticides. Historical groundwater monitoring data from the National Ambient Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program (1991-2014) were compared with predicted groundwater concentrations from both SCI-GROW (v.2.3) and PRZM-GW (v.1.07) for 66 different pesticides of varying environmental fate properties. The pesticide environmental fate parameters associated with over- and underprediction of groundwater concentrations by the two models were evaluated. In general, SCI-GROW2.3 predicted groundwater concentrations were close to maximum historically observed groundwater concentrations. However, for pesticides with soil organic carbon content values below 1000 L kg(-1) and no simulated hydrolysis, PRZM-GW overpredicted, often by greater than 100 ppb. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Groundwater monitoring at the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrman, R.; Broberg, K.; Tatro, G.; Richardson, R.; Dasczcyszak, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Regulatory and Environmental Programs (REP) section of the Environment, Safety and Health department (ES ampersand H) is responsible for conducting environmental monitoring at the WIPP. Groundwater monitoring is one of the ongoing environmental activities currently taking place. The REP section includes water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring. The WIPP Project is a research and development facility designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated TRU and mixed waste in a geologic repository. The Salado Formation of Permian age serves as the repository medium. The Salado Formation consists of bedded salt and associated evaporites. The formation is 602 meters thick at the site area; the top surface is located at a subsurface depth of 262 meters (10). The repository lies at a subsurface depth of 655 meters. Water-quality sampling for physical, chemical, and radiological parameters has been an ongoing activity at the WIPP site for the past six years, and will continue through the life of the project. Data collected from this program to date, has been used by Sandia National Laboratories for site characterization and performance assessment work. The data has also been used to establish a baseline of preoperational radiological and nonradiological groundwater quality. Once the facility begins receiving waste, this baseline will be used to determine if the WIPP facility influences or alters groundwater quality over time. The water quality of a well is determined while the well is continuously pumped. Serial samples of the pumped water are collected and tested for pH, Eh, temperature, specific gravity, specific conductivity, alkalinity, chlorides, divalent cations, ferrous iron, and total iron. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J. [and others

    1999-03-24

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year (FY) 1998 on the Word Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction in the 200-West Area removed 777 kg of carbon tetrachloride in FY 1998, for a total of 75,490 kg removed since remediation began in 1992. Spectral gamma logging and evaluation of historical gross gamma logs near tank farms and liquid-disposal sites in the 200 Areas provided information on movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1997 and June 1998. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. One well completed in the basalt-confined aquifer beneath the 200-East Area exceeded the drinking water standard for technetium-99. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-l, Z-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded its maximum contaminant level in several wells in the 300 Area for the first time since the 1980s. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous

  19. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  20. Workshop on methods for siting groundwater monitoring wells: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E.

    1992-02-01

    The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify methods for the optimum siting of groundwater monitoring wells to minimize the number required that will provide statistically and physically representative samples. In addition, the workshop served to identify information and data gaps, stimulated discussion and provided an opportunity for exchange of ideas between regulators and scientists interested in siting groundwater monitoring wells. These proceedings should serve these objectives and provide a source of relevant information which may be used to evaluate the current state of development of methods for siting groundwater monitoring wells and the additional research needs. The proceedings contain the agenda and list of attendees in the first section. The abstract and viewgraphs for each presentation are given in the second section. For several presentations, abstracts and viewgraphs were not received. After the presentations, four working groups were organized and met for approximately a day. The working group leaders then gave a verbal summary of their sessions. This material was transcribed and is included in the next section of these proceedings. The appendices contain forms describing various methods discussed in the working groups

  1. Integrated site investigation and groundwater monitoring in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherl, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding groundwater dynamics around cities and other areas of human influence is of crucial importance for water resource management and protection, especially in a time of environmental and societal change. The human environment presents a unique challenge in terms of hydrological characterization, as the water cycle is generally artificialized and emissions of treated waste and chemical products into the surface- and groundwater system tend to disrupt the natural aqueous signature in significant ways. This project presents an integrated approach for robust characterization and monitoring of an urban aquifer which is actively exploited for municipal water supply. The study is carried out in the town of Fehraltorf, in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. This particular town encompasses industrial and agricultural zones in addition to its standard urban setting. A minimal amount of data exist at this site, and the data that do exist are spatially and temporally sparse. Making use of traditional hydrogeological methods alongside evolving and emerging technologies, we aim to identify sources of contamination and to define groundwater flow and solute transport through space and time. Chemical and physical indicator parameters are identified for tracing contaminations including micropollutants and plant nutrients. Wireless sensors are installed for continuous on-line monitoring of essential parameters (electrical conductivity, temperature, water level). A wireless sensor network has previously been installed in the sewer system of the study site, facilitating investigation into interactions between sewer water and groundwater. Our approach illustrates the relations between land use, climate, rainfall dynamics, and the groundwater signature through time. At its conclusion, insights gained from this study will be used by municipal authorities to refine protective zones around pumping wells and to direct resources towards updating practices and replacing

  2. Groundwater monitoring of an open-pit limestone quarry: groundwater characteristics, evolution and their connections to rock slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eang, Khy Eam; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Fujinaga, Ryota; Kondo, Megumi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar

    2018-03-06

    Groundwater flow and its geochemical evolution in mines are important not only in the study of contaminant migration but also in the effective planning of excavation. The effects of groundwater on the stability of rock slopes and other mine constructions especially in limestone quarries are crucial because calcite, the major mineral component of limestone, is moderately soluble in water. In this study, evolution of groundwater in a limestone quarry located in Chichibu city was monitored to understand the geochemical processes occurring within the rock strata of the quarry and changes in the chemistry of groundwater, which suggests zones of deformations that may affect the stability of rock slopes. There are three distinct geological formations in the quarry: limestone layer, interbedded layer of limestone and slaty greenstone, and slaty greenstone layer as basement rock. Although the hydrochemical facies of all groundwater samples were Ca-HCO 3 type water, changes in the geochemical properties of groundwater from the three geological formations were observed. In particular, significant changes in the chemical properties of several groundwater samples along the interbedded layer were observed, which could be attributed to the mixing of groundwater from the limestone and slaty greenstone layers. On the rainy day, the concentrations of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - in the groundwater fluctuated notably, and the groundwater flowing along the interbedded layer was dominated by groundwater from the limestone layer. These suggest that groundwater along the interbedded layer may affect the stability of rock slopes.

  3. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported

  4. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  5. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-21

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) began its environmental investigations at Everest, Kansas, in 2000. The work at Everest is implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The results of the environmental investigations have been reported in detail (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The lateral extent of the carbon tetrachloride in groundwater over the years of investigation has been interpreted as shown in Figure 1.1 (2001-2002 data), Figure 1.2 (2006 data), Figure 1.3 (2008 data), and Figure 1.4 (2009 data). The pattern of groundwater flow and inferred contaminant migration has consistently been to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property (e.g., Figure 1.5 [2008 data] and Figure 1.6 [2009 data]). Both the monitoring data for carbon tetrachloride and the low groundwater flow rates estimated for the Everest aquifer unit (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b, 2008) indicate slow contaminant migration. On the basis of the accumulated findings, in March 2009 the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water. This current monitoring plan (Appendix A in the report of monitoring in 2009 [Argonne 2010]) was approved by the KDHE (2009a). Under this plan, the monitoring wells are sampled by the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities are consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. The first annual sampling event under the new monitoring plan took place in April 2009. The results of analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements were consistent with previous observations (Figures 1.1-1.4). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface

  6. Groundwater monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrman, R.; Broberg, K.; Tatro, G.; Richardson, R.; Dasczcyszak, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GPM) being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Regulatory and Environmental Programs (REP) section of the Environment, Safety and Health department (ES ampersand H) is responsible for conducting environmental monitoring at the WIPP. Groundwater monitoring is one of the ongoing environmental activities currently taking place. The REP section includes water quality sampling and water level monitoring. The WIPP Project is a research and develop facility designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated waste in a geologic repository. Water quality sampling for physical, chemical, and radiological parameters has been an ongoing activity at the WIPP site for the past six years, and will continue through the life of the project. The water quality of a well is sampled while the well is continuously pumped. Serial samples of the pumped water are collected and tested for pH, Eh, temperature, specific gravity, specific conductivity, alkalinity, chlorides, divalent cations, ferrous iron, and total iron. Stabilization of serial sampling parameters determined if a representative sample is being obtained, Representative samples are sent to contract laboratories and analyzed for general chemistry, major cations and anions, and radionuclides. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Data verification and evaluation techniques for groundwater monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, T.M.; Turner, R.R.

    1990-12-01

    To ensure that data resulting from groundwater monitoring programs are of the quality required to fulfill program objectives, it is suggested that a program of data verification and evaluation be implemented. These procedures are meant to supplement and support the existing laboratory quality control/quality assurance programs by identifying aberrant data resulting from a variety of unforeseen circumstances: sampling problems, data transformations in the lab, data input at the lab, data transfer, end-user data input. Using common-sense principles, pattern recognition techniques, and hydrogeological principles, a computer program was written which scans the data for suspected abnormalities and produces a text file stating sample identifiers, the suspect data, and a statement of how the data has departed from the expected. The techniques described in this paper have been developed to support the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan

  8. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB 2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB 1 , (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters

  9. Groundwater monitoring plan: 200 Areas treated effluent disposal facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-04-01

    This groundwater monitoring plan provides information that supports the US Department of Energy's application (DOE-RL 1994) for waste water discharge permit No. WA-ST-4502 from the State of Washington, under the auspices of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The monitoring plan has two functions: (1) to summarize the results of a 3-yr characterization of the current hydrogeology and groundwater quality of the discharge site and (2) to provide plans for evaluating the effects of the facility's operation on groundwater quality and document compliance with applicable groundwater quality standards. Three wells were drilled to define the stratigraphy, evaluate sediment characteristics, and establish a groundwater monitoring net work for the discharge facility. These wells monitor groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient in the uppermost aquifer. This report proposes plans for continuing the monitoring of groundwater quality and aquifer characteristics after waste water discharges begin

  10. Unrestricted release measurements with ambient air ionization monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Gunn, R.; Dockray, T.; Luff, C.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation monitoring systems based on the long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique, such as the BNFL Instruments IonSens trademark, provide a single contamination measurement for an entire object rather than the more familiar individual readings for smaller surface areas. The LRAD technique relies on the ionization of ambient air molecules by alpha particles, and the subsequent detection of these ions, rather than direct detection of the alpha particles themselves. A single monitor can detect all of the ions produced over a large object and report a total contamination level for the entire surface of that object. However, both the unrestricted release limits specified in USDOE Order 5400.5 (and similar documents in other countries), and the definitions of radioactive waste categories, are stated in terms of contamination per area. Thus, conversion is required between the total effective contamination as measured by the LRAD-based detector and the allowable release limits. In addition, since the release limits were not written assuming an averaging detector system, the method chosen to average the assumed contamination over the object can have a significant impact on the effective sensitivity of the detector

  11. Monitoring and modelling terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, G.; Balderacchi, M.; Ferrari, F.; Capri, E.; Trevisan, M.

    2009-04-01

    Protection of ground and surface water quality is critical to human health and environmental quality, as well as economic viability. The presence of contaminants in groundwater is a common phenomenon and derives from many anthropogenic activities. Among these activities most likely to pollute water resources are the use of fertilizers, pesticides, application of livestock, poultry manure, and urban sludge. Therefore, agriculture results to be a significant contributor to diffuse and point sources of groundwater contamination. A study was carried out from April 2005 until December 2007 in order to monitor the concentrations of the herbicide terbuthylazine and one of its metabolite, desethyl-terbuthylazine in shallow groundwater. Terbuthylazine is a widely used herbicide for pre-emergence and post-emergence weed control in several crops. The monitoring study was performed in different Italian areas representative of maize crop. These areas resulted to be in the north of Italy, in the Po Valley area. Inside these representative areas a total of eleven farms were identified; each farm had a plot extended for about 10 hectares, cultivated with maize according to normal agricultural practices, with slope not exceeding 5%, uniform direction of groundwater flow, absence of superficial water bodies. In order to sample groundwater, each plot was equipped with four couples of piezometers. Groundwater samplings were carried out every two months. The results showed that the concentrations of both compounds were in general low, except in a couple of sites, and especially in June and August, the months which follow the treatment, and in October and December, usually rainy months. In general metabolite concentrations were higher than the parent compound. On one hand a monitoring approach is helpful in order to understand the behaviour of a compound in real conditions; however, on the other hand it gives only an instant picture of the present situation without any prevision about

  12. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.S.; Hartman, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  14. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year

  16. Groundwater monitoring procedures and evaluation at Nabarlek, N.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grounds, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Queensland Mines Limited operates a uranium extraction plant at Nabarlek in the Northern Territory. All water used for the ore processing, sewage waters, or waters generated from runoff in the restricted release zone are contained within water storage structures. Water can only be removed from these structures by evaporation and seepage. The monitoring of the groundwater flow systems adjacent to the plant water management structures is carried out on a regular basis to determine what effects seepage will have both within the operational life of the mine and after mining and rehabilitation have ceased

  17. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9142-1] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air...

  18. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9476-7] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air...

  19. 75 FR 30022 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9156-1] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air...

  20. Cost Effective Instrumentation for Developing Autonomous Groundwater Monitoring Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, T. M.; Garmire, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Despite a relatively poor understanding of Hawaiian groundwater systems, the State of Hawaii depends almost exclusively on groundwater for its public water supply. Ike Wai, an NSF funded project (EPSCoR Program Award OIA #1557349) at the University of Hawaii, aims to develop new groundwater models for Hawaii's aquifers, including water quality and transport processes. To better understand aquifer properties such as capacity and hydraulic conductivity, we are developing well-monitoring instruments that can autonomously record water parameters such as conductivity, temperature, and hydraulic head level, with sampling frequencies on the order of minutes. We are currently exploring novel methods and materials for solving classical design problems, such as applying dielectric spectroscopy techniques for measuring salinity, and using recycled materials for producing custom cable assemblies. System components are fabricated in house using rapid prototyping (e.g. 3D printing, circuit board milling, and laser cutting), and traditional manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to produce custom components while minimizing development cost, and maximizing flexibility in the overall system's design.

  1. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This progress report for fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary fro the Savannah River Plant includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  2. Design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for the management of hazardous waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an important technical requirement in managing hazardous waste disposal facilities. The purpose of monitoring is to assess whether and how a disposal facility is affecting the underlying groundwater system. This paper focuses on the regulatory and technical aspects of the design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for hazardous waste disposal facilities. Such facilities include surface impoundments, landfills, waste piles, and land treatment facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs

  3. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  4. Fiscal Year 2005 Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Performance Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, JoAnne T.; Hartman, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored in hundreds of wells at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of requirements. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various purposes, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users. DOE manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Performance Assessment Project, which is the responsibility of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The groundwater project integrates monitoring for various objectives into a single sampling schedule to avoid redundancy of effort and to improve efficiency of sample collection.This report documents the purposes and objectives of groundwater monitoring at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State

  5. Contaminants of emerging concern in ambient groundwater in urbanized areas of Minnesota, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melinda L.; Langer, Susan K.; Roth, Jason L.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    A study of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in ambient groundwater in urbanized areas of Minnesota was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. For this study, water samples were collected from November 2009 through June 2012 from 118 wells located in different land-use settings. The sampled wells primarily were screened in vulnerable sand and gravel aquifers (surficial and buried glacial aquifers) or vulnerable bedrock aquifers such as the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. Sampled well depths ranged from 9 to 285 feet below land surface. Water samples were collected by Minnesota Pollution Control Agency staff. The water samples were analyzed at U.S. Geological Survey laboratories for steroidal hormones, human-use pharmaceutical compounds, human- and animal-use antibiotics, and a broad suite of organic chemicals associated with wastewater. Reported detections were censored and not counted as detections in the data analyses if the chemical was detected in a laboratory or field blank at a similar concentration.

  6. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period April 1, 1993 through June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungers, D.K.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Project management, specifying data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, managing data, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between May 24 and August 20, 1993, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from samples collected during the April through June quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  7. Annual Report of Groundwater Monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In March 2009, the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water (Argonne 2009). Under this plan, approved by the KDHE (2009), monitoring wells are sampled by using the low-flow procedure, and surface water samples are collected at five locations along the intermittent creek. Vegetation sampling is conducted as a secondary indicator of plume migration. Results of annual sampling in 2009-2011 for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements (Argonne 2010a, 2011a,b) were consistent with previous observations (Argonne 2003, 2006a,d, 2008). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface water of the intermittent creek or in tree branch samples collected at locations along the creek banks. This report presents the results of the fourth annual sampling event, conducted in 2012.

  8. Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report fourth quarter, 1996. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Project Rulison, a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, was conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability, gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface. This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1996 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The sampling was performed as part of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to monitor the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond located at the site. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test.

  9. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  10. Standard audit procedure for continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The instruments were published in an operational policy manual in 2009. This policy aims to introduce standard audit criteria that can be used to determine if continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring devices are operating within acceptable parameters. Before delivering upscale points of the instrument to be audited, each one of the audit equipment used in the field is required to be at normal operating conditions. Before the beginning of the audit, each one of the meteorological and flow measurement equipment is required to be conditioned to current conditions. If the audit fails, the instrument will have to be audited quarterly. The establishment of specific procedures based on instrument manufacturer or certifying body operational standards is required in the case of non-continuous monitoring instruments presenting operational principles outside of the audit procedures listed in the document.

  11. A study of groundwater monitoring data analysis using Artificial Neural Network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kunio; Gautam, M.R.; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2003-05-01

    The results of groundwater flow modeling are to be justified using groundwater monitoring data in the hydrogeological characterization. On the other hand, hydraulic continuities of the geological structures, all of which are considered to have great effect on groundwater flow and/or groundwater quality, are to be estimated using the groundwater flow monitoring data with hydraulic response to some impacts such as borehole drilling, pumping test and so on. Therefore, the groundwater monitoring is important for characterizing the geological and hydrogeological environments. In order to characterize of hydrogeological environment using the monitoring data, it is important to evaluate the influence of artificial and natural impact on the monitoring data. In this study, the following three research works are carried out based on the groundwater monitoring data collected at the Tono area. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was adopted as the tool for monitoring data analysis. Runoff analysis for assessment of importance of soil moisture on runoff estimation in a catchment. Analysis of water level fluctuation for determination influence factors in the water level fluctuation and for filtering out the influence factors from the water level data . Analysis of hydraulic pressure fluctuation in deep geological formations for hydrogeological characterization and assessment of human influence on the pore pressure in deep formation. Through this study, applicability of ANN for analysis and interpretation of the groundwater monitoring data could be confirmed and methodology for utilization the monitoring data for understanding and characterization of hydrogeological environment could be developed. (author)

  12. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells

  14. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the 216-S-10 Pond and Ditch, Interim Change Notice 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    During 2003, the upgradient well 299-W26-7 went dry and one new groundwater monitoring well was installed downgradient (well 299-W26-14) of the 216-S-10 pond and ditch. This ICN updates the groundwater monitoring wells for the 216-S-10 pond and ditch and adds a revised well location map to the plan

  15. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task

  16. Composite use of numerical groundwater flow modeling and geoinformatics techniques for monitoring Indus Basin aquifer, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz

    2011-02-01

    The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area.

  17. Review of Small Commercial Sensors for Indicative Monitoring of Ambient Gas

    OpenAIRE

    ALEIXANDRE Manuel; GERBOLES Michel

    2012-01-01

    The traditional ambient gases monitor stations are expensive, big and of complex operation. So they are not suitable for a network of sensors that cover large areas. To cover large areas these traditional systems algorithms usually interpolates the measurements to calculate the gas concentrations in points far away of the physical sensors. Small commercial sensors represent a big opportunity for making sensor networks that monitor the ambient gases within large areas w...

  18. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period October 1 through December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and open-quotes Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilitiesclose quotes (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 265), as amended. Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. The location of each facility is shown. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Performing project management, preparing groundwater monitoring plans, well network design and installation, specifying groundwater data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, data management, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between October and December 1994, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the October through December quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported

  19. Sampling and Analysis Plan Update for Groundwater Monitoring 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DR Newcomer

    1999-01-01

    This document updates the sampling and analysis plan (Department of Energy/Richland Operations--95-50) to reflect current groundwater monitoring at the 1100-EM-1Operable Unit. Items requiring updating included sampling and analysis protocol, quality assurance and quality control, groundwater level measurement procedure, and data management. The plan covers groundwater monitoring, as specified in the 1993 Record of Decision, during the 5-year review period from 1995 through 1999. Following the 5-year review period, groundwater-monitoring data will be reviewed by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the progress of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene. Monitored natural attenuation and institutional controls for groundwater use at the inactive Horn Rapids Landfill was the selected remedy specified in the Record of Decision

  20. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    In Taiwan, rapid economic growth, rising standards of living, and an altered societal structure have in recent years put severe demands on water supplies. Because of its stable quantity and quality, groundwater has long been a reliable source of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial users, but the establishment of a management program that integrates groundwater and surface-water use has been hampered by the lack of groundwater data. In 1992, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) initiated a program entitled "Groundwater Monitoring Network Plan in Taiwan." Under this program, basic groundwater data, including water-level and water-quality data, are being collected, and a reliable database is being established for the purpose of managing total water resources. This paper introduces the goals, implementation stages, and scope of that plan. The plan calls for constructing 517 hydrogeologic survey stations and 990 groundwater monitoring wells within 17 years. Under this program, water-level fluctuations are continuously monitored, whereas water-quality samples are taken for analysis only at the initial drilling stage and, subsequently, at the time when a monitoring well is being serviced. In 1996, the DWR and the Water Resources Planning Commission were merged to form today's Water Resources Bureau. Résumé A Taïwan, l'expansion économique rapide, l'amélioration des conditions de vie et la transformation de la structure sociale ont provoqué, ces dernières années, une très forte demande en eau. Du fait de sa constance en qualité et en quantité, l'eau souterraine a longtemps été considérée comme une ressource en eau sûre pour les usages domestiques, agricoles et industriels. Mais la mise en place d'un programme de gestion intégrant les utilisations d'eaux souterraines et de surface a été gênée par l'absence de données sur les eaux souterraines. En 1992, le Département des Ressources en Eau a lancé le programme "Plan pour un réseau de

  1. Monitoring and Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Vegetation Health in Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, M. M.; Ulrich, C.; Howard, J.; Sweet, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater management is important for preserving our economy, society, and environment. Groundwater supports important habitat throughout California, by providing a reliable source of water for these Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDEs). Groundwater is particularly important in California since it supplies an additional source of water during the dry summer months and periods of drought. The drought and unsustainable pumping practices have, in some areas, lowered groundwater levels causing undesirable results to ecosystems. The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act requires local agencies to avoid undesirable results in the future, but the location and vulnerabilities of the ecosystems that depend on groundwater and interconnected surface water is often poorly understood. This presentation will feature results from a research study conducted by The Nature Conservancy and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that investigated how changes in groundwater availability along an interconnected surface water body can impact the overall health of GDEs. This study was conducted in California's Central Valley along the Cosumnes River, and situated at the boundary of a high and a medium groundwater basin: South American Basin (Sacramento Hydrologic Region) and Cosumnes Basin (San Joaquin Hydrologic Region). By employing geophysical methodology (electrical resistivity tomography) in this study, spatial changes in groundwater availability were determined under groundwater-dependent vegetation. Vegetation survey data were also applied to this study to develop ecosystem health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation. Health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation were found to directly correlate with groundwater availability, such that greater availability to groundwater resulted in healthier vegetation. This study provides a case study example on how to use hydrological and biological data for setting appropriate minimum thresholds and

  2. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during third quarter 1994. Sixty-four (51%) of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 22 (18%) wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during third quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during second quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was elevated in only one well during second quarter 1994, was elevated again during third quarter. Mercury, which was elevated during first quarter 1994, was elevated again in one well. Dichloromethane was elevated in two wells for the first time in several quarters

  3. Temporal trend analysis of RCRA groundwater monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Need, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Statistical analysis of RCRA groundwater monitoring data at a uranium hexafluoride processing facility showed a statistically significant increase in the concentration of gross beta activity in monitor wells downgradient of surface impounds storing calcium fluoride sludge and high pH water. Because evidence of leakage had not been detected in lysimeters installed beneath the impounds, the operator sought an evaluation of other potential causes of the result, including natural variability. This study determined that all five data sets showed either long-term excursionary (spike-like), or seasonal forms of temporal variation. Gross beta had an upward long-term trend with multiple excursions that almost appeared to be seasonal. Gross alpha had an upward long-term trend with multiple excursions that were clearly not seasonal. Specific conductance had both upward and downward long-term trends but no other variations. pH had a downward long-term trend with multiple excursions that were clearly not seasonal. Fluoride had a downward long-term trend without excursions but with clear seasonal variations. The gross beta result that appeared to be a significant change was a spike event on the upward long-term trend

  4. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  5. 77 FR 64244 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... characterization of NO 2 exposure for susceptible and vulnerable populations.\\3\\ The EPA Regional Administrators... demands of funding other new and expanded monitoring networks, including the source and population lead... NO 2 monitors which are the second near-road NO 2 monitor in any CBSA with a population of 2,500,000...

  6. Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    seepage is occurring in a freshwater lake environment and to map the lateral extent of any subsurface contamination at the groundwater –surface water ...and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface August 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  8. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DB Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  9. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure

  10. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  12. Using Geoscience and Geostatistics to Optimize Groundwater Monitoring Networks at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    A team of scientists, engineers, and statisticians was assembled to review the operation efficiency of groundwater monitoring networks at US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Subsequent to a feasibility study, this team selected and conducted an analysis of the A/M area groundwater monitoring well network. The purpose was to optimize the number of groundwater wells requisite for monitoring the plumes of the principal constituent of concern, viz., trichloroethylene (TCE). The project gathered technical expertise from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), the Environmental Restoration Division (ERD), and the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of SRS

  13. First and second quarters 1999 - TNX Area groundwater and effectiveness monitoring strategy data only report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents data of groundwater monitoring conducted during the first and second quarters of 1999 in support of the Interim Remedial Action. The data is from groundwater monitoring wells described in this report as the primary, secondary, and recovery wells of the initial operation of the Effectiveness Monitoring Strategy (EMS) as stipulated in Revision 1.3 (WSRC, 1996), the proposed wells for the full operation of the EMS as described in Revision 1.5 (WSRC, 1999), and general wells pertinent to the report. Also included are data from SRTC projects in the TNX Area that are deemed useful for groundwater characterization

  14. Monitoring groundwater quality in South-Africa: Development of a national strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, R

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the temporal distribution of groundwater quality on a national scale in South Africa. The effective management of the country's groundwater resources is thus difficult and a need exists for a national network for monitoring...

  15. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B

  16. Citizen participatory dioxin monitoring campaign by pine needles as biomonitor of ambient air dioxin pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komichi, I.; Takatori, A. [Environmental Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Environment and Informations; Vrzic, B. [Maxxam Analytics Inc. HRMS Laboratory, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The needle-type leaves of Japanese black pine trees (hereafter abbreviated as pine needles) have been used as an effective bio-monitor of ambient air pollution. Miyata Laboratory of Setsunan University has reported that the pine needles accumulate PCDDs and PCDFs (hereafter abbreviated as D/F) through photosynthesis and respiration during their lifetime. On the basis of this study, we have revealed the correlation between ambient air and pine needle concentrations to be estimated at or near 1:10 by analyzing long term continuous ambient dioxin monitoring data and that of pine needles sampled from the same area as ambient air in the Kanagawa Prefecture in 1999. Since then, the citizen groups of each local area all over Japan have started monitoring the ambient air dioxin concentration levels by using pine needles. Samples analyzed during these 5 years totaled more than 650 throughout Japan. The results of these citizen participatory environmental monitoring activities are the tremendous effects achieved in reducing the dioxin levels. This occurs through observation of the dioxin emission sources such as Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plants as well as the Industrial Waste Incineration plants, which exist in numbers exceeding several thousands in Japan. This short paper will present the results of 56 municipalities of western Japan where ambient air dioxin levels have improved steadily against local averages during these 5 years.

  17. Technical note: Guide to groundwater monitoring for the coal industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that the environmental impacts associated with the coal industry are numerous. In respect of South Africa's groundwater resources the major impact of the coal industry is a reduction in groundwater quantity and quality. There is therefore a need to proactively prevent or minimise these ...

  18. Quarterly RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Data for the Period July through September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2007-02-01

    This report provides information about RCRA groundwater monitoring for the period July through September 2006. Eighteen Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites were sampled during the reporting quarter.

  19. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  20. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Gnome-Coach (Gnome) Site in New Mexico (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring consisted of collecting hydraulic head data and groundwater samples from the wells on site. Historically, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had conducted these annual activities under the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP). LM took over the sampling and data collection activities in 2008 but continues to use the EPA Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, to analyze the water samples. This report summarizes groundwater monitoring and site investigation activities that were conducted at the site during calendar year 2010.

  1. Incorporation of GRACE Data into a Bayesian Model for Groundwater Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.; Porter, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater drought, defined as the sustained occurrence of below average availability of groundwater, is marked by below average water levels in aquifers and reduced flows to groundwater-fed rivers and wetlands. The impact of groundwater drought on ecosystems, agriculture, municipal water supply, and the energy sector is an increasingly important global issue. However, current drought monitors heavily rely on precipitation and vegetative stress indices to characterize the timing, duration, and severity of drought events. The paucity of in situ observations of aquifer levels is a substantial obstacle to the development of systems to monitor groundwater drought in drought-prone areas, particularly in developing countries. Observations from the NASA/German Space Agency's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been used to estimate changes in groundwater storage over areas with sparse point measurements. This study incorporates GRACE total water storage observations into a Bayesian framework to assess the performance of a probabilistic model for monitoring groundwater drought based on remote sensing data. Overall, it is hoped that these methods will improve global drought preparedness and risk reduction by providing information on groundwater drought necessary to manage its impacts on ecosystems, as well as on the agricultural, municipal, and energy sectors.

  2. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  3. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  4. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  5. Ambient radioactivity monitoring V: Marine environment, fish and marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, C.; Kanisch, G.

    1996-01-01

    The sea, originally thought to have an almost unlimited capacity of uptake of pollutants due to its water volumes available for dilution, was shown by growing insight into the physical, chemical and ecologic interdependencies to be a sensitive ecosystem. Its limits to cope with growing pollution are increasingly becoming clear, and this is a particular reason to perform radioactivity monitoring of the sea water, as radioactivity is transferred to the marine organisms. Organisms selected for monitoring are fish and crustaceans. (orig.) [de

  6. Groundwater monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents groundwater monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in groundwater beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define groundwater contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Confronting this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  7. Ambient environmental radiation monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H.; Toy, A.J.; Sundbeck, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry is the principal means of measuring ambient γ radiation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. These dosimeters are used at 12 perimeter locations and 41 locations in the off-site vicinity of the Laboratory, and are exchanged quarterly. Control dosimeters are stored in a 75-mm-thick lead shield located out-of-doors to duplicate temperature cycling of field dosimeters. Effect of dosimeter response to radiation in the shield is determined each quarter. Calibration irradiations are made midway through the exposure cycle to compensate for signal fading. Terrestrial exposure rates calculated from the activities of naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium in Livermore Valley soils vary from 3 to 7 μR/hr. Local inferred exposure rates from cosmic radiation are approximately 4 μR/hr. TLD measurements are in good agreement with these data. Off-site and site perimeter data are compared, and differences related to Laboratory operations are discussed

  8. Monitoring effects of river restoration on groundwater with radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    The restoration of the perialpine river Toess in a floodplain of northern Switzerland (Linsental) included the removal of bank reinforcements and tracer studies in the river and in oberservation wells of the adjacent alluvial groundwater. The river water is continuously recharging the aquifer system and the groundwater is used extensively as drinking water. Radon activity concentrations of freshly infiltrated groundwater are interpreted as radon groundwater age between the river and a well. A first flood after the restoration operations resulted in a widening of the river bed and in a reduction of the flow distance to the wells. Sixteen days after a second flood, the results of radon measurements were compared with those from before the restoration. The radon age of the groundwater between the river and the wells decreased, probably as a result of the reduction of the flow distances. Concentrations of autochthonous and coliform bacteria increased after the restoration operation and even more one day after the first flood. Thus the findings on the bacteria corroborate the interpretation of the radon concentrations. The restoration has not yet reduced the quality of the groundwater, which is pumped for drinking water. The study is contributing to the solution of land-use conflicts between river restoration and the supply of drinking water from the alluvial groundwater. (orig.) [de

  9. Experiences of Mass Pig Carcass Disposal Related to Groundwater Quality Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yei Hseu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pig industry is the most crucial animal industry in Taiwan; 10.7 million pigs were reared for consumption in 1996. A foot and mouth disease (FMD epidemic broke out on 19 March 1997, and 3,850,536 pigs were culled before July in the same year. The major disposal method of pig carcasses from the FMD outbreak was burial, followed by burning and incineration. To investigate groundwater quality, environmental monitoring of burial sites was performed from October 1997 to June 1999; groundwater monitoring of 90–777 wells in 20 prefectures was performed wo to six times in 1998. Taiwanese governmental agencies analyzed 3723 groundwater samples using a budget of US $1.5 million. The total bacterial count, fecal coliform, Salmonella spp., nitrite-N, nitrate-N, ammonium-N, sulfate, non-purgeable organic carbon, total oil, and total dissolved solid were recognized as indicators of groundwater contamination resulting from pig carcass burial. Groundwater at the burial sites was considered to be contaminated on the basis of the aforementioned indicators, particularly groundwater at burial sites without an impermeable cloth and those located at a relatively short distance from the monitoring well. The burial sites selected during outbreaks in Taiwan should have a low surrounding population, be away from water preservation areas, and undergo regular monitoring of groundwater quality.

  10. Quality assurance and quality control for Hydro-Quebec's ambient air monitoring networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.; Varfalvy, L.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro Quebec has three ambient air monitoring networks to determine the contribution of some of its thermal plants to ambient air quality. They are located in Becancour (gas turbines), Iles-de-la-Madeleine (diesel), and Tracy (conventional oil-fired). To ensure good quality results and consistency between networks, a quality assurance/quality control program was set up. A description is presented of the ambient air quality monitoring network and the quality assurance/quality control program. A guide has been created for use by the network operators, discussing objectives of the individual network, a complete description of each network, field operation for each model of instrument in use, treatment of data for each data logger in use, global considerations regarding quality assurance and control, and reports. A brief overview is presented of the guide's purpose and contents, focusing on the field operation section and the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide monitors. 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. R-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R Area: Well cluster P20 east of R Area (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-Area Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-Area Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-Area Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50μg/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells

  12. Low-cost sensors to monitor groundwater drought in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Caniglia, D.; Haibe, K.; Butler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world, devastated by conflict and suffering from the most severe droughts in living memory. Over 6 million people are in need of assistance, and about 3 million are threatened with famine. In April 2017, the WHO estimated that more than 25,000 people have been struck by cholera or acute watery diarrhoea and this number is rising quickly. About half a million Somalis have been displaced internally, many of which in search of water. Some 3 million pastoralists have lost 70% of livestock as a result of the drought. Humanitarian organisations and government agencies invest large amounts of resources to alleviate these conditions. It is paramount to inform the design, focus, and optimisation of these interventions by monitoring and quantifying water resources. Yet, regions such as Somalia are extremely sparsely gauged as a result of a combination of lack of resources and technical expertise, as well as the harsh geographical and geopolitical conditions. Low-cost, robust, and reliable sensors may provide a potential solution to this problem. We present the results of a research project that aimed to leverage new developments in sensor, logger, and data transmission technologies to develop low-cost water level sensors to monitor hand-dug groundwater wells in real time. We tested 3 types of sensor types, i.e. pressure transducers, ultrasound-based distance sensors, and lidar, which were coupled to low-cost logging systems. The different designs were tested both in laboratory conditions, and in-situ in hand-dug wells in Somaliland. Our results show that it is technically possible to build sensors with a total cost of around US$250 each, which are fit-for-purpose for the required application. In-situ deployment over a period of 2 months highlights their robustness despite severe logistical and practical challenges, though further tests are required to understand their long-term reliability. Operating the sensors at one

  13. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.H.; Eberhart, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications

  14. Calendar Year 1999 Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Groundwater Protection Program, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the calendar year (CY) 1999 groundwater and surface water quality monitoring data that were obtained at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in accordance with the applicable requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring for the purposes of DOE Order 5400.1, as defined in the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1996), includes site surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Site surveillance monitoring is intended to provide data regarding groundwater/surface water quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by operations at the Y-12 Plant. Exit pathway/perimeter monitoring is intended to provide data regarding groundwater and surface water quality where contaminants from the Y-12 Plant are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

  15. BOES: Building Occupancy Estimation System using sparse ambient vibration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Bonde, Amelie; Jing, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a room-level building occupancy estimation system (BOES) utilizing low-resolution vibration sensors that are sparsely distributed. Many ubiquitous computing and building maintenance systems require fine-grained occupancy knowledge to enable occupant centric services and optimize space and energy utilization. The sensing infrastructure support for current occupancy estimation systems often requires multiple intrusive sensors per room, resulting in systems that are both costly to deploy and difficult to maintain. To address these shortcomings, we developed BOES. BOES utilizes sparse vibration sensors to track occupancy levels and activities. Our system has three major components. 1) It extracts features that distinguish occupant activities from noise prone ambient vibrations and detects human footsteps. 2) Using a sequence of footsteps, the system localizes and tracks individuals by observing changes in the sequences. It uses this tracking information to identify when an occupant leaves or enters a room. 3) The entering and leaving room information are combined with detected individual location information to update the room-level occupancy state of the building. Through validation experiments in two different buildings, our system was able to achieve 99.55% accuracy for event detection, less than three feet average error for localization, and 85% accuracy in occupancy counting.

  16. A combined geostatistical-optimization model for the optimal design of a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosionis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring networks provide essential information for water resources management especially in areas with significant groundwater exploitation due to extensive agricultural activities. In this work, a simulation-optimization framework is developed based on heuristic optimization methodologies and geostatistical modeling approaches to obtain an optimal design for a groundwater quality monitoring network. Groundwater quantity and quality data obtained from 43 existing observation locations at 3 different hydrological periods in Mires basin in Crete, Greece will be used in the proposed framework in terms of Regression Kriging to develop the spatial distribution of nitrates concentration in the aquifer of interest. Based on the existing groundwater quality mapping, the proposed optimization tool will determine a cost-effective observation wells network that contributes significant information to water managers and authorities. The elimination of observation wells that add little or no beneficial information to groundwater level and quality mapping of the area can be obtain using estimations uncertainty and statistical error metrics without effecting the assessment of the groundwater quality. Given the high maintenance cost of groundwater monitoring networks, the proposed tool could used by water regulators in the decision-making process to obtain a efficient network design that is essential.

  17. Groundwater monitoring programme. A guide for groundwater sampling and analysis. 2. ed.; Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm. Leitfaden fuer Probenahme und Analytik von Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Quality assurance guidelines have been developed and introduced in Baden-Wuerttemberg for groundwater monitoring. The contribution contains the fundamentals and technical guides for sampling and measurement of the Baden-Wuerttemberg groundwater monitoring programme, as well as parameter groups and a preliminary assessment of the methods. [German] Bei der Gewinnung von Umweltdaten sind hohe Anforderungen an die Qualitaet der erhobenen Daten zu stellen. Dies trifft in besonderem Masse gerade auch fuer Grundwasseruntersuchungen zu, da hier haeufig Konzentrationen im Bereich der Nachweisgrenze auftreten. Fuer das Grundwassermessnetz Baden-Wuerttemberg sind qualitaetssichernde Regelungen entwickelt und eingefuehrt worden. In der vorliegenden Zusammenstellung sind die Grundsatzpapiere, bzw. Technischen Anleitungen aus dem Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm Baden-Wuerttemberg fuer die Grundwasserprobennahme sowie zu Messverfahren, Parametergruppen und zur ersten Beurteilung der Messergebnisse enthalten. (orig.)

  18. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  19. The effects of ambient music on simulated anaesthesia monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, P M; Tosh, N; Philp, S; Rudie, J; Watson, M O; Russell, W J

    2005-11-01

    We examined the effect of no music, classical music or rock music on simulated patient monitoring. Twenty-four non-anaesthetist participants with high or low levels of musical training were trained to monitor visual and auditory displays of patients' vital signs. In nine anaesthesia test scenarios, participants were asked every 50-70 s whether one of five vital signs was abnormal and the trend of its direction. Abnormality judgements were unaffected by music or musical training. Trend judgements were more accurate when music was playing (p = 0.0004). Musical participants reported trends more accurately (p = 0.004), and non-musical participants tended to benefit more from music than did the musical participants (p = 0.063). Music may provide a pitch and rhythm standard from which participants can judge changes in vital signs from auditory displays. Nonetheless, both groups reported that it was easier to monitor the patient with no music (p = 0.0001), and easier to rely upon the auditory displays with no music (p = 0.014).

  20. Estimates of ambient groundwater velocity in the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain from single-well tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.; Umari, M.J.; Roback, R.; Earle, John; Darnell, Jon; Farnham, Irene

    2002-01-01

    The saturated alluvium located south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada is expected to serve as the final barrier to radionuclide transport from the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The alluvium will act as a barrier if radionuclides breach the engineered barriers in the repository, move through the unsaturated zone beneath the repository to the water table, and then migrate through saturated volcanic tuffs to the alluvium. Three single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests were conducted between December 2000 and April 2001 in the saturated alluviuni at NC-EWDP-19D1, a Nye County-Early Warning Drilling Program well located about 18 km south of Yucca Mountain. The tests had the objectives of (1) distinguishing between a single- and a dual-porosity conceptual radionuclide transport model for the alluvium, and (2) obtaining estimates of ambient groundwater velocity in the alluvium.

  1. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for a mixed waste storage facility located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This facility has been used since 1973 for storage of mixed wastes, which contain both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans presented here represent revision and expansion of an effort in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 183-H Basins as part of the regulatory compliance effort being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interimstatus facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The program initially implemented for the 183-H Basins was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. This effort, named the RCRA Compliance Ground-Water Monitoring Project for the 183-H Basins, was implemented. A supporting project involving ground-water flow modeling for the area surrounding the 183-H Basins was also initiated during 1985. Those efforts and the results obtained are described in subsequent chapters of this document. 26 refs., 55 figs., 14 tabs

  2. Estudo da especiação de arsênio inorgânico e determinação de arsênio total no monitoramento ambiental da qualidade de águas subterrâneas Determination of total as and inorganic arsenic species for the environmental quality monitoring of groundwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Perobelli Borba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an alternative, fast and robust method, for the determination of total As, As(III and As(V by HG-AAS without the use of prereductants. The method is based on the different rates of arsine formation of the inorganic As species and the effect of As(III in the signal obtained for total As. Groundwater and mineral spiked waters were used to sample preservation evaluation. The method was validated by the determination of As in SRM 1640 and used in the determination of total As and its inorganic species in groundwater samples collected from mines in the Iron Quadrangle - MG.

  3. Groundwater monitoring in the area of open cast Belchatow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimnicki, R.; Soltyk, W.; Derda, M.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Owczarczyk, A.

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater analyses in the area of the open cast lignite mine Belchatow and Szczercow have been continued since 2000. The field work contains analyses of macro- and microion concentrations as well as measurements of tritium, 222 Rn and mean radioactivity ( 40 K). Complementary to these analyses, isotope ratios of δ 34 S/ 32 S and δ 18 O/ 16 O in SO 4 2- ion and δD in water have been investigated. In 2005 samples of water from boreholes and drains in the area of Szczercow open cast were taken and analyzed. It was found that the groundwater was not polluted, its quality and purity being in agreement with the approved groundwater purity standards

  4. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period January 1--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This quarterly report contains data received between January and March 1995, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the January through March quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported. Nineteen Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater monitoring projects are conducted at the Hanford Site. These projects include treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for both solid and liquid waste. The groundwater monitoring programs described in this report comply with the interim-status federal (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulation [CFR] Part 265) and state (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-303-400) regulations. The RCRA projects are monitored under one of three programs: background monitoring, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment.

  5. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the 1301-N, 1324-N/NA, and 1325-N RCRA Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    The 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, the 1324-N Surface Impoundment, and the 1324-NA Percolation Pond, located in the 100 N Area of the Hanford Site, are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The closure plans for these facilities stipulate that groundwater is monitored according to the 100-N Pilot Project: Proposed Consolidated Groundwater Monitoring Program (BHI-00725). This document supplements the consolidated plan by providing information on sampling and analysis protocols, quality assurance, data management, and a conceptual model for the RCRA sites. Monitoring well networks, constituents, and sampling frequency remain the same as in the consolidated plan or the previous groundwater monitoring plan (Hartman 1996)

  6. Monitoring of total suspended air particulate in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of total suspended air particulate in the ambient air of welding, car painting and. V. C. IKAMAISE, I. B. OBIOH, I. E. OFOZIE, F. A. AKEREDOLU. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v7i4.16316.

  7. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ..., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new equivalent method is intended to... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9121-6] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental...

  8. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of these new equivalent methods is intended to... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9285-2] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Four New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  9. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of these new equivalent methods is intended to... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-5] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Two New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental...

  10. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY... equivalent methods, one for measuring concentrations of PM 2.5 , one for measuring concentrations of PM 10...

  11. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-02-09

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan, under RCRA regulations in 40 CFR 265 Subpart F and WAC173-300-400, for the 216-B-63 Trench. This interim status facility is being sampled under detection monitoring criteria and this plan provides current program conditions and requirements.

  12. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program 1991 well installation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report is a summary of the well and environmental soil boring information compiled for the groundwater monitoring program of the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1991. It includes discussion of environmental soil borings, surveying, well installations, abandonments, maintenance, and stabilization

  13. Metallurgical Laboratory (HWMF) Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Units were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab Hazardous Waste Management Facility. This project began in July 1994 and is complete; however, analytical data from these wells are not yet available

  14. Longterm monitoring of ambient dose equivalent rates at aviation altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, B.; Burmeister, S.; Moeller, T.; Scharrenberg, E. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Briese, J. [Deutsche Lufthansa AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Burda, O.; Klages, T.; Langner, F.; Marquardt, J.; Wissmann, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig Germany (Germany); Matthiae, D.; Reitz, G. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Hoehe, 51147 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The complex radiation field at flight altitudes results mainly from the interaction of energetic charged particles with atmospheric molecules and atoms and consists of secondary neutrons, protons, gamma rays, electrons, positrons and muons. Due to the continuous interactions of primary and secondary particles within the atmosphere, the intensity of each component depends on the height. Since the Earth's magnetic field acts as rigidity filter for the charged primary particles, the flux of the primary particles into the atmosphere and the resulting intensity of secondary particles depend on the geomagnetic latitude being highest over the geomagnetic poles. The main primary component consists of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), mainly protons and alpha particles, whose flux is modulated in the heliosphere. Beside this slowly varying galactic component, solar energetic particle events may temporarily increase the intensity of this radiation field. In the frame of the Radiation Monitoring on Board Aircraft (RAMONA) collaboration, three NAVIgation and DOSimetry (NAVIDOS) systems were installed in 2008 and 2009 on board of three Lufthansa Airbus A340 aircraft. They have been maintained since then by the consortium. Two of the NAVIDOS units rely on the DOSimetry TELescopes (DOSTELs), one is based on a LIULIN detector. This unique setup is ideally suited to investigate variations in the radiation field at different flight altitudes and geomagnetic positions and has been used to measure the radiation exposure during the recent extended solar minimum and thereafter. With increasing solar activity in 2010 the measured dose rates have been decreasing. Since these variations depend on the location of the aircraft, a detailed data analysis is required and presented.

  15. Assessment and Monitoring of Nutrient Management in Irrigated Agriculture for Groundwater Quality Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Davis, R.; Smart, D. R.; Brown, P. H.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient fluxes to groundwater have been subject to regulatory assessment and control only in a limited number of countries, including those in the European Union, where the Water Framework Directive requires member countries to manage groundwater basis toward achieving "good status", and California, where irrigated lands will be subject to permitting, stringent nutrient monitoring requirements, and development of practices that are protective of groundwater. However, research activities to rigorously assess agricultural practices for their impact on groundwater have been limited and instead focused on surface water protection. For groundwater-related assessment of agricultural practices, a wide range of modeling tools has been employed: vulnerability studies, nitrogen mass balance assessments, crop-soil-system models, and various statistical tools. These tools are predominantly used to identify high risk regions, practices, or crops. Here we present the development of a field site for rigorous in-situ evaluation of water and nutrient management practices in an irrigated agricultural setting. Integrating groundwater monitoring into agricultural practice assessment requires large research plots (on the order of 10s to 100s of hectares) and multi-year research time-frames - much larger than typical agricultural field research plots. Almonds are among the most common crops in California with intensive use of nitrogen fertilizer and were selected for their high water quality improvement potential. Availability of an orchard site with relatively vulnerable groundwater conditions (sandy soils, water table depth less than 10 m) was also important in site selection. Initial results show that shallow groundwater concentrations are commensurate with nitrogen leaching estimates obtained by considering historical, long-term field nitrogen mass balance and groundwater dynamics.

  16. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.; Stansfield, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either /sup 90/Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites.

  17. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either 90 Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites

  18. Oskarshamn site investigation. Monitoring of shallow groundwater chemistry 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Ulf (Medins Biologi AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    In 2009 sampling of shallow ground water in water wells in soil has been performed in a regular programme at eight sites within the site investigation area at Oskarshamn. The purpose of the activity is to monitor (long term observation) and characterise the shallow ground water in the site investigation area. Some physical and chemical parameters were measured directly in the field but most parameters were analysed at different laboratories. The ground water sampling activity consisted of one programme, chemical programme class 5 (reduced). The large number of sites and parameters analysed have generated a large amount of data, which will later be used for advanced analysis and modelling. In this report the evaluation aims to give a simple overview of the results and to describe the quality of the data sampled 2009. As an addition radon activity was measured at fourteen sites in the area. Seven of these sites were the same as in the regular programme. The results showed a large variation between the wells. The concentrations of major ions and conductivity ranged from low to high or very high values. The concentration of HCO{sub 3} also varied extensively throughout the investigation area, but since the concentrations were above 60 mg/l in most wells the results indicate a good ground water quality with respect to acidification. The concentration of heavy metals and trace elements also varied. High concentration of Pb in some of the wells indicated pollution. Since Pb had a similar relation to Al as most other elements it was argued that high concentrations of lead probably can be explained by the natural composition of minerals within the site investigation area. The ratio of delta18O showed a good relationship with the conductivity. The activity of tritium (3H) was markedly lower in two of the wells. This might be an indication of older groundwater in these wells. The average hydrogen isotope ratio of deuterium (delta2H) varied with similar values in most wells

  19. Oskarshamn site investigation. Monitoring of shallow groundwater chemistry 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Ulf

    2010-06-01

    In 2009 sampling of shallow ground water in water wells in soil has been performed in a regular programme at eight sites within the site investigation area at Oskarshamn. The purpose of the activity is to monitor (long term observation) and characterise the shallow ground water in the site investigation area. Some physical and chemical parameters were measured directly in the field but most parameters were analysed at different laboratories. The ground water sampling activity consisted of one programme, chemical programme class 5 (reduced). The large number of sites and parameters analysed have generated a large amount of data, which will later be used for advanced analysis and modelling. In this report the evaluation aims to give a simple overview of the results and to describe the quality of the data sampled 2009. As an addition radon activity was measured at fourteen sites in the area. Seven of these sites were the same as in the regular programme. The results showed a large variation between the wells. The concentrations of major ions and conductivity ranged from low to high or very high values. The concentration of HCO 3 also varied extensively throughout the investigation area, but since the concentrations were above 60 mg/l in most wells the results indicate a good ground water quality with respect to acidification. The concentration of heavy metals and trace elements also varied. High concentration of Pb in some of the wells indicated pollution. Since Pb had a similar relation to Al as most other elements it was argued that high concentrations of lead probably can be explained by the natural composition of minerals within the site investigation area. The ratio of δ 18 O showed a good relationship with the conductivity. The activity of tritium ( 3 H) was markedly lower in two of the wells. This might be an indication of older groundwater in these wells. The average hydrogen isotope ratio of deuterium (δ 2 H) varied with similar values in most wells. The

  20. A case study of optimization in the decision process: Siting groundwater monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, H.; Huff, D.; Douthitt, J.; Sale, M.

    1993-12-01

    Optimization is one of the tools available to assist decision makers in balancing multiple objectives and concerns. In a case study of the siting decision for groundwater monitoring wells, we look at the influence of the optimization models on the decisions made by the responsible groundwater specialist. This paper presents a multi-objective integer programming model for determining the location of monitoring wells associated with a groundwater pump-and-treat remediation. After presenting the initial optimization results, we analyze the actual decision and revise the model to incorporate elements of the problem that were later identified as important in the decision-making process. The results of a revised model are compared to the actual siting plans, the recommendations from the initial optimization runs, and the initial monitoring network proposed by the decision maker

  1. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period January 1, 1993 through March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 265). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. This quarterly report contains data received between March 8 and May 24, 1993, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the January through March quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  2. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 216-B-3 pond RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    The 216-B-3 pond system was a series of ponds for disposal of liquid effluent from past Hanford production facilities. In operation since 1945, the B Pond system has been a RCRA facility since 1986, with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim-status groundwater monitoring in place since 1988. In 1994, discharges were diverted from the main pond, where the greatest potential for contamination was thought to reside, to the 3C expansion pond. In 1997, all discharges to the pond system were discontinued. In 1990, the B Pond system was elevated from detection groundwater monitoring to an assessment-level status because total organic halogens and total organic carbon were found to exceed critical means in two wells. Subsequent groundwater quality assessment failed to find any specific hazardous waste contaminant that could have accounted for the exceedances, which were largely isolated in occurrence. Thus, it was recommended that the facility be returned to detection-level monitoring

  4. Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau area constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Tahoe and Martis Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tahoe and Martis Basins and surrounding watersheds constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  6. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  7. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  9. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford Site facilities for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1994 and September 1995. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides

  12. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford site facilities for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1993 and September 1994. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides

  13. Real Time Monitoring of Containerless Microreactions in Acoustically Levitated Droplets via Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth A; Esen, Cemal; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2016-09-06

    Direct in-droplet (in stillo) microreaction monitoring using acoustically levitated micro droplets has been achieved by combining acoustic (ultrasonic) levitation for the first time with real time ambient tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The acoustic levitation and inherent mixing of microliter volumes of reactants (3 μL droplets), yielding total reaction volumes of 6 μL, supported monitoring the acid-catalyzed degradation reaction of erythromycin A. This reaction was chosen to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of directly monitoring in stillo microreactions via hyphenated acoustic levitation and ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The microreactions took place completely in stillo over 30, 60, and 120 s within the containerless stable central pressure node of an acoustic levitator, thus readily promoting reaction miniaturization. For the evaluation of the miniaturized in stillo reactions, the degradation reactions were also carried out in vials (in vitro) with a total reaction volume of 400 μL. The reacted in vitro mixtures (6 μL total) were similarly introduced into the acoustic levitator prior to ambient ionization MS/MS analysis. The in stillo miniaturized reactions provided immediate real-time snap-shots of the degradation process for more accurate reaction monitoring and used a fraction of the reactants, while the larger scale in vitro reactions only yielded general reaction information.

  14. A quantitative method for groundwater surveillance monitoring network design at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site, mandated by the US Department of Energy, hundreds of groundwater wells are sampled each year, with each sample typically analyzed for a variety of constituents. The groundwater sampling program must satisfy several broad objectives. These objectives include an integrated assessment of the condition of groundwater and the identification and quantification of existing, emerging, or potential groundwater problems. Several quantitative network desip objectives are proposed and a mathematical optimization model is developed from these objectives. The model attempts to find minimum cost network alternatives that maximize the amount of information generated by the network. Information is measured both by the rats of change with respect to time of the contaminant concentration and the uncertainty in contaminant concentration. In an application to tritium monitoring at the Hanford Site, both information measures were derived from historical data using time series analysis

  15. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELLS, DANIEL

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. At the time of the 1996 permit renewal, it was determined that a more robust monitoring program was needed. The draft permit required new monitoring wells within 25 feet of each active disposal cell. As an alternative, SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and was incorporated by reference into the Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, No.025500-1603. The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include specific requirements for groundwater monitoring. SRS's plan for complying with those regulations is discussed below. The plan calls for a return to traditional monitoring with permanent wells. It also proposes a more technically sound monitoring list based on the actual composition of saltstone

  16. Nitrate variability in groundwater of North Carolina using monitoring and private well data models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Kyle P; Kane, Evan; Bolich, Rick; Serre, Marc L

    2014-09-16

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a widespread contaminant of groundwater and surface water across the United States that has deleterious effects to human and ecological health. This study develops a model for predicting point-level groundwater NO3- at a state scale for monitoring wells and private wells of North Carolina. A land use regression (LUR) model selection procedure is developed for determining nonlinear model explanatory variables when they are known to be correlated. Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) is used to integrate the LUR model to create a LUR-BME model of spatial/temporal varying groundwater NO3- concentrations. LUR-BME results in a leave-one-out cross-validation r2 of 0.74 and 0.33 for monitoring and private wells, effectively predicting within spatial covariance ranges. Results show significant differences in the spatial distribution of groundwater NO3- contamination in monitoring versus private wells; high NO3- concentrations in the southeastern plains of North Carolina; and wastewater treatment residuals and swine confined animal feeding operations as local sources of NO3- in monitoring wells. Results are of interest to agencies that regulate drinking water sources or monitor health outcomes from ingestion of drinking water. Lastly, LUR-BME model estimates can be integrated into surface water models for more accurate management of nonpoint sources of nitrogen.

  17. Conception to set up a new groundwater monitoring network in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Water Framework Directive of the European Union (WFD adopted in year 2000. outlines number of water policy and management actions, where monitoring is of primary importance. Following WFD principles Serbia adopted new legislation in water sector aiming to conserve or achieve good ecological, chemical and quantitative status of water resources. Serbia, as most of the countries of former Yugoslavia mostly uses groundwater for drinking water supply (over 75%. However, the current situation in monitoring of groundwater quality and quantity is far from satisfactory. Several hundred piezometers for observation of groundwater level under auspices of the Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia are located mostly in alluviums of major rivers, while some 70 piezometers are used by the Serbian Environmental Protection Agency for controlling groundwater quality. Currently only 20% of delineated groundwater bodies are under observation. This paper evaluates current conditions and proposes to expand national monitoring network to cover most of groundwater bodies or their groups, to raise number of observation points to a density of ca. 1 object /200 km2 and to include as much as possible actual waterworks in this network. Priority in selecting sites for new observation piezometers or springs has to be given to groundwater bodies under threats, either to their water reserves or their water chemical quality. For the former, an assessment of available renewable reserves versus exploitation capacity is needed, while to estimate pressures on water quality, the best way is to compare aquifers’ vulnerability against anthropogenic (diffuse and punctual hazards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176022

  18. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 , and NO x ). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  19. Groundwater-quality characteristics for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, November 2009 through September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 146 shallow (less than or equal to 500 feet deep) wells for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, from November 2009 through September 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions and dissolved solids, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, uranium, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, volatile organic compounds, and coliform bacteria. Selected samples also were analyzed for gross alpha radioactivity, gross beta radioactivity, radon, tritium, gasoline range organics, diesel range organics, dissolved hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethene, and ethane), and wastewater compounds. Water-quality measurements and concentrations in some samples exceeded numerous U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) in some samples were arsenic, selenium, nitrite, nitrate, gross alpha activity, and uranium. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some samples exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goals. Measurements of pH and turbidity and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, fluoride, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron, and manganese exceeded EPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in some samples. Radon concentrations in some samples exceeded the alternative MCL proposed by the EPA. Molybdenum and boron concentrations in some samples exceeded EPA Health Advisory Levels. Water-quality measurements and concentrations also exceeded numerous Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) groundwater standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded WDEQ Class I domestic groundwater standards in some samples were measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, iron, manganese, boron, selenium, nitrite, and nitrate. Measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron

  20. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  1. Recovery of soil water, groundwater, and streamwater from acidification at the Swedish integrated monitoring catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Aastrup, Mats; Bringmark, Lage; Hultberg, Hans; Lewin-Pihlblad, Lotta; Lundin, Lars; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Thunholm, Bo

    2011-12-01

    Recovery from anthropogenic acidification in streams and lakes is well documented across the northern hemisphere. In this study, we use 1996-2009 data from the four Swedish Integrated Monitoring catchments to evaluate how the declining sulfur deposition has affected sulfate, pH, acid neutralizing capacity, ionic strength, aluminum, and dissolved organic carbon in soil water, groundwater and runoff. Differences in recovery rates between catchments, between recharge and discharge areas and between soil water and groundwater are assessed. At the IM sites, atmospheric deposition is the main human impact. The chemical trends were weakly correlated to the sulfur deposition decline. Other factors, such as marine influence and catchment features, seem to be as important. Except for pH and DOC, soil water and groundwater showed similar trends. Discharge areas acted as buffers, dampening the trends in streamwater. Further monitoring and modeling of these hydraulically active sites should be encouraged.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994

  3. A comparison of groundwater investigation using temporary points versus permanent monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, N.T.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater investigation within the environmental industry is most often conducted using permanent monitoring wells. A monitoring well, as the term suggests, is permanent to the extent that it is fixed in place to monitor groundwater quality in its immediate vicinity at any given time over the course of an environmental project. Because monitoring wells are relatively time consuming and expensive to construct, a minimum number of wells is normally installed as part of a single investigation event. The initial information obtained from monitoring wells could also be obtained from temporary groundwater sampling points. Temporary points generally are smaller in diameter than monitoring wells, are installed to provide a one time snap shot of the subsurface, and are removed at the completion of the investigation. Since temporary points are usually easier to install and less expensive than monitoring wells, more temporary points can be installed over a single investigation event and can often reduce or eliminate subsequent assessment(s). A brief discussion of temporary point installation and sampling is offered before considering two case studies within the context of the above advantages to temporary point installation. One case study focuses on vertical delineation of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, while the second case study discusses lateral delineation of light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL)

  4. Impact Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Conditions on Electrochemical Sensor Response in Ambient Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Ning, Zhi; Ye, Sheng; Sun, Li; Yang, Fenhuan; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K

    2018-01-23

    The increasing applications of low-cost air sensors promises more convenient and cost-effective systems for air monitoring in many places and under many conditions. However, the data quality from such systems has not been fully characterized and may not meet user expectations in research and regulatory uses, or for use in citizen science. In our study, electrochemical sensors (Alphasense B4 series) for carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and oxidants (O x ) were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions to identify the influencing factors and quantify their relation with sensor outputs. Based on the laboratory tests, we developed different correction methods to compensate for the impact of ambient conditions. Further, the sensors were assembled into a monitoring system and tested in ambient conditions in Hong Kong side-by-side with regulatory reference monitors, and data from these tests were used to evaluate the performance of the models, to refine them, and validate their applicability in variable ambient conditions in the field. The more comprehensive correction models demonstrated enhanced performance when compared with uncorrected data. One over-arching observation of this study is that the low-cost sensors may promise excellent sensitivity and performance, but it is essential for users to understand and account for several key factors that may strongly affect the nature of sensor data. In this paper, we also evaluated factors of multi-month stability, temperature, and humidity, and considered the interaction of oxidant gases NO₂ and ozone on a newly introduced oxidant sensor.

  5. Ambient air quality monitoring at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) Kampar campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Lim Jun; Xinxin, Guo; Ke, Wang

    2017-04-01

    Air Pollutant includes any substance in solid, liquid or gaseous form present in the atmosphere in concentrations which may tend to be injurious to all living creatures, property and environment. In this study, automatic continuous monitoring station was used to monitor concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ambient air of Kampar Campus, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman. High-volume air sampler was also used to monitor the concentration of PM2.5 and the collected PM2.5 was further analysed for the heavy metal concentration such as Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Arsenic (As), Aluminium (Al), and Lead (Pb) in PM2.5 using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The overall ambient air quality in the campus area is consider unhealthy as the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and carbon dioxide (CO2) average concentration obtained were far exceeding the recommended limit concentration set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Meteorological data was found that it does not show much relationship with the air quality data in this study. The concentration of Zn and Al were found the dominant heavy metal in the ambient air. The enrichment factor analysis also shows that the heavy metals contained in PM2.5 mainly origin from the natural source except for the Zn which it is highly contaminated by human activities.

  6. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this paragraph. (b) Separate monitoring systems for each waste management component of a facility are... which circumscribes the several waste management components. (c) All monitoring wells must be cased in a... Section 265.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  7. Anual Report of Groundwater Monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The KDHE (2012) agreed to annual sampling at all locations, beginning with the 2013 monitoring documented previously (Argonne 2014a). This present report documents the results of the annual sampling of the approved monitoring well network on September 27-30, 2015.

  8. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  9. Monitoring bentazone concentrations in the uppermost groundwater after late season applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelese AA; Linden AMA vd; LBG

    1998-01-01

    The herbicide bentazone has been detected in groundwater in several monitoring programs with most of the findings possibly be related to applications early in the growth season. Because of a very low sorption constant bentazone can be transported in soil with the waterflow very easily. This means

  10. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Second Quarter 1998 (April through June 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J B

    1999-02-10

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during second quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for the program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  12. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period April 1 through June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and ''Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities,'' as amended (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 265). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company manages RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Project management, specifying data needs, performing quality control oversight, managing data, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. This quarterly report contains data received between May 20 and August 19, 1994, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the April through June quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results

  14. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulai, H.; Kameník, Jan; Waters, C. A.; Kennedy, J.; Babinec, J.; Jolly, J.; Williamson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, č. 3 (2016), s. 1865-1870 ISSN 0236-5731. [10th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC). Kailua Kona, 12.04.2015-17.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : submarine groundwater discharge * long-term SGD monitoring * underwater gammaspectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  15. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has not been affected by leakage from a regulated unit; (i) A determination of background ground-water...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... elevation each time ground water is sampled. (g) In detection monitoring or where appropriate in compliance...

  16. Micro Ion Mobility Sensor for In Situ Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Inset 1: Portable ME GC-DMS monitor; Inset 2: Sending ME assembly to the groundwater well; Inset 3: Bees and their nest located on the cover of the...covered and locked for a period of a few months. During this time a wasp’s nest was built in the outer cover of the well, as shown in Insert 3 of

  17. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: First quarter 1993, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the first quarter of 1993. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  18. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-17

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the fourth quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  19. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought

  20. In Situ Monitoring of Groundwater Contamination Using the Kalman Filter For Sustainable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Wainwright, H. M.; Faybishenko, B.; Denham, M. E.; Eddy-Dilek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - based on less intensive passive remediation and natural attenuation - has become a desirable remediation alternative at contaminated sites. Although it has a number of benefits, such as reduced waste and water/energy usage, it carries a significant burden of proof to verify plume stability and to ensure insignificant increase of risk to public health. Modeling of contaminant transport is still challenging despite recent advances in numerical methods. Long-term monitoring has, therefore, become a critical component in sustainable remediation. However, the current approach, which relies on sparse groundwater sampling, is problematic, since it could miss sudden significant changes in plume behavior. A new method is needed to combine existing knowledge about contaminant behavior and latest advances in in situ groundwater sensors. This study presents an example of the effective use of the Kalman filter approach to estimate contaminant concentrations, based on in situ measured water quality parameters (e.g. electrical conductivity and pH) along with the results of sparse groundwater sampling. The Kalman filter can effectively couple physical models and data correlations between the contaminant concentrations and in situ measured variables. We aim (1) to develop a framework capable of integrating different data types to provide accurate contaminant concentration estimates, (2) to demonstrate that these results remain reliable, even when the groundwater sampling frequency is reduced, and (3) to evaluate the future efficacy of this strategy using reactive transport simulations. This framework can also serve as an early warning system for detecting unexpected plume migration. We demonstrate our approach using historical and current groundwater data from the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Seepage Basins to estimate uranium and tritium concentrations. The results show that the developed method can provide reliable estimates of contaminant

  1. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. Third quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  2. Optimal Design of Multitype Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Easily Accessible Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhling, Thomas; Geiges, Andreas; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring networks are expensive to establish and to maintain. In this paper, we extend an existing data-worth estimation method from the suite of PEST utilities with a global optimization method for optimal sensor placement (called optimal design) in groundwater monitoring networks. Design optimization can include multiple simultaneous sensor locations and multiple sensor types. Both location and sensor type are treated simultaneously as decision variables. Our method combines linear uncertainty quantification and a modified genetic algorithm for discrete multilocation, multitype search. The efficiency of the global optimization is enhanced by an archive of past samples and parallel computing. We demonstrate our methodology for a groundwater monitoring network at the Steinlach experimental site, south-western Germany, which has been established to monitor river-groundwater exchange processes. The target of optimization is the best possible exploration for minimum variance in predicting the mean travel time of the hyporheic exchange. Our results demonstrate that the information gain of monitoring network designs can be explored efficiently and with easily accessible tools prior to taking new field measurements or installing additional measurement points. The proposed methods proved to be efficient and can be applied for model-based optimal design of any type of monitoring network in approximately linear systems. Our key contributions are (1) the use of easy-to-implement tools for an otherwise complex task and (2) yet to consider data-worth interdependencies in simultaneous optimization of multiple sensor locations and sensor types. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Measures of Groundwater Drought from the Long-term Monitoring Data in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, E.; Park, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, drought has been increased in its severity and frequency along the climate change in Korea. There are several criteria for alarming drought, for instance, based on the no-rainfall days, the amount of stream discharge, and the water levels of reservoirs. However, farmers depending on groundwater still have been suffered in preparing drought especially in the Spring. No-rainfall days continue, groundwater exploitation increases, water table declines, stream discharge decreases, and then the effects of drought become serious. Thus, the drought index based on the groundwater level is needed for the preparedness of drought disaster. Palmer et al.(1965, USGS) has proposed a method to set the threshold for the decline of the groundwater level in 5 stages based on the daily water-level data over the last 30 years. In this study, according to Peters et al.(2003), the threshold of groundwater level was estimated using the daily water-level data at five sites with significant drought experiences in Korea. Water levels and precipitations data were obtained from the national groundwater monitoring wells and the automatic weather stations, respectively, for 10 years from 2005 to 2014. From the water-level changes, the threshold was calculated when the value of the drought criterion (c), the ratio of the deficit below the threshold to the deficit below the average, is 0.3. As a result, the monthly drought days were high in 2009 and 2011 in Uiryeong, and from 2005 to 2008 in Boeun. The validity of the approach and the threshold can be evaluated by comparing calculated monthly drought days with recorded drought in the past. Through groundwater drought research, it is expected that not only surface water also groundwater resource management should be implemented more efficiently to overcome drought disaster.

  4. Enhanced Multi-Objective Optimization of Groundwater Monitoring Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, Felix; Binning, Philip John; Nowak, Wolfgang

    Drinking-water well catchments include many sources for potential contaminations like gas stations or agriculture. Finding optimal positions of monitoring wells for such purposes is challenging because there are various parameters (and their uncertainties) that influence the reliability...... and optimality of any suggested monitoring location or monitoring network. The goal of this project is to develop and establish a concept to assess, design, and optimize early-warning systems within well catchments. Such optimal monitoring networks need to optimize three competing objectives: (1) a high...... be reduced to a minimum. The method is based on numerical simulation of flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media coupled with geostatistics and Monte-Carlo, wrapped up within the framework of formal multi-objective optimization. In order to gain insight into the flow and transport physics...

  5. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period.

  6. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 which provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater sampling (Section 3.0), whereas well granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also determines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 4.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 5.0). This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure 1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime is directly south of Y-12 and encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge that is bound to the

  7. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; and aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters

  8. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon measurement technique in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Al-Ali, M.A.; Al-Hilall, M.

    1999-07-01

    Radon concentrations in groundwater were measured from six monitoring stations that were distributed along the Syrian rift valley, with time intervals of one month over a span of more than six years from 1992 to 1998. This set of data was integrated and statistically handled in order to be used as a significant base for estimating the range of natural radon background variations in groundwater along the concerned zone. The results reveal that only few anomalous radon values were recorded during the given time-window, which might be caused by tectonic disturbances or otherwise in the study region. (author)

  9. The effect of ambient ozone and humidity on the performance of nylon and Teflon filters used in ambient air monitoring filter-pack systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE Padgett

    2010-01-01

    Nylon and Teflon filter media are frequently used for monitoring ambient air pollutants. These media are subject to many environmental factors that may influence adsorption and retention of particulate and gaseous nitrogenous pollutants. This study evaluated the effects of ozone and humidity on the efficacy of nylon and Teflon filters used in the US dry deposition...

  10. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-06-13

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations.

  11. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  12. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  13. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  14. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  15. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations

  16. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  18. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  19. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA

  20. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling (Section 3.0), whereas wells granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 3.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 4.0). This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure A.1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12 that is bound on the

  2. Tailoring groundwater quality monitoring to vulnerability: a GIS procedure for network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, E; Petrangeli, A B; Giuliano, G

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring networks aiming to assess the state of groundwater quality and detect or predict changes could increase in efficiency when fitted to vulnerability and pollution risk assessment. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology aiming at integrating aquifers vulnerability and actual levels of groundwater pollution in the monitoring network design. In this study carried out in a pilot area in central Italy, several factors such as hydrogeological setting, groundwater vulnerability, and natural and anthropogenic contamination levels were analyzed and used in designing a network tailored to the monitoring objectives, namely, surveying the evolution of groundwater quality relating to natural conditions as well as to polluting processes active in the area. Due to the absence of an aquifer vulnerability map for the whole area, a proxi evaluation of it was performed through a geographic information system (GIS) methodology, leading to the so called "susceptibility to groundwater quality degradation". The latter was used as a basis for the network density assessment, while water points were ranked by several factors including discharge, actual contamination levels, maintenance conditions, and accessibility for periodical sampling in order to select the most appropriate to the network. Two different GIS procedures were implemented which combine vulnerability conditions and water points suitability, producing two slightly different networks of 50 monitoring points selected out of the 121 candidate wells and springs. The results are compared with a "manual" selection of the points. The applied GIS procedures resulted capable to select the requested number of water points from the initial set, evaluating the most confident ones and an appropriate density. Moreover, it is worth underlining that the second procedure (point distance analysis [PDA]) is technically faster and simpler to be performed than the first one (GRID + PDA).

  3. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2002-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2000-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an insignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  6. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the seven older KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, and other constituents. New wells FAC 8 and 9 received the first of four quarters of comprehensive analyses and GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report

  7. Shale gas impacts on groundwater resources: insights from monitoring a fracking site in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcoudiol, Nelly; Isherwood, Catherine; Gunning, Andrew; Kelly, Thomas; Younger, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Exploitation of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is highly controversial and concerns have been raised regarding induced risks from this technique. The SHEER project, an EU Horizon 2020-funded project, is looking into developing best practice to understand, prevent and mitigate the potential short- and long-term environmental impacts and risks from shale gas exploration and exploitation. Three major potential impacts were identified: groundwater contamination, air pollution and induced seismicity. This presentation will deal with the hydrogeological aspect. As part of the SHEER project, four monitoring wells were installed at a shale gas exploration site in Northern Poland. They intercept the main drinking water aquifer located in Quaternary sediments. Baseline monitoring was carried out from mid-December 2015 to beginning of June 2016. Fracking operations occurred in two horizontal wells, in two stages, in June and July 2016. The monitoring has continued after fracking was completed, with site visits every 4-6 weeks. Collected data include measurements of groundwater level, conductivity and temperature at 15-minute intervals, frequent sampling for laboratory analyses and field measurements of groundwater physico-chemical parameters. Groundwater samples are analysed for a range of constituents including dissolved gases and isotopes. The presentation will focus on the interpretation of baseline monitoring data. The insights gained into the behaviour of the Quaternary aquifer will allow a greater perspective to be place on the initial project understanding draw from previous studies. Short-term impacts will also be discussed in comparison with the baseline monitoring results. The presentation will conclude with discussion of challenges regarding monitoring of shale gas fracking sites.

  8. An analysis of potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring networks in the Central Plateau. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of potential impacts to the four groundwater monitoring projects operating in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. It specifically fulfills Milestone M-15-81A of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Milestone M-15-81A specifies the evaluation of the potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring well systems in the Central Plateau caused by the following activities: reduction of liquids discharged to soil, proposed and operational liquid treatment facilities, and proposed pump-and-treat systems. For this report, an open-quotes impactclose quotes is defined as a restriction of the ability to draw samples from a well and/or a reduction of the ability of a monitoring well to meet its intended purpose (such as the detection of contaminant seepage from a facility). Approximately 20% (74 wells) of the groundwater monitoring wells potentially will experience sampling problems by the year 2005 due to the declining water table in the Central Plateau. Reduction of discharges to the B Pond complex and operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal System will directly cause four additional wells to potentially experience sampling problems. Approximately 90 monitoring wells (35 of which are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [RCRA] wells) will be potentially affected by the operation of pump-and-treat systems in the 200 West Area. Most of the impacts will be caused by local changes to groundwater flow directions that will potentially reduce the ability of the RCRA well network to monitor a limited number of RCRA facilities

  9. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  10. U-234/U-238 ratio: Qualitative estimate of groundwater flow in Rocky Flats monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater movement through various pathways is the primary mechanism for the transport of radionuclides and trace elements in a water/rock interaction. About three dozen wells, installed in the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Solar Evaporation Ponds (SEP) area, are monitored quarterly to evaluate the extent of any lateral and downgradient migration of contaminants from the Solar Evaporation Ponds: 207-A; 207-B North, 207-B Center, and 207-B South; and 207-C. The Solar Ponds are the main source for the various contaminants: radionuclides (U-238, U-234, Pu-239, 240 and Am-241); anions; and trace metals to groundwaters. The U-238 concentrations in Rocky Flats groundwaters vary from 2 (CO 3 ) 2 2- , because of the predominant bicarbonate medium

  11. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, field measurements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Total organic halogens exceeded its Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criterion during first quarter 1995 as in fourth quarter 1994. Aluminum, iron, and manganese, which were not analyzed for during fourth quarter 1994, exceeded the Flag 2 criteria in at least two wells each during first quarter 1995. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting the determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters

  12. Groundwater monitoring in the archaeological site of Ostia Antica (Rome, Italy: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mastrorillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological site of Ostia Antica hosts the ruins of the ancient roman city called Ostia founded in the VII century B.C. near the mouth of Tiber River. The area was strategically important for Rome, not only for the control of the river, but also for some salt marshes (Ostia Pound. During the XIX century, the whole area was reclaimed and the salt production stopped. Nowadays drainage canals and pumps avoid the flood of zones placed below sea level, keeping dewatering below the ground surface. In February 2014, the site was largely flooded after an exceptional rainfall event and the Superintendence for Archaeological Heritage of Rome ordered the closure for 15 days. Few months later (July 2014 a groundwater monitoring project started with the aim of studying the aquifer response to local rainfall and prevent future damage and groundwater flooding. The activity consisted in water-table monitoring, groundwater electrical conductivity (EC and temperature continuous measurements, coupled with chemical analysis of major ions. Preliminary results shows the link between water table fluctuations and rainfall distributions. The average elevation of the archaeological area is about 2,5 m a.s.l. and the local water-table depth is of about 0,5 m a.s.l.; groundwater flows from the Tiber River to the reclaimed area according to regional flowpath. Groundwater sampled from three wells is Ca-HCO3 freshwater (600 - 1000 μS/cm, while the sample collected from a well located close to ancient salt storage warehouse (now Ostia Antica museum, is Na-Cl brackish water (about 4000 μS/cm. The chemical evolution of groundwater from summer to winter suggested a possible lateral inflow from the Tiber River, affected by salt-wedge intrusion. The inflow of Ca-Cl, SO4 Tiber’s water with an intermediate salinity could determine salinization of Ca-HCO3 freshwaters and refreshing of Na-Cl brackish water.

  13. Monitoring groundwater storage changes in the highly dynamic Bengal Basin: validation of GRACE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R. G.; Longuevergne, L.

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring of spatio-temporal changes in terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS) provides valuable information regarding the basin-scale dynamics of hydrological systems. Recent satellite measurements of the ΔTWS under the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) enable the derivation of groundwater storage changes (ΔGWS) where in situ data are limited. In the well monitored and highly-dynamic Bengal Basin of Bangladesh, we test the ability of GRACE measurements to trace the seasonality and trend in groundwater storage associated with intensive groundwater abstraction for dry-season irrigation and wet-season (monsoonal) recharge. Two different GRACE products (CSR and GRGS) and data processing methods (gridded and spherical harmonics) are also compared. Results show that GRACE derived estimates of recent (2003 to 2007) ΔGWS correlate well (r=0.77 to 0.93, p-value CSR for these estimates. ΔGWS accounts for 44% of the total variation in ΔTWS in the Bengal Basin. Changes in surface water storage (ΔSWS) estimated from a network of 298 river gauging stations and soil moisture storage (ΔSMS) derived from Land Surface Models explain 22% and 33% of ΔTWS respectively. Groundwater depletion estimated from borehole hydrographs (-0.52±0.30 km3/yr) is within the range of satellite-derived estimates (-0.44 to -2.04 km3/yr) that result from uncertainty associated with ΔSMS (CLM, NOAH, VIC) and GRACE data processing techniques. Recent (2003 to 2007) estimates of groundwater depletion are substantially greater than the long-term (1985 to 2007) mean (-0.21±0.03 km3/yr) and are explained primarily by substantial increases in groundwater abstraction for the dry-season irrigation and drinking water supplies over the last two decades.

  14. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in wells HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during fourth quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 were similar to tritium levels in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Iron was elevated in well HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance and manganese were elevated in one downgradient well each. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. During 1992, tritium was the only constituent that exceeded the final PDWS. It did so consistently in all four wells during all four quarters, with little variability in activity

  15. Impact Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Conditions on Electrochemical Sensor Response in Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing applications of low-cost air sensors promises more convenient and cost-effective systems for air monitoring in many places and under many conditions. However, the data quality from such systems has not been fully characterized and may not meet user expectations in research and regulatory uses, or for use in citizen science. In our study, electrochemical sensors (Alphasense B4 series for carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and oxidants (Ox were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions to identify the influencing factors and quantify their relation with sensor outputs. Based on the laboratory tests, we developed different correction methods to compensate for the impact of ambient conditions. Further, the sensors were assembled into a monitoring system and tested in ambient conditions in Hong Kong side-by-side with regulatory reference monitors, and data from these tests were used to evaluate the performance of the models, to refine them, and validate their applicability in variable ambient conditions in the field. The more comprehensive correction models demonstrated enhanced performance when compared with uncorrected data. One over-arching observation of this study is that the low-cost sensors may promise excellent sensitivity and performance, but it is essential for users to understand and account for several key factors that may strongly affect the nature of sensor data. In this paper, we also evaluated factors of multi-month stability, temperature, and humidity, and considered the interaction of oxidant gases NO2 and ozone on a newly introduced oxidant sensor.

  16. Impact Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Conditions on Electrochemical Sensor Response in Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Ye, Sheng; Sun, Li; Yang, Fenhuan; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing applications of low-cost air sensors promises more convenient and cost-effective systems for air monitoring in many places and under many conditions. However, the data quality from such systems has not been fully characterized and may not meet user expectations in research and regulatory uses, or for use in citizen science. In our study, electrochemical sensors (Alphasense B4 series) for carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and oxidants (Ox) were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions to identify the influencing factors and quantify their relation with sensor outputs. Based on the laboratory tests, we developed different correction methods to compensate for the impact of ambient conditions. Further, the sensors were assembled into a monitoring system and tested in ambient conditions in Hong Kong side-by-side with regulatory reference monitors, and data from these tests were used to evaluate the performance of the models, to refine them, and validate their applicability in variable ambient conditions in the field. The more comprehensive correction models demonstrated enhanced performance when compared with uncorrected data. One over-arching observation of this study is that the low-cost sensors may promise excellent sensitivity and performance, but it is essential for users to understand and account for several key factors that may strongly affect the nature of sensor data. In this paper, we also evaluated factors of multi-month stability, temperature, and humidity, and considered the interaction of oxidant gases NO2 and ozone on a newly introduced oxidant sensor. PMID:29360749

  17. Monitoring groundwater: optimising networks to take account of cost effectiveness, legal requirements and enforcement realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, A.; Spray, C.

    2013-12-01

    The quality of monitoring networks and modeling in environmental regulation is increasingly important. This is particularly true with respect to groundwater management, where data may be limited, physical processes poorly understood and timescales very long. The powers of regulators may be fatally undermined by poor or non-existent networks, primarily through mismatches between the legal standards that networks must meet, actual capacity and the evidentiary standards of courts. For example, in the second and third implementation reports on the Water Framework Directive, the European Commission drew attention to gaps in the standards of mandatory monitoring networks, where the standard did not meet the reality. In that context, groundwater monitoring networks should provide a reliable picture of groundwater levels and a ';coherent and comprehensive' overview of chemical status so that anthropogenically influenced long-term upward trends in pollutant levels can be tracked. Confidence in this overview should be such that 'the uncertainty from the monitoring process should not add significantly to the uncertainty of controlling the risk', with densities being sufficient to allow assessment of the impact of abstractions and discharges on levels in groundwater bodies at risk. The fact that the legal requirements for the quality of monitoring networks are set out in very vague terms highlights the many variables that can influence the design of monitoring networks. However, the quality of a monitoring network as part of the armory of environmental regulators is potentially of crucial importance. If, as part of enforcement proceedings, a regulator takes an offender to court and relies on conclusions derived from monitoring networks, a defendant may be entitled to question those conclusions. If the credibility, reliability or relevance of a monitoring network can be undermined, because it is too sparse, for example, this could have dramatic consequences on the ability of a

  18. Remote Monitoring of Groundwater Overdraft Using GRACE and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, C.; Saah, D.

    2017-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data paired with radar-derived analyses of volumetric changes in aquifer storage capacity present a viable technique for remote monitoring of aquifer depletion. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analyses of ground level subsidence can account for a significant portion of mass loss observed in GRACE data and provide information on point-sources of overdraft. This study summed one water-year of GRACE monthly mass change grids and delineated regions with negative water storage anomalies for further InSAR analyses. Magnitude of water-storage anomalies observed by GRACE were compared to InSAR-derived minimum volumetric changes in aquifer storage capacity as a result of measurable compaction at the surface. Four major aquifers were selected within regions where GRACE observed a net decrease in water storage (Central Valley, California; Mekong Delta, Vietnam; West Bank, occupied Palestinian Territory; and the Indus Basin, South Asia). Interferogram imagery of the extent and magnitude of subsidence within study regions provided estimates for net minimum volume of groundwater extracted between image acquisitions. These volumetric estimates were compared to GRACE mass change grids to resolve a percent contribution of mass change observed by GRACE likely due to groundwater overdraft. Interferograms revealed characteristic cones of depression within regions of net mass loss observed by GRACE, suggesting point-source locations of groundwater overdraft and demonstrating forensic potential for the use of InSAR and GRACE data in remote monitoring of aquifer depletion. Paired GRACE and InSAR analyses offer a technique to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of remote applications for monitoring groundwater overdraft in addition to providing a novel parameter - measurable vertical deformation at the surface - to global groundwater models.

  19. Annual INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report for Group 5 - Snake River Plain Aquifer (2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the monitoring activities conducted and presents the results of groundwater sampling and water-level measurements from October 2000 to September 2001. Groundwater samples were initially collected from 41 wells from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the Central Facilities Area and analyzed for iodine- 129, strontium-90, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, technetium-99, uranium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, neptunium-237, gamma spectrometry, and mercury. Samples from 41 wells were collected in April and May 2001. Additional sampling was conducted in August 2001 and included in two CFA production wells, the CFA point of compliance for the production wells, one well was previously sampled and five additional monitoring wells. Water-level measurements were taken from in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Central Facilities Area, and the area south of Central Facilities Area to evaluate groundwater flow directions. Water-level measurements indicated groundwater flow to the south-southwest from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

  20. Groundwater monitoring program evaluation For A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Bollinger, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken with the primary purpose of assessing the groundwater monitoring program within the A/M Area to identify ways in which the monitoring program could be improved. The task was difficult due to the large number of wells located within the A/M Area and the huge database of analytical data. It was recognized early in this investigation that one of the key tasks was to develop a way to gain access to the groundwater databases so that recommendations could be made. To achieve this, geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to extract pertinent groundwater quality information from the Geochemical Information Management System (GIMS) groundwater database and display the extracted information spatially. GIS technology was also used to determine the location of well screen and annular material zones within the A/M Area hydrostratigraphy and to identify wells that may breach confining units. Recommendations developed from this study address: (1) wells that may not be providing reliable data but continue to be routinely sampled (2) wells that may be inappropriately located but continue to be routinely sampled and (3) further work that should be undertaken, including well development, evaluation of wells that may be breaching confining units, and development of an automated link to GIMS using GIS so that GIMS data can easily be accessed and displayed geographically

  1. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  3. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  6. Effects of ambient vibrations on heritage buildings: overview and wireless dynamic monitoring application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, G.; Quaranta, G.; Fumagalli, F.; Marano, G.C.; Rea, R.; Nazzaro, B.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of the negative effects due to ambient vibrations caused by transportations infrastructures in Historical centres is attributable to the high vulnerability of heritage buildings as a consequence of deterioration phenomena and damages that reduced the structural capacity of such valuable constructions over the past centuries. As the mobility demand increases, several cities hosting heritage buildings are subjected to raising traffic loadings, so that constructions of new infrastructures is often required. Hence, assessing the effects of short-term vibrations due to construction activities or the consequences of the long-term vibrations caused by traffic is very important for the preservation of cultural heritage. An operative approach for evaluating the effects of ambient vibrations based on experimental measurements is a useful tool when a new infrastructure is being built, and can support strategic decisions for the elaboration of transportation plans at the urban level. Therefore, an overview is here presented of existing studies, guidelines and codes that provide pertinent information on this topic. Of special importance is the analysis of existing proposed thresholds, i.e. limit values that, if compiled with, damage due to ambient vibrations is not likely to occur. On the basis of such overview, the selection of threshold values for the Flavian Amphitheater is discussed, along with current efforts towards a wireless dynamic monitoring of its dynamic response.

  7. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

  8. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant

  9. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Devising a groundwater monitoring strategy for a geologic repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.; DeLuca, F.A.; Sheahan, N.T.; West, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper represents a topical treatment of the subject of groundwater monitoring as it relates to the particular needs of high-level nuclear waste disposal facilities using the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) as a specific reference. While the involvement with management of high-level radioactive wastes and the design and operation of repository facilities is presently parochial to the federal government and certain prime contractors, it is believed that the technical aspects involved with this groundwater monitoring example provide an interesting comparison with those encountered at near-surface and underground-injection, hazardous waste disposal operations. In particular, the integration of several program facets ranging from baselining parameters to validation of predictive models into a comprehensive strategy may be of interest. It is hoped that this type of conceptual exchange will be beneficial to all concerned

  11. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, adionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During first quarter 1995, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in all six PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while turbidity was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  12. Functional design criteria for FY 1993-2000 groundwater monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this revision is to update the Line Item Project, 93-L-GFW-152 Functional Design Criteria (FDC) to reflect changes approved in change control M-24-91-6, Engineering Change Notices (ECNs), and expand the scope to include subsurface investigations along with the borehole drilling. This revision improves the ability and effectiveness of maintaining RCRA and Operational groundwater compliance by combining borehole and well drilling with subsurface data gathering objectives. The total projected number of wells to be installed under this project has decreased from 200 and the scope has been broadened to include additional subsurface investigation activities that usually occur simultaneously with most traditional borehole drilling and monitoring well installations. This includes borehole hydrogeologic characterization activities, and vadose monitoring. These activities are required under RCRA 40 CFR 264 and 265 and WAC 173-303 for site characterization, groundwater and vadose assessment and well placement

  13. Mixed waste management facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1996, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroethene, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane, gross alpha, and tetrachloroethylene also exceeded final PDWS in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone llB2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone llB1 (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in six Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters

  14. Mixed waste management facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1995 and 1995 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1995, seven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene, gross alpha, lead, mercury, and tetrachloroethylene also exceeded final PDWS in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB 2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB 1 (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in three Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters

  15. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraqs Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing: A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues, recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, and descriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  16. Field Tests of Real-time In-situ Dissolved CO2 Monitoring for CO2 Leakage Detection in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Zou, Y.; Delgado, J.; Guzman, N.; Pinedo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring for detecting CO2 leakage relies on groundwater sampling from water wells drilled into aquifers. Usually groundwater samples are required be collected periodically in field and analyzed in the laboratory. Obviously groundwater sampling is labor and cost-intensive for long-term monitoring of large areas. Potential damage and contamination of water samples during the sampling process can degrade accuracy, and intermittent monitoring may miss changes in the geochemical parameters of groundwater, and therefore signs of CO2 leakage. Real-time in-situ monitoring of geochemical parameters with chemical sensors may play an important role for CO2 leakage detection in groundwater at a geological carbon sequestration site. This study presents field demonstration of a real-time in situ monitoring system capable of covering large areas for detection of low levels of dissolved CO2 in groundwater and reliably differentiating natural variations of dissolved CO2 concentration from small changes resulting from leakage. The sand-alone system includes fully distributed fiber optic sensors for carbon dioxide detection with a unique sensor technology developed by Intelligent Optical Systems. The systems were deployed to the two research sites: the Brackenridge Field Laboratory where the aquifer is shallow at depths of 10-20 ft below surface and the Devine site where the aquifer is much deeper at depths of 140 to 150 ft. Groundwater samples were periodically collected from the water wells which were installed with the chemical sensors and further compared to the measurements of the chemical sensors. Our study shows that geochemical monitoring of dissolved CO2 with fiber optic sensors could provide reliable CO2 leakage signal detection in groundwater as long as CO2 leakage signals are stronger than background noises at the monitoring locations.

  17. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.L. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit number-sign 025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997

  18. M-Area hazardous waste management facility groundwater monitoring report -- first quarter 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.S.; Washburn, F.; Jordan, J.; Van Pelt, R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during first quarter 1994 as required by South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989 and section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. During first quarter 1994, 42 point-of-compliance (POC) wells at the M-Area HWMF were sampled for drinking water parameters

  19. Reducing the sampling frequency of groundwater monitoring wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.M.; Ridley, M.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Tuckfield, R.C.; Anderson, R.A. [Westinghouse, Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    As part of a joint LLNL/SRTC project, a methodology for selecting sampling frequencies is evolving that introduces statistical thinking and cost effectiveness into the sampling schedule selection practices now commonly employed on environmental projects. Our current emphasis is on descriptive rather than inferential statistics. Environmental monitoring data are inherently messy, being plagued by such problems as extremely high variability and left-censoring. As a result, real data often fail to meet the assumptions required for the appropriate application of many statistical methods. Rather than abandon the quantitative approach in these cases, however, the methodology employs simple statistical techniques to bring a measure of objectivity and reproducibility to the process. The techniques are applied within the framework of decision logic, which inrerprets the numerical results from the standpoint of chemistry-related professional judgment and the regulatory context. This paper presents the methodology`s basic concepts together with early implementation results, showing the estimated cost savings. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than ∼1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network

  1. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  2. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  3. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  4. Structural health monitoring on medium rise reinforced concrete building using ambient vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, A. F.; Mokhatar, S. N.; Zainal Abidin, M. H.; Daud, M. E.; Rosli, M. S.; Ibrahim, A.; Ibrahim, Z.; Noh, M. S. Md

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of structural health from initial stage of building construction to its serviceability is an ideal practise to assess for any structural defects or damages. Structural integrity could be intruded by natural destruction or structural deterioration, and worse if without remedy action on monitoring, building re-assessment or maintenance is taken. In this study the application of ambient vibration (AV) testing is utilized to evaluate the health of eighth stories medium rise reinforced concrete building in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), based comparison made between the predominant frequency, fo, determined in year 2012 and 2017. For determination of fo, popular method of Fourier Amplitude Spectra (FAS) was used to transform the ambient vibration time series by using 1 Hz tri-axial seismometer sensors and City SharkII data recorder. From the results, it shows the first mode frequencies from FAS curves indicate at 2.04 Hz in 2012 and 1.97 Hz in 2017 with only 3.14% of frequency reduction. However, steady state frequencies shown at the second and third modes frequencies of 2.42 Hz and 3.31 Hz by both years. Two translation mode shapes were found at the first and second mode frequencies in the North-South (NS-parallel to building transverse axis) and East-West (EsW-parallel to building longitudinal axis) components, and the torsional mode shape shows as the third mode frequency in both years. No excessive deformation amplitude was found at any selective floors based on comparison made between three mode shapes produced, that could bring to potential feature of structural deterioration. Low percentages of natural frequency disparity within five years of duration interval shown by the first mode frequencies under ambient vibration technique was considered in good health state, according to previous researchers recommendation at acceptable percentages below 5 to 10% over the years.

  5. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  6. A Collaborative Approach to Monitoring Ambient Volcanogenic Pollution at Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of volcano tourism is recognized as an important contributor to the economy of volcanic islands in the Lesser Antilles. However, if it is to be promoted as a sustainable sector of the tourism industry, visitors, tour operators, and vendors must be made aware of the potential health hazards facing them in volcanic environments. Volcanogenic air pollutants are of primary concern in this setting. In general, no warning signs, guidelines for recreational use, or emissions monitoring currently exists to provide warning to the public to decrease their vulnerability to the potential risks, or to minimize the liability of the agencies managing these areas. Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a popular international destination, and concerns about the volcanic emissions and its possible health effect have been raised by visitors, staff, and management of the Park. As part of the responsibility of the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, a network was established for quantifying the ambient SO2 concentrations at Sulphur Springs in order to assess the potential risk of unsafe exposure. This effort required collaboration with the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) of Saint Lucia, as well as the staff and management of the Soufrière Regional Development Foundation (SRDF). Local personnel were trained in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations over the monitoring period, thereby contributing to an active community-based effort. This type of approach was also thought to be an effective option for scientists to engage communities as partners in disaster risk reduction. Lessons learnt from this experience are presented for the benefit of other citizen monitoring projects, including its use as a tool for promoting volcanic hazard education, and enhancing communication and understanding between geoscientists and

  7. Combining non-invasive techniques for delimitation and monitoring of chlorinated solvents in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Åkesson, Sofia; Hagerberg, David; Dahlin, Torleif; Holmstrand, Henry; Johansson, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Large numbers of polluted areas cause leakage of hazardous pollutants into our groundwater. Remediated actions are needed in a vast number of areas to prevent degradation of the quality of our water resources. As excavation of polluted masses is problematic as it often moves the pollutants from one site to another (in best case off site treatment is carried out), in-situ remediation and monitoring thereof needs further development. In general, we need to further develop and improve how we retrieve information on the status of the underground system. This is needed to avoid costly and hazardous shipments associated with excavations and to avoid unnecessary exposure when handling polluted masses. Easier, cheaper, more comprehensive and nondestructive monitoring techniques are needed for evaluation of remediation degree, degradation status of the contaminants and the remaining groundwater contaminant plume. We investigate the possibility to combine two investigation techniques, which are invasive to a very low degree and can give a very good visualization and evaluation of pollutant status underground and changes therein in time. The two methods we have combined are Direct Current resistivity and time-domain Induced Polarization tomography (DCIP) and Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) and their use within the context of DNAPL contaminated sites. DCIP is a non-invasive and non-destructive geoelectrical measurement method with emerging new techniques for 4D mapping for promising visualization of underground hydrogeochemical structures and spatial distribution of contaminants. The strength of CSIA is that inherent degradation-relatable isotopic information of contaminant molecules remains unaffected as opposed to the commonly used concentration-based studies. Our aim is to evaluate the possibilities of gas sampling on the ground surface for this technique to become non-invasive and usable without interfering ground conditions.Drillings together with soil and

  8. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    1998-01-01

    The number of annual sampling and measurements performed in compliance with the operator's monitoring duties have been the same as last year: 364. All measured radioactivity values were at the level of natural environmental radioactivity. Some samples and measurements reflected the fallout from former atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the accident at the Chernobyl reactor. Personnel dosimetry was performed according to legal requirements of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, as were measurements for the monitoring of ambient doses, dose rates and radioactivity levels in the air of the mine structures. All measured values were below the maximum permissible personal doses and occupational dose limits. Ambient air measurements in the salt mine as in the preceding years detected low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210, and the short-lived daughter products of Rn 222 and Rn 220. The calculated radioactivity concentrations in the vicinity of the mine, derived from averaged annual effluents, to some part were below the average natural concentrations of the nuclides. The effluent-induced radiation dose at the most affected location was far below the limits set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  10. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  11. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, Rick

    2016-01-01

    The Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1961 and a groundwater tracer test in 1963. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted the groundwater tracer test using four dissolved radionuclides--tritium, iodine-131, strontium-90, and cesium-137--as tracers. Site reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing, and was conducted in several phases at the site. The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a Conditional Certificate of Completion in September 2014, which documents that surface remediation activities have been successfully completed in accordance with the Voluntary Remediation Program. Subsurface activities have included annual sampling and monitoring of wells at and near the site since 1972. These annual monitoring activities were enhanced in 2008 to include monitoring hydraulic head and collecting samples from the onsite wells USGS-4, USGS-8, and LRL-7 using the low-flow sampling method. In 2010, the annual monitoring was focused to the monitoring wells within the site boundary. A site inspection and annual sampling were conducted on January 27-28, 2015. A second site visit was conducted on April 21, 2015, to install warning/notification signs to fulfill a requirement of the Conditional Certificate of Completion that was issued by the NMED for the surface.

  12. A Bayesian maximum entropy-based methodology for optimal spatiotemporal design of groundwater monitoring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kerachian, Reza

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing the spatiotemporal variability of water table levels and redesigning a groundwater level monitoring network (GLMN) using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) technique and a multi-criteria decision-making approach based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA). The spatial sampling is determined using a hexagonal gridding pattern and a new method, which is proposed to assign a removal priority number to each pre-existing station. To design temporal sampling, a new approach is also applied to consider uncertainty caused by lack of information. In this approach, different time lag values are tested by regarding another source of information, which is simulation result of a numerical groundwater flow model. Furthermore, to incorporate the existing uncertainties in available monitoring data, the flexibility of the BME interpolation technique is taken into account in applying soft data and improving the accuracy of the calculations. To examine the methodology, it is applied to the Dehgolan plain in northwestern Iran. Based on the results, a configuration of 33 monitoring stations for a regular hexagonal grid of side length 3600 m is proposed, in which the time lag between samples is equal to 5 weeks. Since the variance estimation errors of the BME method are almost identical for redesigned and existing networks, the redesigned monitoring network is more cost-effective and efficient than the existing monitoring network with 52 stations and monthly sampling frequency.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  14. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay shallow aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2018-02-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  15. Groundwater quality in the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-03-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  16. Monitoring groundwater variation by satellite and implications for in-situ gravity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Keiko; Hasegawa, Takashi; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Nishijima, Jun; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish a new technique for monitoring groundwater variations in urban areas, the applicability of precise in-situ gravity measurements and extremely high precision satellite gravity data via GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) was tested. Using the GRACE data, regional scale water mass variations in four major river basins of the Indochina Peninsula were estimated. The estimated variations were compared with Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (SVATS) models with a river flow model of 1) globally uniform river velocity, 2) river velocity tuned by each river basin, 3) globally uniform river velocity considering groundwater storage, and 4) river velocity tuned by each river basin considering groundwater storage. Model 3) attained the best fit to the GRACE data, and the model 4) yielded almost the same values. This implies that the groundwater plays an important role in estimating the variation of total terrestrial storage. It also indicates that tuning river velocity, which is based on the in-situ measurements, needs further investigations in combination with the GRACE data. The relationships among GRACE data, SVATS models, and in-situ measurements were also discussed briefly.

  17. [Open-path online monitoring of ambient atmospheric CO2 based on laser absorption spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xia, Hui; Geng, Hui; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    With the conjunction of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) and the open long optical path technology, the system designing scheme of CO2 on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail, and the instrument for large-range measurement was set up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57 microm whose line strength is strong and suitable for measurement, the ambient atmospheric CO2 was measured continuously with a 30 s temporal resolution at an suburb site in the autumn of 2007. The diurnal atmospheric variations of CO2 and continuous monitoring results were presented. The results show that the variation in CO2 concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity in suburb where the air is free of interference and contamination. The general characteristic of diurnal variation is that the concentration is low in the daytime and high at night, so it matches the photosynthesis trend. The instrument can detect gas concentration online with high resolution, high sensitivity, high precision, short response time and many other advantages, the monitoring requires no gas sampling, the calibration is easy, and the detection limit is about 4.2 x 10(-7). It has been proved that the system and measurement project are feasible, so it is an effective method for gas flux continuous online monitoring of large range in ecosystem based on TDLAS technology.

  18. Refinement of the list of constituents for groundwater monitoring at M-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.G.

    1997-11-01

    For several years Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been examining ways of reducing monitoring costs. Most of these efforts have been aimed at reducing the number of wells sampled or reducing sample frequency. With regards to monitoring around the M-Area Settling Basin, we are now examining a possible reduction in the number of constituents analyzed. Constituents that can be dropped entirely are nonhazardous inorganics generally referred to as water quality indicators. Monitoring for these parameters is sensible when a facility is in detection monitoring, but it is much less useful at a facility like the M-Area Basin. The water quality indicators are helpful in detecting whether or not a facility has impacted the environment. But their concentrations are not important in themselves. At M-Area, it is well documented that the facility has impacted groundwater quite seriously with a known group of hazardous constituents. So the concentrations of the nonhazardous constituents are of little interest. At M-Area there are 41 Point of Compliance (POC) wells monitoring an area of about .25 square miles and about 236 plume definition wells monitoring the surround 4 square miles. The POC wells form a picket line around the facility and are intended to detect any constituents leaching from it. They are also intended to determine whether such constituents exceed action levels. Plume definition wells are added to define the plume created a particular set or subset of contaminants. The M-Area plume definition wells were installed in several phases over a ten year time span as SRS struggled to define the extent of a large plume of TCE and PCE. These wells were not located for the purpose of monitoring the numerous inorganics and radionuclides on the unit's monitoring list. Many of the inorganics and radionuclides are relatively immobile in groundwater and cannot be expected to appear in the widely scattered TCE/PCE plume definition wells

  19. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999

  20. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically and currently, gross alpha, nitrates, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceed the GWPS in the groundwater during the second half of 1995, notably cadmium, lead, radium-226, radium-228, strontium-90, and total alpha-emitting radium. The elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (aquifer zone IIB 2 ), however, several other aquifer unit monitoring wells contained elevated levels of constituents. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  1. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Calendar Year 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2011-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2010 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2010 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2010 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the

  3. Calendar Year 2007 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2007 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2007 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). In December 2007, the BWXT corporate name was changed to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12), which is applied to personnel and organizations throughout CY 2007 for this report. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2007 monitoring results fulfill requirements of

  4. Calendar Year 2011 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC,

    2012-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2011 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. This report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and known extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for environmental cleanup on the ORR. In August 2011, URS | CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) replaced Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) as the DOE EM contractor. For this report, BJC/UCOR will be referenced as the managing contractor for CY 2011. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures

  5. 2011 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and groundwater tracer test performed at the site. The State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. As for the subsurface, monitoring activities that include hydraulic head monitoring and groundwater sampling of the wells onsite are conducted as part of the annual site inspection. These activities were conducted on January 19, 2011. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were observed as being in good condition at the time of the site inspection. An evaluation of the hydraulic head data obtained from the site indicates that water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 appear to respond to the on/off cycling of the dedicated pump in well USGS-1 and that water levels in wells LRL-7 and DD-1 increased during this annual monitoring period. Analytical results obtained from the sampling indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events.

  6. 2011 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and groundwater tracer test performed at the site. The State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. As for the subsurface, monitoring activities that include hydraulic head monitoring and groundwater sampling of the wells onsite are conducted as part of the annual site inspection. These activities were conducted on January 19, 2011. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were observed as being in good condition at the time of the site inspection. An evaluation of the hydraulic head data obtained from the site indicates that water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 appear to respond to the on/off cycling of the dedicated pump in well USGS-1 and that water levels in wells LRL-7 and DD-1 increased during this annual monitoring period. Analytical results obtained from the sampling indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events.

  7. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  8. Cerenkov Counter for In-Situ Groundwater Monitoring of 90Sr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. Todd

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination from 90Sr is an environmental challenge posed topresent and former nuclear weapons related sites. Traditional methods of extractinggroundwater samples and performing laboratory analyses are expensive, time-consumingand induce significant disposal challenges. The authors present here a prototype countercapable of measuring 90Sr groundwater concentrations in-situ at or below the drinking waterlimit of 8 pCi/liter. The 90Y daughter of 90Sr produces high-energy electrons, which cancreate Cerenkov light. Photomultiplier tubes convert the Cerenkov light into an electronicpulse, which then undergoes signal processing with standard electronics. Strontium-90concentrations near the drinking water limit can be measured in a matter of hours if it is insecular equilibrium with the 90Y daughter. The prototype counter is compact, can bedeployed in an American Standard 6-inch, well while operated by a single person, andtransmits the results to a central monitoring location.

  9. Satellite data analysis for identification of groundwater salinization effects on coastal forest for monitoring purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barbarella

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the phreatic aquifer below the San Vitale pinewood (Ravenna, Italy, natural and anthropogenic land subsidence, the low topography and the artificial drainage system have led to widespread saltwater intrusion. Since changes in the groundwater concentration induce variations in the vegetation properties, recognizable by different spectral bands, a comparison between satellite images, ASTER and Worldview-2, was made using the NDVI. The aim was to identify the portions of pinewood affected by salinization through a procedure that could reduce the expensive and time consuming ground monitoring campaigns. Moreover, the Worldview-2 high resolutions were used to investigate the Thermophilic Deciduous Forest (TDF spectral behaviour without the influence of the allochthonous Pinus pinea species that is scattered throughout the pinewood. The NDVI, calculated with traditional bands, identified the same stressed areas using both satellite data. Instead, the new Red-Edge band of the Worldview-2 image allowed a greater correlation between NDVI and groundwater salinity.

  10. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters.

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1993, 10 constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloroethane (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in two Aquifer Unit 2A (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow direction and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean) wells. No elevated constituents were exhibited in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  13. Acoustic-wave sensor for ambient monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Hoyt, A.E.; Frye, G.C.

    1998-08-18

    The acoustic-wave sensor is disclosed. The acoustic-wave sensor is designed for ambient or vapor-phase monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), ethoxyethylpropionate (EEP) or the like. The acoustic-wave sensor comprises an acoustic-wave device such as a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device, a flexural-plate-wave (FPW) device, an acoustic-plate-mode (APM) device, or a thickness-shear-mode (TSM) device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance or QCM) having a sensing region on a surface thereof. The sensing region includes a sensing film for sorbing a quantity of the photoresist-stripping agent, thereby altering or shifting a frequency of oscillation of an acoustic wave propagating through the sensing region for indicating an ambient concentration of the agent. According to preferred embodiments of the invention, the acoustic-wave device is a SAW device; and the sensing film comprises poly(vinylacetate), poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone), or poly(vinylphenol). 3 figs.

  14. Ambient seismic noise monitoring of a clay landslide: Toward failure prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainsant, Guénolé; Larose, Eric; Brönnimann, Cornelia; Jongmans, Denis; Michoud, Clément; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Given that clay-rich landslides may become mobilized, leading to rapid mass movements (earthflows and debris flows), they pose critical problems in risk management worldwide. The most widely proposed mechanism leading to such flow-like movements is the increase in water pore pressure in the sliding mass, generating partial or complete liquefaction. This solid-to-liquid transition results in a dramatic reduction of mechanical rigidity in the liquefied zones, which could be detected by monitoring shear wave velocity variations. With this purpose in mind, the ambient seismic noise correlation technique has been applied to measure the variation in the seismic surface wave velocity in the Pont Bourquin landslide (Swiss Alps). This small but active composite earthslide-earthflow was equipped with continuously recording seismic sensors during spring and summer 2010. An earthslide of a few thousand cubic meters was triggered in mid-August 2010, after a rainy period. This article shows that the seismic velocity of the sliding material, measured from daily noise correlograms, decreased continuously and rapidly for several days prior to the catastrophic event. From a spectral analysis of the velocity decrease, it was possible to determine the location of the change at the base of the sliding layer. These results demonstrate that ambient seismic noise can be used to detect rigidity variations before failure and could potentially be used to predict landslides.

  15. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    analyzed for toxicity characteristic contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Beginning with the sample from July 31, 2013, pH and specific conductance were also measured. Leachate analysis results show no evidence of contamination. Results for toxicity characteristic contaminants are all below regulatory levels and analysis quantification limits. No quantifiable PCB levels were detected in any sample. Results for pH and specific conductance are also within expected ranges. After analysis, leachate was pumped from the collection tank and used in Cell 18 for dust control. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  16. 2016 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site was the location of an underground nuclear test in 1961 and a groundwater tracer test in 1963. Residual contamination remaining in the subsurface from these events requires long-term oversight. The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the site describes the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management’s (LM’s) plan for monitoring groundwater (radiochemical sampling and hydraulic head measurements), inspecting the site, maintaining the site’s institutional controls, evaluating and reporting data, and documenting the site’s records and data management processes. Groundwater monitoring and site inspection activities are conducted annually. This report summarizes the results of these activities conducted during the October 2015 through September 2016 reporting period. The site inspection and annual sampling were conducted on January 27, 2016. At the time of the site inspection, the signs installed near the emplacement shaft, near well USGS-1, and around the perimeter of the site were observed as being in good condition, as were the roads, wellheads, and Project Gnome monument. No new groundwater extraction wells or oil and gas wells were installed during this reporting period on the site or in the sections that surround the site. One new application was received by the New Mexico Oil Conservation Division to install a salt water disposal well approximately 0.8 miles northeast of the Project Gnome monument. The proposed well has a planned completion depth of 15,500 feet below ground surface, but as of November 2016 a drill date has not been established.

  17. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with Module 3, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 87 FSB wells screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning in the first quarter of 1993, the standard for comparison became the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS) specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit. Currently and historically, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the second half of 1993, notably aluminum, iodine-129, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B 2 and Aquifer Zone 2B 1 wells. However, several Aquifer Unit 2A wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  18. Multisensor Capacitance Probes for Simultaneously Monitoring Rice Field Soil-Water- Crop-Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhoff, James; Hornbuckle, John; Dowling, Thomas

    2017-12-26

    Multisensor capacitance probes (MCPs) have traditionally been used for soil moisture monitoring and irrigation scheduling. This paper presents a new application of these probes, namely the simultaneous monitoring of ponded water level, soil moisture, and temperature profile, conditions which are particularly important for rice crops in temperate growing regions and for rice grown with prolonged periods of drying. WiFi-based loggers are used to concurrently collect the data from the MCPs and ultrasonic distance sensors (giving an independent reading of water depth). Models are fit to MCP water depth vs volumetric water content (VWC) characteristics from laboratory measurements, variability from probe-to-probe is assessed, and the methodology is verified using measurements from a rice field throughout a growing season. The root-mean-squared error of the water depth calculated from MCP VWC over the rice growing season was 6.6 mm. MCPs are used to simultaneously monitor ponded water depth, soil moisture content when ponded water is drained, and temperatures in root, water, crop and ambient zones. The insulation effect of ponded water against cold-temperature effects is demonstrated with low and high water levels. The developed approach offers advantages in gaining the full soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in a single robust sensor.

  19. An enzymatic-fluorimetric method for monitoring of ethanol in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Voigt, G.; Klockow, D. [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie (ISAS), Dortmund (Germany); Tavares, T. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBa), Rua Augusto Viana, s/n - Canela, 40110-010 Salvador/Bahia (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    A method is described for the continuous monitoring of ethanol in ambient air. The system consists of a scrubber coil for enrichment of the analyte from air in an aqueous solution and a directly connected fluorescence detector. Because of using a reagent solution containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) for absorption, ethanol can react directly with ADH and NAD{sup +} during air sampling, producing NADH, which can be measured by fluorescence detection. The influence of reagent concentrations, gas flow rate and scrubber solution flow rate on the performance of the instrument was tested. Possible ozone interferences can be avoided by placing a KI coated filter in front of the scrubber inlet. The response time of the system was found to be 2.3 min and the detection limit about 1 ppb{sub V}. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated during a field campaign in Brazil. (orig.) With 7 figs., 35 refs.

  20. An Indoor Monitoring System for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Internet of Things Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gonçalo; Pitarma, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The study of systems and architectures for ambient assisted living (AAL) is undoubtedly a topic of great relevance given the aging of the world population. The AAL technologies are designed to meet the needs of the aging population in order to maintain their independence as long as possible. As people typically spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor air quality (iAQ) is perceived as an imperative variable to be controlled for the inhabitants’ wellbeing and comfort. Advances in networking, sensors, and embedded devices have made it possible to monitor and provide assistance to people in their homes. The continuous technological advancements make it possible to build smart objects with great capabilities for sensing and connecting several possible advancements in ambient assisted living systems architectures. Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Most of the monitoring frameworks instantly accessible are exceptionally costly and only permit the gathering of arbitrary examples. iAQ is an indoor air quality system based on an Internet of Things paradigm that incorporates in its construction Arduino, ESP8266, and XBee technologies for processing and data transmission and micro sensors for data acquisition. It also allows access to data collected through web access and through a mobile application in real time, and this data can be accessed by doctors in order to support medical diagnostics. Five smaller scale sensors of natural parameters (air temperature, moistness, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glow) were utilized. Different sensors can be included to check for particular contamination. The results reveal that the system can give a viable indoor air quality appraisal in order to anticipate technical interventions for improving indoor air quality. Indeed indoor air quality might be distinctively contrasted with what is normal for a quality living environment. PMID:27869682

  1. Ambient vibration characterization and monitoring of a rock slope close to collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjánek, Jan; Gischig, Valentin; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Fäh, Donat

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the ambient vibration response of Alpe di Roscioro (AdR), an incipient rock slope failure located above the village Preonzo in southern Switzerland. Following a major failure in May 2012 (volume ˜210 000 m3), the remaining unstable rock mass (˜140 000 m3) remains highly fractured and disrupted, and has been the subject of intensive monitoring. We deployed a small-aperture seismic array at the site shortly after the 2012 failure. The measured seismic response exhibited strong directional amplification (factors up to 35 at 3.5 Hz), higher than previously recorded on rock slopes. The dominant direction of ground motion was found to be parallel to the predominant direction of deformation and perpendicular to open fractures, reflecting subsurface structure of the slope. We then equipped the site with two semi-permanent seismic stations to monitor the seismic response with the goal of identifying changes caused by internal damage that may precede subsequent failure. Although failure has not yet occurred, our data reveal important variations in the seismic response. Amplification factors and resonant frequencies exhibit seasonal trends related (both directly and inversely) to temperature changes and are sensitive to freezing periods (resonant frequencies increase with temperature and during freezing). We attribute these effects to thermal expansion driving microcrack closure, in addition to ice formation, which increase fracture and bulk rock stiffness. We find the site response at AdR is linear over the measured range of weak input motions spanning two orders of magnitude. Our results further develop and refine ambient vibration methods used in rock slope hazard assessment.

  2. An Indoor Monitoring System for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Internet of Things Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Marques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of systems and architectures for ambient assisted living (AAL is undoubtedly a topic of great relevance given the aging of the world population. The AAL technologies are designed to meet the needs of the aging population in order to maintain their independence as long as possible. As people typically spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor air quality (iAQ is perceived as an imperative variable to be controlled for the inhabitants’ wellbeing and comfort. Advances in networking, sensors, and embedded devices have made it possible to monitor and provide assistance to people in their homes. The continuous technological advancements make it possible to build smart objects with great capabilities for sensing and connecting several possible advancements in ambient assisted living systems architectures. Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Most of the monitoring frameworks instantly accessible are exceptionally costly and only permit the gathering of arbitrary examples. iAQ is an indoor air quality system based on an Internet of Things paradigm that incorporates in its construction Arduino, ESP8266, and XBee technologies for processing and data transmission and micro sensors for data acquisition. It also allows access to data collected through web access and through a mobile application in real time, and this data can be accessed by doctors in order to support medical diagnostics. Five smaller scale sensors of natural parameters (air temperature, moistness, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glow were utilized. Different sensors can be included to check for particular contamination. The results reveal that the system can give a viable indoor air quality appraisal in order to anticipate technical interventions for improving indoor air quality. Indeed indoor air quality might be distinctively contrasted with what is normal for a quality living environment.

  3. An Indoor Monitoring System for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Internet of Things Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gonçalo; Pitarma, Rui

    2016-11-17

    The study of systems and architectures for ambient assisted living (AAL) is undoubtedly a topic of great relevance given the aging of the world population. The AAL technologies are designed to meet the needs of the aging population in order to maintain their independence as long as possible. As people typically spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor air quality (iAQ) is perceived as an imperative variable to be controlled for the inhabitants' wellbeing and comfort. Advances in networking, sensors, and embedded devices have made it possible to monitor and provide assistance to people in their homes. The continuous technological advancements make it possible to build smart objects with great capabilities for sensing and connecting several possible advancements in ambient assisted living systems architectures. Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Most of the monitoring frameworks instantly accessible are exceptionally costly and only permit the gathering of arbitrary examples. iAQ is an indoor air quality system based on an Internet of Things paradigm that incorporates in its construction Arduino, ESP8266, and XBee technologies for processing and data transmission and micro sensors for data acquisition. It also allows access to data collected through web access and through a mobile application in real time, and this data can be accessed by doctors in order to support medical diagnostics. Five smaller scale sensors of natural parameters (air temperature, moistness, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glow) were utilized. Different sensors can be included to check for particular contamination. The results reveal that the system can give a viable indoor air quality appraisal in order to anticipate technical interventions for improving indoor air quality. Indeed indoor air quality might be distinctively contrasted with what is normal for a quality living environment.

  4. Monitoring for Pesticides in Groundwater and Surface Water in Nevada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.; Carpenter, Jon; Moses, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Johnson, 1997). Groundwater contamination also may come indirectly by the percolation of agricultural and urban irrigation water through soil layers and into groundwater and from pesticide residue in surface water, such as drainage ditches, streams, and municipal wastewater. To protect surface water and groundwater from pesticide contamination, the USEPA requires that all states establish a pesticide management plan. The Nevada Department of Agriculture (NDOA), with assistance from the USEPA, developed a management program of education (Hefner and Donaldson, 2006), regulation (Johnson and others, 2006), and monitoring (Pennington and others, 2001) to protect Nevada's water resources from pesticide contaminants. Sampling sites are located in areas where urban or agricultural pesticide use may affect groundwater, water bodies, endangered species, and other aquatic life. Information gathered from these sites is used by NDOA to help make regulatory decisions that will protect human and environmental health by reducing and eliminating the occurrence of pesticide contamination. This fact sheet describes current (2008) pesticide monitoring of groundwater and streams by the NDOA in Nevada and supersedes Pennington and others (2001).

  5. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  6. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  8. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  11. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  12. Calendar Year 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2008 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2008 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2008 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year.

  14. Imaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Kaufmann, Olivier; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Poulain, Amaël; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Hallet, Vincent; Quinif, Yves; Van Ruymbeke, Michel; Van Camp, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Water infiltration and recharge processes in karst systems are complex and difficult to measure with conventional hydrological methods. In particular, temporarily saturated groundwater reservoirs hosted in the vadose zone can play a buffering role in water infiltration. This results from the pronounced porosity and permeability contrasts created by local karstification processes of carbonate rocks. Analyses of time-lapse 2-D geoelectrical imaging over a period of 3 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL) site in south Belgium highlight variable hydrodynamics in a karst vadose zone. This represents the first long-term and permanently installed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring in a karst landscape. The collected data were compared to conventional hydrological measurements (drip discharge monitoring, soil moisture and water conductivity data sets) and a detailed structural analysis of the local geological structures providing a thorough understanding of the groundwater infiltration. Seasonal changes affect all the imaged areas leading to increases in resistivity in spring and summer attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration, whereas winter is characterised by a general decrease in resistivity associated with a groundwater recharge of the vadose zone. Three types of hydrological dynamics, corresponding to areas with distinct lithological and structural features, could be identified via changes in resistivity: (D1) upper conductive layers, associated with clay-rich soil and epikarst, showing the highest variability related to weather conditions; (D2) deeper and more resistive limestone areas, characterised by variable degrees of porosity and clay contents, hence showing more diffuse seasonal variations; and (D3) a conductive fractured zone associated with damped seasonal dynamics, while showing a great variability similar to that of the upper layers in response to rainfall events. This study provides detailed images of the sources of drip

  15. Imaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Watlet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration and recharge processes in karst systems are complex and difficult to measure with conventional hydrological methods. In particular, temporarily saturated groundwater reservoirs hosted in the vadose zone can play a buffering role in water infiltration. This results from the pronounced porosity and permeability contrasts created by local karstification processes of carbonate rocks. Analyses of time-lapse 2-D geoelectrical imaging over a period of 3 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL site in south Belgium highlight variable hydrodynamics in a karst vadose zone. This represents the first long-term and permanently installed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT monitoring in a karst landscape. The collected data were compared to conventional hydrological measurements (drip discharge monitoring, soil moisture and water conductivity data sets and a detailed structural analysis of the local geological structures providing a thorough understanding of the groundwater infiltration. Seasonal changes affect all the imaged areas leading to increases in resistivity in spring and summer attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration, whereas winter is characterised by a general decrease in resistivity associated with a groundwater recharge of the vadose zone. Three types of hydrological dynamics, corresponding to areas with distinct lithological and structural features, could be identified via changes in resistivity: (D1 upper conductive layers, associated with clay-rich soil and epikarst, showing the highest variability related to weather conditions; (D2 deeper and more resistive limestone areas, characterised by variable degrees of porosity and clay contents, hence showing more diffuse seasonal variations; and (D3 a conductive fractured zone associated with damped seasonal dynamics, while showing a great variability similar to that of the upper layers in response to rainfall events. This study provides detailed images of

  16. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Monitoring Instrument Performance in Regional Broadband Seismic Network Using Ambient Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, F.; Lyu, S.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the past ten years, the number of seismic stations has increased significantly, and regional seismic networks with advanced technology have been gradually developed all over the world. The resulting broadband data help to improve the seismological research. It is important to monitor the performance of broadband instruments in a new network in a long period of time to ensure the accuracy of seismic records. Here, we propose a method that uses ambient noise data in the period range 5-25 s to monitor instrument performance and check data quality in situ. The method is based on an analysis of amplitude and phase index parameters calculated from pairwise cross-correlations of three stations, which provides multiple references for reliable error estimates. Index parameters calculated daily during a two-year observation period are evaluated to identify stations with instrument response errors in near real time. During data processing, initial instrument responses are used in place of available instrument responses to simulate instrument response errors, which are then used to verify our results. We also examine feasibility of the tailing noise using data from stations selected from USArray in different locations and analyze the possible instrumental errors resulting in time-shifts used to verify the method. Additionally, we show an application that effects of instrument response errors that experience pole-zeros variations on monitoring temporal variations in crustal properties appear statistically significant velocity perturbation larger than the standard deviation. The results indicate that monitoring seismic instrument performance helps eliminate data pollution before analysis begins.

  18. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulai, Henrietta; Waters, Ch.A.; Kennedy, Joseph; Kamenik, Jan; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez; Babinec, James; Jolly, James; Williamson, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We developed a fully autonomous underwater gamma-spectrometer for long-term coastal submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) monitoring. The instrument represents a significant improvement over previous submarine gamma-spectrometers in that it is very robust, has high sensitivity allowing high temporal resolution, and is completely autonomous. Here we describe the technical parameters of the new instrument as well as data collected over its 9-month deployment in Kiholo Bay, HI, USA. We also present methods to convert the measured activities to SGD rates. In Kiholo Bay, the derived SGD matched previous estimates but in addition it revealed previously undocumented short- and long-term patterns in SGD. (author)

  19. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exceeded final PDWS in one well. Aluminum, iron, manganese, tin, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. This project began in July 1994 and is complete; however, analytical data from these wells is not available yet

  20. Monitoring of carbamazepine concentrations in wastewater and groundwater to quantify sewer leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenz, R; Blaschke, A P; Clara, M; Kroiss, H; Mascher, D; Zessner, M

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of carbamazepine concentrations in wastewater and groundwater enables us to identify and quantify sewer exfiltration. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine is hardly removed in wastewater treatment plants and not or just slightly attenuated during bank infiltration and subsoil flow. Concentrations in wastewater are generally 1000 times higher than the limit of quantification. In contrast to . many other wastewater tracers carbamazepine is discharged to the environment only via domestic wastewater. The results from this study carried out in Linz, Austria indicate an average exfiltration rate of 1%, expressed as percentage of the dry weather flow that is lost to the groundwater on the city-wide scale. This rate is lower than sewage losses reported in most other studies which attempted to quantify exfiltration on the basis of groundwater pollution. However, it was also possible to identify one area with significantly higher sewage losses. This method seems to be very suitable for the verification of leakage models used to assess sewer exfiltration on a regional scale.

  1. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 microg/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 microg/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 microg/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted

  2. Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells TAV-MW15 and TAV-MW16.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, Clinton C. L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report documents the installation of two groundwater monitoring wells at the Technical Area V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). SNL/NM is managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA- 0003525. Well installation activities were conducted in accordance with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB)-approved work plan Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern (Work Plan) (SNL/NM March 2016). The Work Plan was approved by NMED HWB prior to the start of field work (NMED May 2016). Project activities were performed from November 2016 through January 2017 by SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Operations personnel, and the SNL/NM drilling contractor Cascade Drilling LP. Drilling activities began with borehole drilling and sampling on November 30, 2016. Well construction and development fieldwork was completed on January 31, 2017. Land surveys to establish the location coordinates and elevations of the two wells were completed on March 23, 2017, and transmitted to SNL/NM personnel on April 17, 2017.

  3. Monitoring of the Gasoline Oxygenate MTBE and BTEX Compounds in Groundwater in Catalonia (Northeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fraile

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace (HS gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (HS-GC-FID and purge and trap (P gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P were used for the determination of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE and benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX in groundwater. In this work, we present the first data on the levels of MTBE and BTEX in different groundwater wells in the area of Catalonia (northeast Spain. This monitoring campaign corresponded to 28 groundwater wells that were located near petrol service stations, oil refinery storage tanks, and/or chemical industry at different locations of Catalonia during the period of 1998/1999. The levels of MTBE detected varied between 4—300 μg/l, but two sites had MTBE levels up to 3 and 13 mg/l. In many cases, the BTEX levels were below 1 μg/l, whereas 7 sites had levels varying from 19 μg/l up to 3 mg/l. Most of them were related to leakage from underground tanks in petrol service stations, while the remaining three corresponded respectively to chemical industrial pollution of undetermined origin and to a leak from high-ground petrol tanks in petrochemical refinery factories. The aquifers involved were constituted by detritus coarse materials, sands, and conglomerates. Piezometric levels were roughly comprised between 3 and 40 m, and permeability (K and transmissivity (T values were estimated from field measurements.

  4. A stream-based methane monitoring approach for evaluating groundwater impacts associated with unconventional gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M; Stolp, Bert J; Kimball, Briant A; Susong, David D; Marston, Thomas M; Gardner, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Gaining streams can provide an integrated signal of relatively large groundwater capture areas. In contrast to the point-specific nature of monitoring wells, gaining streams coalesce multiple flow paths. Impacts on groundwater quality from unconventional gas development may be evaluated at the watershed scale by the sampling of dissolved methane (CH4 ) along such streams. This paper describes a method for using stream CH4 concentrations, along with measurements of groundwater inflow and gas transfer velocity interpreted by 1-D stream transport modeling, to determine groundwater methane fluxes. While dissolved ionic tracers remain in the stream for long distances, the persistence of methane is not well documented. To test this method and evaluate CH4 persistence in a stream, a combined bromide (Br) and CH4 tracer injection was conducted on Nine-Mile Creek, a gaining stream in a gas development area in central Utah. A 35% gain in streamflow was determined from dilution of the Br tracer. The injected CH4 resulted in a fivefold increase in stream CH4 immediately below the injection site. CH4 and δ(13) CCH4 sampling showed it was not immediately lost to the atmosphere, but remained in the stream for more than 2000 m. A 1-D stream transport model simulating the decline in CH4 yielded an apparent gas transfer velocity of 4.5 m/d, describing the rate of loss to the atmosphere (possibly including some microbial consumption). The transport model was then calibrated to background stream CH4 in Nine-Mile Creek (prior to CH4 injection) in order to evaluate groundwater CH4 contributions. The total estimated CH4 load discharging to the stream along the study reach was 190 g/d, although using geochemical fingerprinting to determine its source was beyond the scope of the current study. This demonstrates the utility of stream-gas sampling as a reconnaissance tool for evaluating both natural and anthropogenic CH4 leakage from gas reservoirs into groundwater and surface water

  5. Ambient intelligence for monitoring and research in clinical neurophysiology and medicine: the MIMERICA* project and prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolo, L; Riganello, F; Dolce, G; Sannita, W G

    2013-04-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) provides extended but unobtrusive sensing and computing devices and ubiquitous networking for human/environment interaction. It is a new paradigm in information technology compliant with the international Integrating Healthcare Enterprise board (IHE) and eHealth HL7 technological standards in the functional integration of biomedical domotics and informatics in hospital and home care. AmI allows real-time automatic recording of biological/medical information and environmental data. It is extensively applicable to patient monitoring, medicine and neuroscience research, which require large biomedical data sets; for example, in the study of spontaneous or condition-dependent variability or chronobiology. In this respect, AML is equivalent to a traditional laboratory for data collection and processing, with minimal dedicated equipment, staff, and costs; it benefits from the integration of artificial intelligence technology with traditional/innovative sensors to monitor clinical or functional parameters. A prototype AmI platform (MIMERICA*) has been implemented and is operated in a semi-intensive unit for the vegetative and minimally conscious states, to investigate the spontaneous or environment-related fluctuations of physiological parameters in these conditions.

  6. Development of sleep monitoring system for observing the effect of the room ambient toward the quality of sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, W. H. M.; Khoo, C. W.; Rahman, S. I. Ab; Ibrahim, M. M.; Saad, N. H. M.

    2017-06-01

    Getting enough sleep at the right times can help in improving quality of life and protect mental and physical health. This study proposes a portable sleep monitoring device to determine the relationship between the room ambient and quality of sleep. Body condition parameter such as heart rate, body temperature and body movement was used to determine quality of sleep and Audio/video-based monitoring system. The functionality test on all sensors is carried out to make sure that all sensors is working properly. The functionality of the overall system is designed for a better experience with a very minimal intervention to the user. The simple test on the body condition (body temperature and heart rate) while asleep with several different ambient parameters (humidity, brightness and temperature) are varied and the result shows that someone has a better sleep in a dark and colder ambient. This can prove by lower body temperature and lower heart rate.

  7. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB`s Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  8. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB's Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B 2 and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B 1 . However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B 1 and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  9. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, Susan; Dayvault, Jalena

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and-the focus of this report-evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014-2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  10. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Susan [Navarro Reserch and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayvault, Jalena [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-05-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and—the focus of this report—evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014–2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  11. Chromatography related performance of the Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA): laboratory and field based evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the semi-continuous Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA, Metrohm Applikon B.V.) was conducted with an emphasis on examination of accuracy and precision associated with processing of chromatograms. Using laboratory standards and atmospheric measureme...

  12. Groundwater monitoring for remedial investigation in the Oriskany-Whitestown Sand Plain, Oneida County, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewer, R.P.; Birckhead, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    The 50-acre Whitestown Landfill is listed by NYSDEC as a Class 2 inactive hazardous waste disposal site. During Remedial Investigations, a 23-well groundwater monitoring system was installed, exploring Wisconsin age glaciofluvial deposits of the Oriskany-Whitestown sand plain. These were described in the late 19th century as deltaic sediments deposited in a proglacial lake. However, no recent studies and only limited subsurface data were available, prompting a two-phase installation program. The landfill is located above steep bluffs 70 feet above the Mohawk River and Oriskany Creek valleys. Beneath the landfill, Phase I identified a gradational sequence of coarse to fine deltaic sediments with glacial till. This sequence was partly eroded and overlain by alluvium and colluvium in the valleys. The landfill was constructed on surficial deposits of coarse fluviodeltaic gravel. These were underlain by deltaic deposits grading from sand to silt with depth, the lower silts comprising the uppermost aquifer. The silts made identification of the water table difficult during drilling and caused problems in meeting a stringent development criterion for turbidity. Phase I found that the saturated zone, up to 50 feet thick, is perched on glaciolacustrine clays and, locally, tills, which were the lower boundary of the system investigated. Partly influenced by the clays, groundwater and contaminant movement was to the adjoining valley, causing off-site impacts in the shallow alluvial/colluvial aquifer. Therefore, Phase 11 focused on characterizing flow and groundwater quality in the discharge area, particularly with respect to an adjacent residence and wetlands. Contamination was found to extend northward only as far as the Old Erie Canal, which parallels the base of the bluff. Only limited off-site involvement was documented which will be monitored in the post-closure period using the installed well system

  13. Automated Groundwater Monitoring of Uranium at the Hanford Site, Washington - 13116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burge, Scott R. [Burge Environmental, Inc., 6100 South Maple Avenue, no. 114, Tempe, AZ, 85283 (United States); O' Hara, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An automated groundwater monitoring system for the detection of uranyl ion in groundwater was deployed at the 300 Area Industrial Complex, Hanford Site, Washington. The research was conducted to determine if at-site, automated monitoring of contaminant movement in the subsurface is a viable alternative to the baseline manual sampling and analytical laboratory assay methods currently employed. The monitoring system used Arsenazo III, a colorimetric chelating compound, for the detection of the uranyl ion. The analytical system had a limit of quantification of approximately 10 parts per billion (ppb, μg/L). The EPA's drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) is 30 ppb [1]. In addition to the uranyl ion assay, the system was capable of acquiring temperature, conductivity, and river level data. The system was fully automated and could be operated remotely. The system was capable of collecting water samples from four sampling sources, quantifying the uranyl ion, and periodically performing a calibration of the analytical cell. The system communications were accomplished by way of cellular data link with the information transmitted through the internet. Four water sample sources were selected for the investigation: one location provided samples of Columbia River water, and the remaining three sources provided groundwater from aquifer sampling tubes positioned in a vertical array at the Columbia River shoreline. The typical sampling schedule was to sample the four locations twice per day with one calibration check per day. This paper outlines the instrumentation employed, the operation of the instrumentation, and analytical results for a period of time between July and August, 2012. The presentation includes the uranyl ion concentration and conductivity results from the automated sampling/analysis system, along with a comparison between the automated monitor's analytical performance and an independent laboratory analysis. Benefits of using the automated

  14. Automated Groundwater Monitoring of Uranium at the Hanford Site, Washington - 13116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, Scott R.; O'Hara, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    An automated groundwater monitoring system for the detection of uranyl ion in groundwater was deployed at the 300 Area Industrial Complex, Hanford Site, Washington. The research was conducted to determine if at-site, automated monitoring of contaminant movement in the subsurface is a viable alternative to the baseline manual sampling and analytical laboratory assay methods currently employed. The monitoring system used Arsenazo III, a colorimetric chelating compound, for the detection of the uranyl ion. The analytical system had a limit of quantification of approximately 10 parts per billion (ppb, μg/L). The EPA's drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) is 30 ppb [1]. In addition to the uranyl ion assay, the system was capable of acquiring temperature, conductivity, and river level data. The system was fully automated and could be operated remotely. The system was capable of collecting water samples from four sampling sources, quantifying the uranyl ion, and periodically performing a calibration of the analytical cell. The system communications were accomplished by way of cellular data link with the information transmitted through the internet. Four water sample sources were selected for the investigation: one location provided samples of Columbia River water, and the remaining three sources provided groundwater from aquifer sampling tubes positioned in a vertical array at the Columbia River shoreline. The typical sampling schedule was to sample the four locations twice per day with one calibration check per day. This paper outlines the instrumentation employed, the operation of the instrumentation, and analytical results for a period of time between July and August, 2012. The presentation includes the uranyl ion concentration and conductivity results from the automated sampling/analysis system, along with a comparison between the automated monitor's analytical performance and an independent laboratory analysis. Benefits of using the automated system as an

  15. Development of a groundwater monitoring system at Horonobe Underground Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanjo, Isao; Amano, Yuki; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Murakami, Hiroaki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Morikawa, Keita; Hosoya, Shinichi

    2012-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) develops basic investigation techniques for deep geological environment around Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Horonobe area, Japan. The observation technique of hydrochemical condition in low permeable sedimentary rock around the facility is one of R and D subjects. We report, 1) development of hydrochemical monitoring system to observe water pressure, pH, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, redox potential and temperature, 2) hydrochemical observation results around URL under construction. The applicability of the hydrochemical monitoring system is evaluated for low permeable sedimentary rock bearing abundant dissolved gases. The hydrochemical observation during facility construction demonstrates that pH and redox potential of groundwater almost did not changed even at hydraulic disturbed zone (water pressure decreased zone). A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  16. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and total organic halogens exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  17. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses (exclusive of boron and lithium) and turbidity measurements. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during second quarter 1994. Carbon tetrachloride exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 3. Specific conductance and total organic halogens were elevated in well HAC 2. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Groundwater flow direction in the water stable beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the west during second quarter 1994. During previous quarters, the groundwater flow direction has been consistently to the northwest or the north-northwest. This apparent change in flow direction may be attributed to the lack of water elevations for wells HTF 16 and 17 and the anomalous water elevations for well HAC 2 during second quarter

  18. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (40 CFR 265). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. Long-term laboratory contracts were approved on October 22, 1991. DataChem Laboratories of Salt Lake City, Utah, performs the hazardous chemicals analyses for the Hanford Site. Analyses for coliform bacteria are performed by Columbia/Biomedical Laboratories and for dioxin by TMS Analytical Services, Inc. International Technology Analytical Services Richland, Washington performs the radiochemical analyses. This quarterly report contains data that were received prior to March 8, 1993. This report may contain not only data from the October through December quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported

  19. Calendar Year 2005 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2005 monitoring data is deferred to the ''Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium'' (BWXT 2006). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including

  20. Calendar Year 2004 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2005-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2004 monitoring data is deferred to the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium (BWXT 2005). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and

  1. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically as well as currently, nitrate-nitrite as nitrogen, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the second half of 1995. Elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (Aquifer Zone IIB 2 ), however, constitutents exceeding standards also occurred in several different aquifer zones monitoring wells. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  2. Natural analogue study of CO2 storage monitoring using probability statistics of CO2-rich groundwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. K.; Hamm, S. Y.; Kim, S. O.; Yun, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    For confronting global climate change, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several very useful strategies as using capture of greenhouse gases like CO2 spewed from stacks and then isolation of the gases in underground geologic storage. CO2-rich groundwater could be produced by CO2 dissolution into fresh groundwater around a CO2 storage site. As consequence, natural analogue studies related to geologic storage provide insights into future geologic CO2 storage sites as well as can provide crucial information on the safety and security of geologic sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and field operation and monitoring that could be implemented for geologic sequestration. In this study, we developed CO2 leakage monitoring method using probability density function (PDF) by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater. For the study, we used existing data of CO2-rich groundwaters in different geological regions (Gangwondo, Gyeongsangdo, and Choongchungdo provinces) in South Korea. Using PDF method and QI (quantitative index), we executed qualitative and quantitative comparisons among local areas and chemical constituents. Geochemical properties of groundwater with/without CO2 as the PDF forms proved that pH, EC, TDS, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 were effective monitoring parameters for carbonated groundwater in the case of CO2leakage from an underground storage site. KEY WORDS: CO2-rich groundwater, CO2 storage site, monitoring parameter, natural analogue, probability density function (PDF), QI_quantitative index Acknowledgement This study was supported by the "Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2058186)" and the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from KEITI (Project number: 2014001810003).

  3. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Raey, M.; Shalaby, E.; Guirguis, S.; Ghatass, Z.; Said, H.H.; Zahran, A.; Rashad, M.; Sivertsen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and PM 10 . The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO 2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO 2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM 10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm 3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  4. Real-time monitoring of BTEX in air via ambient-pressure MPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Orven F.; Carriere, Josef P.; Isensee, Harlan; Gillispie, Gregory D.; Cooper, William F.; Dvorak, Michael A.

    1998-05-01

    We have developed and begun to field test a very sensitive method for real-time measurements of single-ring aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. In this study, we focus on the efficient 1 + 1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of the BTEX species in the narrow region between 266 and 267 nm. We particularly emphasize 266.7 nm, a wavelength at which both benzene and toluene exhibit a sharp absorbance feature and benzene and its alkylated derivatives all absorb. An optical parametric oscillator system generating 266.7 nm, a REMPI cell, and digital oscilloscope detector are mounted on a breadboard attached to a small cart. In the first field test, the cart was wheeled through the various rooms of a chemistry research complex. Leakage of fuel through the gas caps of cars and light trucks in a parking lot was the subject of the second field test. The same apparatus was also used for a study in which the performance of the REMPI detector and a conventional photoionization detector were compared as a BTEX mixture was eluted by gas chromatography. Among the potential applications of the methodology are on-site analysis of combustion and manufacturing processes, soil gas and water headspace monitoring, space cabin and building air quality, and fuel leak detection.

  5. Monitoring method for an ambient Gamma exposure rate and its measurement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong Kwan [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Daily and seasonal variations of the ambient gamma ray exposure rates were measured by using a pressurized ion chamber from January 2003 to December 2005 in the Cheongju Regional Radiation Monitoring Post and the patterns of the distributions were studied. The annual average of the daily variation of the exposure rate was {approx}0.17 {mu}R/h. The exposure rate was found to be maximum during 8:00 am to 9:00 am and minimum during 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm. For the annual data, the exposure rate was the minimum during the month of February. The exposure rate increased from February to mid-October (except during the period from May to July with no change) and decreased from October to February. The seasonal variation was found to be about 1 {mu}R/h. Most of the measured values (96%) of the exposure rates fell under the normal distribution with a deviation of less than 4.8% and the remaining 4% had large fluctuations caused mainly by the rainfalls.

  6. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Working (AAW is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers’ comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS.

  7. Sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to the complexity of aquifer systems for monitoring of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katpatal, Yashwant B.; Rishma, C.; Singh, Chandan K.

    2018-05-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is aimed at assessment of groundwater storage under different terrestrial conditions. The main objective of the presented study is to highlight the significance of aquifer complexity to improve the performance of GRACE in monitoring groundwater. Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, central India, was selected as the study area for analysis, since the region comprises a simple aquifer system in the western region and a complex aquifer system in the eastern region. Groundwater-level-trend analyses of the different aquifer systems and spatial and temporal variation of the terrestrial water storage anomaly were studied to understand the groundwater scenario. GRACE and its field application involve selecting four pixels from the GRACE output with different aquifer systems, where each GRACE pixel encompasses 50-90 monitoring wells. Groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) are derived for each pixel for the period 2002 to 2015 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models (GWSAGRACE) as well as the actual field data (GWSAActual). Correlation analysis between GWSAGRACE and GWSAActual was performed using linear regression. The Pearson and Spearman methods show that the performance of GRACE is good in the region with simple aquifers; however, performance is poorer in the region with multiple aquifer systems. The study highlights the importance of incorporating the sensitivity of GRACE in estimation of groundwater storage in complex aquifer systems in future studies.

  8. Refinement of the list of constituents for groundwater monitoring at M-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.

    1997-11-01

    For several years Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been examining ways of reducing monitoring costs. Most of these efforts have been aimed at reducing the number of wells sampled or reducing sample frequency. With regards to monitoring around the M-Area Settling Basin, we are now examining a possible reduction in the number of constituents analyzed. It is our opinion that many constituents can be dropped entirely. Several others should be dropped from analyses in the plume definition wells, while retained for analyses at the point of compliance (POC) wells. Constituents that can be dropped entirely are nonhazardous inorganics generally referred to as water quality indicators. Monitoring for these parameters is sensible when a facility is in detection monitoring, but it is much less useful at a facility like the M-Area Basin. The water quality indicators are helpful in detecting whether or not a facility has impacted the environment. But their concentrations are not important in themselves. At M-Area, it is well documented that the facility has impacted groundwater quite seriously with a known group of hazardous constituents. So the concentrations of the nonhazardous constituents are of little interest. Obviously, monitoring for the hazardous constituents should continue, but it should only continue at wells that are likely to yield useful data. At M-Area there are 41 Point of Compliance (POC) wells monitoring an area of about .25 square miles and about 236 plume definition wells monitoring the surround 4 square miles. The locations of well clusters and the point of compliance are shown in figure 1. The POC wells and plume definition wells are intended to serve entirely different purposes and should not, necessarily, be monitored for the same things. The POC wells form a picket line around the facility and are intended to detect any constituents leaching from it. They are also intended to determine whether such constituents exceed action levels. Plume

  9. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for groundwater and surface water monitoring at the Y-12 Plant during calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1995 at the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. Included in this plan are the monitoring activities managed by the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Other groundwater and surface water monitoring activities (e.g. selected Environmental Restoration Program activities, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) monitoring) not managed through the Y-12 Plant GWPP are not addressed in this report. Several monitoring programs will be implemented in three hydrogeologic regimes: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. For various reasons, modifications to the 1995 monitoring programs may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected wells, or wells could be added to or deleted from the monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring programs will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  11. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Groundwater conservation and monitoring activities in the middle Brenta River plain (Veneto Region, Northern Italy: preliminary results about aquifer recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the middle Brenta River plain there is a unconfined aquifer that represents an important groundwater resource in Veneto region. In this area the main groundwater recharge factor is related to the stream seepage: the water dispersion from the Brenta river is active with variable intensity from the foothill to the alignment Nove di Bassano - Cartigliano (Province of Vicenza. In order to mitigate the expected groundwater effects, due to future important waterworks withdrawals provided by the regional water resources management plans, an experimental project of Managed Aquifer Recharge has started, by means of the realization of some river transversal ramps. The construction of pilot works, partially completed, were preceded by a specific hydrogeological monitoring program, aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness of the MAR actions in terms of comparison between pre-and post-operam conditions. Thanks to the development of a site-specific methodology, aimed to the quantification of the artificial infiltration rate, and after some years of monitoring controls of the hydrological and hydrogeological regimes, it is now possible to evaluate the extent and the rate of the recharge effects in groundwater due to ramps realization. The monitoring plan will be continued in the medium-long term. Some innovative approaches, based for example on the use of groundwater temperature measurements as recharge tracer, will help to validate the preliminary results.

  13. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  14. Polymer Electrolyte-Based Ambient Temperature Oxygen Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2011-01-01

    An ambient temperature oxygen microsensor, based on a Nafion polymer electrolyte, has been developed and was microfabricated using thin-film technologies. A challenge in the operation of Nafion-based sensor systems is that the conductivity of Nafion film depends on the humidity in the film. Nafion film loses conductivity when the moisture content in the film is too low, which can affect sensor operation. The advancement here is the identification of a method to retain the operation of the Nafion films in lower humidity environments. Certain salts can hold water molecules in the Nafion film structure at room temperature. By mixing salts with the Nafion solution, water molecules can be homogeneously distributed in the Nafion film increasing the film s hydration to prevent Nafion film from being dried out in low-humidity environment. The presence of organics provides extra sites in the Nafion film to promote proton (H+) mobility and thus improving Nafion film conductivity and sensor performance. The fabrication of ambient temperature oxygen microsensors includes depositing basic electrodes using noble metals, and metal oxides layer on one of the electrode as a reference electrode. The use of noble metals for electrodes is due to their strong catalytic properties for oxygen reduction. A conducting polymer Nafion, doped with water-retaining components and extra sites facilitating proton movement, was used as the electrolyte material, making the design adequate for low humidity environment applications. The Nafion solution was coated on the electrodes and air-dried. The sensor operates at room temperature in potentiometric mode, which measures voltage differences between working and reference electrodes in different gases. Repeat able responses to 21-percent oxygen in nitrogen were achieved using nitrogen as a baseline gas. Detection of oxygen from 7 to 21 percent has also been demonstrated. The room-temperature oxygen micro sensor developed has extremely low power

  15. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  16. An open loop equilibrator for continuous monitoring of radon at the groundwater-surface water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil Yong Lee; Yoon Yeol Yoon; Soo Young Cho; Eunhee Lee; Sang-Ho Moon; Dong-Chan Koh; Kyoochul Ha; Yongcheol Kim; Kyung-Seok Ko

    2015-01-01

    A continuous monitoring system (CMS) using an open loop equilibrator for assessment of 222 Rn at the groundwater-surface water interface was developed and tested. For the characterization and validation of the system, three air loops (open loop, closed loop, and open bubble loop) were tested in relation to high and precise count rates, rapid response, and equilibration of radon. The water and air stream is fed to the equilibrator by an experimental setup with a commercial submersible water pump and the internal pump with built-in radon-in-air detector. Efficiency calibration of the CMS is done by simultaneous determination of a groundwater sample using liquid scintillation counting, and the RAD7 accessories RAD-H 2 O, BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The higher count rates are provided by the closed loop. However, the open loop with bubbler (open bubble loop) provides the best precision count rates, rapid response, and equilibration time. The CMS allows radon determination in discrete water samples as well as continuous water streams. (author)

  17. Ambient radiation monitoring at a PET/CT imaging center within a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.C.; Chen, Y.W.; Chuang, Y.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Potential environmental dose rates in a patient waiting room at the PET/CT Imaging Center within our Nuclear Medicine Department (N.M.D.) are evaluated by both of the computer modeling method and real-time monitoring in practical settings. The maximum dose rate is directly read from a peak dose-rate frozen-up, digital gamma G-M survey meter. The design basis of our PET/CT Imaging Center facility has assumed a maximum total of five 18 FDG-patients presented at any given time either in an Am or a Pm session according to two separated drug batch delivering runs. Due to the relatively high gamma energy of 511 keV emitted by the F- 18 labeled compound, we have remodeled our facility with a 0.5-cm thick Pb wall and larger space separations between rooms that include a PET/CT scan room, two separated 18 FDG i.v. injection rooms, and a delayed-phase patient waiting room. Patient could normally complete two separate PET/CT scan runs, if a delayed-phase scan is needed, within three hours time frame from an initial dose of 370 MBq (10 mCi) that has a physical half-live of 110 minutes for an F-18 labeled compound. When all the needed scans are finished, the patient is released from our PET/CT Imaging Center that has to follow the radiation safety guideline of less than 50 mSv/hr (5 m R/hr) at one meter distance. During typical operation, each drug i.v. injection room or the scan room is restricted to one patient access only. As a worst case scenario, the maximum ambient dose rate may only occur when two or more delayed phase patients would stay in the PET/CT waiting room that is excluded for other non-PET patient use. Theoretically using a computer discrete-ordinate integrating methods, dose rates at one meter distance from a mid-point geometry, based on a simulated 10 mCi F-18 point, line or volumetric source (assuming 170 cm in height and 20 cm in radius of homogeneous water media), can also be calculated to give values of 5.71, 4.73 and 3

  18. Installation of the multi-packer system for the long-term monitoring of deep groundwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon; Kim, Geon Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The groundwater system in the deep geological environment is very important to evaluate the behavior of the radionuclide migration and near-field barrier system. The multi-packer system was installed to derive the long-term change of the groundwater pressure and its quality in the several isolated monitoring zones with depth in the study sites. The monitoring zones were basically determined by the spatial distribution characteristics of the conductive fracture and their hydraulic properties. To recover the natural groundwater condition, the borehole water was purged after completing the installation. From this equipment, the in-situ data will be provided to the radionuclide migration and system development study. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  19. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test conducted in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and a groundwater tracer test performed at the site. Surface reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing. A Completion Report was prepared, and the State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. Subsurface corrective action activities began in 1972 and have generally consisted of annual sampling and monitoring of wells near the site. In 2008, the annual site inspections were refined to include hydraulic head monitoring and collection of samples from groundwater monitoring wells onsite using the low-flow sampling method. These activities were conducted during this monitoring period on January 18, 2012. Analytical results from this sampling event indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were generally consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events. The exceptions are the decreases in concentrations of strontium-90 in samples from wells USGS-4 and USGS-8, which were more than 2.5 times lower than last year's results. Well USGS-1 provides water for livestock belonging to area ranchers, and a dedicated submersible pump cycles on and off to maintain a constant volume in a nearby water tank. Water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 respond to the on/off cycling of the water supply pumping from well USGS-1. Well LRL-7 was not sampled in January, and water levels were still increasing when the transducer data were downloaded in September. A seismic reflection survey was also conducted this year. The survey acquired approximately 13.9 miles of seismic reflection data along 7 profiles on and near the site. These activities were conducted from February 23 through March 10, 2012. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were in good

  20. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test conducted in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and a groundwater tracer test performed at the site. Surface reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing. A Completion Report was prepared, and the State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. Subsurface corrective action activities began in 1972 and have generally consisted of annual sampling and monitoring of wells near the site. In 2008, the annual site inspections were refined to include hydraulic head monitoring and collection of samples from groundwater monitoring wells onsite using the low-flow sampling method. These activities were conducted during this monitoring period on January 18, 2012. Analytical results from this sampling event indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were generally consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events. The exceptions are the decreases in concentrations of strontium-90 in samples from wells USGS-4 and USGS-8, which were more than 2.5 times lower than last year's results. Well USGS-1 provides water for livestock belonging to area ranchers, and a dedicated submersible pump cycles on and off to maintain a constant volume in a nearby water tank. Water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 respond to the on/off cycling of the water supply pumping from well USGS-1. Well LRL-7 was not sampled in January, and water levels were still increasing when the transducer data were downloaded in September. A seismic reflection survey was also conducted this year. The survey acquired approximately 13.9 miles of seismic reflection data along 7 profiles on and near the site. These activities were conducted from February 23 through March 10, 2012. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were in

  1. Environmental Baseline Survey for Installation of Five New Hydrogeologic Groundwater Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) provides the findings of a survey and assessment for termination of an existing easement granted to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the installation of 5 new hydrogeologic groundwater monitoring wells located on KAFB, New Mexico. The purpose of this EBS is to: Document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property. Identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property. Develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks. Ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property. Determine possible effects of contamination on property valuation, and serve as the basis for notice of environmental condition for applicable federal or local real property disclosure requirements.

  2. Optimisation of groundwater level monitoring networks using geostatistical modelling based on the Spartan family variogram and a genetic algorithm method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyris, Antonios E.; Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater level monitoring networks provide essential information for water resources management, especially in areas with significant groundwater exploitation for agricultural and domestic use. Given the high maintenance costs of these networks, development of tools, which can be used by regulators for efficient network design is essential. In this work, a monitoring network optimisation tool is presented. The network optimisation tool couples geostatistical modelling based on the Spartan family variogram with a genetic algorithm method and is applied to Mires basin in Crete, Greece, an area of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest, which suffers from groundwater overexploitation leading to a dramatic decrease of groundwater levels. The purpose of the optimisation tool is to determine which wells to exclude from the monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information to groundwater level mapping of the area. Unlike previous relevant investigations, the network optimisation tool presented here uses Ordinary Kriging with the recently-established non-differentiable Spartan variogram for groundwater level mapping, which, based on a previous geostatistical study in the area leads to optimal groundwater level mapping. Seventy boreholes operate in the area for groundwater abstraction and water level monitoring. The Spartan variogram gives overall the most accurate groundwater level estimates followed closely by the power-law model. The geostatistical model is coupled to an integer genetic algorithm method programmed in MATLAB 2015a. The algorithm is used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the minimum error between the original water level mapping using all the available wells in the network and the groundwater level mapping using the reduced well network (error is defined as the 2-norm of the difference between the original mapping matrix with 70 wells and the mapping matrix of the reduced well network). The solution to the

  3. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Review of Portable and Low-Cost Sensors for the Ambient Air Monitoring of Benzene and Other Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelle, Laurent; Gerboles, Michel; Kok, Gertjan; Persijn, Stefan; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2017-06-28

    This article presents a literature review of sensors for the monitoring of benzene in ambient air and other volatile organic compounds. Combined with information provided by stakeholders, manufacturers and literature, the review considers commercially available sensors, including PID-based sensors, semiconductor (resistive gas sensors) and portable on-line measuring devices as for example sensor arrays. The bibliographic collection includes the following topics: sensor description, field of application at fixed sites, indoor and ambient air monitoring, range of concentration levels and limit of detection in air, model descriptions of the phenomena involved in the sensor detection process, gaseous interference selectivity of sensors in complex VOC matrix, validation data in lab experiments and under field conditions.

  6. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 2000 (January through March 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.

    2000-11-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during first quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  9. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program Third Quarter 2000 (July through September 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-05-02

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during third quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  10. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program Second Quarter 2000 (April through June 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-04-17

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during second quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  11. The backend design of an environmental monitoring system upon real-time prediction of groundwater level fluctuation under the hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Chun; Hong, Yao-Ming; Kan, Yao-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater level represents a critical factor to evaluate hillside landslides. A monitoring system upon the real-time prediction platform with online analytical functions is important to forecast the groundwater level due to instantaneously monitored data when the heavy precipitation raises the groundwater level under the hillslope and causes instability. This study is to design the backend of an environmental monitoring system with efficient algorithms for machine learning and knowledge bank for the groundwater level fluctuation prediction. A Web-based platform upon the model-view controller-based architecture is established with technology of Web services and engineering data warehouse to support online analytical process and feedback risk assessment parameters for real-time prediction. The proposed system incorporates models of hydrological computation, machine learning, Web services, and online prediction to satisfy varieties of risk assessment requirements and approaches of hazard prevention. The rainfall data monitored from the potential landslide area at Lu-Shan, Nantou and Li-Shan, Taichung, in Taiwan, are applied to examine the system design.

  12. A Radar-Based Smart Sensor for Unobtrusive Elderly Monitoring in Ambient Assisted Living Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Diraco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous in-home monitoring of older adults living alone aims to improve their quality of life and independence, by detecting early signs of illness and functional decline or emergency conditions. To meet requirements for technology acceptance by seniors (unobtrusiveness, non-intrusiveness, and privacy-preservation, this study presents and discusses a new smart sensor system for the detection of abnormalities during daily activities, based on ultra-wideband radar providing rich, not privacy-sensitive, information useful for sensing both cardiorespiratory and body movements, regardless of ambient lighting conditions and physical obstructions (through-wall sensing. The radar sensing is a very promising technology, enabling the measurement of vital signs and body movements at a distance, and thus meeting both requirements of unobtrusiveness and accuracy. In particular, impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar has attracted considerable attention in recent years thanks to many properties that make it useful for assisted living purposes. The proposed sensing system, evaluated in meaningful assisted living scenarios by involving 30 participants, exhibited the ability to detect vital signs, to discriminate among dangerous situations and activities of daily living, and to accommodate individual physical characteristics and habits. The reported results show that vital signs can be detected also while carrying out daily activities or after a fall event (post-fall phase, with accuracy varying according to the level of movements, reaching up to 95% and 91% in detecting respiration and heart rates, respectively. Similarly, good results were achieved in fall detection by using the micro-motion signature and unsupervised learning, with sensitivity and specificity greater than 97% and 90%, respectively.

  13. A Radar-Based Smart Sensor for Unobtrusive Elderly Monitoring in Ambient Assisted Living Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diraco, Giovanni; Leone, Alessandro; Siciliano, Pietro

    2017-11-24

    Continuous in-home monitoring of older adults living alone aims to improve their quality of life and independence, by detecting early signs of illness and functional decline or emergency conditions. To meet requirements for technology acceptance by seniors (unobtrusiveness, non-intrusiveness, and privacy-preservation), this study presents and discusses a new smart sensor system for the detection of abnormalities during daily activities, based on ultra-wideband radar providing rich, not privacy-sensitive, information useful for sensing both cardiorespiratory and body movements, regardless of ambient lighting conditions and physical obstructions (through-wall sensing). The radar sensing is a very promising technology, enabling the measurement of vital signs and body movements at a distance, and thus meeting both requirements of unobtrusiveness and accuracy. In particular, impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar has attracted considerable attention in recent years thanks to many properties that make it useful for assisted living purposes. The proposed sensing system, evaluated in meaningful assisted living scenarios by involving 30 participants, exhibited the ability to detect vital signs, to discriminate among dangerous situations and activities of daily living, and to accommodate individual physical characteristics and habits. The reported results show that vital signs can be detected also while carrying out daily activities or after a fall event (post-fall phase), with accuracy varying according to the level of movements, reaching up to 95% and 91% in detecting respiration and heart rates, respectively. Similarly, good results were achieved in fall detection by using the micro-motion signature and unsupervised learning, with sensitivity and specificity greater than 97% and 90%, respectively.

  14. Combination RCRA groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-A-10, 216-A-36B, and 216-A-37-1 PUREX cribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    This document presents a groundwater quality assessment monitoring plan, under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulatory requirements for three RCRA sites in the Hanford Site's 200 East Area: 216-A-10, 216-A-36B, and 216-A-37-1 cribs (PUREX cribs). The objectives of this monitoring plan are to combine the three facilities into one groundwater quality assessment program and to assess the nature, extent, and rate of contaminant migration from these facilities. A groundwater quality assessment plan is proposed because at least one downgradient well in the existing monitoring well networks has concentrations of groundwater constituents indicating that the facilities have contributed to groundwater contamination. The proposed combined groundwater monitoring well network includes 11 existing near-field wells to monitor contamination in the aquifer in the immediate vicinity of the PUREX cribs. Because groundwater contamination from these cribs is known to have migrated as far away as the 300 Area (more than 25 km from the PUREX cribs), the plan proposes to use results of groundwater analyses from 57 additional wells monitored to meet environmental monitoring requirements of US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 to supplement the near-field data. Assessments of data collected from these wells will help with a future decision of whether additional wells are needed

  15. Automatic system for ecological monitoring of ambient air in the region of energy complex 'Maritsa-Iztok'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, V.; Videnova, I.; Nedyalkov, N.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the automatic system for ecological monitoring of ambient air in the region of the energy complex 'Maritza-Iztok', developed by CCS-Bulgaria, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Control and System Research. The automatic station takes the concentration of nitric oxides, sulfuric dioxide and dust, as well as the meteorological indicators: temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind direction and speed, sun heat and radiation. The data appears on a information board and is kept in a database

  16. Monitoring groundwater storage changes in the highly seasonal humid tropics: Validation of GRACE measurements in the Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R. G.; Longuevergne, L.

    2012-02-01

    Satellite monitoring of changes in terrestrial water storage provides invaluable information regarding the basin-scale dynamics of hydrological systems where ground-based records are limited. In the Bengal Basin of Bangladesh, we test the ability of satellite measurements under the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to trace both the seasonality and trend in groundwater storage associated with intensive groundwater abstraction for dry-season irrigation and wet-season (monsoonal) recharge. We show that GRACE (CSR, GRGS) datasets of recent (2003 to 2007) groundwater storage changes (ΔGWS) correlate well (r = 0.77 to 0.93, p value CSR. Changes in surface water storage estimated from a network of 298 river gauging stations and soil-moisture derived from Land Surface Models explain 22% and 33% of ΔTWS, respectively. Groundwater depletion estimated from borehole hydrographs (-0.52 ± 0.30 km3 yr-1) is within the range of satellite-derived estimates (-0.44 to -2.04 km3 yr-1) that result from uncertainty associated with the simulation of soil moisture (CLM, NOAH, VIC) and GRACE signal-processing techniques. Recent (2003 to 2007) estimates of groundwater depletion are substantially greater than long-term (1985 to 2007) mean (-0.21 ± 0.03 km3 yr-1) and are explained primarily by substantial increases in groundwater abstraction for the dry-season irrigation and public water supplies over the last two decades.

  17. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  18. Calendar Year 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2009 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2009 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2009 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and

  19. Calendar Year 2006 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2007-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2006 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2006 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., preparing SAPs, coordinating sample collection, and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2006 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and

  20. Calendar Year 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2009 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2009 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B and W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2009 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the

  1. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Yannarell, A. C.; Dai, Q.; Ekizoglu, M.; Mackie, R. I.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms

  2. Development of a Conductivity Sensor for Monitoring Groundwater Resources to Optimize Water Management in Smart City Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Lorena; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio

    2015-08-26

    The main aim of smart cities is to achieve the sustainable use of resources. In order to make the correct use of resources, an accurate monitoring and management is needed. In some places, like underground aquifers, access for monitoring can be difficult, therefore the use of sensors can be a good solution. Groundwater is very important as a water resource. Just in the USA, aquifers represent the water source for 50% of the population. However, aquifers are endangered due to the contamination. One of the most important parameters to monitor in groundwater is the salinity, as high salinity levels indicate groundwater salinization. In this paper, we present a specific sensor for monitoring groundwater salinization. The sensor is able to measure the electric conductivity of water, which is directly related to the water salinization. The sensor, which is composed of two copper coils, measures the magnetic field alterations due to the presence of electric charges in the water. Different salinities of the water generate different alterations. Our sensor has undergone several tests in order to obtain a conductivity sensor with enough accuracy. First, several prototypes are tested and are compared with the purpose of choosing the best combination of coils. After the best prototype was selected, it was calibrated using up to 30 different samples. Our conductivity sensor presents an operational range from 0.585 mS/cm to 73.8 mS/cm, which is wide enough to cover the typical range of water salinities. With this work, we have demonstrated that it is feasible to measure water conductivity using solenoid coils and that this is a low cost application for groundwater monitoring.

  3. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  4. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., O3, SO2, CO, NO/NOy, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. (1... concentrations for other areas with dimensions of a few hundred meters such as school grounds and parks that are...

  6. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs

  7. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for waste area grouping 7 and solid waste storage area 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Ebers, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the drilling and installation of the groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7 and at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 1, which is a part of WAG 1. Installation of GQM wells was required at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for regulatory compliance. Data obtained from these wells will be used to characterize and assess groundwater quality at the perimeter of each WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells in WAG 7 and SWSA 1 were drilled and developed during the period from June 1989 to March 1990

  8. Estimation of groundwater flow from temperature monitoring in a borehole heat exchanger during a thermal response test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Mayumi; Takakura, Shinichi; Uchida, Youhei

    2018-05-01

    To estimate the groundwater flow around a borehole heat exchanger (BHE), thermal properties of geological core samples were measured and a thermal response test (TRT) was performed in the Tsukuba upland, Japan. The thermal properties were measured at 57 points along a 50-m-long geological core, consisting predominantly of sand, silt, and clay, drilled near the BHE. In this TRT, the vertical temperature in the BHE was also monitored during and after the test. Results for the thermal properties of the core samples and from the monitoring indicated that groundwater flow enhanced thermal transfers, especially at shallow depths. The groundwater velocities around the BHE were estimated using a two-dimensional numerical model with monitoring data on temperature changes. According to the results, the estimated groundwater velocity was generally consistent with hydrogeological data from previous studies, except for the data collected at shallow depths consisting of a clay layer. The reasons for this discrepancy at shallow depths were predicted to be preferential flow and the occurrence of vertical flow through the BHE grout, induced by the hydrogeological conditions.

  9. Groundwater electrical conductivity and soil radon gas monitoring for earthquake precursory studies in Koyna, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, D.V.; Nagabhushanam, P.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → It is the first hydrochemical precursory study in the Koyna region, India. → Discrete conductivity measurements indicated progressive increase for 4 years. → Strong precursory EC change observed 40 h before the M 5.1 earthquake. → Precursory increase of soil Rn gas 20 days earlier than earthquakes M 4.7 and 5.1. → On-line monitoring of these parameters may help in earthquake forecast. - Abstract: Hourly monitoring of electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater along with groundwater levels in the 210 m deep boreholes (specially drilled for pore pressure/earthquake studies) and soil Rn gas at 60 cm below ground level in real time, in the Koyna-Warna region (characterized by basaltic rocks, >1500 m thick, and dotted with several sets of fault systems), western India, provided strong precursory signatures in response to two earthquakes (M 4.7 on 14/11/09, and M 5.1 on 12/12/09) that occurred in the study region. The EC measured in Govare well water showed precursory perturbations about 40 h prior to the M 5.1 earthquake and continued further for about 20 h after the earthquake. In response to the M 4.7 earthquake, there were EC perturbations 8 days after the earthquake. In another well (Koyna) which is located 4 km north of Govare well, no precursory signatures were found for the M 4.7 earthquake, while for M 5.1 earthquake, post-seismic precursors were found 18 days after the earthquake. Increased porosity and reduced pressure head accompanied by mixing of a freshwater component from the top zone due to earthquakes are the suggested mechanisms responsible for the observed anomalies in EC. Another parameter, soil Rn gas showed relatively proportional strength signals corresponding to these two earthquakes. In both the cases, the pre-seismic increase in Rn concentration started about 20 days in advance. The co-seismic drop in Rn levels was less by 30% from its peak value for the M 4.7 earthquake and 50% for the M 5.1 earthquake. The Rn

  10. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  11. Organohalogen diffuse contamination in Firenze and Prato groundwater bodies. investigative monitoring and definition of background values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Menichetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany in the determination of background values start from 2009 with various substances such as metals, non-metals and inorganic, dioxins and various matrices such as soil, groundwater, inland surface waters and coastal marine sediments. The methodologies supplied in literature have been interpreted and integrated to meet the requirements of current legislation and needs for remediation, diffuse pollution and excavated earth in specific areas. The method for diffuse pollution described here focuses on the use of statistical and geostatistical tools and what we present in this paper are some early results of interest obtained from two case studies in the Florence and in the Prato area. The study has been carried out on concentrations of tetrachlorethylene in the two groundwater bodies by identifying a number of frequency classes in the distribution. Each class has been hypothesized as corresponding to a distinct process. The occurrence both in space and time of the classes has been analysed and discussed critically concluding for a background value that has been found similar between the two zones. The investigation conducted on two monitoring stations representing hot-spots, with values in excess on background value has enabled to map spatial distribution of concentrations and to separate plumes from diffuse pollution area. The two areas show some peculiarities: Florence area shows advanced dehalogenation and a clear spatial continuity, whereas in Prato area it is limited with poor spatial continuity suggesting a spreading with vertical motions from still active primary or secondary sources. Observing how the methodological structure would require, to be fully predictive, a greater number of samples, however, the present work want to constitute a first contribution for management of areas subject to diffuse pollution.

  12. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  13. Evidence for Legacy Contamination of Nitrate in Groundwater of North Carolina Using Monitoring and Private Well Data Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, K. P.; Kane, E.; Bolich, R.; Serre, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a widespread contaminant of groundwater and surface water across the United States that has deleterious effects to human and ecological health. Legacy contamination, or past releases of NO3-, is thought to be impacting current groundwater and surface water of North Carolina. This study develops a model for predicting point-level groundwater NO3- at a state scale for monitoring wells and private wells of North Carolina. A land use regression (LUR) model selection procedure known as constrained forward nonlinear regression and hyperparameter optimization (CFN-RHO) is developed for determining nonlinear model explanatory variables when they are known to be correlated. Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) is then used to integrate the LUR model to create a LUR-BME model of spatial/temporal varying groundwater NO3- concentrations. LUR-BME results in a leave-one-out cross-validation r2 of 0.74 and 0.33 for monitoring and private wells, effectively predicting within spatial covariance ranges. The major finding regarding legacy sources NO3- in this study is that the LUR-BME models show the geographical extent of low-level contamination of deeper drinking-water aquifers is beyond that of the shallower monitoring well. Groundwater NO3- in monitoring wells is highly variable with many areas predicted above the current Environmental Protection Agency standard of 10 mg/L. Contrarily, the private well results depict widespread, low-level NO3-concentrations. This evidence supports that in addition to downward transport, there is also a significant outward transport of groundwater NO3- in the drinking water aquifer to areas outside the range of sources. Results indicate that the deeper aquifers are potentially acting as a reservoir that is not only deeper, but also covers a larger geographical area, than the reservoir formed by the shallow aquifers. Results are of interest to agencies that regulate surface water and drinking water sources impacted by the effects of

  14. A Low-Level Real-Time In Situ Monitoring System for Tritium in Groundwater and Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, J. T.; Levitt, D. G.

    2002-12-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen produced as a by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is also an integral part of the nuclear weapons industry and has been released into the environment through both the production and testing of nuclear weapons. There are many sites across the DOE complex where tritium has been released into the subsurface through the disposal of radioactive waste and at the Nevada Test Site, through the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Numerous DOE facilities have an on-going regulatory need to be able to monitor tritium concentrations in groundwater within deep hydrologic zones and in the shallower non-saturated vadose zone beneath waste disposal pits and shafts and other release sites. Typical access to groundwater is through deep monitoring wells and situated in remote locations. In response to this need, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and its subcontractor, the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Harry Reid Center (HRC) for Environmental Studies has conducted the applied research and engineering and produced a real time, in situ monitoring system for the detection and measurement of low levels of tritium in the groundwater and in the shallower vadose zone. The monitoring system has been deployed to measure tritium in both the vadose zone near a subsurface radioactive waste package and the groundwater in a deep hydrologic reservoir at the Nevada Test Site. The monitoring system has been designed to detect tritium in the subsurface below federal and/or state regulatory limits for safe drinking water and has been successfully demonstrated. The development effort is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory and the DOE Nevada Operations Office Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI).

  15. Monitoring report of groundwater quality around the Yotsugi mill-tailings dam, Ningyo-toge, Okayama, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Takeuchi, Akira; Sato, Kazuhiko; Tsurudome, Koji; Tokizawa, Takayuki

    1999-08-01

    Monitoring of groundwater quality from boreholes around the Yotsugi mill-tailings dam, in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC, have been carried out to estimate extent and quality of contaminated water plume from the mill-tailings pile. In this report, data collected from 1979 to 1998 fiscal year were listed and their spatial and time variation of physicochemical parameters, uranium and radium were also summarized. Additionally, groundwater sampler has been improved and analytical method has been modified. Some results from groundwater quality were; 1. Uranium and radium concentrations were low, although unexpected change was appeared in some borehole. 2. Water table and temperature from boreholes on the left bank of the dam showed drastically change. 3. Electric conductivity and concentrations or various dissolved ions tend to high from the embankment upward, whereas they tend to low from the embankment downward. (author)

  16. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  17. Monitoring Groundwater Storage Changes in the Loess Plateau Using GRACE Satellite Gravity Data, Hydrological Models and Coal Mining Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the groundwater storage (GWS changes is crucial to the rational utilization of groundwater and to ecological restoration in the Loess Plateau of China, which is one of the regions with the most extreme ecological environmental damage in the world. In this region, the mass loss caused by coal mining can reach the level of billions of tons per year. For this reason, in this work, in addition to Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite gravity data and hydrological models, coal mining data were also used to monitor GWS variation in the Loess Plateau during the period of 2005–2014. The GWS changes results from different GRACE solutions, that is, the spherical harmonics (SH solutions, mascon solutions, and Slepian solutions (which are the Slepian localization of SH solutions, were compared with in situ GWS changes, obtained from 136 groundwater observation wells, and the aim was to acquire the most robust GWS changes. The results showed that the GWS changes from mascon solutions (mascon-GWS match best with in situ GWS changes, showing the highest correlation coefficient, lowest root mean square error (RMSE values and nearest annual trend. Therefore, the Mascon-GWS changes are used for the spatial-temporal analysis of GWS changes. Based on which, the groundwater depletion rate of the Loess Plateau was −0.65 ± 0.07 cm/year from 2005–2014, with a more severe consumption rate occurring in its eastern region, reaching about −1.5 cm/year, which is several times greater than those of the other regions. Furthermore, the precipitation and coal mining data were used for analyzing the causes of the groundwater depletion: the results showed that seasonal changes in groundwater storage are closely related to rainfall, but the groundwater consumption is mainly due to human activities; coal mining in particular plays a major role in the serious groundwater consumption in eastern region of the study area. Our results will help in

  18. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  19. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6

  20. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  1. Applications of Ground-based Mobile Atmospheric Monitoring: Real-time Characterization of Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. Douglas

    Gas and particle phase atmospheric pollution are known to impact human and environmental health as well as contribute to climate forcing. While many atmospheric pollutants are regulated or controlled in the developed world uncertainty still remains regarding the impacts from under characterized emission sources, the interaction of anthropogenic and naturally occurring pollution, and the chemical and physical evolution of emissions in the atmosphere, among many other uncertainties. Because of the complexity of atmospheric pollution many types of monitoring have been implemented in the past, but none are capable of perfectly characterizing the atmosphere and each monitoring type has known benefits and disadvantages. Ground-based mobile monitoring with fast-response in-situ instrumentation has been used in the past for a number of applications that fill data gaps not possible with other types of atmospheric monitoring. In this work, ground-based mobile monitoring was implemented to quantify emissions from under characterized emission sources using both moving and portable applications, and used in a novel way for the characterization of ambient concentrations. In the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania two mobile platforms were used to estimate emission rates from infrastructure associated with the production and transmission of natural gas using two unique methods. One campaign investigated emissions of aerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from natural gas wells, well development practices, and compressor stations using tracer release ratio methods and a developed fenceline tracer release correction factor. Another campaign investigated emissions of methane from Marcellus Shale gas wells and infrastructure associated with two large national transmission pipelines using the "Point Source Gaussian" method described in the EPA OTM-33a. During both campaigns ambient concentrations

  2. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  3. A Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) for drought monitoring and forecasting in a mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendicino, Giuseppe; Senatore, Alfonso; Versace, Pasquale

    2008-08-01

    SummaryDrought indices are essential elements of an efficient drought watching system, aimed at providing a concise overall picture of drought conditions. Owing to its simplicity, time-flexibility and standardization, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has become a very widely used meteorological index, even if it is not able to account for effects of aquifers, soil, land use characteristics, canopy growth and temperature anomalies. Many other drought indices have been developed over the years, with monitoring and forecasting purposes, also with the purpose of taking advantage of the opportunities offered by remote sensing and improved general circulation models (GCMs). Moreover, some aggregated indices aimed at capturing the different features of drought have been proposed, but very few drought indices are focused on the groundwater resource status. In this paper a novel Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) is presented as a reliable tool useful in a multi-analysis approach for monitoring and forecasting drought conditions. The GRI is derived from a simple distributed water balance model, and has been tested in a Mediterranean region, characterized by different geo-lithological conditions mainly affecting the summer hydrologic response of the catchments to winter precipitation. The analysis of the GRI characteristics shows a high spatial variability and, compared to the SPI through spectral analysis, a significant sensitivity to the lithological characterization of the analyzed region. Furthermore, the GRI shows a very high auto-correlation during summer months, useful for forecasting purposes. The capability of the proposed index in forecasting summer droughts was tested analyzing the correlation of the GRI April values with the mean summer runoff values of some river basins (obtaining a mean correlation value of 0.60) and with the summer NDVI values of several forested areas, where correlation values greater than 0.77 were achieved. Moreover, its performance

  4. An Ambient Intelligent Agent Model for Relapse and Recurrence Monitoring in Unipolar Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.; Combi, C.; Shahar, Y.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2009-01-01

    Mental healthcare is a prospective area for applying AI techniques. For example, a computerized system could support individuals with a history of depression in maintaining their well-being throughout their lifetime. In this paper, the design of an ambient intelligent agent to support these

  5. Longitudinal Residential Ambient Monitoring: Correlating Sensor Data to Functional Health Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.; Kröse, B.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming popular in the field of ambient assisted living. In this paper we report our study on the relationship between a functional health metric and features derived from the sensor data. Sensor systems are installed in the houses of nine people who are also quarterly

  6. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Research and Development on March 30, 2010. The analytical procedure of this method has been tested in... Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new equivalent method is... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9184-5] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air...

  7. Xanthoria parietina as a monitor of ground-level ambient ammonia concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik Brinkmann; Berthelsen, Kasper; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months in a tra...

  8. Monitoring the levels of toxic air pollutants in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The ambient air quality in Freetown, Sierra Leone was investigated for the first time for toxic air pollutants. ..... 215 Switzerland), in a water bath at temperature of 55°C and pressure of ..... scraps. Furthermore, the prolonged use of generators.

  9. Environmental monitoring networks in Spain; Redes de vigilancia radiologica ambiental en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Heredia, S.; Martin Matarranz, J. L.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Rey del Castillo, C.; Salas Collantes, R.; Sterling Carmona, A.; Ramos Salvador, L. M.

    2011-07-01

    Environmental monitoring in Spain is carried out by several networks with different objectives and scope, a monitoring network in the vicinity of nuclear facilities and radioactive nuclear fuel cycle and various monitoring networks nationally funded and managed by agencies public. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of all monitoring networks, including a series of figures with the stations that are, their geographical distribution and the programs in them.

  10. RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Monitoring concentration and isotopic composition of methane in groundwater in the Utica Shale hydraulic fracturing region of Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire Botner, E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Nash, David B; Xu, Xiaomei; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Miller, Joshua H

    2018-05-03

    Degradation of groundwater quality is a primary public concern in rural hydraulic fracturing areas. Previous studies have shown that natural gas methane (CH 4 ) is present in groundwater near shale gas wells in the Marcellus Shale of Pennsylvania, but did not have pre-drilling baseline measurements. Here, we present the results of a free public water testing program in the Utica Shale of Ohio, where we measured CH 4 concentration, CH 4 stable isotopic composition, and pH and conductivity along temporal and spatial gradients of hydraulic fracturing activity. Dissolved CH 4 ranged from 0.2 μg/L to 25 mg/L, and stable isotopic measurements indicated a predominantly biogenic carbonate reduction CH 4 source. Radiocarbon dating of CH 4 in combination with stable isotopic analysis of CH 4 in three samples indicated that fossil C substrates are the source of CH 4 in groundwater, with one 14 C date indicative of modern biogenic carbonate reduction. We found no relationship between CH 4 concentration or source in groundwater and proximity to active gas well sites. No significant changes in CH 4 concentration, CH 4 isotopic composition, pH, or conductivity in water wells were observed during the study period. These data indicate that high levels of biogenic CH 4 can be present in groundwater wells independent of hydraulic fracturing activity and affirm the need for isotopic or other fingerprinting techniques for CH 4 source identification. Continued monitoring of private drinking water wells is critical to ensure that groundwater quality is not altered as hydraulic fracturing activity continues in the region. Graphical abstract A shale gas well in rural Appalachian Ohio. Photo credit: Claire Botner.

  12. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing high levels of tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes. Only the SALDS proximal wells (699-48-77A, 699-48-77C, and 699-48-77D) have been affected by tritium from the facility thus far; the highest activity observed (2.1E+6 pCi/L) occurred in well 699-48-77D in February 1998. Analytical results of groundwater geochemistry since groundwater monitoring began at the SALDS indicate that all constituents with permit enforcement limits have been below those limits with the exception of one measurement of total dissolved solids (TDS) in 1996. The revised groundwater monitoring sampling and analysis plan eliminates chloroform, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, benzene, and ammonia as constituents. Replicate field measurements will replace laboratory measurements of pH for compliance purposes. A deep companion well to well 699-51-75 will be monitored for tritium deeper in the uppermost aquifer.

  13. 3Q/4Q98 Annual M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring and Correction-Action Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1998

  14. The monitoring and fatigue behavior of CFCCs at ambient temperature and 1000{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriyala, N.; Liaw, P.K.; McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Metallographically polished flexure bars of Nicalon/SiC and Nicalon/alumina composites were subjected to monotonic and cycle-fatigue loadings, with loading either parallel or normal to the fabric plies. The fabric orientation did not significantly affect the mechanical behavior of the Nicalon/SiC composite at ambient temperature. However, the mechanical behavior of the Nicalon/alumina composite was significantly affected by the fabric orientation at ambient temperature in air and at 1000{degrees}C in argon atmosphere. In addition, there was a significant degradation in the fatigue performance of the alumina matrix composite at the elevated temperature, owing to creep in the material and degradation in the fiber strength.

  15. The monitoring and fatigue behavior of CFCCs at ambient temperature and 1000 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriyala, N.; Liaw, P.K.; McHargue, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Metallographically polished flexure bars of Nicalon/SiC and Nicalon/alumina composites were subjected to monotonic and cycle-fatigue loadings, with loading either parallel or normal to the fabric plies. The fabric orientation did not significantly affect the mechanical behavior of the Nicalon/SiC composite at ambient temperature. However, the mechanical behavior of the Nicalon/alumina composite was significantly affected by the fabric orientation at ambient temperature in air and at 1000 degrees C in argon atmosphere. In addition, there was a significant degradation in the fatigue performance of the alumina matrix composite at the elevated temperature, owing to creep in the material and degradation in the fiber strength

  16. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  17. Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  18. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)

  19. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)

  20. Using two detectors concurrently to monitor ambient dose equivalent rates in vehicle surveys of radiocesium contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Minoru; Shibamichi, Masaru; Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Mitsuhiro; Saegusa, Jun; Yoneya, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    In response to the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), vehicle-borne monitoring was used to map radiation levels for radiological protection of the public. By convention measurements from vehicle-borne surveys are converted to the ambient dose equivalent rate at 1 m height in the absence of the vehicle. This allows for comparison with results from other types of survey, including surveys with hand-held or airborne instruments. To improve the accuracy of the converted results from vehicle-borne surveys, we investigated combining measurements from two detectors mounted on the vehicle at different heights above the ground. A dual-detector setup was added to a JAEA monitoring car and compared against hand-held survey meter measurements in Fukushima Prefecture. The results obtained by combining measurements from two detectors were within ±20% of the hand-held reference measurements. The mean absolute percentage deviation from the reference measurements was 7.2%. The combined results from the two detectors were more accurate than those from either the roof-mounted detector, or the detector inside the vehicle, taken alone. One issue with vehicle-borne surveys is that ambient dose equivalent rates above roads are not necessarily representative of adjacent areas. This is because radiocesium is often deficient on asphalt surfaces, as it is easily scrubbed off by rain, wind and vehicle tires. To tackle this issue, we investigated mounting heights for vehicle-borne detectors using Monte Carlo gamma-ray simulations. When radiocesium is deficient on a road compared to the adjacent land, mounting detectors high on vehicles yields results closer to the values adjacent to the road. The ratio of ambient dose equivalent rates reported by detectors mounted at different heights in a dual-detector setup indicates whether radiocesium is deficient on the road compared to the adjacent land. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Monitoring the occurrence of emerging contaminants in treated wastewater and groundwater between 2008 and 2010. The Baix Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Y; Candela, L; Ronen, D; Teijon, G

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of 166 emerging compounds and four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Hg and Pb) in treated wastewater and groundwater has been monitored at the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) over a period of 3 years. Selected compounds were pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PCPs), dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and priority substances included in the 2008/105/CE Directive. Analysis was performed in tertiary treated wastewater (TWW), after an additional treatment of ultrafiltration reverse osmosis and UV disinfection, and groundwater from a deep confined aquifer. This aquifer is artificially recharged with TWW through injection wells. After the advanced treatment, 38 pharmaceuticals, 9 PCPs, 9 pesticides and 7 PAHs still showed a frequency of detection higher than 25% in the TWW, although at low concentration levels (ng/l). Not all active compounds found in the TWW were present in groundwater, indicating possible degradation within the aquifer media after the injection. A number of chemicals, mainly 10 pesticides and 10 pharmaceuticals were only present in groundwater samples, confirming a different origin than the injected TWW, probably agricultural activities and/or infiltration of poorly treated wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Report on the radiochemical and environmental isotope character for monitoring well UE-1-q: Groundwater Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    Well UE-1-q is located in the northeastern portion of area 1 of the Nevada Test Site in southwestern Nevada, 1244.1 meters above sea level. The well was originally an exploratory hole drilled to a depth of 743 meters below the surface (mbs) by LANL in November of 1980. In May 1992, the Groundwater Characterization Program (GCP) extended the total depth to approximately 792.5 mbs. UE-1-q is cased to a total depth of 749.5 mbs, with the remaining uncased depth exposed exclusively to Paleozoicaged carbonate rock, the principle zone of groundwater sampling. Geologic logging indicates approximately 390 meters of tuffaceous and calcareous alluvium overlies 320 meters of Tertiary-aged volcanic ash-flow and bedded tuffs. Paleozoic carbonate lithology extends from 716 mbs to the total well depth and is separated from the overlying Tertiary volcanic deposits by 6 meters of paleocolluvium. This report outlines the results and interpretations of radiochemical and environmental isotopic analyses of groundwater sampled from UE-1-q on July 10, 1992 during the well pump test following well development. In addition, results of the field tritium monitoring performed during the well drilling are reported in Appendix 1. Sampling, analytical techniques, and analytical uncertainties for the groundwater analyses are presented in Appendix 2

  3. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... automated monitoring method utilizing a measurement principle based on sample collection by filtration and... 58. Questions concerning the commercial availability or technical aspects of the method should be...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Street. Master of Science Thesis, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. January 1971. 3. Bradway, R.M., F... Monitoring Station. Environ. Sci. and Technol., 3:483, 1969. 29. Koch, R.C. and H.E. Rector. Optimum Network...

  5. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes in the groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site: development of a monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borke, P.; Husers, N.; Werner, P.; Leibenath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tar oil is a complex mixture of mainly aromatic hydrocarbons. It is found in the subsurface of manufactured gas plants (MGP), coking plants or wood preserving facilities. The transportation into the soil and groundwater stands for a severe contamination. This is due to the physico-chemical properties of the DNAPL (dense non aqueous phase liquid) and its mobility in the soil and aquifer system. Additionally most of the contaminants show a low biological degradability and solubility under in situ conditions. Therefore it is known as a long term source of contamination. Nevertheless, natural attenuation (NA) processes are detectable at tar oil contaminated sites. In the thematic network two of the German funding priority KORA (http://www.natural-attenuation.de) these processes are matter of investigation. Four typical contaminated sites were chosen to evaluate under which circumstances monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is applicable. Furthermore enhanced natural attenuation questions are examined. The design of monitoring networks at tar oil contaminated sites plays a significant role in gaining field evidence for natural attenuation as well as documenting the efficiency of the attenuation processes and evaluating the matching of performance goals. Well designed monitoring networks include the placement of monitoring wells in 3D so that 3D flow path, mass balances and an estimation of mass flux can be monitored. As an example the history of the monitoring network of a wood preserving facility is shown. Starting from a risk assessment network to a network for MNA is presented. In this case for example especially the determination of the groundwater flow direction in time and space is connected to the number of observation wells and their location. Moreover in the beginning the observation wells were located according to the assumed centerline of the plume. Because of the variability of the groundwater flow direction and the need to determine mass flux a control plane

  6. Projeto Monitores Marinhos (MOMAR): proporcionando uma nova visão dos ambientes marinhos capixabas

    OpenAIRE

    Roquette, Maria Elisa Tosi; Filho, Flavio Pavan; Costa, Thiago José Fagundes e; Carvalho, Renata Costa

    2010-01-01

    Com o aumento populacional, turístico e econômico ao longo do litoral brasileiro, cada vez mais é necessária a realização de levantamentos e monitoramentos de comunidades biológicas e seus fatores governantes, bióticos ou abióticos, pois estes estudos auxiliam o entendimento de como os fatores antrópicos podem interferir nas comunidades biológicas. A preservação dos ambientes recifais se torna cada vez mais necessária diante a problemática encontrada em nossos sistemas marinhos. O primeiro pa...

  7. Ambient Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Observations in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Fixed-site Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan area's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with the Governor's Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 2016 Clean Air Plan will lay out the agency's vision and actions to put the region on a path forward towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The 2016 Plan has three overarching objectives: 1) develop a multi-pollutant emissions control strategy, (2) reduce population exposure to harmful air pollutants, especially in vulnerable communities, and (3) protect climate through a comprehensive Regional Climate Protection Strategy. To accomplish one of 2016 Plan's control measures (SL3 - Greenhouse Gas Monitoring and Measurement Network), the Air District has set up a long-term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain well-mixed GHG enhancements from local sources. CO2 and CH4are being measured continuously at the fixed-sites, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data trends from the first year of operation of the fixed-site monitoring network including monthly and seasonal patterns, diurnal variations and regional enhancements at individual sites above background concentrations. We also locate an isotopic methane instrument (Picarro, G132-i) for a short duration (a week) at each of the

  8. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  9. Design, development and implementation of the IR signaling techniques for monitoring ambient and body temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baqai, A.

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks). This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red) communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes), TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags. (author)

  10. Design, development and implementation of the IR signaling techniques for monitoring ambient and body temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baqai, A. [Mehran Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Dept. of Information and Communication Technology

    2014-07-15

    Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks). This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red) communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes), TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags. (author)

  11. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-02-08

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities.

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality

  13. Groundwater quality in the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Jasper, Monica; Taylor, Kimberly A.

    2017-09-27

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking water supplies. 

  14. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  15. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field

  16. One year of geochemical monitoring of groundwater in the Abruzzi region after the 2009 earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Cardellini, Carlo; Avino, Rosario; Monopoli, Carmine; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Frondini, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The presence of a deep and inorganic source of CO2 has been recently recognized in Italy on the basis of the deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater. In particular, the regional map of CO2 Earth degassing shows that two large degassing structures (Tuscan Roman degassing structure, TRDS, and Campanian degassing structure, CDS) affect the Tyrrhenian side of the Italian peninsula. The comparison between the map of CO2 Earth degassing and of the location of the Italian earthquakes highlights that the anomalous CO2 flux suddenly disappears in the Apennine in correspondence of a narrow band where most of the seismicity concentrates. A previous conceptual model proposed that in this area, at the eastern borders of TRDS and CDS, the CO2 from the mantle wedge intrudes the crust and accumulate in structural traps generating over-pressurized reservoirs. These CO2 over-pressurized levels can play a major role in triggering the Apennine earthquakes. The 2009 Abruzzo earthquakes, like previous seismic crises in the Northern Apennine, occurred at the border of the TRDS, suggesting also in this case a possible role played by deeply derived fluids in the earthquake generation. Detailed hydro-geochemical campaigns, with a monthly frequency, started immediately after the main shock of the 6th of April 2009. The new campaigns include the main springs of the area which were previously studied in detail, during a campaign performed ten years ago, constituting a pre-crisis reference case. Almost one year of geochemical data of the main dissolved ions, of dissolved gases (CO2, CH4, N2, Ar, He) and of the stable isotopes of the water (H, O), CO2 (13C) and He (3He/4He), highlight both that the epicentral area of L'Aquila earthquakes is affected by an important process of CO2 Earth degassing and that that the gases dissolved in the groundwater reflects the input in to the aquifers of a deep gas phase, CO2- rich, with an high He content and with low 3He/4He ratios, similar to the

  17. Methodology for applying monitored natural attenuation to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground-water systems with examples from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Frank H.; Robertson, John F.; Landmeyer, James E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Natural attenuation processes such as dispersion, advection, and biogradation serve to decrease concentrations of disssolved contaminants as they are transported in all ground-water systems.  However, the efficiency of these natural attenuation processes and the degree to which they help attain remediation goals, varies considerably from site to site.  This report provides a methodology for quantifying various natural attenuation mechanisms.  This methodology incorporates information on (1) concentrations of contaminants in space and/or time; (2) ambient reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions; (3) rates and directions of ground-water flow; (4) rates of contaminant biodegradation; and (5) demographic considerations, such as the presence of nearby receptor exposure points or property boundaries.  This document outlines the hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data needed to assess the efficiency of natural attenuation, provides a screening tool for making preliminary assessments, and provides examples of how to determine when natural attenuation can be a useful component of site remediation at leaking underground storage tank sites.

  18. Time-Lapse Monitoring of an Engineering Scaled Excavation at Federal District, Brazil by Passive Ambient NoiseInterferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Soto, M., Sr.; Hussain, Y.; Martinez-Carvajal, H., Sr.; Martino, S., Sr.; Rocha, M., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of stress relief mechanisms that lead to complete material collapse of unstable slopes is challenging. This research is focused on the novel use of Passive Ambient Noise Interferometry (PANI), a new technique that has revolutionized the seismology. In this technique the impulse response or Green function between two sensors is calculated by cross-correlation of the noise rescored at these stations. We applied PANI to monitor the deformational behavior of a prototype field experiment under semi controlled conditions for their use in landsliding early warning systems.The experimental setup consists of a 2 m engineering-scaled excavation,where induced failure was monitored by ambient vibrations propagating in tropical clayey deposits. The experimental setup consisted of dense network of 20 three components short period seismometers (Sercel L4C-3D) installed in three circular arrays with their distances from face of normal slope as 10, 20 and 30 meters, respectively.The frequency response of these seismometers is in range of 2-100 Hz. Recording was done in continuous mode at sampling rate of 1000 Hz with datalogger (RefTek DAS-130/3). Sensors were time synchronized by twenty 130 GPS/01. In this stage, the stress was applied on the one flank of this normal slope dug in the experimental field of University of Brasilia, by a hydraulic jack through a metallic plate. This incremental loading was kept on rising until the slope failure took place. This loading mechanism provided an opportunity to monitoring the changes in Rayleigh wave velocity before, during and after the complete failure. After initial processing, the green function (GF) or impulse response was calculated between each pair of sensors by cross correlation at time step of 4 second. All individual GFs, for entire monitoring period (30 minutes) were stacked to obtained a single reference GF. Stretching (dt/t) in waveform is calculated by subtracting individual GF from average GF, that

  19. Structural Health Monitoring Using Wireless Technologies: An Ambient Vibration Test on the Adolphe Bridge, Luxembourg City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Oth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Major threats to bridges primarily consist of the aging of the structural elements, earthquake-induced shaking and standing waves generated by windstorms. The necessity of information on the state of health of structures in real-time, allowing for timely warnings in the case of damaging events, requires structural health monitoring (SHM systems that allow the risks of these threats to be mitigated. Here we present the results of a short-duration experiment carried out with low-cost wireless instruments for monitoring the vibration characteristics and dynamic properties of a strategic civil infrastructure, the Adolphe Bridge in Luxembourg City. The Adolphe Bridge is a masonry arch construction dating from 1903 and will undergo major renovation works in the upcoming years. Our experiment shows that a network of these wireless sensing units is well suited to monitor the vibration characteristics of such a historical arch bridge and hence represents a low-cost and efficient solution for SHM.

  20. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry

  1. Automatic national network of radiation environmental monitoring in Mexico; Red nacional automatica de monitoreo radiologico ambiental en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Jaime; Delgado, Jose L.; Lopez, Manuel; Zertuche, Jorge V., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: jldelgado@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: mlopez@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: jorge.zertuche@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), D.F. (Mexico). Direccion de Vigilancia Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    The Direccion de Vigilancia Radiologica (DVR) of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) de Mexico, performs several function for environmental radiation monitoring. One of these functions is the permanent monitoring of the environmental gamma radiation. For this, it implemented the Red Nacional Automatica de Monitoreo Radiologico Ambiental (RENAMORA) - the National Automated Network for Environmental Radiation Monitoring,which currently comprises 60 detector probes for gamma radiation which with a programmable system that includes information technologies, data transmission and software can send the information in real time to a primary center of data located in the facilities of CNSNS. - When the data are received, the system performs the verification and extraction of the information organized in Tables and charts, and generates a report of environmental gamma radiation dose rate average for each of the probes and for each period of time determined bu CNSNS. The RENAMORA covers the main cities and allows to establish the bases of almost the entire country, as well as to warn about abnormal situations caused by incidents or natural events generated by human activities inside or outside the country which involves radioactive materials; paying special attention to main radiological sites, such as the surroundings of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plants, research centers and the radioactive waste disposal sites.

  2. Wireless technologies for the monitoring of strategic civil infrastructures: an ambient vibration test of the Faith Bridge, Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, M.; Milkereit, C.; Zulfikar, C.; Ditommaso, R.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Fleming, K.; Ozel, O.; Zschau, J.; Apaydin, N.

    2008-12-01

    The monitoring of strategic civil infrastructures to ensure their structural integrity is a task of major importance, especially in earthquake-prone areas. Classical approaches to such monitoring are based on visual inspections and the use of wired systems. While the former has the drawback that the structure is only superficially examined and discontinuously in time, wired systems are relatively expensive and time consuming to install. Today, however, wireless systems represent an advanced, easily installed and operated tool to be used for monitoring purposes, resulting in a wide and interesting range of possible applications. Within the framework of the earthquake early warning projects SAFER (Seismic eArly warning For EuRope) and EDIM (Earthquake Disaster Information systems for the Marmara Sea region, Turkey), new low-cost wireless sensors with the capability to automatically rearrange their communications scheme are being developed. The reduced sensitivity of these sensors, arising from the use of low-cost components, is compensated by the possibility of deploying high-density self-organizing networks performing real-time data acquisition and analysis. Thanks to the developed system's versatility, it has been possible to perform an experimental ambient vibration test with a network of 24 sensors on the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, Istanbul (Turkey), a gravity-anchored suspension bridge spanning the Bosphorus Strait with distance between its towers of 1090 m. Preliminary analysis of the data has demonstrated that the main modal properties of the bridge can be retrieved, and may therefore be regularly re-evaluated as part of a long-term monitoring program. Using a multi-hop communications technique, data could be exchanged among groups of sensors over distances of a few hundred meters. Thus, the test showed that, although more work is required to optimize the communication parameters, the performance of the network offers encouragement for us to follow this

  3. Speciated mercury measurements in ambient air from 2009 to 2011 at a Central European rural background monitoring site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigelt A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2009 highly time-resolved mercury speciation measurements in ambient air are carried out at the Central European German EMEP monitoring station and measurement site of the German Federal Environment Agency “Waldhof“, providing the longest Central European dataset for mercury species. First statistical analyses do not indicate long term trends for the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and particle bound mercury (TPM. A potential increasing trend for reactive gaseous mercury (RGM will have to be verified in the coming years and should be regarded as indicative only at present. A seasonal cycle for TPM could be observed with higher concentrations during winter time. Furthermore a diurnal cycle for RGM is apparent with highest concentrations in the early afternoon.

  4. Evaluation of a low-cost optical particle counter (Alphasense OPC-N2) for ambient air monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh R.; Shaw, Marvin; Pound, Ryan; Kramer, Louisa J.; Price, Robin; Young, Stuart; Lewis, Alastair C.; Pope, Francis D.

    2018-02-01

    A fast-growing area of research is the development of low-cost sensors for measuring air pollutants. The affordability and size of low-cost particle sensors makes them an attractive option for use in experiments requiring a number of instruments such as high-density spatial mapping. However, for these low-cost sensors to be useful for these types of studies their accuracy and precision need to be quantified. We evaluated the Alphasense OPC-N2, a promising low-cost miniature optical particle counter, for monitoring ambient airborne particles at typical urban background sites in the UK. The precision of the OPC-N2 was assessed by co-locating 14 instruments at a site to investigate the variation in measured concentrations. Comparison to two different reference optical particle counters as well as a TEOM-FDMS enabled the accuracy of the OPC-N2 to be evaluated. Comparison of the OPC-N2 to the reference optical instruments shows some limitations for measuring mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. The OPC-N2 demonstrated a significant positive artefact in measured particle mass during times of high ambient RH (> 85 %) and a calibration factor was developed based upon κ-Köhler theory, using average bulk particle aerosol hygroscopicity. Application of this RH correction factor resulted in the OPC-N2 measurements being within 33 % of the TEOM-FDMS, comparable to the agreement between a reference optical particle counter and the TEOM-FDMS (20 %). Inter-unit precision for the 14 OPC-N2 sensors of 22 ± 13 % for PM10 mass concentrations was observed. Overall, the OPC-N2 was found to accurately measure ambient airborne particle mass concentration provided they are (i) correctly calibrated and (ii) corrected for ambient RH. The level of precision demonstrated between multiple OPC-N2s suggests that they would be suitable devices for applications where the spatial variability in particle concentration was to be determined.

  5. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suslick, Carolynn R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Robert K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  6. Journal Article: Quality Assurance Considerations for An Ambient Dioxin Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in 1998. NDAMN has three primary purposes: 1. To provide measurements of background atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the Unite...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to detect small changes in concentration. 2.6.3Requests for approval under section 2.6.2 of this..., including any reasons for considering it necessary or advantageous; 2.8.3.3A brief statement of belief... under paragraph 4.5(b) of Appendix D to part 58 if there is no existing monitoring data indicating that...

  8. Monitoring of Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution in Mnasra, Morocco Soil and Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, Bouchra; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Dousset, Sylvie; El Hajjaji, Souad

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the levels of nitrates and pesticides occurring in groundwater and agricultural soil in the Mnasra, Morocco area, a zone with intensive agricultural activity. A set of 108 water samples and 68 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results can be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analysed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples. This situation could be explained by the probable partial or total transformation of the molecules in soil.

  9. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  10. Analysis on the Change in Shallow Groundwater Level based on Monitoring Electric Energy Consumption - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wolfgang, K.; Steiner, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater has been over-pumped for irrigation in the North China Plain in the past decades causing a drastic decrease in the groundwater level. Shallow groundwater can be recharged by rainfall, and the aquifer could be rehabilitated for sustainable use. However, understanding and maintaining the balance of the aquifer - including climatic as well as anthropogenic influences - are fundamental to enable such a sustainable groundwater management. This is still severely obstructed by a lack of measurements of recharge and exploitation. A project to measure groundwater pumping rate at the distributed scale based on monitoring electric energy consumption is going on in Guantao County (456 km2) located in the southern part of the North China Plain. Considerably less costly than direct measurements of the pumping rate, this approach enables us to (a) cover a larger area and (b) use historic electricity data to reconstruct water use in the past. Pumping tests have been carried out to establish a relation between energy consumption and groundwater exploitation. Based on the results of the pumping tests, the time series of the pumping rate can be estimated from the historical energy consumption and serves as the input for a box model to reconstruct the water balance of the shallow aquifer for recent years. This helps us to determine the relative contribution of recharge due to rainfall as well as drawdown due to groundwater pumping for irrigation. Additionally, 100 electric meters have been installed at the electric transformers supplying power for irrigation. With insights gained from the pumping tests, real-time monitoring of the groundwater exploitation is achieved by converting the measured energy consumption to the water use, and pumping control can also be achieved by limiting the energy use. A monitoring and controlling system can then be set up to implement the strategy of sustainable groundwater use.

  11. Installation of a groundwater monitoring-well network on the east side of the Uncompahgre River in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-10-07

    The east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin has been a known contributor of dissolved selenium to recipient streams. Discharge of groundwater containing dissolved selenium contributes to surface-water selenium concentrations and loads; however, the groundwater system on the east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin is not well characterized. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Bureau of Reclamation, has established a groundwater-monitoring network on the east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin. Thirty wells total were installed for this project: 10 in 2012 (DS 923, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds923), and 20 monitoring wells were installed during April and June 2014 which are presented in this report. This report presents location data, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development information. Understanding the groundwater system can provide managers with an additional metric for evaluating the effectiveness of salinity and selenium control projects.

  12. The use of passive samplers for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J.; Grimmer, G.; Hildebrandt, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations of ambient air are compared to those present in leaves, spruce sprouts and in the corresponding soil used as passive samplers. Marked profile alterations were detected in various soil horizons with increasing relative concentrations of higher boiling and decreasing relative concentrations of lower boiling PAH with depth. There is no direct correlation between the absolute PAH masses found in air samples and those collected by passive samplers or detected in corresponding soil samples. Even the PAH profiles differ significantly: they can, however, be correlated by introducing PAH - and sampler-specific factors. The PAH profiles appear to indicate that coal combustion mostly contributes to the PAH air pollution in the FRG. The time course of the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(e)pyrene during the past seven years as measured with spruce sprouts as biological passive sampler indicate a significant decrease of the PAH concentration (by a factor of two) in the FRG. First measurements in a clean air area of the Eastern part of the FRG exhibited up to ten times higher PAH concentrations than found in comparable areas of the western part of the country

  13. Ambient agents: embedded agents for remote control and monitoring using the PANGEA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2014-07-31

    Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a new model of an embedded agent especially designed to be implemented in sensing devices with resource constraints. This new model of an agent is integrated within the PANGEA (Platform for the Automatic Construction of Organiztions of Intelligent Agents) platform, an organizational-based platform, defining a new sensor role in the system and aimed at providing contextual information and interacting with the environment. A case study was developed over the PANGEA platform and designed using different agents and sensors responsible for providing user support at home in the event of incidents or emergencies. The system presented in the case study incorporates agents in Arduino hardware devices with recognition modules and illuminated bands; it also incorporates IP cameras programmed for automatic tracking, which can connect remotely in the event of emergencies. The user wears a bracelet, which contains a simple vibration sensor that can receive notifications about the emergency situation.

  14. Ambient Agents: Embedded Agents for Remote Control and Monitoring Using the PANGEA Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Villarrubia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern rec