Maheshwari, Yogita; Vijayanandraj, S; Jain, R K; Mandal, Bikash
Few studies have been done on engineered antibodies for diagnosis of tospovirus infections. The present study was undertaken to develop a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) for specific diagnosis of infection by groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV), the most prevalent serogroup IV tospovirus in India. Heavy chain (372 nucleotide [nt]) and light chain (363 nt) variable region clones obtained from a hybridoma were used to make an scFv construct that expressed a ~29-kDa protein in E. coli. The scFv specifically detected GBNV in field samples of cowpea, groundnut, mung bean, and tomato, and it did not recognize watermelon bud necrosis virus, a close relative of GBNV belonging to tospovirus serogroup IV. This study for the first time demonstrated the application of a functional scFv against a serogroup-IV tospovirus.
Le, N.C.; Kruijt, M.; Raaijmakers, J.
Aims: To determine the role of phenazines (PHZ) and lipopeptide surfactants (LPs) produced by Pseudomonas in suppression of stem rot disease of groundnut, caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. Methods and Results: In vitro assays showed that PHZ-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain
... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to ... cancer (see Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Newcastle Disease Virus What is Newcastle disease virus? Newcastle ...
Jun 6, 2010 ... Environmental and human health problems associated with the use of synthetic ... Mould contamination in stored groundnuts has .... Plastic lunch boxes (220 x 110 x 65 mm) with two compartments and a single cover for both ...
Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. is widely grown and consumed around the world and is considered to have originated from a single hybridization event between two wild diploids. The utilization of wild germplasm in breeding programs has been restricted by reproductive barriers between wild and cultivated species and technical difficulties in making large numbers of crosses. Efforts to overcome these hurdles have resulted in the development of synthetic amphidiploids, namely ISATGR 278-18 (Arachis duranesis × Arachis batizocoi and ISATGR 5B (Arachis magna × A. batizocoi, which possess several desirable traits, including resistance to foliar diseases that generally cause huge yield losses annually in groundnut growing areas of Asia, America, and Africa. With an objective to improve foliar disease resistance, the primary gene pool was diversified by introgressing foliar disease resistance in five cultivated genotypes (ICGV 91114, ICGS 76, ICGV 91278, JL 24, and DH 86 from synthetic amphidiploids using a backcross breeding approach. Several introgression lines with resistance to two foliar diseases (rust and late leaf spot were identified with levels of resistance equal to the donors. These backcross derived lines have shown a wide range of variation for several morphological and agronomic traits. These lines, after further evaluation and selection, can serve as donors in future breeding programs aimed at developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic traits, high resilience to biotic/abiotic stresses and a broadened genetic base.
Varsha; Kumari; M.V.C.Gowda; Vinod; Tasiwal; Manish; K.Pandey; Ramesh; S.Bhat; Nalini; Mallikarjuna; Hari; D.Upadhyaya; Rajeev; K.Varshney
Groundnut(Arachis hypogaea L.)is widely grown and consumed around the world and is considered to have originated from a single hybridization event between two wild diploids.The utilization of wild germplasm in breeding programs has been restricted by reproductive barriers between wild and cultivated species and technical difficulties in making large numbers of crosses.Efforts to overcome these hurdles have resulted in the development of synthetic amphidiploids,namely ISATGR 278-18(Arachis duranesis×Arachis batizocoi)and ISATGR 5B(Arachis magna×A.batizocoi),which possess several desirable traits,including resistance to foliar diseases that generally cause huge yield losses annually in groundnut growing areas of Asia,America,and Africa.With an objective to improve foliar disease resistance,the primary gene pool was diversified by introgressing foliar disease resistance in five cultivated genotypes(ICGV 91114,ICGS 76,ICGV 91278,JL 24,and DH 86)from synthetic amphidiploids using a backcross breeding approach.Several introgression lines with resistance to two foliar diseases(rust and late leaf spot)were identified with levels of resistance equal to the donors.These backcross derived lines have shown a wide range of variation for several morphological and agronomic traits.These lines,after further evaluation and selection,can serve as donors in future breeding programs aimed atdeveloping improved cultivars with desirable agronomic traits,high resilience to biotic/abiotic stresses and a broadened genetic base.
Watson, Stanley W.
Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.
Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L., a self-pollinated legume is an important crop cultivated in 24 million ha world over for extraction of edible oil and food uses. The kernels are rich in oil (48-50% and protein (25-28%, and are source of several vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, biologically active polyphenols, flavonoids, and isoflavones. Improved varieties of groundnut with high yield potential were developed and released for cultivation world over. The improved varieties belong to different maturity durations and possess resistance to diseases, tolerance to drought, enhanced oil content, and improved quality traits for food uses. Conventional breeding procedures along with the tools for phenotyping were largely used in groundnut improvement programs. Mutations were used to induce variability and wide hybridization was attempted to tap variability from wild species. Low genetic variability has been a bottleneck for groundnut improvement. The vast potential of wild species, reservoir of new alleles remains under-utilized. Development of linkage maps of groundnut during the last decade was followed by identification of markers and QTLs for the target traits. Consequently, the last decade has witnessed the deployment of molecular breeding approaches to complement the ongoing groundnut improvement programs in USA, China, India, and Japan. The other potential advantages of molecular breeding are the feasibility to target multiple traits for improvement and provide tools to tap new alleles from wild species. The first groundnut variety developed through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC is a root knot nematode resistant variety, NemaTAM in USA. The uptake of molecular breeding approaches in groundnut improvement programs by NARS partners in India and many African countries is slow or needs to be initiated in part due to inadequate infrastructure, high genotyping costs, and human capacities. Availability of draft genome sequence for diploid (AA & BB
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important legume crop in Vietnam and many other countries worldwide. Stem rot disease, caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., is a major yield limiting factor in groundnut cultivation. Current control methods
... their partners and families should be shown respect, dignity and compassion. For more, read the Guidance on ... virus disease outbreaks Year Country Ebolavirus species Cases Deaths Case fatality 2015 Italy Zaire 1 0 0% ...
causing yield loss through direct feeding, production of honeydew ... whiteflies and associated virus diseases on cassava in the Neotropics is .... whitefly exit holes, parasite exit holes and dead pupae found on ... A leurd frog hettys. T o--- Triate ...
Ravindra. R. Rakh; Laxman S. Raut; Anand V. Manwar
Stem rot is one of the most drastic diseases of groundnut that cause major crop loss. Stem rot pathogen of groundnut, Sclerotium rolfsii, was isolated from the infected groundnut stem. Present investigation was started to search for effective biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii. To find effective biocontrol agent, 120 Bacillus spp. isolated from various rhizospheric soils of healthy plants, screened in vitro against the stem rot pathogen by dual culture technique. Out of these Bacillu...
Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz
Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.
This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDCâs response efforts. Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/8/2014.
Hema, Masarapu; Sreenivasulu, Pothur; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Kumar, P Lava; Reddy, Dodla V R
Diverse array of food legume crops (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) have been adopted worldwide for their protein-rich seed. Choice of legumes and their importance vary in different parts of the world. The economically important legumes are severely affected by a range of virus diseases causing significant economic losses due to reduction in grain production, poor quality seed, and costs incurred in phytosanitation and disease control. The majority of the viruses infecting legumes are vectored by insects, and several of them are also seed transmitted, thus assuming importance in the quarantine and in the epidemiology. This review is focused on the economically important viruses of soybean, groundnut, common bean, cowpea, pigeonpea, mungbean, urdbean, chickpea, pea, faba bean, and lentil and begomovirus diseases of three minor tropical food legumes (hyacinth bean, horse gram, and lima bean). Aspects included are geographic distribution, impact on crop growth and yields, virus characteristics, diagnosis of causal viruses, disease epidemiology, and options for control. Effectiveness of selection and planting with virus-free seed, phytosanitation, manipulation of crop cultural and agronomic practices, control of virus vectors and host plant resistance, and potential of transgenic resistance for legume virus disease control are discussed.
Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...
Gray, D P; Girard, A
A portion of spinal cord taken from a pig infected with the Konratice strain of Teschen Disease virus was found to be infectious for swine after an eleven year period of storage at dry ice temperature. The virus was recovered in tissue culture from the brains of two experimentally infected pigs, titrated, and a serum-virus neutralization test performed.
de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon
The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen
Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…
Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen
Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…
... disease Updated January 2016 1. What is Ebola virus disease? Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever) ... are the typical signs and symptoms of Ebola virus infection? Ebola symptoms vary but sudden onset of fever, intense ...
Gray, D P; Girard, A
A portion of spinal cord taken from a pig infected with the Konratice strain of Teschen Disease virus was found to be infectious for swine after an eleven year period of storage at dry ice temperature...
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.
Claessens, L.F.G.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Craufurd, P.
Abstract The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of E
Claessens, L.F.G.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Craufurd, P.
Abstract The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of
Mar 2, 2011 ... meat, Tunkusa (a locally defatted groundnut cake paste), in combination with spices and condiments in the mix was ... Key words: Meat, Tunkusa, Kilishi, Groundnut flour, Quality ...... following in vitro enzymolysis. In: Schlemer ...
Mohammed, Abdi; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla; Fininsa, Chemeda; Hoisington, David A; Sobolev, Victor S; Arias, Renee S
This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22.5% and 41.3% of samples were positive, with total aflatoxin concentrations of 786 and 3135 ng g(-1) from 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 samples, respectively. The level of specific aflatoxin concentration varied between 0.1 and 2526 ng g(-1) for B2 and B1, respectively. Among contaminated samples of groundnut cake, 68% exhibited aflatoxin concentration below 20 ng g(-1), while as high as 158 ng g(-1) aflatoxin B1 was recorded. The study confirms high contamination of groundnut products in East Ethiopia.
C C Azodo
Full Text Available The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understanding of roles of viruses in periodontal diseases will facilitate the provision of effective periodontal disease prevention and treatment.
Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C
At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.
Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael
In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we
Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E
Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation.
Karunaratne, A.S.; Azam-Ali, S.N.; Al-Shareef, I.
and drought stress. The leaf area expansion is calculated as a function of leaf number and individual leaf size. The canopy development of bambara groundnut is modelled (and tested) in BAMGRO model by means of leaf initiation and leaf area expansion and branching and stem production are not considered. Nash......Canopy development of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) is affected by temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiod. The quantification of these documented effects by means of a suitable crop model, BAMGRO is presented in this paper. Data on canopy development from five growth...... chamber, four glasshouse and three field experiments were analyzed to calibrate and validate the BAMGRO model to produce simulations for temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiodic effect on two contrasting landraces; Uniswa Red (Swaziland) and S19-3 (Namibia). The daily initiation rate of new...
Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...
Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin
Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...
Ravindra. R. Rakh
Full Text Available Stem rot is one of the most drastic diseases of groundnut that cause major crop loss. Stem rot pathogen of groundnut, Sclerotium rolfsii, was isolated from the infected groundnut stem. Present investigation was started to search for effective biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii. To find effective biocontrol agent, 120 Bacillus spp. isolated from various rhizospheric soils of healthy plants, screened in vitro against the stem rot pathogen by dual culture technique. Out of these Bacillus spp, Bacillus 57 isolate found effective in controlling the phytopathogen by Novel Ring method (80.21 %. Bacillus 57 was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Bacillus thuringiensis NCIM2130. To effectively control the phytopathogen in vitro, the Bacillus thuringiensis NCIM2130 produced the Volatile metabolites, and Siderophore.
Hoof, van W.C.H.
Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant arrang
Hoof, van W.C.H.
Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant arrang
Newcastle disease is one of the most serious diseases of birds, caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1). The disease is distributed world-wide and may cause large economic losses in the poultry industry. The severity of the disease varies depending
Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A
Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.
Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdec.) is a legume crop grown especially by small farmers mainly in semi-arid parts of Africa both in mixed cultivation and pure stands. It is considered as a hardy crop because of its drought tolerance, resistance to pests and diseases and ability to yie
JIAO Lei; XU An-hua; FENG Chao; QIU Qian-qian; TANG Qi-ling; LIU Xiao-huan
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.
Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Holst, Bodil Ström; Berg, Mikael
Bornaviruses are known to cause neurological disorders in a number of animal species. Avian Bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in birds and Borna disease virus (BDV) causes Borna disease in horses and sheep. BDV also causes staggering disease in cats, characterised by ataxia, behavioural changes and loss of postural reactions. BDV-infection markers in cats have been reported throughout the world. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Borna disease viruses in cats, including etiological agent, clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics, with comparisons to Bornavirus infections in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.
Dyah Ayu Hewajuli
Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the highly infectious diseases in poultry industry. Newcastle disease causes high morbidity and mortality in birds, then it causes significant loss for poultry industry. This disease is caused by Avian paramyxovirus-1, included in the genus of Avulavirus and family of Paramyxoviridae. This virus has six prior proteins and two non structural proteins that evolving its genom. Those proteins are Nucleocapsid protein (N, Phosphoprotein (P, Matrix protein (M, Fusion protein (F, Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN and Large polymerase protein (L and two non structural proteins iVe and W protein which are produced during the transcriptation process of P gen on editing process. Each of the protein has a specific role that responsible for the virulence of the virus. The previous result showed that HN and F proteins have significant contribution in the virulence and spreading of ND virus in the hosts. Virulence of ND virus primarily is determined by the cleavage site of F protein, but the recent research showed that the cleavage site motiv of F0 protein is not the only factor to determine the virulence of ND virus. Besides F protein, other proteins also contribute patern to the virulence of ND virus. ND virus can infect more than 200 species of birds, but the severity level of the disease varies depending on the host and strain of ND virus. Chicken has the highest pathogenicity index compared to other birds. Generally, the immunity system in chicken against infection of ND virus is similar to the immunity system of other birds. Cell mediated and humoral immunity responses play an important role in overcome ND virus.
Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Machinjiri, Norah; Monyo, Emmanuel S
In Zambia, groundnut products (milled groundnut powder, groundnut kernels) are mostly sold in under-regulated markets. Coupled with the lack of quality enforcement in such markets, consumers may be at risk to aflatoxin exposure. However, the level of aflatoxin contamination in these products is not known. Compared to groundnut kernels, milled groundnut powder obscures visual indicators of aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts such as moldiness, discoloration, insect damage or kernel damage. A survey was therefore conducted from 2012 to 2014, to estimate and compare aflatoxin levels in these products (n = 202), purchased from markets in important groundnut growing districts and in urban areas. Samples of whole groundnut kernels (n = 163) and milled groundnut powder (n = 39) were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Results showed substantial AFB1 contamination levels in both types of groundnut products with maximum AFB1 levels of 11,100 μg/kg (groundnut kernels) and 3000 μg/kg (milled groundnut powder). However, paired t test analysis showed that AFB1 contamination levels in milled groundnut powder were not always significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those in groundnut kernels. Even for products from the same vendor, AFB1 levels were not consistently higher in milled groundnut powder than in whole groundnut kernels. This suggests that vendors do not systematically sort out whole groundnut kernels of visually poor quality for milling. However, the overall contamination levels of groundnut products with AFB1 were found to be alarmingly high in all years and locations. Therefore, solutions are needed to reduce aflatoxin levels in such under-regulated markets.
Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted at University of Pune for biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii by incorporating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasciculatum and conventional system of cultivation with different spacing pattern (15 and 30 cm in field. Both mycorrhizal inoculation and 30 cm spacing pattern significantly increased growth and yield as compared to control or 15 cm spacing pattern. The pathogenic mycorrhizal groundnut plants in 30 as well as 15 cm spacing pattern showed better growth in terms of plant height, leaf and pod number, fresh and dry weight of whole groundnut plant in comparison to non-mycorrhizal pathogenic ones and the plant growth was better in 30 spacing than 15 cm. The colonization by AM fungi in both spacing pattern was higher in absence of pathogen S. rolfsii. However, pathogen’s presence decreased the mycorrhizal colonization considerably in 30 and 15 cm. The disease severity and incidence were recorded to be lowered when inoculated with mycorrhiza in pathogenic groundnut plants as compared to non-mycorrhizal pathogenic ones in both spacing pattern and incidence and severity was significantly lower in 30 cm as compared to 15 cm. Therefore, it was observed from our results that for management of soil-borne pathogens inoculation of AM fungi and spacing patterns are necessary.
Department of Agricultural Engineering ... material for industries, but it is presently under- utilized, in ... manually to process groundnut seeds for oil is a ... consuming among these operations, which ... shear stress and shear diagram could be.
Jul 4, 2015 ... extra trays that were treated in the same way as experimen- tal trays were ..... Daily changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of bambara groundnut landrace ..... BLUM A (2005) Drought resistance, water use efficiency and yield.
S. L. Johnston
Full Text Available There is strong epidemiological evidence that respiratory viral infections are associated with 80–85% of asthma exacerbations in children. There is less evidence in adults, but the available data suggest viruses are associated with around two-thirds to three-quarters of exacerbations in adults. These associations include severe exacerbations requiring hospitalisation. The most common viruses detected in these studies were rhinoviruses, accounting for two-thirds of viruses detected. Asthmatics have increased susceptibility to respiratory virus infection and have recently been shown to have profoundly defective interferon-beta responses to virus infection, resulting in increased virus replication. Atypical bacterial infections are also associated with chronic asthma and asthma exacerbations and a recent study indicates antibiotic therapy active against atypical bacteria is effective in treatment of exacerbations. Recent data also indicates asthmatics are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, suggesting they may also have impaired antibacterial immunity. Research is urgently required to determine whether augmenting anti-infective immunity is beneficial in the treatment/prevention of asthma exacerbations. More recent data also implicates viruses in the majority of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies are also required investigating anti-infective host defence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selectedâ notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...
Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E
Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and
Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E
Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and
Harish; Rajak; Deepak; Kumar; Jain; Avineesh; Singh; Ajay; Kumar; Sharma; Anshuman; Dixit
Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate(up to 90%) accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever(EHF) is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, C?te d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.
Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...
Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain
Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...
Tsybanov, S Zh; Sergeev, V A; Balysheva, V I
The specific infectivity of virion RNA of teschen disease virus in a sensitive PP cell culture was 4-5 lg TCD50/ml per 1 microgram RNA. When virion RNA was inoculated into cell cultures insusceptible to the native virus, the virus replicated to a titre of 2.0-3.5 lg TCD50/ml. The molecular weight of virion RNA determined by two independent methods was 2.7 x 10(6) daltons. Tm calculated from the curve of virion RNA melting temperature was 57 degrees C. The double-stranded replicative form of RNA recovered from virus-infected PP cells was shown to have sucrose gradient sedimentation coefficient of 20 S. The specific infectivity was 2-3 lg TCD50/ml per 1 microgram of RNA.
Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by depigmented patches due to selective destruction of melanocytes. The etiology of this disease is unknown. A number of hypotheses including viral theory have been proposed to explain the etiology. To determine the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus infection in vitiligo patients, the present study was performed. Third generation ELISA test was used for detection of antibodies to HCV in human sera. All normal controls were anti-HCV negative whereas only one patient was positive for anti-HCV and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of anti-HCV between patients and controls. These results indicate that hepatitis C virus has not a direct causal role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, however, this does not rul out a "hit and run" virus induced disease.
Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.
There are currently 11 recognized serotypes of avian paramyxovirus. Type 1 is the most important for poultry and includes Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is a form of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) that is highly virulent for chickens and turkeys. NDV is considered to be one of the mos...
Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A
Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.
Bhanu Saravan Kumar
Full Text Available Physico-chemical, proximate and nutritionally valuable minerals were determined aiming to compare raw and roasted groundnut seeds. The results indicated that total ash content of raw groundnut (4.6% was higher than the roasted groundnut (4.1% seeds. Crude protein content of roasted groundnut was higher (26.1% when compared to that of raw groundnut (24.9%. Crude carbohydrates levels of raw groundnut (25.3% are lower when compared with that of roasted groundnut (26.5%. Crude fat ranged from 39.1% in raw groundnut to 39.6% in roasted groundnut. Crude fiber percentage both in raw (2.9% and roasted (3.1% conditions were good. The moisture content of the raw groundnut (4.1% was more than the roasted groundnut (3.6% because of not exposure to heat. Seeds showed higher energy values both in raw and roasted conditions. Significant amount of minerals like potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc were present both in raw and roasted conditions. Based on statistical analysis the results showed highly significant differences (P < 0.05 between the raw and roasted seeds.
Murray, Michael J
Ebola virus, the virus responsible for Ebola virus disease, has spawned several epidemics during the past 38 years. In 2014, an Ebola epidemic spread from Africa to other continents, becoming a pandemic. The virus's relatively unique structure, its infectivity and lethality, the difficulty in stopping its spread, and the lack of an effective treatment captured the world's attention. This article provides a brief review of the known history of Ebola virus disease, its etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology and a review of the limited information on managing patients with Ebola virus disease.
Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....
Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas
Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...
Jul 31, 2017 ... 1Department of Agricultural Production, School of Agricultural Sciences, Makerere University,. P. O. Box 7062 ... and also improve groundnut quality, flavour, and extended shelf-life, which is beneficial to traders. ... components of all membranes and gene ... associated with several human health benefits,.
May 31, 2016 ... Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of resistance of different strains of the groundnut seed ... for a value of 80 billion CFA francs, which is .... Figure 1: Evolution of mortality rate of different strains of Caryedon ...
Full Text Available A 10×10 half diallel experiment was conducted on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. to ascertain the gene action and genetic parameters of ten traits including 50% flowering, no. of pods per plant, plant height, harvest index, pod index, 100 pod weight, 100 kernel weight, pod size, diseases infection and yield per plot. The experiments were carried out in the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU, Mymensingh during the cropping season of 2010-2011. The estimates of gene effects indicated that significance of both additive and non-additive variance for pod size, 100 pod weight and diseases infection among the traits and presence of over dominance satisfying assumptions of diallel except dormancy. However, both the additive and non-additive gene affects together importance to control of most quantitative traits in the groundnut. The average degree of dominance (H1/D 1/2 (H1 = dominance variance, D = additive variance was higher than one, indicating over dominance for all the traits. The narrow-sense heritability was high for 50% flowering (38%, harvest index (35%, pod size (52%, 100 pod weight (35% and yield per plot (41% indicating that great genetic gain could be achieved for them.
Full Text Available Groundnut an important oil seed crop provides significant sources of cash through the sales of seed, cakes, oil and haulms. Groundnut plays an important role in the diets of rural populations. Groundnut pod yields from farmer’s field are low, averaging about 800 kg per ha, less than one-third the potential yield of 3000 kg per ha. This large gap is of concern and in view of this, the study was carried out to assess the socio economic characteristics of groundnut farmers, determine the level of profitability of groundnut production, the resource use efficiency as well as to find out problems encountered in groundnut production in Sabon-gari local government area. Seventy-nine farmers involved in groundnut production were randomly selected from the various farms located within the local government area. Data were collected using primary and secondary sources. To examine the profitability of groundnut production, the gross margin and cost benefit analysis were carried out. The result of the study shows that experienced farmers are less involved in groundnut production and most groundnut farmers are engaged in other form of businesses. The cost, availability, and lack of technical knowledge of inputs requirements are responsible for poor use of the inputs. Labour, fertilizer, seed and herbicides are all over utilized except insecticide which is underutilized. Among the problems encountered in groundnut production in the study are lacks of capital and extension services. These two problems accounted for over 78% of the problem of groundnut in the study area. It is therefore recommended that government and research institutes should strengthen extension services to deliver improved technologies to the farmers. Farmers are also advised to source for loans through cooperatives, banks and other available sources at low charges and the procedure for loan should be made simple to enable farmers’ access loans so that groundnut production can be improved.
Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is an Old World hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. With a case fatality rate up to 12%, DOBV infection is the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. The virus was initially identified in the Balkans, but the discovery of new endemic foci have expanded its recognized geographic range. The recent description of novel genetic variants with different degrees of pathogenicity have complicated its taxonomic analysis. The original rodent host of DOBV is Apodemus flavicollis, however additional Apodemus species, such Apodemus agrarius and Apodemus ponticus, have been found to serve as hosts of the various DOBV genotypes. The complex evolution and genetic diversity of the virus are still under investigation. The present review aims to provide an update on the phylogeny of DOBV and the epidemiology of infection in rodents and humans; to describe the clinical characteristics of the disease; to present current knowledge about laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention; discuss the current state of the art in antiviral drug and vaccine development.
Cui Yu; Zhang Ai-hong; Ren Ai-jun; Miao Hong-qin
There are a total of more than 40 reported maize viral diseases worldwide. Five of them have reportedly occurred in China. They are maize rough dwarf disease, maize dwarf mosaic disease, maize streak dwarf disease, maize crimson leaf disease, maize wallaby ear disease and corn lethal necrosis disease. This paper reviewed their occurrence and distribution as well as virus identification techniques in order to provide a basis for virus identification and diagnosis in corn production.
Hirokazu Kimura; Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi; Akihide Ryo; Yoshiroh Oda; Toshinobu Kawabata; Takashi Majima; Kunihisa Kozawa; Masayuki Shimojima
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30%to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.
Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30% to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.
Full Text Available Autoimmunity and viral infections are closely associated fields, and viruses have been proposed as a likely aetiological, contributory or triggering factors of systemic autoimmune diseases. Hepatitis C virus seems to be the virus usually associated with the appearance of autoimmune diseases, and the relationship between chronic hepatitis C virus infection and some autoimmune disease has been studied. For some of these disorders their association with hepatitis C virus infection is well recognized while for others it remains probable or weak. Examples of autoimmune phenomena observed in chronic hepatitis C virus infection include rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, cryoglobulinaemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus and sjogren syndrome. To date, the etiological role and the pathogenetic involvement of the hepatitis C infection remains unknown.The aim of this study is to assess the presence of different autoimmune manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection reported in literature.
Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...
Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.
Serum antibody responses and haemolytic complement activity were evaluated in White Leghorn (WLH) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens that were vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccines of Newcastle disease virus, or infectious bronchitis virus, or infectious bursal disease virus by means of ocular c
Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.
Md Rezwanur Rahman
Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO was notified of an outbreak of EVD in Guinea. On August 8, WHO declared the epidemic to be a ‘Public health emergency of international concern’.3 The current 2014 outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak.1 It is to be noticed that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources and these countries recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.1 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Till date five species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The recent outbreak belongs to the Zaire species which is the most lethal one, with an average case fatality rate of 78%.1,4 Till 6 December 2014, total 17,834 suspected cases and 6,678 deaths had been reported; however, WHO has said that these numbers may be vastly underestimated.5 The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the most likely candidate species.1,2,6 Ebola can be transmitted to human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or
Ad de Groof
Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.
Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L
Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).
Sounthari, P; Kiruthika, A; Saranya, J; Parameswari, K; Chitra, S
The use of natural fibers as reinforcing materials in thermoplastics and thermoset matrix composites provide optimistic environmental profits with regard to ultimate disposability and better use of raw materials. The present work is focused on the corrosion inhibition property of a polymer matrix composite produced by the use of groundnut shell (GNS) waste. Polyester (PE) was synthesized by condensation polymerization of symmetrical 1,3,4-oxadiazole and pimelic acid using sodium lauryl sulfate as surfactant. The polyester-groundnut shell composite (PEGNS) was prepared by ultrasonication method. The synthesized polyester-groundnut shell composite was characterized by FT-IR, TGA and XRD analysis. The corrosion inhibitory effect of PEGNS on mild steel in 1M H2SO4 was investigated using gravimetric method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, atomic absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that PEGNS inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The composite inhibited the corrosion of mild steel through adsorption following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Changes in the impedance parameters Rt, Cdl, Icorr, Ecorr, ba and bc suggested the adsorption of PEGNS onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective film.
Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Shivaprasad, H L; Williams, Brent L; Quan, Phenix Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian
Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds.
Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi; Oluremi Olufunke Keshinro
The aim of this present study was to produce and evaluate the nutritional quality of complementary foods from popcorn, African locust bean and Bambara groundnut. The popcorn, bambara groundnut and African locust beans were obtained locally in Akure, Nigeria. The seeds were germinated, oven dried, milled and sieved into flours. The flours were mixed as follows: GPA (70% popcorn, 30% African locust bean), GPB (70% popcorn, 30% bambara groundnut) and GPAB (70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, 10%...
Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...
Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.
Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R
Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human...... cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein...... gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...
Balysheva, V I; Rakhimov, A A; Khlebnikov, V S; Sergeev, V A
The physical stability of Teschen disease virus (TDV) was tested. It was found that 8 M urea at 37 degrees C and 0.5% Tween-20 for 1-2 hours destroyed TDV with formation of morphologically distinct subunits. The morphology of TDV virions and its subunits formed under the effect of urea and Tween-20 was studied. Sedimentation constant (120 S) and the polypeptide composition of TDV were determined. In TDV, major polypeptides (VP1 less than or equal to 4) and minor polypeptides (VP1m and VP2m) were found their molecular weights being 82,000, 67,000, 35,000, 30,000, 77,000, and 46,000 daltons respectively.
Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.
One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto…
Das, Banibrata; Ghosh, Tirthankar; Gangopadhyay, Somnath
The main aim of the study was to determine the nature and extent of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and physiological and thermal working stress among the groundnut farmers. In the present investigation, eighty-five groundnut farmers were recruited from the villages of Tarakeswar of West Bengal, India. Eighty-five control office workers were also selected as a control group. The modified Nordic questionnaire and a posture analysis using the OWAS method were applied in the case of groundnut farmers. The working environment and physiological stress of the groundnut cultivators were also assessed. The analysis of working posture indicated that most of the groundnut cultivation activities needed corrective measures as soon as possible. Most of the groundnut farmers suffered from discomfort at different parts of the body, especially at the lower back (99%), knee (92%), ankle (66%), shoulder (61%) and hand (60%) regions. This study also showed that groundnut farmers suffered from excessive thermal (33.4 degrees C) and physiological stress (heart rate rose up to 121.5 beats/min, systolic and diastolic blood pressure up to 132 and 80 mm/Hg, respectively, PEFR values are 403 lit/min) which affects their health. From the observation and analysis of the results, it was concluded that the health of the groundnut farmers was highly affected by improper body postures and work-load. Twisting, bending, and awkward postures during work could lead to musculoskeletal disorders among them.
Kayode, O F; Sulyok, M; Fapohunda, S O; Ezekiel, C N; Krska, R; Oguntona, C R B
This exploratory study was aimed at investigating the spectrum of fungal metabolites in the processed food and snacks. Twenty types of snacks made separately from groundnut (n = 10), maize (n = 8) and a combination of groundnut and maize (n = 2) were analysed for naturally occurring mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric multi-mycotoxin method. A total of 18, 21 and 32 metabolites were detected and quantified in the groundnut-, groundnut/maize- and maize-based snacks, respectively. Aflatoxins contaminated 2, 3 and 5 of the groundnut/maize-, groundnut- and maize-based snacks at concentrations up to 14, 1041 and 74 µg kg(-1), respectively. Thus, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) recommended limit of 20 µg kg(-1) for aflatoxins was exceeded in 6 of the 20 snacks. Fumonisins contaminated all the maize- and groundnut/maize-based snacks with higher concentrations in the maize-based snacks (mean = 218.7 µg kg(-1)) compared with the groundnut/maize-based snacks (mean = 178.5 µg kg(-1)). Up to 26 different metabolites were found to co-occur in the same samples, thus posing an additional threat to the consumers due to possible additive and/or synergistic effects.
Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.
One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto…
Le, N.C.; Mendes, R.; Kruijt, M.; Raaijmakers, J.
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important legume crop in Vietnam and many other countries worldwide. Stem and pod rot, caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., is a major yield limiting factor in groundnut cultivation. To develop sustainable measures to control th
Madad, Syra S; Masci, Joseph; Cagliuso, Nicholas V; Allen, Machelle
The rapid spread of Zika virus across the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas has had a direct effect on the U.S. health care delivery system. Hospitals in New York City (NYC) have been implementing prevention and response efforts consistent with CDC guidance. As of September 21, 2016, a total of 715 cases of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease had been diagnosed in New York state among travelers who returned from affected areas, their sexual contacts, or infants infected in utero. This represents the highest number of reported cases in any state to date, and underscores the importance of health care systems preparing to care for patients with possible Zika virus disease (1). Building upon a framework that was established in 2014 to screen patients for possible exposure to Ebola virus disease (Ebola), NYC Health + Hospitals,* the largest municipal health care delivery system in the United States, implemented a Zika Preparedness and Response Action Plan(†) (Zika Action Plan) to address the threat from Zika and ensure appropriate patient care. The plan developed by NYC Health + Hospitals includes universal travel screening, signage depicting areas with active Zika virus transmission, clinical and epidemiologic evaluation for possible Zika virus exposure, diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and linking of infected patients to appropriate specialists, and education on Zika virus disease and preventive measures (e.g., avoiding travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission).
Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...
LiYan－Fei; WangWei; 等
Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.
Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.
Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.
This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,
Lee, Richard F
Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.
Anil, Kondreddy; Podile, Appa Rao
Chemical and biological approaches have been adopted to increase the growth and yield of crops and reduce loss due to diseases. We have adopted an integrated approach, where both direct antagonism and induced resistance were combined to reduce the incidence of late leaf spot (LLS) disease in groundnut caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata. Chitinolytic chlorothalonil-tolerant soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis SFC24 (Bt SFC24) was manipulated in vitro to express secretable form of elicitor protein harpin(Pss) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Severity of the LLS decreased by 65% when the leaves were sprayed with B. thuringiensis expressing harpin(Pss) (Bt-pss). As seed treatment, there was an increase in growth of groundnut. Bt and Bt-pss accounted to 13% and 36% increase in shoot length. Expression of a secretable form of harpin(Pss) thus improved the ability of B. thuringiensis SFC24 to promote growth and control LLS in groundnut. In this new approach a chlorothalonil-tolerant chitinolytic bacterium was genetically engineered to secrete elicitor harpin(Pss) for dual benefit of growth promotion and disease control.
Vanessa M. Hubbard
Full Text Available The etiology of the intestinal disease Crohn’s disease involves genetic factors as well as ill-defined environmental agents. Several genetic variants linked to this disease are associated with autophagy, a process that is critical for proper responses to viral infections. While a role for viruses in this disease remains speculative, accumulating evidence indicate that this possibility requires serious consideration. In this review, we will examine the three-way relationship between viruses, autophagy genes, and Crohn’s disease and discuss how host-pathogen interactions can mediate complex inflammatory disorders.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host, especially in areas of the world where both viruses are...
I Slivac; V Gaurina Srček; K Radošević; I Kmetič; Z Kniewald
A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of BHK 21 C13 cells in the wave bioreactor during 3-day period were determined. At the end of the 3-day culture period and cell density of 1.82 × 106 cells ml–1, the reactor was inoculated with 9 ml of gE- Bartha K-61 strain ADV suspension (105.9 TCID50) with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01. After a 144 h incubation period, 400 ml of ADV harvest was obtained with titre of 107.0 TCID50 ml–1, which corresponds to 40,000 doses of vaccine against AD. In conclusion, the results obtained with the wave bioreactor using BHK 21 C13 cells showed that this system can be considered as suitable for ADV or BHK 21 C13 cell biomass production.
Witter, R L
The enhanced protective effect (synergism) when certain Marek's disease (MD) vaccine viruses are combined has been widely used in the development of improved vaccines, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To better characterize the basis for synergism among MD vaccine viruses, three vaccine viruses from each of the three MD viral serotypes were evaluated alone and in various combinations for protection against early challenge with very virulent MD viruses in four replicate trials. Synergism seemed to be influenced by viral serotype because significant enhancement occurred frequently between viruses of serotypes 2 and 3 (five of nine bivalent vaccines positive), but rarely between viruses of serotypes 1 and 3 (one of nine bivalent vaccines positive) and 1 and 2 (one of nine bivalent vaccines positive), and was not detectable between viruses of the same serotype (none of nine bivalent vaccines positive). With some exceptions, the degree of synergism tended to vary inversely with the mean protective efficacy of the most protective component virus. Little effect of virus dose, virus dose ratio or type and route of viral challenge was noted. The combination of strains 281MI/1 (serotype 2) and WTHV-1/1 (serotype 3), both poorly protective as monovalent vaccines, consistently demonstrated high levels of synergism (over 300%) in antibody-positive chickens challenged 5 days post-vaccination with Md5 virus. This protocol may be a useful model system for further studies on mechanisms of synergism. However, mixtures that optimize synergism are not necessarily as protective as commercial vaccines.
A. John De Britto
Full Text Available Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, evolutionary and environmental reasons. The interference of germination related proteins by heavy metals has not been well documented at the proteomic and genomic level. In the current study, molecular responses of germinating groundnut seeds were investigated under Zinc stress. The SDS-PAGE showed the preliminary changes in the polypeptides patterns under Zinc stress. Restriction digestion banding pattern of EcoRI and Hind III enzymes showed distinct banding pattern in the treated plants.
Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A
Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.
Marek’s disease virus (MDV) had previously been co-cultivated in culture with Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). During co-cultivation, a long terminal repeat (LTR) from REV was inserted into the MDV genome. The resulting MDV, designated RM1, was attenuated but still induced severe thymic and bursal...
Keyword: Foot and Mouth Disease, Antibody, Quality, Toxicity, Vaccine. Correspondence: ... The control of. FMD with the use of potent inactivated vaccines in ..... Quantities of infections virus and viral RNA recovered ... Inactivation, purification.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...
Sep 28, 2012 ... The tool for collection of primary data was structured questionnaires. ... metric tons and an average productivity of 1.4 metric tons /ha. ... ecology, poor soil fertility, inappropriate crop management practices, pests and diseases ( ...
Arup Kumar Mukherjee
Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.
Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area.
Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P
Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease.
Borchardt, Roy A
Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted to humans via the bite of infected mosquitoes. A recent outbreak in Brazil has spread to several surrounding countries, and the virus also has been reported in the United States. The virus is associated with microcephaly among newborns whose mothers were infected. Because no vaccine or treatment is available, efforts have focused on preventing mosquito bites and advising pregnant women and women trying to get pregnant to avoid active areas of Zika virus transmission. Clinicians should understand the infection, its diagnosis and testing, and monitor pregnant women for travel history to outbreak regions and for the presence of clinical symptoms. Patient education on preventive measures offers the best option to avoid Zika virus infection.
Ekesi, S; Egwurube, E A.; Akpa, A D.; Onu, I
The pathogenicity of five isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae to adult Caryedon serratus was evaluated in the laboratory. All the isolates tested were virulent to the beetle but pathogenicity varied among the isolates. One isolate, CPD 4 was consistently superior to all other isolates in terms of mortality of the beetle, protection of groundnut pods from damage, reduction in progeny production and repellency to the beetle. At 10 days post-treatment, adult mortality treated with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0g of dry conidia equivalent to 3.6x10(8), 1.8x10(9) and 3.6x10(9) conidia of isolate CPD 4 per 50g of groundnut pods was 100% which did not differ significantly from pirimiphos-methyl-treated pods at 10ppm. At the lowest dosage of 0.1g of conidia per 50g of pods, damage in pods protected with isolate CPD 4 was 5% which did not differ significantly from the 2% damage in pods protected by pirimiphos-methyl at 10ppm but significantly differed from damage in untreated pods which was 26%. Isolate CPD 4 caused complete reduction in progeny emergence at all dosages tested. It also exhibited some degree of repellency to the beetle with percentage repellency values of between 40-79% at concentrations of 0.1-1.0g of conidia per 50g of groundnut pods. These combined virulence and repellency characteristics of this isolate may increase its protectant potential against C. serratus.
CERN Medical Service
Transmitted by the bite of a certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes), the Zika virus is spreading quickly in tropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America. Although no specific treatment nor vaccine is currently available, the most effective preventive measures are those focused on avoiding mosquito bites. There are no travel restrictions in place at present. However it is recommended that pregnant women defer travel plans to countries affected by the Zika virus. For further information on symptoms and prevention measures, please click on the Zika virus link or contact the Medical Service.
Hasan, Mohammed; Ismail B., S.
The level of phosphorus (P) and the time of application are considered as two of the most important factors affecting crop growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). A field experiment was carried out at the greenhouse of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Malaysia, in 2014. The objective of the study was to find the best level and the timing of P application, with the aim of getting better growth and higher yield. A complete randomized design with three rates of P (27.5, 55 and 82.5 kg ha-1) were used. The dosage that gave the highest yield and growth was 82.5 kg ha-1 when P application was given at 7, 21, 42 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). The results show that the highest level of P (82.5 kg ha-1) at 7 DAS significantly increased plant height, number of nodules/plant, number of pods per plant, pod yield (kg ha-1), seed weight, oil content and shelling percentage. It can be concluded from the experiment that P fertilizer application at 82.5 kg ha-1 at 7 DAS was necessary for profitable groundnut production in the study area.
Kattenbelt, Jacqueline A; Stevens, Matthew P; Selleck, Paul W; Gould, Allan R
Genome sequence analysis of a number of avirulent field isolates of Newcastle disease virus revealed the presence of viruses (within their quasispecies) that contained virulent F0 sequences. Detection of these virulent sequences below the ~1% level, using standard cloning and sequence analysis, proved difficult, and thus a more sensitive reverse-transcription real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect both virulent and avirulent NDV F0 sequences. Reverse-transcription real-time PCR analysis of the quasispecies of a number of Newcastle disease virus field isolates, revealed variable ratios (approximately 1:4-1:4,000) of virulent to avirulent viral F0 sequences. Since the ratios of these sequences generally remained constant in the quasispecies population during replication, factors that could affect the balance of virulent to avirulent sequences during viral infection of birds were investigated. It was shown both in vitro and in vivo that virulent virus present in the quasispecies did not emerge from the "avirulent background" unless a direct selection pressure was placed on the quasispecies, either by growth conditions or by transient immunosuppression. The effect of a prior infection of the host by infectious bronchitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus on the subsequent emergence of virulent Newcastle disease virus was examined.
Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A
The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 126.96.36.199), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 188.8.131.52) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 184.108.40.206), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...
Barba, Marina; Ilardi, Vincenza; Pasquini, Graziella
Many different systemic pathogens, including viruses, affect pome and stone fruits causing diseases with adverse effects in orchards worldwide. The significance of diseases caused by these pathogens on tree health and fruit shape and quality has resulted in the imposition of control measures both nationally and internationally. Control measures depend on the identification of diseases and their etiological agents. Diagnosis is the most important aspect of controlling fruit plant viruses. Early detection of viruses in fruit trees or in the propagative material is a prerequisite for their control and to guarantee a sustainable agriculture. Many quarantine programs are in place to reduce spread of viruses among countries during international exchange of germplasm. All these phytosanitary measures are overseen by governments based on agreements produced by international organizations. Also certification schemes applied to fruit trees allow the production of planting material of known variety and plant health status for local growers by controlling the propagation of pathogen-tested mother plants. They ensure to obtain propagative material not only free of "quarantine" organisms under the national legislation but also of important "nonquarantine" pathogens. The control of insect vectors plays an important role in the systemic diseases management, but it must be used together with other control measures as eradication of infected plants and use of certified propagation material. Apart from the control of the virus vector and the use of virus-free material, the development of virus-resistant cultivars appears to be the most effective approach to achieve control of plant viruses, especially for perennial crops that are more exposed to infection during their long life span. The use of resistant or tolerant cultivars and/or rootstocks could be potentially the most important aspect of virus disease management, especially in areas in which virus infections are endemic. The
Patton, Lauren L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications.
Larson, Robert L
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete resection seemed to be curative in patients with Castleman disease of any location but the disease is likely to be reactive in its pathogenesis. The relation between Epstein-Barr virus and Castleman disease has not been elucidated. We tried to define the role of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of Castleman disease. Methods 20 cases of Castleman disease were retrospectively reviewed from 1993 to 2006. At least 2 to 4 representative sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from each patient were obtained to examine the presence of EBV and its localization by hematoxylin-eosin stain, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction and In-situ hybridization Results Hyaline-vascular type was diagnosed in 18 cases, plasma cell type in 1 and mixed type in 1 case. All of them were positive for Epstein-Barr virus confirmed by PCR. For tumors that EBER(Epstein-Barr early region signals mainly localized in the germinal centers have increased vascularity than cases with EBER detected in inter-follicular areas. Conclusion There is a strong association between Castleman disease and Epstein-Barr virus. EBV may have a potential role in angiogenesis of Castleman disease. For smaller lesion with high activity of angiogenesis but not amenable for curative resection, anti-angiogenesis medications may have a potential role to control the disease.
Odier, F; Vago, M C
Virus disease complexes of Galleria mellonella L. due respectively to a Parvovirus with a Baculovirus and a Parovirus with an Iridovirus have been transmitted to healthy larvae by ingestion of corpses of larvae affected by these disease complexes. The histological and cytological injuries observed are identical to those noted during the study of the initial complexes.
Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this stud...
Zhao, Panpan; Sun, Lingshuang; Sun, Xiao; Li, Siwen; Zhang, Wen; Pulscher, Laura A; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.
Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco
Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.
Although food grains are commonly protected by insecticidal application and fumigation, ... (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or .... Effectiveness of vegetable oil fractions in controlling the Mexican.
Full Text Available The integrated effect of intercropping, a synthetic pesticide (monocrotopas (M and neem based biopesticide (neem oil - 2% (NO on three-groundnut defoliators damage and also the groundnut production was studied. The monocrotopas and neem oil combination was found to be very effective in reducing the defoliator infestation. Defoliator’s incidence was signifi cantly higher in untreated plots, resulting in signifi cantly lower yield (1539.03 Kg h-1. The groundnut yield was increased (2011.18 Kg h-1 when monocrotophos and neem oil mixture was applied than monocrotophos (1877.77 Kg h-1 and control categories. The estimated avoidable groundnut and black gram yield loss were lower in monocrotopas.
Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus popula...
Karim, Sajjad; Mirza, Zeenat; Kamal, Mohammad A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Azhar, Esam I; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Ahmad, Fahim; Gan, Siew H; Sohrab, Sayed S
Neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases may be caused by chronic and neuropathic viral infections and may result in a loss of neurons and axons in the central nervous system that increases with age. To date, there is evidence of systemic viral infections that occur with some neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorders, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. With increasing lifespan, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases increases consistently. Neurodegenerative diseases affect approximately 37 million people worldwide and are an important cause of mortality. In addition to established non-viral-induced reasons for neurodegenerative diseases, neuropathic infections and viruses associated with neurodegenerative diseases have been proposed. Neuronal degeneration can be either directly or indirectly affected by viral infection. Viruses that attack the human immune system can also affect the nervous system and interfere with classical pathways of neurodegenerative diseases. Viruses can enter the central nervous system, but the exact mechanism cannot be understood well. Various studies have supported viral- and non-viral-mediated neurodegeneration at the cellular, molecular, genomic and proteomic levels. The main focus of this review is to illustrate the association between viral infections and both neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases, so that the possible mechanism and pathway of neurodegenerative diseases can be better explained. This information will strengthen new concepts and ideas for neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral disease treatment.
Full Text Available One hundred and ninety eight groundnut samples were collected from freshly harvested groundnuts (FHG, farmer storage systems (FSS, middlemen warehouses (MW, wholesalers (WS and retailer sample (RS during the dry and wet seasons from Cidolog, Cianjur, Sukabumi and Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, in 1990/1991. The moisture content (m.c., intactness of kernels, and the percentages of groundnut kernels infected by each species of fungi were analyzed. In genera, the m.c. of the samples collected during the dry season was lower than of those collected during the wet season. Also, the m.c. of samples collected from FHG, FSS and MW was higher than of those collected from WS and RS. The m.c. of samples collected from FHG was the highest (12.5-45.75%, but the percentages of damaged kernels were the lowest (2.5-13.8%, because the samples were shelled manually. A total of 25 species of fungi were isolated from samples collected from the 4 localities. They were Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii, A. wentii, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, Eumtium chevalieri, E. repens, E. rubrum, Fusarium equiseti, F. longipes, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, Mucor sp., Papulaspora sp., Pestalotia sp., Penicillium aethiopicum, P. citrinum, Rhizapus sp., R. stolonifer and Syncephalastrum sp. The predominant fungi in samples collected from Cidolog and Sukabumi during the dry season were Aspergillus wentii, while those collected from Cianjur and Bogor were A. niger. The percentages of kernels infected by A. wentii in samples collected from Cidolog and Sukabumi were between 30-100% and 36-100%, respectively, while those of kernels infected by A. nigerin samples collected from Cianjur and Bogor were between 34-93% and 14-98%, respectively. The predominant fungi in samples collected from each location during the wet season were A. flavus. The percentage of kernels infected by the fungus in
Newcastle disease is an important infectious disease of poultry causing economic losses worldwide. The control is routinely performed by vaccination, however vaccinated birds can shed virus, creating a barrier for trade exports. To determine if vaccination could mitigate these negative outcomes, h...
Haley, Sheila A; Atwood, Walter J
In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. In the intervening years it became clear that both viruses were widespread in the human population but only rarely caused disease. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of eleven new human polyomaviruses, two of which cause unusual and rare cancers. We present an overview of the history of these viruses and the evolution of JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy over three different epochs.Wereview what is currently known about JC polyomavirus, what is suspected, and what remains to be done to understand the biology of how this mostly harmless endemic virus gives rise to lethal disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Reverse genetics allows the generation of recombinant viruses or vectors used in functional studies, vaccine development, and gene therapy. This technique allows genetic manipulation and cloning of viral genomes, mutation through site-directed mutagenesis, and gene insertion or deletion, among othe...
Miller, P.J.; Kim, L.M.; Ip, H.S.; Afonso, C.L.
A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this site that result in changes of virulence may not be favored. The coding sequence of the fusion gene and the genomes of viruses from wild birds displayed higher yearly rates of change in virulent viruses than in viruses of low virulence, suggesting that an increase in virulence may accelerate the rate of NDV evolution. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.
In international trade involving agricultural products, attempts to safeguard the health of humans, animals, and plants, have led to the imposition of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards. Due to the fact that groundnuts are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, stringent aflatoxin standards have been imposed on groundnut trade by many developed countries. For Senegal and other groundnut exporters in the developing world, these aflatoxin standards pose a major challenge. As a result, ...
Information is also lacking on possible interactions between the two diseases and on their effects ...... intensity and the abiotic environmental factors of wind speed ..... cultures to transfer genotypes from and within. Africa (Ng .... Maize streak, cassava latent and other ... Inaugural. Dissertation zur Enlargung des Doktorgrades.
Dardiri, A H; Delay, P D; Bachrach, H L
The synthetic compound, 2-((a) hydroxybenzyl) benzimidazole (HBB) partially inhibited the cytopathogenicity and multiplication of Teschen disease virus (TDV) and 6 enteric-cytopathogenic porcine orphan (ECPO) viruses in swine cells but not of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in bovine kidney cells. For FMDV, there appeared to be a slight enhancement in virus yield and in cytopathic effect when HBB was present. The inhibition of the viral cytopathic effect and reproduction of TDV and ECPO viruses was related to the concentration of HBB. At the inhibitory level, the compound did not cause any changes in the microscopic structure of pig kidney or bovine kidney cells. The suppression of TDV multiplication was reversed when HBB was removed. The compound did not inactivate TDV or FMDV.
Oseni, O. W.; Audu, M. T.
The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 - 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.
I. V. Shestakova
Full Text Available For the first time in the domestic medical literature presents a deep review about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory knowledge of Zika virus disease, based mainly on the publications of foreign authors and leading international organizations from 1947 to March 2016. Analyzed the essence of the problem, treatment of patients with Zika virus disease and infected pregnant women, indicated the unresolved question. For the first time were systematic sources of contemporary information about Zika virus disease for professionals and patients.
Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan
Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.
Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.
Graham, Jessica B.; Swarts, Jessica L.; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Green, Richard; Sekine, Aimee; Voss, Kathleen M.; Mooney, Michael; Choonoo, Gabrielle; Miller, Darla R.; Pardo Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Gale, Michael
Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013)F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans. PMID:27806117
Jessica B Graham
Full Text Available Infection with West Nile virus (WNV leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans.
Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70-80nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70-80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.
required urgent and coordinated research.12 The Secretary of Health and Human Services...technical mechanism is required to manage the global response. However, the Zika virus and associated health outcomes remain a significant public health ...associated adverse health outcomes. Most of the 5,197 Zika virus disease cases reported by April 5, 2017 in the United States were associated with
Diseases and Conditions Ebola virus and Marburg virus By Mayo Clinic Staff Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic ... Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts, ...
Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C
Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.
The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread.
Muehlenbachs, Atis; de la Rosa Vázquez, Olimpia; Bausch, Daniel G; Schafer, Ilana J; Paddock, Christopher D; Nyakio, Jean Paul; Lame, Papys; Bergeron, Eric; McCollum, Andrea M; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Bollweg, Brigid C; Prieto, Miriam Alía; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nichol, Stuart T; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R
Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs. In the Gulu case, ebolavirus antigen localized to malarial parasite pigment-laden macrophages. These data suggest that trophoblast infection may be a mechanism of transplacental ebolavirus transmission. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Tathiana Ferreira Sá Antunes
Full Text Available Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV. In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2 were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2.
Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. whose fatherland is South America outshines with its several aspects at agricultural field. First of all, even though the almost all of the harvest is consumed as food, since the seeds of this plant includes pretty much amount of oil, they constitute a highyl important raw material. The reason why demand of people for groundnut has been increasing as years go by, is the great quality degree of the oil handled and its benefits for human health. Another significant feature of this plant is that, as a member of bean family it has the ability of providing nitrogene fixation. From this point of view, groundnut is considered as the most essential plant of crop rotation technique. Most of the groundnut -also known as “araşit” in Türkiye- growth is done in Mediterranean Region, especially the zone of Adana. In our country, almost all of the harvest handled is consumed as sustenance in addition to that, remarkable increases are observed in the production of the plant mentioned above; furthermore by the year 2011, Türkiye has become the most important producer at his territory. In Türkiye, Osmaniye is now the center of groundnut generation and therefore the city is identical with its product. This could widely be understood from that the plant is secured by geographical indication patent in the name of “Groundnut of Osmaniye”. In that research, the main scope is agricultural geography and the highlighted topics are botanical properties, planting and the disrribution and commerce of the recommendations about the requirements follow. Moreover, the groundnut of Osmaniye, in terms of geographical indication is reconized to the reader
Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif
Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...
An interesting aspect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the ability to selectively replicate in tumor cells. Recently, using reverse genetics technology to enhance the oncolytic properties and therapeutic potential of NDV for tumor therapy has become popular in immunocompetent carcinoma tumor mod...
Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...
Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Koch, G.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Peeters, B.P.H.
In the last decade many studies have been performed on the virulence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This is mainly due to the development of reverse genetics systems which made it possible to genetically modify NDV and to investigate the contribution of individual genes and genome regions to its
Genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex traits in Uganda ... Silk and Sowola which showed high flowering ability failed to fertilise and set ... Up to five genes may be involved in â-carotene synthesis and probably in ...
Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.
Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...
Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.
Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.
Löhr, J M; Nelson, J. A.; Oldstone, M B
To test the hypothesis that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) may be associated with peptic ulcer disease, we examined ulcerative lesions of the distal stomach and proximal duodenum for the presence of nucleic acids and antibodies specific for HSV-1. Utilizing in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction with sequencing, gastric or duodenal tissues from 4 of 22 patients (18%) with documented peptic ulcer disease demonstrated the presence of both specific HSV-1 n...
Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C
Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.......Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....
Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G
Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.......Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....
Viral pathogens form an important group of obligatory parasites of plants. About 977 plant viruses have been described and classified in 14 families and 70 genera. This group of pathogens has complex interactions with their host plants and vectors due to their integration in the molecular mechanisms of living cells, interfering with our ability to manage the malfunctions of virus infected plants by curing means. These constraints led to the perception that the best protection from virus diseases is by prevention. Many cultural procedures used for virus control are aimed at eradicating or altering one or more of the primary participants in the transmission process (vector, virus source plants, and the crop) or preventing their coming together. Part of these control measures were devised to reduce to a minimum, the number of inoculative vector individuals that are active in the crop or interfere with the transmission process at any of its phases, thereby arresting virus spread. Advances in plant virology and a better understanding of plant vector interactions provide strategies based on the formation of mechanical and optical barriers that interfere with the ability of the viral pathogen or its vector to reach the plant and initiate an epidemic.
Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J
Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be
Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Akram, Shabir; Potdar, Varsha; Chadha, Mandeep S
Objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. Methods: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes. Samples positive for influenza A were subtyped for A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 whereas influenza B samples were subtyped into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria subtypes, using primers and probes recommended by CDC, USA. Results: Respiratory viruses were detected in 46 (19.7%) cases, influenza A/H3N2 and rhinoviruses being the most common viruses detected. More than one virus was isolated in four cases consisting of hMPV-B + adeno-2 + Inf-B; rhino + H3N2, PIV-1 + rhino; and PIV-1+ hMPV-B in one case each. Ancillary supportive therapeutic measures included bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, and ventilation (noninvasive in 42 and invasive in 4). Antiviral therapy was instituted in influenza-positive patients. Three patients with A/H3N2 infection died during hospitalization. Conclusions: We conclude that respiratory viruses are important contributors to AECOPD in India. Our data calls for prompt investigation during an exacerbation for viruses to obviate inappropriate antibiotic use and institute antiviral therapy in viral disease amenable to antiviral therapy. Appropriate
Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter
The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.
CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus and the World Health Organization, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases and reporting delays that vary from country to country.
Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.
Abstract: Author: Ncube, E. Flett, B.C. Waalwijk, C. Viljoen, A. Vol 27 Issue 2 Publication: 2010 Page: 195-198 : Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. in groundnut kernels. Forty-six groundnut samples were collected from subsistence farmers in three provinces of South
Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.
Abstract: Author: Ncube, E. Flett, B.C. Waalwijk, C. Viljoen, A. Vol 27 Issue 2 Publication: 2010 Page: 195-198 : Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. in groundnut kernels. Forty-six groundnut samples were collected from subsistence farmers in three provinces of South
Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G
Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L
Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.
Full Text Available Renal diseases associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection are a significant problem for clinicians and diagnostic pathologists. A wide variety of disorders, including a spectrum of immune-complex glomerulonephritides, has been reported in association with hepatitis and cirrhosis caused by HCV. For some of these diseases, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I and cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis, plausible links between HCV and the glomerular pathology have been proposed. In other cases, the role of the virus in the pathogenesis of the renal disease is less certain. This communication catalogues the renal manifestations of HCV infection, providing clinical and pathological descriptions of the most prevalent disorders. Where available, evidence implicating HCV in the causation of the disorders is also discussed.
Gabriela S. Tsankova
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus from Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Like most of the viruses which belong to the Flavivirus genus, it replicates in and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Unlike other arbovirus infections including dengue and chikungunya, Zika virus causes a relatively mild disease. The most common symptoms of ZIKV are mild fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous maculopapular rash, which last for several days to a week. Although 80% of the cases with ZIKV are asymptomatic, severe complications such as microcephalia and GBS may be observed. This explains why ZIKV is more dangerous that it was thought to be and why it rapidly evolves in unexpected challenge for the international and national public health authorities.
Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero
Full Text Available Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7% and 527 of these publications (53.5% to the years 2014-2015. The earliest publication dates back to 1977, attaching no listed authors either reference abstract, and the most recent to January of current year 2015. This means Ebola infection is a global problem and that concern the international scientific community. A review of some of the studies published in this matter, considered of interest and discussed by the authors, is performed in this work.
Full Text Available Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV and sheeppox virus (SPV have a considerable economic impact on the cattle and small ruminant industry. They are listed in group A of contagious disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. This study addressed molecular characterisation of first LSDV outbreak and an endemic SPV in Kurdistan region of Iraq based on P32 gene. The results indicated that P32 gene can be successfully used for diagnosis of LSDV. The phylogenic and molecular analysis showed that there may be a new LSDV isolate circulating in Kurdistan which uniquely shared the same characteristic amino acid sequence with SPV and GPV, leucine at amino acid position 51 in P32 gene as well as few genetically distinct SPV causing pox disease in Kurdistan sheep. This study provided sequence information of P32 gene for several LSDV isolates, which positively affects the epidemiological study of Capripoxvirus
Nazerian, K; Lee, L F; Yanagida, N; Ogawa, R
Fowlpox virus (FPV) recombinants expressing the glycoprotein B and the phosphorylated protein (pp38) of the GA strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) were assayed for their ability to protect chickens against challenge with virulent MDV. The recombinant FPV expressing the glycoprotein B gene elicited neutralizing antibodies against MDV, significantly reduced the level of cell-associated viremia, and, similar to the conventional herpesvirus of turkeys, protected chickens against challenge with the GA strain and the highly virulent RB1B and Md5 strains of MDV. The recombinant FPV expressing the pp38 gene failed to either elicit neutralizing antibodies against MDV or protect the vaccinated chickens against challenge with MDV.
Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César
Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology.
Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Fernández Rivas, Gema
Zika virus belongs to the Flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus originally came from Central African simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the Pacific to South America. The disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. Mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary Guillain-Barré or fetal microcephaly cases. Diagnostic confirmation requires a RT-PCR in blood up to the 5th day from the onset or in urine up to the 10-14th day. Specific IgM are identifiable from the 5th symptomatic day. Clinically, a suspected case should comply with: a) a journey to epidemic areas; b) a clinically compatible appearance with fever and skin rash, and c) a generally normal blood count/basic biochemistry. There is some evidence that causally relates Zika virus infection with fetal microcephaly. While waiting for definitive data, all pregnant women coming from Central or South America should be tested for Zika virus.
Staprans, Silvija I.; Dailey, Peter J.; Rosenthal, Ann; Horton, Chris; Grant, Robert M.; Lerche, Nicholas; Feinberg, Mark B.
To elucidate the relationship between early viral infection events and immunodeficiency virus disease progression, quantitative-competitive and branched-DNA methods of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA quantitation were cross-validated and used to measure viremia following infection of rhesus macaques with the pathogenic SIVmac251 virus isolate. Excellent correlation between the methods suggests that both accurately approximate SIV copy number. Plasma viremia was evident 4 days postinfection, and rapid viral expansion led to peak viremia levels of 107 to 109 SIV RNA copies/ml by days 8 to 17. Limited resolution of primary viremia was accompanied by relatively short, though variable, times to the development of AIDS (81 to 630 days). The persistent high-level viremia observed following intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 explains the aggressive disease course in this model. Survival analyses demonstrated that the disease course is established 8 to 17 days postinfection, when peak viremia is observed. The most significant predictor of disease progression was the extent of viral decline following peak viremia; larger decrements in viremia were associated with both lower steady-state viremia (P = 0.0005) and a reduced hazard of AIDS (P = 0.004). The data also unexpectedly suggested that following SIVmac251 infection, animals with the highest peak viremia were better able to control virus replication rather than more rapidly developing disease. Analysis of early viral replication dynamics should help define host responses that protect from disease progression and should provide quantitative measures to assess the extent to which protective responses may be induced by prophylactic vaccination. PMID:10233944
Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.
Vania López Rodríguez
Full Text Available Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determined after the Periodontics Cuban Standards, and oral hygiene was assessed through the simplified oral hygiene index. Other variables were measured, such as smoking habits, T CD4+ lymphocyte counting and virus load. The independent association of each risk factor with the disease was determined through a logistic regression model. Results: The 56, 5 % of the 154 patients presented Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease; 60 (39.0% gingivitis and 27 (17,5% periodontitis. Gingivitis was associated with poor oral hygiene (OR: 3,71 and periodontitis with smoking habit (OR: 5,20. The severe forms of periodontitis occurred mainly in patients with lymphocyte counting lower than 500 cells/mm3 . Conclusions: The prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province is linked to known risk factors such as smoking habits and oral hygiene.
Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa
We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864
Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y; Samal, Siba K
Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans.
Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham
of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...
Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay
Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367
Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary
During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284
Chu, H P; Trow, E W; Greenwood, A G; Jennings, A R; Keymer, I F
In the 4 year period 1971-74 11 isolations of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) were made from 44 birds of prey that died in captivity. Three species of Falconiformes were involved, including one red-headed falcon (Falco chicquera), 5 European kestrels (F. tinnunculus), and 2 secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius), also 2 species of Strigiformes, comprising 2 barn owls (Tyto alba) and one little owl (Athene noctua). All NDV isolates were of the velogenic type.
Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V
Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy.
A fluorometric sandwich immunoassay for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed using a fibre optic biosensor. Antibodies directed against NDV...and low baseline variation. These and other properties of the fibre optic biosensor indicate that it has the potential to serve as an on-line...continuous monitoring device of an automated or semiautomated detection system. As a part of the fibre optic biosensor development, the surface coverage of
van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus
Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.
Baseler, Laura; Chertow, Daniel S; Johnson, Karl M; Feldmann, Heinz; Morens, David M
For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control. Growing understanding of ebolavirus pathogenetic mechanisms and important new clinical observations of the disease course provide fresh clues about prevention and treatment approaches. Although viral cytopathology and immune-mediated cell damage in ebolavirus disease often result in severe compromise of multiple organs, tissue repair and organ function recovery can be expected if patients receive supportive care with fluids and electrolytes; maintenance of oxygenation and tissue perfusion; and respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular support. Major challenges for managing future Ebola epidemics include establishment of early and aggressive epidemic control and earlier and better patient care and treatment in remote, resource-poor areas where Ebola typically reemerges. In addition, it will be important to further develop Ebola vaccines and to adopt policies for their use in epidemic and pre-epidemic situations.
Full Text Available In this paper, gasification potential of biomass residue was investigated using a laboratory scale throatless downdraft gasifier. Experimental results of groundnut shell was gasified in the throatless downdraft gasifier to produce a clean gas with a calorific value of around 5.92 MJ/Nm3 and a combustible fraction of 45% v/v. Low moisture (8.6% and ash content (3.19% are the main advantages of groundnut shells for gasification. It is suggested that gasification of shell waste products is a clean energy alternative to fossil fuels. The product gas can be used efficiently for heating and possible usage in internal combustion engines.
Ouedrago, Mahama; M'bi, Bertin Zagre; Liu, Fulai;
to the crown of bambara groundnut plants and has been shown to improve seed yield of the crop. However, little information exists if and how the timing of mounding affects the productivity of the crop. To address this, two experiments during two consecutive years in rainfed fields in the Sudan–Sahel agro-ecological...... zone of Burkina Faso were conducted. Yield data confirm the findings from a drier part of Burkina Faso; i.e., mounding of bambara groundnut should not be carried out around the time of flowering. In a semi-arid area, such as Sudan–Sahel agro-ecological zone and with germplasm maturing within 90 days...
Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed
In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly.
Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui
Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.
de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J
Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.
Chancellor, John R; Padmanabhan, Sriranjani P; Greenough, Thomas C; Sacra, Richard; Ellison, Richard T; Madoff, Lawrence C; Droms, Rebecca J; Hinkle, David M; Asdourian, George K; Finberg, Robert W; Stroher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M; Cerón, Olga M
We report a case of probable Zaire Ebola virus-related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the United States who contracted Ebola virus disease in Liberia. Uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. This case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of Ebola virus disease-related uveitis during convalescence.
Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B
Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes...... cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi...
Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD represents one of the deadliest diseases in the world, with a fatality rate of over 70% and absence of effective vaccine and treatment. Rapid and specific diagnosis of EVD is essential for isolation, treatment of patients, and prevention of outbreak spread. Although many assays for EVD diagnosis have been reported, there is still an urgent requirement for practical assays for use in resource-limited areas, like Africa. Here we summarize the progresses of EVD diagnostic techniques.
Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.
In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163761.html Common Virus May Be Linked to Heart Disease, Diabetes in ... THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A common virus may make some women more susceptible to both ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle disease virus (NDV is an enveloped RNA virus, bearing severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Previous virion proteomic studies have shown that enveloped viruses carry multiple host cellular proteins both internally and externally during their life cycle. To address whether it also occurred during NDV infection, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of highly purified NDV La Sota strain particles. Results In addition to five viral structural proteins, we detected thirty cellular proteins associated with purified NDV La Sota particles. The identified cellular proteins comprised several functional categories, including cytoskeleton proteins, annexins, molecular chaperones, chromatin modifying proteins, enzymes-binding proteins, calcium-binding proteins and signal transduction-associated proteins. Among these, three host proteins have not been previously reported in virions of other virus families, including two signal transduction-associated proteins (syntenin and Ras small GTPase and one tumor-associated protein (tumor protein D52. The presence of five selected cellular proteins (i.e., β-actin, tubulin, annexin A2, heat shock protein Hsp90 and ezrin associated with the purified NDV particles was validated by Western blot or immunogold labeling assays. Conclusions The current study presented the first standard proteomic profile of NDV. The results demonstrated the incorporation of cellular proteins in NDV particles, which provides valuable information for elucidating viral infection and pathogenesis.
Breard, Emmanuel; Belbis, Guillaume; Viarouge, Cyril; Riou, Mickael; Desprat, Alexandra; Moreau, Joël; Laloy, Eve; Martin, Guillaume; Sarradin, Pierre; Vitour, Damien; Batten, Carrie; Doceul, Virginie; Sailleau, Corinne; Zientara, Stéphan
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an arthropod-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae), is an emerging pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants closely related to bluetongue virus (BTV). EHDV serotype 6 (EHDV6) has recently caused outbreaks close to Europe in Turkey and Morocco and a recent experimental study performed on calves inoculated with these two EHDV6 strains showed that the young animals have remained clinically unaffected. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of an EHDV6 strain from La Reunion Island in adult Holstein (18-month-old heifers). This EHDV6 strain has induced clinical signs in cattle in the field. Samples taken throughout the study were tested with commercially available ELISA and real-time RT-PCR kits. Very mild clinical manifestations were observed in cattle during the experiment although high levels of viral RNA and virus were found in their blood. EHDV was isolated from the blood of infected animals at 8 dpi. Antibodies against EHDV were first detected by 7 dpi and persisted up to the end of the study. Virus was detected in various tissue samples until 35 dpi, but was not infectious. In view of the recent circulation of different arboviruses in Europe, this study demonstrates what the EHD induces a strong viraemia in adult Holstein cattle and shows that a spread of EHD on European livestock cattle is possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood
Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV). The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE). The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA) test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50). The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). At each passage...
Soñora, Martin; Moreno, Pilar; Echeverría, Natalia; Fischer, Sabrina; Comas, Victoria; Fajardo, Alvaro; Cristina, Juan
The disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a severe threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, NDV has been isolated in the Antarctic region. Detailed studies on the mode of evolution of NDV strains isolated worldwide are relevant for our understanding of the evolutionary history of NDV. For this reason, we have performed Bayesian coalescent analysis of NDV strains isolated in Antarctica to study evolutionary rates, population dynamics, and patterns of evolution. Analysis of F protein cleavage-site sequences of NDV isolates from Antarctica suggested that these strains are lentogenic. Strains isolated in Antarctica and genotype I reference strain Ulster/67 diverged from ancestors that existed around 1958. The time of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was established to be around 1883 for all class II viruses. A mean rate of evolution of 1.78 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (s/s/y) was obtained for the F gene sequences of NDV strains examined in this study. A Bayesian skyline plot indicated a decline in NDV population size in the last 25 years. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of Antarctica in emerging or re-emerging viruses and the evolution of NDV populations worldwide.
Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aini, A. N.; Ridwan, M.
Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are the disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted to the human by infected female mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in more than 100 countries over the world. Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes which are closely related to each other antigenically. A person who infected by the dengue virus will never be infected again by the same serotype, but he looses immunity from the three other serotypes. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protective immunity against to others. Here we assume that there are two serotypes exist in the population. Someone who has recovered from one serotype become susceptible to the other serotype and can be reinfected. In this paper we analyze the model of dengue fever with two infections from the different serotype by linear analysis. Then we study the effect of vaccination to the model. In numerical simulation, we use Runge-Kutta order 4 to integrate the solution of the system.
Cui, Zhizhong; Zhuang, Guoqin; Xu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Aijun; Su, Shuai
A Marek's disease virus (MDV) field strain designated GX0101 was isolated from a layer flock and confirmed to be a recombinant virus with an insert of a long terminal repeat (LTR) from the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). A chimeric molecule containing an REV-LTR insert of 539 bp and its flanking sequences from MDV was amplified and sequenced. An REV-LTR downstream from the Internal Repeat Short (IRS) region has 77.4-98.6% homology to seven REV field strains isolated from different avian species in different parts of the world. The insertion site is located downstream of SORF 1 and upstream of SORF2 in the IRS region near the junction with the Unique Short (US) region in the MDV serotype 1 genome. Chicken experiments were conducted to determine the oncogenicity of the recombinant GX0101 virus and its transmissibility to contact chickens. Dot blot hybridization was used to detect the presence of the pp38 gene in feather tips from GX0101 or Md5 infected and contact birds. The pp38 was detected in GX0101 contact birds about 1-2 weeks earlier than in Md5 birds when both groups were vaccinated with HVT vaccine. Long term pathogenicity tests in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens reveal that the recombinant GX0101 has a higher virulence than GA, but less virulence than Md5, the very virulent pathotype of MDV. This is the first report on an oncogenic serotype 1 MDV field strain with LTR insert and its pathogenicity.
Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV in liver disease of non-A, -B, -C viral hepatitis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C was determined. Two of 44 patients (4.5% with liver injury without any hepatitis A, B or C marker were positive for HGV. One of five cases of hepatocellular carcinoma was positive for HGV. One of three cases with fulminant hepatitis was positive for HGV. This case was negative at the onset of fulminant hepatitis and became positive after plasmapheresis. No patient with acute (n=8 or chronic (n=5 hepatitis or liver cirrhosis (n=8 was positive for HGV in non-A, -B, -C liver disease. One of 30 patients with various HBV-positive liver diseases and nine (17.3 of 52 patients with type C liver disease were positive for HGV. In patients with hepatitis C, four (28.6% of 14 HGV-co-infected patients were complicated with diabetes mellitus compared with four (10.5% of 38 single hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients (not significant. In 12 HGV-positive patients, eight of 10 (80% had a history of blood transfusion. In HCV-positive patients, co-infection with HGV was not a risk factor in patients with diabetes mellitus as a complication. HGV appeared to cause non-A, -B, -C hepatitis rarely, and its main route of infection was blood transfusion.
Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976-2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past.
Gibson, Richard W; Aritua, Valentine; Byamukama, Emmanuel; Mpembe, Isaac; Kayongo, James
Sweet potato virus disease (SPVD), caused by dual infection with the whitefly-borne Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and the aphid-borne Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), is the most serious disease of sweet potato in Africa. SPVD has been known there since at least the 1940s, although it took several decades to elucidate its aetiology. It occurs throughout Africa and is particularly prevalent in the Great Lakes region. Production of sweet potato is largely by resource-poor farmers, growing mostly local landraces and for home consumption and so control strategies need to be appropriate to these circumstances. Most high yielding and/or early maturing landraces in Uganda are susceptible to SPVD and most resistant landraces are low-yielding, forcing farmers to compromise between the conflicting requirements of large and/or early yields, and food security. Accordingly, two strategies were tested to avoid the disadvantages associated with such compromises. These were deploying high-yielding SPVD-resistant cultivars and phytosanitation practices to enable susceptible landraces to be grown successfully. In on-farm trials in Masaka and Rakai Districts of Uganda, some SPVD-resistant cultivars bred at Namulonge Agricultural and Animal Research Station (NAARI), in Wakiso District, out-yielded local landraces. Other trials at NAARI and at nearby farms showed that roguing diseased cuttings within 1 month of planting and isolation from diseased crops, even by as little as 15m, can considerably decrease spread of SPVD to susceptible cultivars. This indicates that phytosanitation can protect desirable susceptible cultivars, even if adopted only locally. A dual approach of deploying both resistant varieties and phytosanitation provides farmers with a valuable increase in their choice of control strategies for SPVD.
Witter, R L
The continuation of an apparent evolutionary trend of Marek's disease virus (MDV) towards greater virulence may explain recent increased losses from Marek's disease (MD) in vaccinated flocks. To address this question, the virulence of 31 isolates of serotype 1 MDV obtained from layer or broiler flocks between 1987 and 1995 were characterized. Each isolate was cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts for four to six passages, and ascertained to be free from contamination with avian retroviruses, chicken anemia virus, and MDVs of other serotypes. The viruses, along with prototype viruses JM/102W and Md5, were tested for virulence by inoculation at 6 days of age into laboratory strain 15I5 x 7(1) chickens of three types: nonvaccinated, vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and bivalent (HVT + SB-1)-vaccinated. The results showed that three isolates did not differ from JM/102W and were classified in the virulent (vMDV) pathotype. Twenty-one isolates produced significantly higher levels of MD in HVT-vaccinated chickens than did the JM/102W control and were classified in the very virulent (vvMDV) pathotype. Seven isolates, five of which were isolated in 1994 or 1995, produced significantly higher levels of MD in bivalent-vaccinated chickens than did the Md5 (vvMDV) control. These isolates, provisionally designated as the vv+MDV pathotype, appeared to be at the high end of a virulence continuum. Several MD response parameters, including lymphoma mortality, early mortality with bursal/thymic atrophy, and frequency of visceral lymphomas or ocular lesions in nonvaccinated chickens were positively correlated with virulence. These findings support the continued evolution of MDV towards greater virulence.
Maize and groundnut, important staples in Zambia, are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Aflatoxins are potent human carcinogens also associated with stunting and immunosuppression. Although health and economic burdens of aflatoxins are well known, patterns of contamination in maize and grou...
Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina
The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.
Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...
Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Beer, martin
Next generation sequencing is a powerful tool for complete sequencing of large amounts of DNA. We have recently cloned full genome cDNA copies (obtained by long-range RT-PCR) of entire genomes of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Koslov and Border disease virus strain Gifhorn into bacterial...
Marek S. Szyndel
Full Text Available Presented review of rose diseases, associated with the plant degeneration symptoms, includes rose streak, rose colour break, rose rosette or rose witches' broom, rose dieback, rose wilt, rose stunt, rose leaf curl, rose spring dwarf, rose little leaf, rose "frisure", rose bud proliferation and rose flower proliferation. Most of these disorders are characterized by stunting or dwarfing of plants accompanied by a partial wilt and dieback of shoots. Proliferation and epinasty often occurred. Apart from detected viruses (TSV. SLRSV parts of degeneration syndrome have been transmitted by grafting other have failed to achieve any transmission of the causal agent. It seems likely that rose degeneration disorders in spite of symptom similarities are due to a complex of interacting factors including probably viruses.
Bloomfield, Gerald S; Leung, Claudia
Over the last 2 decades human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease requiring long-term management. Aging, antiretroviral therapy, chronic inflammation, and several other factors contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients infected with HIV. In low-income and middle-income countries where antiretroviral therapy access is limited, cardiac disease is most commonly related to opportunistic infections and end-stage manifestations of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, including HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiovascular screening, prevention, and risk factor management are important factors in the management of patients infected with HIV worldwide. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus.
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049
Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger “AGI-30”, OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers’ physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. [b]Results.[/b] Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96% and the MD8 (100% were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%. Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23% was significantly lower than 100% (P < 0.01, indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log[sub]10[/sub] 50% egg infective dose (EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the AGI-30, 2.5 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log[sub]10[/sub] EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 °C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air
Karunaratne, A. S.; Walker, S.; Ruane, A. C.
Current agriculture depends on a few major species grown as monocultures that are supported by global research underpinning current productivity. However, many hundreds of alternative crops have the potential to meet real world challenges by sustaining humanity, diversifying agricultural systems for food and nutritional security, and especially responding to climate change through their resilience to certain climate conditions. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilised African legume, is an exemplar crop for climate resilience. Predicted yield performances of Bambara groundnut by AquaCrop (a crop-water productivity model) were evaluated for baseline (1980-2009) and mid-century climates (2040-2069) under 20 downscaled Global Climate Models (CMIP5-RCP8.5), as well as for climate sensitivities (AgMIPC3MP) across 3 locations in Southern Africa (Botswana, South Africa, Namibia). Different land - races of Bambara groundnut originating from various semi-arid African locations showed diverse yield performances with diverse sensitivities to climate. S19 originating from hot-dry conditions in Namibia has greater future yield potential compared to the Swaziland landrace Uniswa Red-UN across study sites. South Africa has the lowest yield under the current climate, indicating positive future yield trends. Namibia reported the highest baseline yield at optimum current temperatures, indicating less yield potential in future climates. Bambara groundnut shows positive yield potential at temperatures of up to 31degC, with further warming pushing yields down. Thus, many regions in Southern Africa can utilize Bambara groundnut successfully in the coming decades. This modelling exercise supports decisions on genotypic suitability for present and future climates at specific locations.
Karunaratne, A. S.; Walker, S.; Ruane, A. C.
Current agriculture depends on a few major species grown as monocultures that are supported by global research underpinning current productivity. However, many hundreds of alternative crops have the potential to meet real world challenges by sustaining humanity, diversifying agricultural systems for food and nutritional security, and especially responding to climate change through their resilience to certain climate conditions. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilised African legume, is an exemplar crop for climate resilience. Predicted yield performances of Bambara groundnut by AquaCrop (a crop-water productivity model) were evaluated for baseline (1980-2009) and mid-century climates (2040-2069) under 20 downscaled Global Climate Models (CMIP5-RCP8.5), as well as for climate sensitivities (AgMIPC3MP) across 3 locations in Southern Africa (Botswana, South Africa, Namibia). Different land - races of Bambara groundnut originating from various semi-arid African locations showed diverse yield performances with diverse sensitivities to climate. S19 originating from hot-dry conditions in Namibia has greater future yield potential compared to the Swaziland landrace Uniswa Red-UN across study sites. South Africa has the lowest yield under the current climate, indicating positive future yield trends. Namibia reported the highest baseline yield at optimum current temperatures, indicating less yield potential in future climates. Bambara groundnut shows positive yield potential at temperatures of up to 31degC, with further warming pushing yields down. Thus, many regions in Southern Africa can utilize Bambara groundnut successfully in the coming decades. This modelling exercise supports decisions on genotypic suitability for present and future climates at specific locations.
Mridula, D; Gupta, R K; Bhadwal, Sheetal; Khaira, Harjot; Tyagi, S K
Present study was undertaken to optimize the level of food materials viz. groundnut meal, beetroot juice and refined wheat flour for development of nutritious pasta using response surface methodology. Box-benken design of experiments was used to design different experimental combinations considering 10 to 20 g groundnut meal, 6 to 18 mL beetroot juice and 80 to 90 g refined wheat flour. Quality attributes such as protein content, antioxidant activity, colour, cooking quality (solid loss, rehydration ratio and cooking time) and sensory acceptability of pasta samples were the dependent variables for the study. The results revealed that pasta samples with higher levels of groundnut meal and beetroot juice were high in antioxidant activity and overall sensory acceptability. The samples with higher content of groundnut meal indicated higher protein contents in them. On the other hand, the samples with higher beetroot juice content were high in rehydration ratio and lesser cooking time along with low solid loss in cooking water. The different level of studied food materials significantly affected the colour quality of pasta samples. Optimized combination for development of nutritious pasta consisted of 20 g groundnut meal, 18 mL beetroot juice and 83.49 g refined wheat flour with overall desirability as 0.905. This pasta sample required 5.5 min to cook and showed 1.37 % solid loss and rehydration ratio as 6.28. Pasta sample prepared following optimized formulation provided 19.56 % protein content, 23.95 % antioxidant activity and 125.89 mg/100 g total phenols with overall sensory acceptability scores 8.71.
Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran
Full Text Available An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulically operated briquetting machine was used with the pressure kept at 5MPa. The results of the properties evaluated shows that biomass increases the burning efficiency of briquettes with increase in the biomass material, increasing combustion rate, faster ignition, producing lesser ash and fewer pollutants. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from coal-groundnut shells and coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 16.94 - 20.81 and 17.31 – 21.03 MJ/kg respectively. The ignition time ranges from 6.9 – 12.5 minutes for coal-groundnut shells briquettes while that of coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 6.5 – 11.1 minutes. The bio-coal blends with sugarcane bagasse were better than that of groundnut shells. However, both sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shells produce bio-coal briquettes that are very efficient, providing sufficient heat as at the time necessary, generating less smoke and gases (e.g sulphur that are harmful to environment, and generating less ash, as these have adverse effect during cooking.
Bong Choon Lee
Full Text Available We surveyed the occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV disease in 672 fields from 29 rice representative area inJuly 2012 as nationwide survey for RSV occurrence since 2008. We confirmed occurrence of virus disease in18 areas, in west coast region including Secheon, Taean, Buwan and Cheorwon. RSV incidence rates of plantin Sacheon and Buan were less than 0.01% and 0.15%, respectively, showing similar rate with the nationwidesurvey carried out in 2008, whereas incidence rate of field declined from 19.9% in 2008 to 4.9% in 2012.Earlier, RSV occurred largely across the southern region of Korea. In 2001, RSV disease was found inGangwha and Gyeonggi-do, the northern region of Korea. In 2007, RSV appeared in west coast; Buan inJeollabuk-do and Seocheon in Choongnam-do. After migration of the vector, small brown plant hopper, fromChina in 2009, RSV is becoming a pandemic.
Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Duke, Carmen Hope; Finch, Kathryn Cameron; Snook, Kassandra Renee; Tseng, Pei-Ling; Hernandez, Ana Cristina; Gambhir, Manoj; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho
We systematically reviewed existing research pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media, especially to identify the research questions and the methods used to collect and analyze social media. We searched 6 databases for research articles pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media. We extracted the data using a standardized form. We evaluated the quality of the included articles. Twelve articles were included in the main analysis: 7 from Twitter with 1 also including Weibo, 1 from Facebook, 3 from YouTube, and 1 from Instagram and Flickr. All the studies were cross-sectional. Eleven of the 12 articles studied ≥ 1of these 3 elements of social media and their relationships: themes or topics of social media contents, meta-data of social media posts (such as frequency of original posts and reposts, and impressions) and characteristics of the social media accounts that made these posts (such as whether they are individuals or institutions). One article studied how news videos influenced Twitter traffic. Twitter content analysis methods included text mining (n = 3) and manual coding (n = 1). Two studies involved mathematical modeling. All 3 YouTube studies and the Instagram/Flickr study used manual coding of videos and images, respectively. Published Ebola virus disease-related social media research focused on Twitter and YouTube. The utility of social media research to public health practitioners is warranted. Copyright Â© 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from ministry of health situation reports and World Health Organization (WHO) sources. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases. The data also reflect reporting delays that might vary from country to country.
Arima, Yuzo; Shimada, Tomoe
After Guinea reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in March 2014, EVD spread to neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa. Since then, the EVD outbreak spread over a wide geographic area among these three countries, and became the largest EVD epidemic ever with unprecedented numbers of confirmed cases and fatalities. As of April 2015, one year past the start of the outbreak, transmission is still ongoing. And, while six other countries, including those outside of the African continent (the United Kingdom, Spain, and the United States), have reported EVD cases, the source of the infection all originated from Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. As for the pathogen, Ebola virus, the route of transmission and associated prevention measures are well known, and change in the virulence or transmissibility of the virus has not been confirmed. However, there are specific factors that likely contributed to the unprecedented magnitude of the current EVD outbreak. In addition to the limited and poor medical and public health infrastructure in the affected countries, implementing appropriate responses rapidly was challenging for these countries, whose medical community, the general public, and governments had never experienced EVD before.
Full Text Available Ebola virus (family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus, type species Zaire ebolavirus, Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF or Ebola is a disease of human and other primates, caused by an Ebola virüs(1-5. These agents cause a severe, unrelenting viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality(1. EVD was first recognized in 1976, when two unrelated epidemics occurred in northern Zaire and southern Sudan(1-5. The largest outbreaks to date are the ongoing 2014 west African. Ebola outbreaks, which is affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria(2-5. Transmission Ebola virus may be acquired upon contact with blood or bodily fluids of an infected animal. Spreading the air has not been documented in the natural environment. Fruit bats are believed to be a carrier and may spread the virus without being affected(1-2. Once human infection occurs, the disease may spread between people as well(2. Symptoms Clinical appearance is starts in 2 days to 3 weeks after contacting the virus, with fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches(1-5. Treatment A number of experimental treatment are being studied. The FDA has allowed two drugs, Zmapp and TKM-Ebola(2. Treatment is primarily supportive in natüre(1-5. The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 50% and 90% of those infected with the virüs(1-5, in conclusion No specific treatment for the disease is yet available. Prevention Includes decreasing the spread of disease from infected animals to humans(2. Prevention of epidemics rates on early recognition and initial cases and promp institution of barrier nursing. At the community level, properly sterilized injection equipment, protection from body fluid and skin during preparation of the dead, and routine barrier nursing precaution are probably adequate in most care(1-2. During the EHF epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo the number of infected women was slightly higher than the man(6-7. Sex protection Saliva, breast milk, and semen, austerity from
Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F
Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.
Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.
Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco
Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.
Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250
Liu, Hualei; Lv, Yan; Afonso, Claudio L.; Ge, Shengqiang; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling
Five Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from geese were classified into a new genotype, designated genotype XII. The complete genome sequences of two strains indicated that these viruses were distinct from viruses of genotype VII. More investigations need to be conducted for us to understand the origin of these new strains. PMID:23469337
Burrows, R; Mann, J A; Greig, A; Chapman, W G; Goodridge, D
In animals exposed to foot-and-mouth disease virus by indirect contact, virus was recovered from the blood, milk, pharynx, vagina and rectum for variable periods of time before clinical disease was apparent. Virus instilled into the mammary gland multiplied rapidly and virus concentrations greater than 10(7) p.f.u./ml. were recorded within 8-32 hr., depending on the virus strain and dose inoculated. Virus multiplication was accompanied by clinical signs of mastitis but the classical signs of foot-and-mouth disease did not appear for 52-117 hr. Dissemination of virus from the mammary gland occurred within 4-24 hr. and in some animals samples taken from the pharynx, mouth, nose and vagina contained virus for periods up to 97 hr. before the appearance of vesicular lesions. Virus production in the udder declined with the appearance of virus neutralizing activity in the blood and the milk but persisted in some animals for periods of 3-7 weeks. The ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus to persist in mammary tissue was confirmed by the demonstration of virus multiplication in the udders of immune animals.
Flavia Adriana Zanetti
Full Text Available Canarypox viruses (CNPV carrying the coding sequence of VP2 protein from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV were obtained. These viruses were able to express VP2 protein in vitro and to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies when inoculated in specific pathogen-free chickens demonstrating that CNPV platform is usefulness to develop immunogens for chickens.
Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long-terminal repeat (LTR) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV), Md5 (Kim et al, 2011) rendered the resultant recombinant virus termed rMd5 REV-LTR BAC fully attenuated at passa...
Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth
such as next generation sequencing cheaper and more easily available. Whole genome sequencing and advanced phylogenetic analyses have successfully been applied to describe the molecular evolution and transmission patterns for viruses such as Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Ebola, and avian influenza virus...
ZHENG Haixue; FENG Xia; YIN Shuanghui; GUO Jianhong; CONG Guozheng; LIU Zaixin; CHANG Huiyun; MA Junwu; XIE Qingge; LIU Xiangtao; SHANG Youjun; WU Jinyan; BAI Xingwen; JIN Ye; SUN Shiqi; GUO Huichen; TIAN Hong
The full-length cDNA clone of swine vesicular disease virus HK/70 strain named pSVOK12 was constructed in order to study the antigenicity, replication, maturation and pathogenicity of swine vesicular disease virus. In vitro transcription RNA from pSVOK12 transfected IBRS-2 cells and the recovered virus RNA were isolated and sequenced, then indirect hemagglutination test, indirect immunofluorescence assays, eleectron microscope test, 50% tissue culture infecting dose (TCID50) assays and mouse virulence studies were performed to study the antigenicity and virulence of the recovered virus. The result showed that the infectious clones we obtained and the virus derived from pSVOK12 had the same biological properties as the parental strain HK/70. The full-length infectious cDNA clone, pSVOK12, will be very useful in studies of the antigenicity, virulence, pathogenesis, maturation and replication of SVDV.
Kim, Shin-Hee; Paldurai, Anandan; Samal, Siba K
Avian influenza (AI) is an economically-important disease of poultry worldwide. The use of vaccines to control AI has increased because of frequent outbreaks of the disease in endemic countries. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored vaccine has shown to be effective in protecting chickens against a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection. However, preexisting antibodies to NDV vector might affect protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. As an alternative strategy, we evaluated vaccine efficacy of a chimeric NDV vectored vaccine in which the ectodomains of F and HN proteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus serotype-2. The chimeric NDV vector stably expressed the HA protein in vivo, did not cross-react with NDV, was attenuated to be used as a safe vaccine, and provided a partial protection of 1-day-old immunized chickens against HPAIV subtype H5N1challenge, indicating its potential use for early protection of chickens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reichard, K W; Lorence, R M; Cascino, C J; Peeples, M E; Walter, R J; Fernando, M B; Reyes, H M; Greager, J A
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain 73-T, has previously been shown to be cytolytic to mouse tumor cells. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of NDV to replicate in and kill human tumor cells in culture and in athymic mice. Plaque assays were used to determine the cytolytic activity of NDV on six human tumor cell lines, fibrosarcoma (HT1080), osteosarcoma (KHOS), cervical carcinoma (KB8-5-11), bladder carcinoma (HCV29T), neuroblastoma (IMR32), and Wilm's tumor (G104), and on nine different normal human fibroblast lines. NDV formed plaques on all tumor cells tested as well as on chick embryo cells (CEC), the native host for NDV. Plaques did not form on any of the normal fibroblast lines. To detect NDV replication, virus yield assays were performed which measured virus particles in infected cell culture supernatants. Virus yield increased 10,000-fold within 24 hr in tumor and CEC supernatants. Titers remained near zero in normal fibroblast supernatants. In vivo tumoricidal activity was evaluated in athymic nude Balb-c mice by subcutaneous injection of 9 x 10(6) tumor cells followed by intralesional injection of either live or heat-killed NDV (1.0 x 10(6) plaque forming units [PFU]), or medium. After live NDV treatment, tumor regression occurred in 10 out of 11 mice bearing KB8-5-11 tumors, 8 out of 8 with HT-1080 tumors, and 6 out of 7 with IMR-32 tumors. After treatment with heat-killed NDV no regression occurred (P less than 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Nontumor-bearing mice injected with 1.0 x 10(8) PFU of NDV remained healthy. These results indicate that NDV efficiently and selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells, but not normal cells, and that intralesional NDV causes complete tumor regression in athymic mice with a high therapeutic index.
ZHANG; Zhi; CUI; Zhizhong
Two Marek's disease virus (MDV) field strains were isolated from chickens with tumors independently from Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, and it was confirmed that there were no co-infections with reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REV) in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF) in indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFA) with REV-specific monoclonal antibodies. By dot blot hybridization and PCR of genomic DNA of MDV-infected CEF, it was indicated that LTR fragments of REV genome were integrated into genome of these two MDV field strains. To amplify and clone the integrated REV LTR with MDV sequence at the junction, 4 primers from REV LTR and 7 primers from MDV genome fragment with REV LTR insertion hot points were synthesized and 28 (4x7) pairs of primers (one from REV and another from MDV for each pair) were used in PCR while using the genomic DNA of both strains as the templates. The sequence data demonstrated that both recombinant field strains contained the same REV LTR inserted into MDV at the identical sites in US fragment of the genomes. From the above, it was speculated that both recombinant field MDVs were originated from a same recombinant virus and spread among chicken flocks in two provinces.
Dunning, Jake; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Antierens, Annick; Whitehead, John; Ciglenecki, Iza; Carson, Gail; Kanapathipillai, Rupa; Castle, Lyndsey; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Pardinaz-Solis, Raul; Grove, Jennifer; Scott, Janet; Lang, Trudie; Olliaro, Piero; Horby, Peter W.
Background The nucleotide analogue brincidofovir was developed to prevent and treat infections caused by double-stranded DNA viruses. Based on in vitro data suggesting an antiviral effect against Ebola virus, brincidofovir was included in the World Health Organisation list of agents that should be prioritised for clinical evaluation in patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the West African epidemic. Methods and Findings In this single-arm phase 2 trial conducted in Liberia, patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD (two months of age or older, enrolment bodyweight ≥50 kg) received oral brincidofovir 200 mg as a loading dose on day 0, followed by 100 mg brincidofovir on days 3, 7, 10, and 14. Bodyweight-adjusted dosing was used for patients weighing <50 kg at enrolment. The primary outcome was survival at Day 14 after the first dose of brincidofovir. Four patients were enrolled between 01 January 2015 and 31 January 2015. The trial was stopped following the decision by the manufacturer to terminate their program of development of brincidofovir for EVD. No Serious Adverse Reactions or Suspected Unexpected Serious Adverse Reactions were identified. All enrolled subjects died of an illness consistent with EVD. Conclusions Due to the small sample size it was not possible to determine the efficacy of brincidofovir for the treatment of EVD. The premature termination of the trial highlights the need to establish better practices for preclinical in-vitro and animal screening of therapeutics for potentially emerging epidemic infectious diseases prior to their use in patients. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201411000939962 PMID:27611077
K.K. Alaneme; B.O. Fatile; J.O. Borode
The mechanical and corrosion behaviour of Zn-27Al alloy based composites reinforced with groundnut shell ash and silicon carbide was investigated. Experimental test composite samples were prepared by melting Zn-27Al alloy with pre-determined proportions of groundnut ash and silicon carbide as reinforcements using double stir casting. Microstructural examination, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour were used to characterize the composites produced. The results show that hardness and ...
Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M;
The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...... and (ii) increasing efficacy and treatment rate. This analysis suggests that successful diagnosis and treatment of a small proportion of patients can contribute significantly to the reduction of disease burden in the countries studied. The largest reduction in HCV-related morbidity and mortality occurs...... when increased treatment is combined with higher efficacy therapies, generally in combination with increased diagnosis. With a treatment rate of approximately 10%, this analysis suggests it is possible to achieve elimination of HCV (defined as a >90% decline in total infections by 2030). However...
Pleet, Michelle L; DeMarino, Catherine; Lepene, Benjamin; Aman, M Javad; Kashanchi, Fatah
Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause a devastating hemorrhagic disease, leading to death in a short period of time. After infection, the resulting EBOV disease results in high levels of circulating cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis in humans and nonhuman primates. The VP40 matrix protein of EBOV is essential for viral assembly and budding from the host cell. Recent data have shown that VP40 exists in the extracellular environment, including in exosomes, and exosomal VP40 can impact the viability of recipient immune cells, including myeloid and T cells, through the regulation of the RNAi and endosomal sorting complexes required for transport pathways. In this study, we discuss the latest findings of the impact of exosomal VP40 on immune cells in vitro and its potential implications for pathogenesis in vivo.
Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; El Attrache, John; Dorsey, Kristi M; Courtney, Sean C; Guo, Zijing; Kapczynski, Darrell R
Different genotypes of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 virus (APMV-1) circulate in many parts of the world. Traditionally, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recognized as having two major divisions represented by classes I and II, with class II being further divided into sixteen genotypes. Although all NDV are members of APMV-1 and are of one serotype, antigenic and genetic diversity is observed between the different genotypes. Reports of vaccine failure from many countries and reports by our lab on the reduced ability of classical vaccines to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding have created renewed interest in developing vaccines formulated with genotypes homologous to the virulent NDV (vNDV) circulating in the field. We assessed how the amount and specificity of humoral antibodies induced by inactivated vaccines affected viral replication, clinical protection and evaluated how non-homologous (heterologous) antibody levels induced by live NDV vaccines relate to transmission of vNDV. In an experimental setting, all inactivated NDV vaccines protected birds from morbidity and mortality, but higher and more specific levels of antibodies were required to significantly decrease viral replication. It was possible to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding with high levels of antibodies and those levels could be more easily reached with vaccines formulated with NDV of the same genotype as the challenge viruses. However, when the levels of heterologous antibodies were sufficiently high, it was possible to prevent transmission. As the level of humoral antibodies increase in vaccinated birds, the number of infected birds and the amount of vNDV shed decreased. Thus, in an experimental setting the effective levels of humoral antibodies could be increased by (1) increasing the homology of the vaccine to the challenge virus, or (2) allowing optimal time for the development of the immune response.
Al Anazi Awadh
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.
Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid
Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.
Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus
Draborg, Anette Holck; Duus, Karen; Houen, Gunnar
Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.
Anette Holck Draborg
Full Text Available Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.
Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J
Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important. In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein. The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks. Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses
Race, R E; Bloom, M E; Coe, J E
Lymphocyte blastogenesis was used to study the antiviral lymphocyte response of sapphire (Aleutian) and pastel (nonAleutian) mink inoculated with Pullman or Utah 1 Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Both mink genotypes developed a virus-specific response when inoculated with Utah 1 ADV. In contrast, after inoculation of Pullman ADV, sapphire mink had a positive virus-specific response, whereas pastel mink did not. Response occurred late after infection (8 wk) and correlated with the development of progressive Aleutian disease (AD). The response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and concanavalin A (Con A) was also determined. Most mink of either genotype, inoculated with either virus strain, maintained an anti-KLH response during disease. Most mink also responded to Con A, although some exhibited suppressed Con A response late in the disease course. These results indicated that mink develop an anti-ADV lymphocyte response during progressive AD and are not immunosuppressed with regard to other antigens or mitogens.
Full Text Available The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect, and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect. Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.
Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando
The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.
Full Text Available The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. However, factors affecting the survival of the disease remain unclear. Here, we investigated the prognostic factors of Ebola virus disease (EVD through various statistical models.Sixty three laboratory-confirmed EVD patients with relatively complete clinical profiles were included in the study. All the patients were recruited at Jui Government Hospital, Sierra Leone between October 1st, 2014 and January 18th, 2015. We first investigated whether a single clinical presentation would be correlated with the survival of EVD. Log-rank test demonstrated that patients with viral load higher than 10(6 copies/ml presented significantly shorter survival time than those whose viral load were lower than 10(6 copies/ml (P = 0.005. Also, using Pearson chi-square test, we identified that chest pain, coma, and viral load (>10(6 copies/ml were significantly associated with poor survival of EVD patients. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of multiple variables on the survival of EVD by Cox proportional hazards model. Interestingly, results revealed that patient's age, symptom of confusion, and viral load were the significantly associated with the survival of EVD cases (P = 0.017, P = 0.002, and P = 0.027, respectively.These results suggest that age, chest pain, coma, confusion and viral load are associated with the prognosis of EVD, in which viral load could be one of the most important factors for the survival of the disease.
Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen;
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...
Al-Garib, S.O.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Gruys, E.; Koch, G.
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease. The present paper deals with classification of ND virus (NDV), clinical signs and pathology, virus strain classification and molecular backgrounds for the pathogenicity. Major emphasis is reviewing immunity and vaccination. Clinical forms of the
Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha
Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission....
Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Johansson, Michael A; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M; Hills, Susan L; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J; Petersen, Lyle R; Honein, Margaret A
The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April-September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters.
Knust, Barbara; Schafer, Ilana J; Wamala, Joseph; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Okot, Charles; Shoemaker, Trevor; Dodd, Kimberly; Gibbons, Aridth; Balinandi, Stephen; Tumusiime, Alex; Campbell, Shelley; Newman, Edmund; Lasry, Estrella; DeClerck, Hilde; Boum, Yap; Makumbi, Issa; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Mbonye, Anthony; Aceng, Jane Ruth; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E
In October 2012, a cluster of illnesses and deaths was reported in Uganda and was confirmed to be an outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Patients meeting the case criteria were interviewed using a standard investigation form, and blood specimens were tested for evidence of acute or recent Marburg virus infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total count of confirmed and probable MVD cases was 26, of which 15 (58%) were fatal. Four of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases (27%) were fatal. Case patients were located in 4 different districts in Uganda, although all chains of transmission originated in Ibanda District, and the earliest case detected had an onset in July 2012. No zoonotic exposures were identified. Symptoms significantly associated with being a MVD case included hiccups, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. Contact with a case patient and attending a funeral were also significantly associated with being a case. Average RT-PCR cycle threshold values for fatal cases during the acute phase of illness were significantly lower than those for nonfatal cases. Following the institution of contact tracing, active case surveillance, care of patients with isolation precautions, community mobilization, and rapid diagnostic testing, the outbreak was successfully contained 14 days after its initial detection.
Christopher J. Kasanga
Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.
On 23 March 2014, the World Health Organization issued its first communiqué on a new outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), which began in December 2013 in Guinée Forestière (Forested Guinea), the eastern sector of the Republic of Guinea. Located on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, Guinea is the first country in this geographical region in which an outbreak of EVD has occurred, leaving aside the single case reported in Ivory Coast in 1994. Cases have now also been confirmed across Guinea as well as in the neighbouring Republic of Liberia. The appearance of cases in the Guinean capital, Conakry, and the transit of another case through the Liberian capital, Monrovia, presents the first large urban setting for EVD transmission. By 20 April 2014, 242 suspected cases had resulted in a total of 147 deaths in Guinea and Liberia. The causative agent has now been identified as an outlier strain of Zaire Ebola virus. The full geographical extent and degree of severity of the outbreak, its zoonotic origins and its possible spread to other continents are sure to be subjects of intensive discussion over the next months. © 2014 The Authors.
Dimmock, Nigel J.; Easton, Andrew J.
Defective interfering (DI) genomes are characterised by their ability to interfere with the replication of the virus from which they were derived, and other genetically compatible viruses. DI genomes are synthesized by nearly all known viruses and represent a vast natural reservoir of antivirals that can potentially be exploited for use in the clinic. This review describes the application of DI virus to protect from virus-associated diseases in vivo using as an example a highly active cloned influenza A DI genome and virus that protects broadly in preclinical trials against different subtypes of influenza A and against non-influenza A respiratory viruses. This influenza A-derived DI genome protects by two totally different mechanisms: molecular interference with influenza A replication and by stimulating innate immunity that acts against non-influenza A viruses. The review considers what is needed to develop DI genomes to the point of entry into clinical trials. PMID:26184282
Yang, Huiyi; Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat
Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop-climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4.5. It is somewhat reassuring, however, to find that after a sustained period of 50 years of geoengineering crop yields return to the nongeoengineered values within a few years once the intervention is ceased.
Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye
Full Text Available Background. As a food, groundnut is one of the most concentrated products, since it is very high in calories due to its high fat and protein content. One gram of groundnut supplies 6.03 kcal (25.2 kJ compared with 4 kcal (16.7 kJ for pure cane sugar, 3.6 kcal (15.1 kJ for polished rice, 3.5 kcal (14.6 kJ for maize flour and 2.7 kcal (11.3 kJ. Groundnut flour is used as food and 2.7 kcal (11.3 kJ. Groundnut flour is used as food in soup or stew, sauces, confectionaries, puddings, bakery products and in various other ways for human consumption. These uses of groundnut necessitate the determination of the general composition of groundnut. Material and methods. About 1.0 kg dried seeds of groundnut was involved in the analysis of the sample. It was divided into three parts for the dry, dry cooked and dry roasted samples. Defatted groundnut seeds were used using standard analytical method in which chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v was used as extraction solvent. Ion exchange chromatography method was used in the analysis of the amino acid composition using the Technicon Sequential Multisample (TSM Amino Acid Analyser. Various methods were used to determine the quality parameters of the protein. Other parameters were the predicted protein efficiency ratio (P-PER, essential amino acid index (EAAI and the isoelectric point (pI. The statistical analysis was also carried out. Results. Total amino acid was as follows: (g/100 g crude protein, cp: 83.5 (raw seeds, Rs, 85.9 (cooked seeds, Cs and 66.8 (roasted seeds, Rt.s with corresponding essential amino acids as: 39.4 or 47.2% (Rs, 38.3 or 44.6% (Cs and 30.0 or 44.9% (Rt.s. Predicted protein efficiency ratios were 2.55 (Rs, 3.00 (Cs and 2.31 (Rt.s and essential amino acid index of 1.18 (Rs, 1.08 (Cs and 0.83 (Rt.s. Cooking enhanced the amino acid levels of Asp, Ser, Glu, Pro, Arg, Ala, Cys, Val, Leu and Phe. The following essential amino acids were reduced by both cooking and roasting: Lys (15.9-27.6%, His (4
Foerster, Tessa; Streck, André Felipe; Speck, Stephanie; Selbitz, Hans-Joachim; Lindner, Thomas; Truyen, Uwe
Inactivated whole-virus vaccines against porcine parvovirus (PPV) can prevent disease but not infection and virus shedding after heterologous virus challenge. Here, we showed that the same is true for a homologous challenge. Pregnant sows were vaccinated with an experimental inactivated vaccine based on PPV strain 27a. They were challenged on day 40 of gestation with the virulent porcine parvovirus PPV-27a from which the vaccine was prepared (homologous challenge). On day 90 of gestation, the fetuses from vaccinated sows were protected against disease, while the fetuses of the non-vaccinated sows (control group) exhibited signs of parvovirus disease. All gilts, whether vaccinated or not vaccinated, showed a boost of PPV-specific antibodies indicative of virus infection and replication. Low DNA copy numbers, but not infectious virus, could be demonstrated in nasal or rectal swabs of immunized sows, but high copy numbers of challenge virus DNA as well as infectious virus could both be demonstrated in non-vaccinated sows.
Bird, Brian H; Spengler, Jessica R; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Khristova, Marina L; Sealy, Tara K; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Dodd, Kimberly A; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Sanders, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F
Animal models recapitulating human Ebola virus disease (EVD) are critical for insights into virus pathogenesis. Ebola virus (EBOV) isolates derived directly from human specimens do not, without adaptation, cause disease in immunocompetent adult rodents. Here, we describe EVD in mice engrafted with human immune cells (hu-BLT). hu-BLT mice developed EVD following wild-type EBOV infection. Infection with high-dose EBOV resulted in rapid, lethal EVD with high viral loads, alterations in key human antiviral immune cytokines and chemokines, and severe histopathologic findings similar to those shown in the limited human postmortem data available. A dose- and donor-dependent clinical course was observed in hu-BLT mice infected with lower doses of either Mayinga (1976) or Makona (2014) isolates derived from human EBOV cases. Engraftment of the human cellular immune system appeared to be essential for the observed virulence, as nonengrafted mice did not support productive EBOV replication or develop lethal disease. hu-BLT mice offer a unique model for investigating the human immune response in EVD and an alternative animal model for EVD pathogenesis studies and therapeutic screening.
Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Donato, Francesca M; Messa, Piergiorgio
Background. Hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease are prevalent and remain a major public health problem worldwide. It remains unclear how infection with hepatitis B virus impacts on the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.
Wu Yan Y.
Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.
Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H
Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector.
Simtowe, Franklin; Kassie, Menale; Asfaw, Solomon; Shiferaw, Bekele A.; Monyo, Emmanuel; Siambi, Moses
This paper applies a program evaluation technique to assess the causal effect of the adoption of improved groundnut technologies on consumption expenditure and poverty measured by headcount, poverty gap and poverty severity indices. The paper is based on a cross-sectional farm household level data collected in 2008 from a sample of 594 households in rural Malawi. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to test the robustness of the propensity score based results using the rbounds test and the mea...
Ali, Abbas; Islam, Anowarul; Pal, Tarun K
Groundnut seeds are an important source of bioactive phenolic compounds with noteworthy antioxidant capacity, which may be enhanced by the microwave roasting process. The aim of this work is to study the changes in antioxidant activity in groundnut seeds during microwave roasting, as a function of roasting time and extract concentration, in order to maximise the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roasted seeds. The study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidative activity of methanolic (GME), ethanolic (GEE), and chloroform (GCE) extracts and methanolic extract of oil (GMO) from groundnut seeds exposed to microwaves. The antioxidant activity was investigated using several assays, namely phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The microwave roasting process significantly increased the TPC, whilst the TFC decreased with roasting time. Antioxidant activity increased with increased roasting time and extract concentration in all extracts. Antioxidant activity increased significantly at lower concentrations; however, the rate of increment decreased gradually as the concentration of the solvent extract increased. Thus, among all the extracts, methanol extracts at all roasting times and extract concentrations appeared to display the highest effectiveness. The various scavenging activities of the samples are ranked in the following order: GME > GEE > GCE > GMO, in both raw and roasted samples. Both roasting time and extract concentration were found to be critical factors in determining the overall quality of the product. This investigation is important to determine optimum roasting conditions, in order to maximise the anti-oxidative health benefits of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.
Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike; Jimson O. Odulaja; Augustine O Okhamafe
α-Cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders, derived from agricultural waste products, that have for thepharmaceutical industry, desirable physical (flow) properties were investigated. α–Cellulose (GCN) wasextracted from groundnut shell (an agricultural waste product) using a non-dissolving method based oninorganic reagents. Modification of this α -cellulose was carried out by partially hydrolysing it with 2Nhydrochloric acid under reflux to obtain microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN). Th...
Full Text Available Background. Groundnut seeds are an important source of bioactive phenolic compounds with noteworthy antioxidant capacity, which may be enhanced by the microwave roasting process. The aim of this work is to study the changes in antioxidant activity in groundnut seeds during microwave roasting, as a function of roasting time and extract concentration, in order to maximise the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roasted seeds. Material and methods. The study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic content (TPC, total ﬂavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidative activity of methanolic (GME, ethanolic (GEE, and chloroform (GCE extracts and methanolic extract of oil (GMO from groundnut seeds exposed to microwaves. The antioxidant activity was investigated using several assays, namely phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Results. The microwave roasting process signiﬁcantly increased the TPC, whilst the TFC decreased with roasting time. Antioxidant activity increased with increased roasting time and extract concentration in all extracts. Antioxidant activity increased signiﬁcantly at lower concentrations; however, the rate of increment decreased gradually as the concentration of the solvent extract increased. Thus, among all the extracts, methanol extracts at all roasting times and extract concentrations appeared to display the highest eﬀectiveness. The various scavenging activities of the samples are ranked in the following order: GME > GEE > GCE > GMO, in both raw and roasted samples. Conclusions. Both roasting time and extract concentration were found to be critical factors in determining the overall quality of the product. This investigation is important to determine optimum roasting conditions, in order to maximise the anti-oxidative health beneﬁts of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.
Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Sonibare, Adekayode Olanrewaju; Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Jayeola, Omotola Abiola; Otesile, Ebenezer Babatunde
The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in some West African countries spanning from late 2013 and currently on as of 13th March, 2015 is the most widespread and fatal with human mortality that has surpassed all previous outbreaks. The outbreak has had its toll on conservation of endangered species. This portends danger for the wild fauna of the country if proactive measures are not taken to prepare grounds for evidence-based assertions concerning the involvement of wild species. To this end, there is an urgent need for sweeping census of reserves, national parks and wetlands. As well as the creation of a system involving reportage by sectors like the industries (extractive and construction) including persons and organisations involved with wildlife related activities. This documentation of die offs and unusual events to collaborating institutions, will help in monitoring trends which hitherto would have gone unnoticed. The importance of bats and primates in agriculture and public health via consumption of vermin insects and seed dispersal cannot be over-emphasized. There is the need for caution on the tendencies to destroy indicator species which could be silent pointers to emerging or re-emerging health and environmental issues. Wildlife resources are still reliably useful and caution is advised in the use of blanket destructive policies like fumigation of caves, indiscriminate culling and poisoned baits to destroy supposedly Ebola Disease Virus wildlife reservoirs. This paper highlights the immediate conservation problems and likely future implications of Ebola saga in Nigeria. It tries to identify the gaps in wildlife researches and makes recommendations for probable workable conservation strategies.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: A growing pile of evidence supports the notion that pulmonary involvement is one of the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and vice versa.Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed: 1. A prevalence study of HCV infection among patients with COPD; 2. A prevalence study of COPD among patients with chronic HCV infection. COPD was diagnosed according to ATS/ERS guidelines. The prevalence of HCV infection in COPD group was compared with the result of a previous study which determined the prevalence of HCV infection in general population. Prevalence of COPD in patients with chronic HCV infection was also compared to those with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection.Results: The study included 108 patients with COPD, 68 patients with chronic HCV infection, and 60 patients with chronic HBV infection. HCV infection was observed in 8.3% of patients with COPD, and 1.2% of the control subjects (P= 0.000. The prevalence of COPD among patients with chronic HCV and HBV infection was 17.6%, and 5%, respectively (P=0.03. Comparing COPD-positive and -negative chronic HCV patients for risk factors for COPD revealed that only the mean age was higher in COPD-positive patients (60.8±9.1 years vs. 46.5±11.5 years, P=0.000. In multivariate analysis, age was found to be the only independent predictor of COPD in HCV group.Conclusions: Patients with COPD have increased prevalence of HCV infection, and patients with HCV infection, have increased prevalence of COPD. COPD may be an extrahepatic disease associated with HCV infection.
Shears, P; O'Dempsey, T J D
The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. There have been 20 significant outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Sub-Saharan Africa prior to the 2014 outbreak, the largest being that in Uganda in 2000, with 425 cases and a mortality of 53%. Since the first outbreaks in Sudan and Zaire in 1976, transmission within health facilities has been of major concern, affecting healthcare workers and acting as amplifiers of spread into the community. The lack of resources for infection control and personal protective equipment are the main reasons for nosocomial transmission. Local strategies to improve infection control, and a greater understanding of local community views on the disease, have helped to bring outbreaks under control. Recommendations from previous outbreaks include improved disease surveillance to enable more rapid health responses, the wider availability of personal protective equipment, and greater international preparedness. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Latarjet, R
The titers of several preparations of kuru. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and scrapie viruses were reduced by only 1/10th or less by high doses of gamma radiation of 50 kGy and by only 1/10th-1/1000th or less for 200 kGy. This unusual radiation resistance of the two human viruses further links them with the scrapie virus and suggests that the genetic information of all three viruses is considerably smaller than that of any other known viruses of mammals. PMID:104301
Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa; Salo, Tim; Zhang, Zhidong; Yang, Ming
Swine vesicular disease (SVD) is a highly contagious viral disease that causes vesicular disease in pigs. The importance of the disease is due to its indistinguishable clinical signs from those of foot-and-mouth disease, which prevents international trade of swine and related products. SVD-specific antibody detection via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most versatile and commonly used method for SVD surveillance and export certification. Inactivated SVD virus is the commonly used antigen in SVD-related ELISA. A recombinant SVD virus-like particle (VLP) was generated by using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. Results of SVD-VLP analyses from electron microscopy, western blotting, immunofluorescent assay, and mass spectrometry showed that the recombinant SVD-VLP morphologically resemble authentic SVD viruses. The SVD-VLP was evaluated as a replacement for inactivated whole SVD virus in competitive and isotype-specific ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against SVD virus. The recombinant SVD-VLP assay produced results similar to those from inactivated whole virus antigen ELISA. The VLP-based ELISA results were comparable to those from the virus neutralization test for antibody detection in pigs experimentally inoculated with SVD virus. Use of the recombinant SVD-VLP is a safe and valuable alternative to using SVD virus antigen in diagnostic assays.
Full Text Available
Se hace un resumen de las características comunes y específicas de los diversos virus asociados con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con énfasis en la importancia que tienen en la génesis de este síndrome y en el hecho de que la mayoría de los casos, aunque sean severos, pueden ser manejados adecuadamente mediante el reemplazo de líquidos y electrolitos.
A synopsis of the common and specific features of the various viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease is presented; emphasis Is made on their importance as etiologic agents of this syndrome and on the fact that most cases, even If they are severe, can be appropriately treated by fluid and electrolyte replacement.
Martin N. Adokiya
Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains
Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A
Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Mapaco, Lourenço P; Monjane, Iolanda V A; Nhamusso, Antonieta E; Viljoen, Gerrit J; Dundon, William G; Achá, Sara J
The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from 11 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all 11 isolates was (112)RRRKRF(117) indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994, 1995 and 2005. The identification of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique.
Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P
A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.
Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C
The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.
Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.
Sun, Junfeng; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Cao, Zhongzan; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang
Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 subtype are major pathogens of chickens causing serious respiratory tract disease and heavy economic losses. To better understand the replication features of these viruses in their target organs and molecular pathogenesis of these different viruses, comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome changes of primary target organ during IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 infections, using 2D-DIGE followed MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. In total, 44, 39, 41, 48, and 38 proteins were identified in the tracheal tissues of the chickens inoculated with IBV (ck/CH/LDL/97I, H120), NDV (La Sota), and AIV H9, and between ck/CH/LDL/97I and H120, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 induced similar core host responses involved in biosynthetic, catabolic, metabolic, signal transduction, transport, cytoskeleton organization, macromolecular complex assembly, cell death, response to stress, and immune system process. Comparative analysis of host response induced by different viruses indicated differences in protein expression changes induced by IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 may be responsible for the specific pathogenesis of these different viruses. Our result reveals specific host response to IBV, NDV, and AIVH9 infections and provides insights into the distinct pathogenic mechanisms of these avian respiratory viruses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Adhin, Malti R; Grunberg, Meritha G; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the corneal stroma is the most prominent cause of scar formation impairing visual acuity and HSV keratitis is the leading cause of corneal opacity throughout the world. Suriname lacked test systems for microbial causes of ocular disease, therefore a polymerase chain reaction-based Herpes virus assay was introduced, enabling prompt recognition, and timely treatment, preventing progressive eye damage. The incidence and epidemiology of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in ocular disease in Suriname was assessed. In a cross-sectional prospective study, ocular swabs were collected from 91 patients with a presumptive α-Herpes virus ocular infection attending the Academic Hospital between November 2008 and August 2010 and were tested by a PCR-based α-Herpes virus assay. Alpha-Herpes virus ophthalmic infections were caused predominantly by HSV-1 with a prevalence of 31%. The prevalences of VZV, HSV-2, and a mixed HSV-1/HSV-2 infection were 4%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The first reported annual incidence of herpetic induced ocular disease in Suriname was estimated at 11.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 4.8-18.1). No clear age, ethnic or gender dependent difference in incidence was observed. The information obtained on α-Herpes virus positive ocular infections and the distribution of subtypes provided the first insight in the South American situation of α-Herpes virus induced ocular disease.
Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Venteo, A.;
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological...... immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule...
Brak, B.; Challinor, A.
Aflatoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by some strains of a number of species within Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate a range of crops grown at latitudes between 40N° and 40S° of the equator. Digestion of food products derived from aflatoxin-contaminated crops may result in acute and chronic health problems in human beings. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa in particular have seen large percentages of the human population exposed to aflatoxin. A recent study showed that over 98% of subjects in West Africa tested positive for aflatoxin biomarkers. According to other research, every year 250,000 people die from hepato-cellular carcinoma related causes due to aflatoxin ingestion in parts of West Africa. Strict aflatoxin levels set by importing countries in accordance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) also impair the value of agricultural trade. Over the last thirty years this has led to a reduction of African exports of groundnut by 19% despite the consumption of groundnut derived food products going up by 209%. The occurrence of aflatoxin on crops is strongly influenced by weather. Empirical studies in the US have shown that pre-harvest, aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts is induced by conditions of drought stress in combination with soil temperatures between 25°C and 31°C. Post-harvest, aflatoxin production of stored, Aspergillus-contaminated groundnuts is exacerbated in conditions where relative humidity is above 83%. The GLAM crop model was extended to include a soil temperature subroutine and subroutines containing pre- and post-harvest aflatoxin algorithms. The algorithms used to estimate aflatoxin contamination indices are based on findings from multiple empirical studies and the pre-harvest aflatoxin model has been validated for Australian conditions. Hence, there was sufficient scope to use GLAM with these algorithms to answer the foremost research question: Is the
Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Pereira Valera, Fabiana Cardoso; Jacob, Marcos Gerhardinger; Buzatto, Guilherme Pietrucci; Saturno, Tamara Honorato; Lopes, Lucia; Souza, Jamila Mendonça; Escremim Paula, Flavia; Silva, Maria Lucia; Carenzi, Lucas Rodrigues; Tamashiro, Edwin; Arruda, Eurico; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha
Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR) in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05), and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05) in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.
Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena
Full Text Available Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05, and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05 in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.
Bowen, Jenna L.; Olson, Julie K.
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice that has similarities to multiple sclerosis in humans. TMEV infection of susceptible mice leads to a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), which promotes the development of demyelinating disease associated with an inflammatory immune response in the CNS. TMEV infection of resistant C57BL6 mice results in viral clearance without development of demyelinating disease....
Ezequiel; Ridruejo; Fernando; Bessone; Jorge; R; Daruich; Chris; Estes; Adrián; C; Gadano; Homie; Razavi; Federico; G; Villamil; Marcelo; O; Silva
AIM: To estimate the progression of the hepatitis C virus(HCV) epidemic and measure the burden of HCVrelated morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Age- and gender-defined cohorts were used to follow the viremic population in Argentina and estimate HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. The relative impact of two scenarios on HCV-related outcomes was assessed:(1) increased sustained virologic response(SVR); and(2) increased SVR and treatment.RESULTS: Under scenario 1, SVR raised to 85%-95% in 2016. Compared to the base case scenario, there was a 0.3% reduction in prevalent cases and liverrelated deaths by 2030. Given low treatment rates, cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis decreased < 1%, in contrast to the base case in 2030. Under scenario 2, the same increases in SVR were modeled, with gradual increases in the annual diagnosed and treated populations. This scenario decreased prevalent infections 45%, liver-related deaths 55%, liver cancer cases 60%, and decompensated cirrhosis 55%, as compared to the base case by 2030. CONCLUSION: In Argentina, cases of end stage liver disease and liver-related deaths due to HCV are still growing, while its prevalence is decreasing. Increasing in SVR rates is not enough, and increasing in the number of patients diagnosed and candidates for treatment is needed to reduce the HCV disease burden. Based on this scenario, strategies to increase diagnosis and treatment uptake must be developed to reduce HCV burden in Argentina.
Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh
In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.
Angela Song-En Huang
Full Text Available Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.
Dardiri, A H; Delay, P D
A plaque assay method was developed for Teschen disease virus using primary pig kidney cultures in which neutral red stain was incorporated in the agar overlay medium. Certain factors associated with the plaque-forming ability of the virus were standardized. Cultures allowed to adsorb the virus for 45-60 minutes at 28 and 37 C, gave maximal plaque count. The virus infected the cellular layer through the agar medium. Plating efficiency of the virus was enhanced by using a small volume of inoculum. Addition of serum to the medium was not required. Neutral red concentration in the agar overlay medium affected the number of plaques. Statistical analysis demonstrated the uniformity of the plaque counts and their linear relationship to virus concentration. Isolation of the virus by the plaque technique from infected spinal cord supernatant fluid was achieved.
Tulman, E R; Afonso, C L; Lu, Z; Zsak, L; Rock, D L; Kutish, G F
Here we present the first complete genomic sequence, with analysis, of a very virulent strain of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1), Md5. The genome is 177,874 bp and is predicted to encode 103 proteins. MDV1 is colinear with the prototypic alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) within the unique long (UL) region, and it is most similar at the amino acid level to MDV2, herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT), and nonavian herpesviruses equine herpesviruses 1 and 4. MDV1 encodes 55 HSV-1 UL homologues together with 6 additional UL proteins that are absent in nonavian herpesviruses. The unique short (US) region is colinear with and has greater than 99% nucleotide identity to that of MDV1 strain GA; however, an extra nucleotide sequence at the Md5 US/short terminal repeat boundary results in a shorter US region and the presence of a second gene (encoding MDV097) similar to the SORF2 gene. MD5, like HVT, encodes an ICP4 homologue that contains a 900-amino-acid amino-terminal extension not found in other herpesviruses. Putative virulence and host range gene products include the oncoprotein MEQ, oncogenicity-associated phosphoproteins pp38 and pp24, a lipase homologue, a CxC chemokine, and unique proteins of unknown function MDV087 and MDV097 (SORF2 homologues) and MDV093 (SORF4). Consistent with its virulent phenotype, Md5 contains only two copies of the 132-bp repeat which has previously been associated with viral attenuation and loss of oncogenicity.
Belsham, Graham J
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Leader (L) protein is produced in two forms, Lab and Lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. It has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the Lab coding sequence is lethal for the virus, whereas loss of the Lb coding sequence results in a virus that is viable in BHK cells. In addition, it is now shown that deletion of the 'spacer' region between these two initiation codons can be tolerated. Growth of the virus precisely lacking just the Lb coding sequence resulted in a previously undetected accumulation of frameshift mutations within the 'spacer' region. These mutations block the inappropriate fusion of amino acid sequences to the amino-terminus of the capsid protein precursor. Modification, by site-directed mutagenesis, of the Lab initiation codon, in the context of the virus lacking the Lb coding region, was also tolerated by the virus within BHK cells. However, precise loss of the Lb coding sequence alone blocked FMDV replication in primary bovine thyroid cells. Thus, the requirement for the Leader protein coding sequences is highly dependent on the nature and extent of the residual Leader protein sequences and on the host cell system used. FMDVs precisely lacking Lb and with the Lab initiation codon modified may represent safer seed viruses for vaccine production.
Poggio, G P; Rodriguez, C; Cisterna, D; Freire, M C; Cello, J
In this study, we have developed a reverse transcription (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) for the detection of mumps virus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neurological infections. A specific 112-bp fragment was amplified by this method with primers from the nucleoprotein of the mumps virus genome. The mumps virus RT-n-PCR was capable of detecting 0.001 PFU/ml and 0.005 50% tissue culture infective dose/ml. This method was found to be specific, since no PCR product was detected in each of the CSF samples from patients with proven non-mumps virus-related meningitis or encephalitis. Mumps virus RNA was detected in all 18 CSF samples confirmed by culture to be infected with mumps virus. Positive PCR results were obtained for the CSF of 26 of 28 patients that were positive for signs of mumps virus infection (i.e., cultivable virus from urine or oropharyngeal samples or positivity for anti-mumps virus immunoglobulin M) but without cultivable virus in their CSF. Overall, mumps virus RNA was detected in CSF of 96% of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral central nervous system (CNS) disease and confirmed mumps virus infection, while mumps virus was isolated in CSF of only 39% of the patients. Furthermore, in a retrospective study, we were able to detect mumps virus RNA in 25 of 55 (46%) CSF samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS disease and negative laboratory evidence of viral infection including mumps virus infection. The 25 patients represent 12% of the 236 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS infections and whose CSF was examined at our laboratory for a 2-year period. The findings confirm the importance of mumps virus as a causative agent of CNS infections in countries with low vaccine coverage rates. In summary, our study demonstrates the usefulness of the mumps virus RT-n-PCR for the diagnosis of mumps virus CNS disease and suggests that this assay may soon become the "gold standard" test
Kjær, Jonas; Poulsen, Line D.; Vinther, Jeppe
) has identified a conserved RNA structure within the 3Dpol coding region (the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) which might have an important role in virus replication. The FMDV 2A peptide, another conserved element, is responsible for the primary “cleavage” at its own C-terminus (2A/2B junction......DNA containing Gaussia luciferase. RNA transcripts were generated in vitro from the plasmids, and introduced into BHK cells by electroporation. The replication efficiency was assessed by measurement of luciferase activity or by rescue of mutant viruses. The rescued viruses derived from the 2A mutant cDNAs were......Objectives: Several conserved elements within the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been identified, e.g. the IRES. Such elements can be crucial for the efficient replication of the genomic RNA. Previously, SHAPE analysis of the entire FMDV genome (Poulsen et al., 2016 submitted...
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Leader (L) protein is produced in two forms, Lab and Lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. It has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the Lab coding......, in the context of the virus lacking the Lb coding region, was also tolerated by the virus within BHK cells. However, precise loss of the Lb coding sequence alone blocked FMDV replication in primary bovine thyroid cells. Thus, the requirement for the Leader protein coding sequences is highly dependent...... on the nature and extent of the residual Leader protein sequences and on the host cell system used. FMDVs precisely lacking Lb and with the Lab initiation codon modified may represent safer seed viruses for vaccine production....
Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V
During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination.
Lenzi, Andrea; Mirone, Vincenzo; Gentile, Vincenzo; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Foresta, Carlo; Mariani, Luciano; Mazzoli, Sandra; Parisi, Saverio G; Perino, Antonio; Picardo, Mauro; Zotti, Carla Maria
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very resistant, ubiquitous virus that can survive in the environment without a host. The decision to analyse HPV-related diseases in males was due to the broad dissemination of the virus, and, above all, by the need to stress the importance of primary and secondary prevention measures (currently available for women exclusively). The objective of the Consensus Conference was to make evidence-based recommendations that were designed to facilitate the adoption of a standard approach in clinical practice in Italy. The Sponsoring Panel put a series of questions to the members of the Scientific Committee who prepared a summary of the currently available information, relevant for each question, after the review and grading of the existing scientific literature. The summaries were presented to a Jury, also called multidisciplinary Consensus Panel, who drafted a series of recommendations. The prevalence of HPV in males ranges between 1.3-72.9%;. The prevalence curve in males is much higher than that in females and does not tend to decline with age. Women appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV genotypes associated with a high oncogenic risk, whereas in males the probability of acquiring low- or high-risk genotypes is similar. The HPV-related diseases that affect males are anogenital warts and cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV has proved to be effective in preventing external genital lesions in males aged 16-26 years in 90.4%; (95%; CI: 69.2-98.1) of cases. It has also proved to be effective in preventing precancerous anal lesions in 77.5%; (95%; CI: 39.6-93.3) of cases in a per-protocol analysis and in 91.7%; (95%; CI: 44.6-99.8) of cases in a post-hoc analysis. Early ecological studies demonstrate reduction of genital warts in vaccinated females and some herd immunity in males when vaccine coverage is high, although males who have sex with males gained no benefit at all. Males with
Ambili, Ranjith; Preeja, Chandran; Archana, Vilasan; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Reejamol, Mohammed Khasim
Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, and many etiological agents are suggested to play a role in their etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors are also suggested to influence the progression of periodontal disease. Until recently, specific bacteria were considered the major pathogens for the disease. However, the occurrence of periodontal disease in some patient groups is still poorly understood, and the role of other initiating agents is being investigated. Evidence strongly suggests the presence of many strains of viruses in the periodontal environment, and possible mechanisms have also been suggested. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for other systemic diseases can also be better explained based on this viral etiology. In this review, we critically analyze the role of viruses in different periodontal diseases, and provide a categorical description of the underlying mechanisms. Clinical implications and future directions are also discussed. Evidence of a causal role of herpes viruses in periodontitis might revolutionize existing strategies to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease.
Jecker, Nancy S; Dudzinski, Denise M; Diekema, Douglas S; Tonelli, Mark
Caring for patients affected with Ebola virus disease (EVD) while simultaneously preventing EVD transmission represents a central ethical challenge of the EVD epidemic. To address this challenge, we propose a model policy for resuscitation and emergent procedure policy of patients with EVD and set forth ethical principles that lend support to this policy. The policy and principles we propose bear relevance beyond the EVD epidemic, offering guidance for the care of patients with other highly contagious, virulent, and lethal diseases. The policy establishes (1) a limited code status for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD. Limited code status means that a code blue will not be called for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD at any stage of the disease; however, properly protected providers (those already in full protective equipment) may initiate resuscitative efforts if, in their clinical assessment, these efforts are likely to benefit the patient. The policy also requires that (2) resuscitation not be attempted for patients with advanced EVD, as resuscitation would be medically futile; (3) providers caring for or having contact with patients with confirmed or suspected EVD be properly protected and trained; (4) the treating team identify and treat in advance likely causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest to minimize the need for emergency response; (5) patients with EVD and their proxies be involved in care discussions; and (6) care team and provider discretion guide the care of patients with EVD. We discuss ethical issues involving medical futility and the duty to avoid harm and propose a utilitarian-based principle of triage to address resource scarcity in the emergency setting.
John A Stanturf
Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.
A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood
Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.
This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...
Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G; van Leur, Joop A G; Jones, Roger A C
Cool-season grain legume crops become infected with a wide range of viruses, many of which cause serious diseases and major yield losses. This review starts by discussing which viruses are important in the principal cool-season grain legume crops in different parts of the world, the losses they cause and their economic impacts in relation to control. It then describes the main types of control measures available: host resistance, phytosanitary measures, cultural measures, chemical control, and biological control. Examples are provided of successful deployment of the different types of measures to control virus epidemics in cool-season grain legume crops. Next it emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to control because single control measures used alone rarely suffice to adequately reduce virus-induced yield losses in these crops. Development of effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies depends on an interdisciplinary team approach to (i) understand the ecological and climatic factors which lead to damaging virus epidemics and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of individual control measures. In addition to using virus-resistant cultivars, other IDM components include sowing virus-tested seed stocks, selecting cultivars with low seed transmission rates, using diverse phytosanitary or cultural practices that minimize the virus source or reduce its spread, and using selective pesticides in an environmentally responsible way. The review finishes by briefly discussing the implications of climate change in increasing problems associated with control and the opportunities to control virus diseases more effectively through new technologies.
Lu, Guiyang; Su, Yingying; Wang, Ning
Zika virus belongs to Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus. In response to the current cluster of congenital malformations (microcephaly) and other neurological complications (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) that could be linked to Zika virus infection, WHO declares that Zika virus is of global public health importance. Data sources were from peer review articles and WHO documents. The sources of Zika virus infection would include patients, people with asymptomatic infections and primates. The infectious period of Zika virus remains unclear. However, according to the period that RNA of Zika virus can be positively detected in blood, saliva, urine or semen, we can presume that the communicable period may last for 2 months or even longer. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Presumptive vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission have been reported. More evidence indicated the existence of a cause-effect relationship between Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly/Guillain-Barre syndrome. Strategies include successful control the amount of mosquitoes and minimize the contacts between mosquitoes and human beings could effectively prevent the Zika virus transmission. Other preventive measures as cutting off vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission should also be adopted. The epidemiology of Zika virus remains uncertain which calls for further research.
Sun, Aijun; Lee, Lucy F; Khan, Owais A; Heidari, Mohammad; Zhang, Huanmin; Lupiani, Blanca; Reddy, Sanjay M
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic alphaherpesvirus, is the causative agent of a neoplastic disease in domestic chickens called Marek's disease (MD). In the unique long (UL) region of the MDV genome, open reading frames UL39 and UL40 encode the large and small subunits of the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) enzyme, named RR1 and RR2, respectively. MDV RR is distinguishable from that present in chicken and duck cells by monoclonal antibody T81. Using recombinant DNA technology we have generated a mutant MDV (Md5deltaRR1) in which RR1 was deleted. PCR amplification of the RR gene in Md5deltaRR1-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) confirmed the deletion of the 2.4 kb RR1 gene with a resultant amplicon of a 640-bp fragment. Restriction enzyme digests with SalI confirmed a UL39 deletion and the absence of gross rearrangement. The biologic characteristics of Md5deltaRR1 virus were studied in vitro and in vivo. The Md5deltaRR1 replicated in DEF, but significantly slower than parental Md5-BAC, suggesting that RR is important but not essential for replication in fibroblasts. In vivo studies, however, showed that the RR1 deletion virus was impaired for its ability to replicate in chickens. Inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with Md5deltaRR1 showed the mutant virus is nonpathogenic and does not induce MD in birds. A revertant virus, Md5deltaRR1/R, was generated with the restored phenotype of the parental Md5-BAC in vivo, indicating that RR is essential for replication of the virus in chickens. Protection studies in SPF chickens indicated that the Md5deltaRR1 virus is not a candidate vaccine against MD.
Full Text Available Background: The current West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD, which began from Guinea in December 2013, has been the longest and deadliest Ebola outbreak to date. With the propagation of the internet, public health officials must now compete with other official and unofficial sources of information to get their message out. Aims: This study aimed at critically appraising videos available on one popular internet video site (YouTube as a source of information for Ebola virus disease (EVD. Materials and Methods: Videos were searched in YouTube (http://www.youtube.com using the keyword "Ebola outbreak" from inception to November 1, 2014 with the default "relevance" filter. Only videos in English language under 10 min duration within first 10 pages of search were included. Duplicates were removed and the rest were classified as useful or misleading by two independent reviewers. Video sources were categorized by source. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated with kappa coefficient. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed using the Student t-test and Chi-squared test, respectively. Results: One hundred and eighteen out of 198 videos were evaluated. Thirty-one (26.27% videos were classified as misleading and 87 (73.73% videos were classified as useful. The kappa coefficient of agreement regarding the usefulness of the videos was 0.68 (P < 0.001. Independent users were more likely to post misleading videos (93.55% vs 29.89%, OR = 34.02, 95% CI = 7.55-153.12, P < 0.001 whereas news agencies were most likely to post useful videos (65.52% vs 3.23%, OR = 57.00, 95% CI = 7.40-438.74, P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that majority of the internet videos about Ebola on YouTube were characterized as useful. Although YouTube seems to generally be a useful source of information on the current outbreak, increased efforts to disseminate scientifically correct information is desired to prevent unnecessary panic among the among
Chicks of distinct genotypes at the tumor virus B locus (TVB) in combination with presence or absence of endogenous avian leukosis virus ev21 gene in their genomes were examined for survival day patterns after challenge with very virulent plus Marek’s disease virus (vv+MDV) in three consecutive tria...
It has been reported that co-cultivation of a JM/102W strain, a virulent strain of Marek’s disease virus (MDV), with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the integration of REV long terminal repeat (LTR) into the MDV repeat region. The resulting virus, RM1, was unable to transform T-cells ...
Treatment of Newcastle disease virus with lithium diiodosalicylate differentially elutes the internally disposed proteins, M and NP, showing that these proteins are extrinsic, i.e., not associated with the lipid hydrophobic core. This selective elution requires disruption of the viral envelope, a process that is maximal at low temperature and influenced by the lipid composition of the virus envelope.
Polatnick, J; Wool, S H
Electrophoretic analysis of the Golgi apparatus isolated by differential centrifugation from radiolabeled cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus showed about 10 protein bands. The virus-induced RNA polymerase was identified by immunoprecipitation and electron microscope staining procedures. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the polymerase passed through the Golgi apparatus in less than 1 h.
Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Beer, Martin;
The complete genome sequence of the genotype 3 border disease virus strain Gifhorn has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from pigs. This represents the consensus sequence for the virus used to produce the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cDNA clone pBeloGif3, which yields...
J.W.J. van Esser (Joost)
textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of both infectious and malignant human diseases. These viruses are characterized by (B-cell) lymphotropism, their ability to establish latent infection in host cells and to induce proliferation of these latently infected cells.
Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi
Full Text Available Virus Newcastle Disease (NDV menimbulkan penyakit yang hebat pada beberapa spesies unggas dan mengakibatkan kerugian ekonomi yang besar pada industri peternakan unggas di seluruh dunia. Genomnya terdiri atas RNA berserat tunggal dan berpolaritas negatif dengan panjang 15,186Kb. Genom virus ND menyandi enam
Colenutt, C.; Gonzales, J.L.; Paton, D.J.; Gloster, J.; Nelson, N.; Sanders, C.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J
After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom;
After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closes...
We have previously shown that swine pretreated with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (Ad5) containing the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-alpha/Beta) are sterilely protected when challenged one day later with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), but the dose required is relativ...
Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...
Senthilkumaran, C; Bittner, H; Ambagala, A; Lung, O; Babiuk, S; Yang, M; Zimmerman, J; Giménez-Lirola, L G; Nfon, C
The use of swine oral fluid (OF) for the detection of nucleic acids and antibodies is gaining significant popularity. Assays have been developed for this purpose for endemic and foreign animal diseases of swine. Here, we report the use of OF for the detection of virus and antibodies in pigs experimentally infected with swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a virus that causes a disease clinically indistinguishable from the economically devastating foot-and-mouth disease. Viral genome was detected in OF by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (DPI) to 21 DPI. Virus isolation from OF was also successful at 1-5 DPI. An adapted competitive ELISA based on the monoclonal antibodies 5B7 detected antibodies to SVDV in OF starting at DPI 6. Additionally, using isotype-specific indirect ELISAs, SVDV-specific IgM and IgA were evaluated in OF. IgM response started at DPI 6, peaking at DPI 7 or 14 and declining sharply at DPI 21, while IgA response started at DPI 7, peaked at DPI 14 and remained high until the end of the experiment. These results confirm the potential use of OF for SVD surveillance using both established and partially validated assays in this study.
Holguera, Javier; Villar, Enrique; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel
Although it is well documented that the initial attachment receptors for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are sialic acid-containing molecules and glycosaminoglycans respectively, the exact nature of the receptors for both viruses remains to be deciphered. Moreover, additional molecules at the host cell surface might be involved in the entry mechanism. With the aim of identifying the cellular proteins that interact with NDV and RSV at the cell surface, we performed a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA). Cell membrane lysates were separated by two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and electrotransferred to PVDF membranes, after which they were probed with high viral concentrations. NDV interacted with a Protein Disulfide Isomerase from chicken fibroblasts. In the case of RSV, we detected 15 reactive spots, which were identified as six different proteins, of which nucleolin was outstanding. We discuss the possible role of PDI and nucleolin in NDV and RSV entry, respectively.
María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón
Full Text Available Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD. However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129, and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5, while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1. Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.
Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M
Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.
Wang, Binbin; Zhe, Mingjia; Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Meng, Chunchun; Zhang, Miaotao; Liu, Guangqing
The study of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has long been hindered by the absence of an in vitro culture system. In this study, using RHDV as a model, a series of DNA-based reporter replicons were constructed in which the firefly luciferase (Fluc) gene was fused in-frame with the open reading frame of the replicon. In this construct, the Fluc gene was inserted where the coding region of viral structural protein was deleted and was under the control of a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter. Fluc activity analysis showed that these reporter replicons replicate efficiently in mammalian cells. On the basis of the replicon, 5'non-coding regions (5'NCR) and genome-linked protein (VPg) were deleted, and the effect on the expression of replicon was analyzed. The results showed that the expression level of Fluc was reduced in the absence of 5'NCR and VPg, suggesting that the 5'NCR and VPg may play an important role in replication and/or translation of RHDV. To further verify the speculation, we also constructed a replication deficient mutant (pRHDV-luc/Δ3D), and the impact of 5'NCR and VPg deletion on viral translation efficiency was analyzed, our results indicated that both VPg and 5'NCR were involved in RHDV translation.
Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G.; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.
Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD. PMID:26199856
Full Text Available Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo. By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92–2.11 in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone.
Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights
Dardiri, A H
Plaque patterns and diameters of four virulent strains and one tissue culture mutant of Teschen disease virus were compared with six pig enteroviruses isolated in the United States. They are described as they were produced in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures. Reproducible plaques, with similar characteristics and class-types of each of the viruses tested were obtained with the application of a 45-minute virus adsorption time. Their morphologic characteristics and the proportion in which the plaque types appeared may assist in the differentiation of these virus strains.
Wang, Jing-Yu; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Wu, Ning; Wu, Hung-Yi; Ching, Ching-Dong; Liu, Hung-Jen
Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating worldwide disease of poultry characterized by increased respiration, circulatory disturbances, hemorrhagic enteritis, and nervous signs. Sequence analysis shows several amino acid residue substitutions at neutralizing epitopes on the F and HN proteins of recent Shaanxi strains. Both Cross protection and cross serum neutralization tests revealed that the traditional vaccine strains were unable to provide full protection for the flocks. To better understand the epidemiology of Newcastle disease outbreak, a portion of the F gene and the full-length HN gene were amplified from Shaanxi isolates by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then conducted sequence and phylogenetic analyzes. In pathogenicity analysis, both high intra-cerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) and mean death time (MDT) tests of chicken embryo were carried out. Furthermore, a cross-protection experiment in which specific-pathogen-free chickens vaccinated with a LaSota vaccine strain were challenged by the recent Shaanxi strain was also performed. Nine Newcastle disease (ND) virus (NDV) isolates which were recovered from ND outbreaks in chicken flocks in China were genotypically and pathotypically characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that all the recent Shaanxi-isolated NDVs have (112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117) for the C-terminus of the F2 protein and exhibit high ICPI and MDT of chicken embryos, suggesting that they were all classified as velogenic type of NDVs. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates showed that they belong to subgenotype VIId that have been implicated in the recent outbreaks in northwestern China. The percentage of amino acid sequence identity of F protein between recent Shaanxi stains and five vaccine strains was in the range of 81.9 %-88.1 %, while the percentage of amino acid sequence identity of HN protein between recent Shaanxi strains and vaccine strains was in the range of 87.4 %-91.2 %. Furthermore, a number
Gao, Zilong; Lv, Juan; Wang, Min
Abstract Some controversies still exist between the detection of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)'s DNA and risks of periodontal diseases. Hence, a comprehensive meta-analysis on all available literatures was performed to clarify the relationship between EBV and preidontitis. A comprehensive search was conducted within the PUBMED, EMBASE, and WANFANG databases up to October 10th, 2016 according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and finally 21 case–control literatures were obtained. The outcomes including odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Publication bias was determined by Begg or Egger test. Sensitivity analysis was used to investigate reliability and stability of the results. According to the data from included trials, the association between overall increased risks of periodontitis and the detection of EBV was significant (OR = 6.199, 95% CI = 3.119–12.319, P periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis were 6.586 (95% CI = 3.042–14.262, P periodontitis in Asians, Europeans, and Americans (P periodontal pockets were easier than in ≤3-mm sites (P = 0.023). This meta-analysis indicates that high frequent detection of EBV correlates with increased risk of periodontal diseases. SgP and tissue are available for detecting EBV in patients of periodontitis. At last, our results suggest that detecting EBV of samples in =5 (6) mm sites of periodontal pockets are more sensitive than in ≤3-mm sites. PMID:28178139
Yin; Weili; Zhang; Sihua; Yue; Zhiqin; Zheng; Xiaolong; Liu; Hong
The aim is to develop a liquid chip technique to detect Taura syndrome virus( TSV) and yellow head disease virus( YHDV) on Penaeus orientalis simultaneously. The CP2 gene of TSV and N gene of YHDV in Gen Bank was analysed by using the software DNAStar 7. 0 to design the TSV-and YHDV-specific primers. The primers were labeled with biotin and subjected to amination modification. They were then coupled with fluorescence-coded microspheres and then used for hybridization with RT- PCR products of TSV and YHDV. The liquid chip detection technique for detection of TSV and YHDV was established by using BD FACSArray to detect fluorescence signal in the reaction system. This assay system had a high sensitivity to TSV and YHDV,with the detection of limit of 100 pg. Moreover,the assay was specific for the detection of TSV,YHDV and was not susceptible to cross with other viruses,including white spot syndrome virus( WSSV),spring viremia of carp virus( SVCV),infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus( IHNV). In conclusion,the liquid chip assay technique established in this study is highly sensitive and specific to TSV and YHDV detection. Moreover,it provides a novel,convenient and rapid approach for the detection of TSV and YHDV.
DeBuysscher, Blair L; Scott, Dana; Thomas, Tina; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph
Nipah virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease in humans and animals. Due to almost yearly outbreaks in Bangladesh, and a large outbreak in Malaysia that lead to the shutdown of swine export, Nipah virus is both a threat to public health and the economy. Infection is associated with respiratory distress, encephalitis and human-to-human transmission, resulting in high case fatality rates during outbreaks. This study aims to address the amount of time needed until protection from a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine candidate expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein (G), which we have previously shown to protect hamsters and non-human primates when administered 28 days before challenge. We found that a single-dose vaccination, when administered 1 day before challenge, reduced viral load, limited pathology and fully protected hamsters from Nipah virus infection. The vaccine was even partially protective when administered at early time points following challenge with Nipah virus. These data indicate that a single administration of this vaccine to high-risk individuals, such as family members and health-care workers of infected patients, could be protective and useful for reducing human-to-human transmission and curbing an outbreak.
Gowans, E J; McNulty, M S
Hitherto undescribed tubular and crystalline structures were detected by negative contrast electron microscopy in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. It is suggested that these are viral in origin and are composed of aggregates of viral glycoprotein.
Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...
Each year millions of chickens die from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) worldwide, leading to economic and food losses. Current vaccination campaigns have limitations including cost, administration, and thermostability. These problems are heightened in the developing world where constraints are more...
Venkata Suresh Bonthala
Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc. is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and gene modules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has no microarray chip coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01 under the sub-optimal (23°C and very sub-optimal (18°C temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC, WRKY, WHIRLY & GATA classes that may regulate the downstream genes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified gene modules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus and was first identified in 1989 as a cause for transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. Transmission of HCV occurs predominantly via blood-to-blood contact. After acute infection about 75% of those infected progress to a persistent infect
Bárcena, J; Morales, M; Vázquez, B; Boga, J A; Parra, F; Lucientes, J; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Blasco, R; Torres, J M
We have developed a new strategy for immunization of wild rabbit populations against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) that uses recombinant viruses based on a naturally attenuated field strain of myxoma virus (MV). The recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV major capsid protein (VP60) including a linear epitope tag from the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleoprotein. Following inoculation, the recombinant viruses induced specific antibody responses against MV, RHDV, and the TGEV tag. Immunization of wild rabbits by the subcutaneous and oral routes conferred protection against virulent RHDV and MV challenges. The recombinant viruses showed a limited horizontal transmission capacity, either by direct contact or in a flea-mediated process, promoting immunization of contact uninoculated animals.
Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel; Lundgren, Jens
Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined.......Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined....
Nivia Gontán Quintana; Alain Soto Ugalde; Elena Idaisy Otero Salabarría
Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was c...
Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry worldwide caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). New genotypes and sub-genotypes of NDV frequently emerge. In the past few years, NDV strains belonging to sub-genotype VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asi...
Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by an immunosupperessive alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include bursal/thymic atrophy and neurological disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the largest lymphoid aggregates of avia...
Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal/th...
Kucharski, Adam J; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John
Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease.
Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Hinkelmann, Sarah; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika
To characterize the importance of infection of epithelial cells for morbillivirus pathogenesis, we took advantage of the severe disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) in ferrets. To obtain a CDV that was unable to enter epithelial cells but retained the ability to enter immune cells, we transferred to its attachment (H) protein two mutations shown to interfere with the interaction of measles virus H with its epithelial receptor, human nectin-4. As expected for an epithelial receptor (EpR)-blind CDV, this virus infected dog and ferret epithelial cells inefficiently and did not cause cell fusion or syncytium formation. On the other hand, the EpR-blind CDV replicated in cells expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), the morbillivirus immune cell receptor, with similar kinetics to those of wild-type CDV. While ferrets infected with wild-type CDV died within 12 days after infection, after developing severe rash and fever, animals infected with the EpR-blind virus showed no clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, both viruses spread rapidly and efficiently in immune cells, causing similar levels of leukopenia and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation activity, two indicators of morbillivirus immunosuppression. Infection was documented for airway epithelia of ferrets infected with wild-type CDV but not for those of animals infected with the EpR-blind virus, and only animals infected with wild-type CDV shed virus. Thus, epithelial cell infection is necessary for clinical disease and efficient virus shedding but not for immunosuppression.
Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A
The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the
Ivanics, E; Palya, V; Glavits, R; Dan, A; Palfi, V; Revesz, T; Benko, M
An outbreak of severe acute respiratory disease characterized by tracheitis and bronchitis was observed in young goslings on a large-scale goose farm in Hungary. Histological examination revealed amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the superficial epithelial cells of the trachea and bronchi. Adenovirus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy, and the virus isolated from the trachea and the lungs was identified as egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus by serological and genomic examination. The clinical and pathological signs were reproduced by intratracheal administration of the virus isolate to 1-day-old goslings free of EDS antibodies. The presence of EDS virus DNA in different organs of the naturally and experimentally infected goslings was detected by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report on the involvement of EDS virus in severe respiratory disease of geese.
Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Fagbo, Shamsudeen
The 2013-2015 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa had similar nuances with the 1976 outbreaks in Central Africa; both were caused by the Zaire Ebola Virus strain and originated from rural forested communities. The definitive reservoir host of Ebola virus still remains unknown till date. However, from ecological perspective, it is known that the virus first emerged from forest ecotypes interfacing with human activities. As at March 2015, the outbreak has claimed over 9000 lives, which is unprecedented. Though it remains unproved, the primary sources of infection for past and present outbreaks are forest dwelling, human-hunted fauna. Understanding the ecological factors at play in these forest ecotypes where wild fauna interface with human and causing pathogen spill over is important. A broad based One Health approach incorporating these ecological concepts in the control of Ebola Virus Disease can effectively ameliorate or forestall infection now and in the future.
Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P
This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa.
Molini, Umberto; Aikukutu, Gottlieb; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Cattoli, Giovanni; Dundon, William G
The complete sequences of the fusion (F) protein genes of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from backyard poultry in Namibia in 2016 have been determined. The F gene cleavage site motif for all of the isolates was (112)RRQKRF(117), indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses belong to a novel subgenotype, VIIk. This is the first genetic characterization of NDV isolates from Namibia, and the findings have important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in the region.
Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Bøtner, Anette
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases of farm animals (estimated annual costs are about US$10 billion globally). The virus is the prototypic Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae and has a positive sense RNA genome (ca. 8.3kb......) encoding a single large polyprotein that is processed to generate about 15 mature proteins plus precursors. The virus particle comprises 60 copies of 4 separate capsid proteins (VP1-VP4) plus a single copy of the genome. By modifying full length cDNAs, producing RNA transcripts in vitro, and introducing...
Salih AI Sabiel
Full Text Available Twelve genotypes of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. were executed under rain-fed conditions in a semi-arid zone at the Research farm of El Fasher Research Station, Sudan for two consecutive seasons 2006 and 2007. Genotypic and phenotypic variability, heritability in a broad sense and genetic advance were estimated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. High heritability estimate (above 95 % was recorded by hay yield (kg/ha in both seasons and 100- seed weight in season 2006. Moreover, the high genetic advance was recorded for hay yield (kg/ha and pod yield (kg/ha in both seasons. However, a day to 50% flowering was expressed low genotypic coefficient of variation with low genetic advances in both seasons. Highly significant different among genotypes were found for days to 50% flowering, hay yield (kg/ha, shelling (%, while pod yield (kg/ha and 100- seed weight were observed non-significant. The high yielding genotype was ICGV93260 with a pod yield of 1389.1 kg/ha. Pod yield (kg/ha was highly significantly and positively correlated with hay yield (kg/ha, shelling (% and 100- seed weight, while non-significant and negative correlated with days to 50% flowering. Based on the results the characters hay yield (kg/ha, shelling (%, 100- seed weight and days to 50% flowering to be the important characters which would be used in selection for groundnut improvement. The promising genotype identified in this study could provide valuable sources of resistance to climate-change-related stresses and for other consequent breeding activities in groundnut improvement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11060 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 16-23
Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted on peanut Arachis hypogaea L. during 2007 growing season to determine their growth characteristics due to mycorrhizal inoculation and two different levels of soluble phosphorous application. Due to inoculation by AM fungi the growth parameters such as leaf number, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, pod number and nodule number were significantly increased but two different level of phosphate also showed growth. However, growth parameters showed variable results when two different level of phosphate was applied along with AM fungi. Without phosphorous the mycorrhizal groundnut showed significant growth but when first low level of phosphorous was applied it showed more significant growth, however most significant result was observed with second high level of phosphorous application to the groundnut plant. Total chlorophyll content and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity was also significantly higher but most significant were observed when first level of phosphorous was applied followed by second level of phosphorous. The percent root colonization by mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum was higher due to application of phosphorous but mycorrhizal dependency went on decreasing due to increase in the level of phosphorous. The different level of phosphorous had significant effect on growth and physiological parameters of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Arachis plants after 30, 60 and 90 days of growth period. However, the obtained results proved the improvement in plant growth with application of phosphorous. Thus, for increase in production of groundnut in the state of Maharashtra seems to be feasible option for increasing the overall production and yield.
Olatunde A Oyelaran
Full Text Available Current energy shortage and environmental issues resulting from the use of fossil fuels have lead to exploitation of renewable energy resources that includes municipal waste and agricultural residues. These residues are available, indigenous and are environmental friendly but some can not be used directly in combustion process due high moisture content and low volumetric energy unless by briquetting. The study was undertaken to assess the combustion characteristic of binderless briquettes produced from waste paper and groundnut shell. Combustion characteristics investigated were ignition time, burning time, calorific values, burning rate, specific fuel consumption, fuel efficiency and water boiling time. The calorific values of the briquettes ranged from 19.51 - 19.92 MJ/kg, while the thermal efficiency ranges between 13.75 – 21.64%, other results shows that the average burning rate between 0.511 and 1.133 kg/hr and the specific fuel consumption ranges between 0.087 and 0.131 J/g. The recorded boiling time values were between 17.5 and 30.0 minutes for cold start and 15.0 and 20.0 minutes for hot start. The results shows that waste paper and groundnut shell up to 25% in composition composite briquettes were found to have good combustion characteristics which qualify them as alternative to firewood for domestic and industrial energy. However, production of briquettes from waste paper and groundnut shell at mixing ratio of 85:15 was found to comparatively better from all experiment conducted.
When Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7) was injected intravenously into 10-day old chicken embryos, a disease syndrome developed which was characterized by stunting, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperinsulinemia. Stocks of RAV-7, a subgroup C avian leukosis virus, were obtained by end-point purification on chick embryo fibroblast cells. The size of the viral RNA was 8.2 kb and the protein banding pattern on polyacrylamide gels was typical of avian leukosis viruses. These results indicated that RAV-7 was a non-defective avian leukosis virus and no sarcoma or defective leukemia viruses were present in the RAV-7 stock. RAV-7 induced a unique disease syndrome although infection by three other subgroup C avian leukosis viruses (tdB77, tdPrC, and RAV-49) resulted in an identical lymphoblastoid infiltration of the thyroid and pancreas. An examination of disease induced by avian leukosis viruses from subgroups A, B, D, and F showed that infection by any of these subgroups did not result in the typical RAV-7 disease syndrome.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Newcastle disease (ND is a major infectious disease of the poultry caused by a virulent strain of Avian Paramyxovirus - 1, that is a single strand non-segmented negative sense RNA virus. ND virus is major threat to the poultry industry in many countries of the world. The study was aimed to isolate and identify Newcastle disease virus (NDV by using a haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. A total 100 samples of infected and dead birds were collected from different poultry farms. The weight of the birds was ranged 1000-1200g. The birds were divided into 3 groups. Haemagglutination assay (HA was performed to detect the presence of NDV in suspension of infected homogenized tissues and it was found that HA is not the best method to detect the virus when it is in trace amounts. RT-PCR using NDV specific primers analyzed different clinical and postmortem samples. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and specific primers was used for determining the presence of viruses. It was found that the virus was present in most of the infected samples except the serum of infected birds. During multiple sequence alignment (MSA it was found that, our isolates have high homology (98% with other reported NDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that our isolate was closely related with viscerotropic velogenic types of NDV, which are highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus.
Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Shepherd, Eric; Cha, Ra Mi; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide and produce co-infections especially in areas of the world where both viruses are endemic; but little is known about the interactions between these two viruses. The objective of this study was to determine if co-infection with NDV affects HPAIV replication in chickens. Only infections with virulent NDV strains (mesogenic Pigeon/1984 or velogenic CA/2002), and not a lentogenic NDV strain (LaSota), interfered with the replication of HPAIV A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) when the H5N2 was given at a high dose (10(6.9) EID50) two days after the NDV inoculation, but despite this interference, mortality was still observed. However, chickens infected with the less virulent mesogenic NDV Pigeon/1984 strain three days prior to being infected with a lower dose (10(5.3-5.5) EID50) of the same or a different HPAIV, A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA-12283-12/2012 (H7N3), had reduced HPAIV replication and increased survival rates. In conclusion, previous infection of chickens with virulent NDV strains can reduce HPAIV replication, and consequently disease and mortality. This interference depends on the titer of the viruses used, the virulence of the NDV, and the timing of the infections. The information obtained from these studies helps to understand the possible interactions and outcomes of infection (disease and virus shedding) when HPAIV and NDV co-infect chickens in the field.
Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole L; Killian, Mary Lea; Predgen, Ann S; Schmitt, Beverly J
Vials of Newcastle disease vaccine labeled as LaSota were confiscated by the Arizona Division of Customs and Border Protection officials. Two different avian type 1 paramyxoviruses were isolated from all three vials of vaccine submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The LaSota strain of avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from all three vials and analyzed by nucleotide sequence analysis. A virulent Newcastle disease virus was also present in all three vials, but in low concentration. The virulence of the Newcastle disease virus was characterized by the intracerebral chicken pathogenicity index chicken inoculation assay but could not be determined by nucleotide sequence analysis from the virus isolated from embryonating chicken eggs. The intracerebral chicken pathogenicity index value for the isolated Newcastle disease virus was 1.55. Strains of Newcastle disease virus with intracerebral pathogenicity indexes significantly above 1.0 have been found to selectively kill many types of cancer cells while not affecting normal nonneoplastic cells and are considered to be a viable option for cancer treatment in humans by alternative medical researchers; however, the treatment is not approved for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration. Customs and Border Protection officials have been notified of an increased risk of Newcastle disease virus entering the United States for use as a nonapproved cancer treatment. Illegal importation of Newcastle disease vaccine for vaccination of backyard poultry is also a threat. This case report emphasizes the importance of conducting chicken inoculation for complete virus pathotyping and demonstrates the need for stringent security procedures at U.S. borders to detect known livestock pathogens that may be smuggled in for use in animal agriculture and reasons unrelated to animal agriculture.
Muhammad Usman Malik; Humayun Javed; Mahmood Ayyaz
Six groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) cultivars i.e. Golden, BARI-2000, Australian, BARD-479, ICG-7326 and 2KCGC20 were evaluated against the attack of Odontotermes obesus in terms of percentage infestation of workers and soldiers, their damage and impact on the yield. The maximum mean populations of O. obesus workers were recorded on 2KCGC20 (30.82±2.75 workers/plot) and Australian (30.65±2.92 workers/plot), followed by BARI 2000 (19.55±2.51 workers/plot), Golden (17.30±2.27 workers/plot) and B...
The influence of endogenous subgroup E avian Leukosis virus (ALV-E) and strain SB-1 of serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus (MDV) on the enhancement of spontaneous lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like tumors was studied in chickens of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line named 0.TVB*S1, or RFS. This...
Chickens of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6, known to develop spontaneous avian leukosis virus (ALV)-like lymphomas at two years of age or older, were inoculated either in-ovo, or at 1 day of age with strain SB-1 of serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Inoculated and uninoc...
LI Ying; TIEN Po
Membrane fusion is a key step in enveloped virus entry. Highly conserved heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein (F) are critical functional domains for viral membrane fusion. They display different conformations in the membrane fusion states and are viewed as candidate targets for neutralizing antibody responses. We previously reported that an analog of heptad repeat peptides HR2-HR1-HR2(HR212) and HR2 could inhibit NDV induced cell-cell membrane fusion. Here, we show that HR212 can induce the production of highly potent antibody in immunized rabbits, which could recognize full length peptides of both HR1 and HR2, and inhibit NDV hemagglutination and NDV entry. These suggest that either HR212 or its antibody could be an inhibitor of virus-induced cell-cell membrane fusion.
Thammakarn, Chanathip; Satoh, Keisuke; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki
Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process - the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) - was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. CaO-Nano solution seems to be a good candidate of materials for enhancement of biosecurity in farms.
Reaves, Erik J; Mabande, Lyndon G; Thoroughman, Douglas A; Arwady, M Allison; Montgomery, Joel M
On March 30, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia alerted health officials at Firestone Liberia, Inc. (Firestone) of the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) inside the Firestone rubber tree plantation of Liberia. The patient, who was the wife of a Firestone employee, had cared for a family member with confirmed Ebola in Lofa County, the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak in Liberia during March-April 2014. To prevent a large outbreak among Firestone's 8,500 employees, their dependents, and the surrounding population, the company responded by 1) establishing an incident management system, 2) instituting procedures for the early recognition and isolation of Ebola patients, 3) enforcing adherence to standard Ebola infection control guidelines, and 4) providing differing levels of management for contacts depending on their exposure, including options for voluntary quarantine in the home or in dedicated facilities. In addition, Firestone created multidisciplinary teams to oversee the outbreak response, address case detection, manage cases in a dedicated unit, and reintegrate convalescent patients into the community. The company also created a robust risk communication, prevention, and social mobilization campaign to boost community awareness of Ebola and how to prevent transmission. During August 1-September 23, a period of intense Ebola transmission in the surrounding areas, 71 cases of Ebola were diagnosed among the approximately 80,000 Liberians for whom Firestone provides health care (cumulative incidence = 0.09%). Fifty-seven (80%) of the cases were laboratory confirmed; 39 (68%) of these cases were fatal. Aspects of Firestone's response appear to have minimized the spread of Ebola in the local population and might be successfully implemented elsewhere to limit the spread of Ebola and prevent transmission to health care workers (HCWs).
Higgins, Colleen M; Bejerman, Nicolas; Li, Ming; James, Anthony P; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Pearson, Michael N; Revill, Peter A; Harding, Robert M
We report the first genome sequence of a Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV) derived from bobone-affected taro [Colocasia esculenta L. Schott] from Solomon Islands. The negative-strand RNA genome is 12,193 nt long, with six major open reading frames (ORFs) with the arrangement 3'-N-P-P3-M-G-L-5'. Typical of all rhabdoviruses, the 3' leader and 5' trailer sequences show complementarity to each other. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CBDaV is a member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, supporting previous reports of virus particles within the cytoplasm of bobone-infected taro cells. The availability of the CBDaV genome sequence now makes it possible to assess the role of this virus in bobone, and possibly alomae disease of taro and confirm that this sequence is that of Colocasia bobone disease virus (CBDV).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.
Bebell, Lisa M; Riley, Laura E
The largest-ever recorded outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever is ongoing. As a result of the epidemic and rural nature of outbreaks, little is published about the Filovirus infections Ebola virus disease and Marburg disease in pregnancy. This review of viral hemorrhagic fever focusing on Marburg and Ebola uses knowledge of disease in nonpregnant individuals and pregnancy-specific data to inform management for pregnant women. Filovirus infection presentation is similar between pregnant and nonpregnant patients, although infections may be more severe in pregnancy. Although labeled as hemorrhagic fevers, Marburg and Ebola do not commonly cause gross bleeding and should be conceptualized as diseases of high gastrointestinal losses. Early, aggressive supportive care is the mainstay of Filovirus infection management with massive fluid resuscitation as the key management principle. Patients often require 5-10 L or more per day of intravenous or oral fluid to maintain circulating blood volume in the setting of ongoing gastrointestinal loss. Fluid shifts warrant aggressive monitoring and correction of potassium levels and acid-base disturbances to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias and metabolic complications. Regardless of maternal survival, fetal loss rates are nearly 100% in Filovirus infection, likely resulting from unchecked transplacental and hematogenous viral spread. High fetal loss rates support the placenta as a difficult-to-eradicate Filovirus infection reservoir. In conclusion, the management of Filovirus infection in pregnancy should focus on stabilizing the mother with intensive monitoring and aggressive fluid and electrolyte repletion as well as maintaining strict infection control to minimize transmission to others.
Full Text Available Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus (′Dengue-like syndrome′. The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.
Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy
Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.
Gupta, H L; Khare, S; Biswas, A; Chattopadhya, D; Kumari, S
Coxsackie B group of viruses have been long considered as the precipitating factor in heart diseases. Their association with various heart diseases especially pericarditis, myocarditis and myopericarditis is known, but now their association is also known with cardiomyopathy and ischaemic heart diseases. A study was carried out on 87 patients suffering from various heart diseases and the role of Coxackie B virus infection was studied. The study included 25 control subjects. Thirty patients (34.5%) were found to be having high antibody titre for at least one of coxsackie B virus group with coxsackie B3 and B4 being the two commonest types. Serum IgM immunoglobulins were raised in acute infective disorders like pericarditis, myocarditis and myopericarditis but IgG, IgA and IgM levels were normal in ischaemic heart diseases and cardiomyopathy.
P.R.A. Buijs (Pascal)
markdownabstractAbstract In this thesis, experiments are presented that were undertaken to develop oncolytic NDV for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Oncolytic viruses (OVs), reported first halfway the previous century, have undergone a tremendous evolution from anecdotal experimental an
Full Text Available In this study, 34 apricot orchards in south-eastern Spain planted with the Spanish cultivar ‘Búlida’ and showing “viruela” symptoms were studied for 2 years. Leaf and fruit samples from four trees in each orchard, either with or without “viruela” symptoms, were collected and analysed by multiplex RT-PCR for the detection of American plum line pattern virus (APLPV, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Apricot latent virus (ApLV, Plum bark necrosis and stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV, Plum pox virus (PPV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV, and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV. In addition, molecular hybridization assays were performed for the detection of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd. All fruits showing “viruela” symptoms were infected with ACLSV and HSVd, suggesting that these pathogens may be responsible for “viruela” disease. Other viruses including PNRSV, PBNSPaV, ApLV, PDV, ApMV and PPV, were detected to a lesser degree. Detection of ACLSV and HSVd in samples without symptoms could be explained by the influence of environmental conditions and/or the physiological stage of fruits on the expression of symptoms.
Kukla, Urszula; Chronowska, Justyna; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Okopień, Bogusław
Despite the unceasing progression in chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, neoplasms are still the second, after cardiovascular diseases, cause of death in the world. The creation of oncolytic viruses gives hope for increase of anticancer therapy effectiveness. Oncolytic viruses are the type of viruses that selectively infect and cause the lyse of tumor cells excluding normal cells. This mechanism allows to avoid the consequences of the possible replication of the virus, which having entered to the organism, replicates in organism's cells by using the DNA of host cells. The development of genetic engineering and molecular biology has enabled the creation of this kind of genetically modified viruses, which deprive them of their virulence. Currently, there are many clinical trials in progress including the use of oncolytic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, melanoma and glioblastoma multiforme treatment. There are parallel studies in animals using the subsequent viruses. Oncolytic viruses treatment is generally well tolerated, without significant side effects. It is worth to point out that this method combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy allows to reduce the use of therapeutic doses, which significantly reduces the toxicity of conventional treatment. Further clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of oncolytic viruses will develop more effective and better tolerated therapeutic protocols in the future.
Barrett, P Noel; Terpening, Sara J; Snow, Doris; Cobb, Ronald R; Kistner, Otfried
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses. The utility of this platform in rapidly developing inactivated whole virus vaccines against pandemic (-like) influenza viruses and other emerging viruses such as West Nile, Chikungunya, Ross River and SARS is reviewed. The potential of the platform for development of vaccines against other emerging viruses such as Zika virus is described. Expert commentary: Use of this platform can substantially accelerate process development and facilitate licensure because of the substantial existing data set available for the cell matrix. However, programs to provide vaccines against emerging diseases must allow alternative clinical development paths to licensure, without the requirement to carry out large scale field efficacy studies.
Goodman, Alyson B; Dziuban, Eric J; Powell, Krista; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Langley, Gayle; Lindsey, Nicole; Franks, Jessica L; Russell, Kate; Dasgupta, Sharoda; Barfield, Wanda D; Odom, Erika; Kahn, Emily; Martin, Stacey; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that typically causes an asymptomatic infection or mild illness, although infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities. Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurologic complications can occur in adults after Zika virus infection. However, there are few published reports describing postnatally acquired Zika virus disease among children. During January 2015-July 2016, a total of 158 cases of confirmed or probable postnatally acquired Zika virus disease among children aged Zika virus disease in children who have an epidemiologic risk factor and clinically compatible illness, and should report cases to their state or local health department.
Basagoudanavar, S H; Hosamani, M; Tamil, R P; Sreenivasa, B P; Chandrasekhar, B K; Venkataramanan, R
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. Development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. There is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (VLPs), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. The VLPs are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. The objective of the present study was to express the VLPs of FMD virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1 (IND 63/72), using baculovirus system and characterize them for antigenic structure. The VLPs expressed in insect cells showed immunoreactivity similar to inactivated cell culture FMDV. Further they possess similar sensitivity to trypsin as the inactivated cell culture FMDV, suggesting that trypsin-sensitive antigenic sites could be similarly arranged. Our findings suggest that the FMD VLPs have similar antigenic conformational feature like the wild type virus, thus supporting their utility in development of non-infectious FMD vaccines and/or diagnostic assays.
Ragland, William L; Novak, Renata; El-Attrache, John; Savić, Vladimir; Ester, Katja
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) are the two most important viruses that cause immunosuppression in commercial chickens. Because inapparent, subclinical infections by these viruses cause immunosuppression, there is need for assessment of the immune status of chickens. Interference with induction of transcription for chicken interferon-alpha (ChIFN-alpha) and ChIFN-gamma was noted after subclinical infections with either CAV or IBDV. Because the immunosuppressive viruses of chickens may interfere with transcription for ChIFN-alpha and ChIFN-gamma, we propose using this interference to assess the immune status of chickens.
Walker, William L; Lindsey, Nicole P; Lehman, Jennifer A; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Rabe, Ingrid B; Hills, Susan L; Martin, Stacey W; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections have also been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-5). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic (1,6). Clinical illness, when it occurs, is generally mild and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis. However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause adverse outcomes such as fetal loss, and microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies (1-3). Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare autoimmune condition affecting the peripheral nervous system, also has been associated with Zika virus infection (1). Following the identification of local transmission of Zika virus in Brazil in May 2015, the virus has continued to spread throughout the Region of the Americas, and travel-associated cases have increased (7). In 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (8). As of September 3, 2016, a total of 2,382 confirmed and probable cases of Zika virus disease with symptom onset during January 1-July 31, 2016, had been reported from 48 of 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Most cases (2,354; 99%) were travel-associated, with either direct travel or an epidemiologic link to a traveler to a Zika virus-affected area. Twenty-eight (1%) cases were reported as locally acquired, including 26 associated with mosquito-borne transmission, one acquired in a laboratory, and one with an unknown mode of transmission. Zika virus disease should be considered in patients with compatible clinical signs or symptoms who traveled to or reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission or who had unprotected sex with someone who traveled to those areas. Health
Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar la evidencia disponible que relaciona la infección por virus con el desarrollo de periodontitis. Esta relación se ha visto con los virus de la familia herpes, sobretodo el citomegalovirus humano (CMV y el virus Epstein-Barr (VEB, así como con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV. Las infecciones por herpesvirus generalmente sucede en dos fases, durante la primoinfección la clínica suele ser leve o asintomática y a esta le sigue una fase asintomática en la que el virus se encuentra en estado de latencia. Dicho estado se verá interrumpido esporádicamente por periodos de activación en los que se produce una replicación viral y posiblemente se dé una manifestación de la enfermedad que explicaría, en parte, el progreso en episodios de la enfermedad periodontal. De hecho, algunas de las causas que llevan a la reactivación del virus también se consideran factores de riesgo de la enfermedad periodontal y podrían relacionar a ambas patologías.The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting the hypothesis that viral infection plays a role in the development of periodontitis. This relationship has been found mainly with the herpesvirus family, especially with human cytomegalovirus (CMV and with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, but also with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The herpesvirus infection generally involves a mild or asymptomatic primary phase followed by an asymptomatic latent phase interrupted sporadically by periods of activation, where viral replication and possibly clinical disease become manifest and which will in part, explain the episodic progressive nature of human periodontitis. In fact, herpesvirus reactivation is triggered by a number of immunosuppressing factors, some of which have also been shown to be risk indicators of periodontal disease and which could relate both patologies.
Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini
The continued spread and occurrence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has posed potential threat to domestic poultry industry around the globe. Mainly, wild avian species has always been implicated for the natural reservoir for virus and spread of the disease. In the present study, we report the isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV/Peacock/India/2012) in necropsy brain tissue sample of wild peacock from North India. Complete genome of the virus was found to be 15,186 nucleotides (nts) with six genes in order of 3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5', which was limited by 55-nts leader region at the 3' end and a 114-nts trailer sequence at 5' end. Sequence analysis of fusion protein revealed the dibasic amino acid cleavage site (112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117), a characteristic motif of virulent virus. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II of Newcastle disease virus showing the lowest mean percent divergence (6 %) with other genotype II counterparts. The isolate was characterized as mesogenic (intermediate pathotype) based on the mean death time (63 h) in embryonated chicken eggs and the intra-cerebral pathogenicity index (1.40) in day-old chicks. The report emphasizes the dynamic ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host during the outbreak of 2012 in North India. Further the genotypic and pathotypical characterizations of the isolate could help in development of homologous vaccine against NDV strain circulating in avian population.
Aliyu, Siise; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean
The potential for underutilized crops (also known as minor, neglected or orphan crops) to improve food and nutrition security has been gaining prominence within the research community in recent years. This is due to their significance for diversified agricultural systems which is a necessary component of future agriculture to address food and nutritional security concerns posed by changing climate and a growing world population. Developing workable value chain systems for underutilized crop species, coupled with comparative trait studies with major crops, potentially allows us to identify suitable agricultural modalities for such species. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.), an underutilized leguminous species, is of interest for its reported high levels of drought tolerance in particular, which contributes to environmental resilience in semi-arid environments. Here, we present a synopsis of suitable strategies for the genetic improvement of Bambara groundnut as a guide to other underutilized crop species. Underutilized crops have often been adapted over thousands of years in particular regions by farmers and largely still exist as landraces with little or no genetic knowledge of key phenotypic traits. Breeding in these species is fundamentally different to breeding in major crops, where significant pedigree structures and history allow highly directed improvement. In this regard, deploying new integrated germplasm development approaches for variety development and genetic analysis, such as multi-parent advance generation inter-crosses (MAGIC), within breeding programmes of underutilized species will be important to be able to fully utilize such crops.
Full Text Available Deep fried snacks, which evolved as snacks between meals include bhajia, samosa, etc are very popular in India and commercially exploited on a wide scale.Cottonseed and Groundnut oil frequently used in Gujarat for cooking purpose studied for its intermittent frying stability. Indian fried snack popularly known as ‘Bhajia’ fried for 5 min at an interval of 1 h; 5 times a day for 5 consecutive days and studied for its various sensory attributes using 9-point hedonic scale. Standard AOCS and AOAC methods were used to determine the quality of oil. Peroxide and p-anisidine values of both oils increased significantly p<0.001 during the 25 h of intermittent frying. Iodine value of cottonseed oil did not decrease throughout the intermittent frying period. Polar components increased 257.5% in cottonseed oil (CSO and 142.9% in groundnut oil (GNO.The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content increased significantly with the increase in frying hours.No significant change was seen in linoleic/palmitic acid ratio of both the oils during bhajias frying. The sensory qualities of bhajia fried at different intervals did not change significantly for various attributes namely flavor, taste, crispness, greasiness, odor, color, appearance and overall acceptability.
Muhammad Usman Malik
Full Text Available Six groundnut (Arachis hypogea L. cultivars i.e. Golden, BARI-2000, Australian, BARD-479, ICG-7326 and 2KCGC20 were evaluated against the attack of Odontotermes obesus in terms of percentage infestation of workers and soldiers, their damage and impact on the yield. The maximum mean populations of O. obesus workers were recorded on 2KCGC20 (30.82±2.75 workers/plot and Australian (30.65±2.92 workers/plot, followed by BARI 2000 (19.55±2.51 workers/plot, Golden (17.30±2.27 workers/plot and BARD-479 (16.82±2.06 workers/plot. The minimum mean population of O. obesus workers was found on ICG-7326 cultivars (14.85±1.81 workers/plot. The maximum mean population infestation of O. obesus soldiers was recorded on 2KCGC20 cultivar (4.88±0.25 soldiers/plot followed by Australian (4.15±.30, soldiers/per plot, BARD-479 (2.00±.17 soldiers/plot, ICG-7326 (1.70±.14 soldiers/plot, BARD 2000 (2.40±.25 soldiers/ plot. The minimum mean population of O. obesus soldiers was found on Gold (1.87±.17 soldiers/plot. Population of O. obesus workers was positively related with the damage and negatively related the yield in all the groundnut cultivars.
Full Text Available Groundnut and Melon husks (shell were collected from the market side in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State and milled into powder for proximate and anti-nutritional analysis. The results of proximate analysis showed that groundnut shell contained moisture content, ash content, crude fibre, lipid, crude protein, carbohydrate, oxalate, phytate, cyanogenic glycosides and trypsin inhibitor are 8.0%, 2.50%, 59.0%, 0.50%, 4.43%, 25.57%, 220mg/100g, 362.1mg/100g, 1.60mg/100g, and 25 TUI/mg respectively while melon shells contained 7.50%, 6.50%, 51.50%, 11.90%, 4.68%, 17.92%,132mg/100g, 62mg/100g,0.50 and 60 TUI/mg. These two agricultural wastes were found to have high nutritive values and low anti-nutritive values and can be used as an alternative source of animal feeds for herbivores and also solve a waste disposal problem and helping in turning waste into a wealth.
Full Text Available Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. In this work, MCC was prepared from the alpha cellulose content of groundnut husk, a renewable natural resource that has no industrial utilization yet. The effects of pulping methods (sodium hydroxide and multistage pulping and varying bleaching time on yield and amorphous properties of obtained alpha cellulose were examined. The prepared MCC (groundnut husk-MCC was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray powder diffractometer (X-RPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and compared with commercial-grade MCC. The results showed that complete pulping was achieved only by the use of the multistage pulping method and its yield was 15%. It was also found that the duration of bleaching affected the polymeric form of the processed alpha cellulose and hence, it is suggested that X-ray diffraction analysis should form an in-process check in the production of cellulose to ensure batch-to-batch consistency and performance. It was concluded that GH-MCC compared favourably with the commercial-grade MCC as well as conform to official specifications for MCC in the British Pharmacopoeia.
Tripura, Chaturvedula; Sashidhar, Burla; Podile, Appa Rao
Twenty-three bacterial isolates were screened for their mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability on Pikovskaya and National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate (NBRIP) agar. The majority of the isolates exhibited a strong ability to solubilize hydroxyapatite in both solid and liquid media. The solubilization in liquid medium corresponded with a decrease in the pH of the medium. Serratia marcescens GPS-5, known for its biocontrol of late leaf spot in groundnut, emerged as the best solubilizer. S. marcescens GPS-5 was subjected to ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, and a total of 1700 mutants, resulting after 45 minutes of exposure, were screened on buffered NBRIP medium for alterations in MPS ability compared with that of the wild type. Seven mutants with increased (increased-MPS mutants) and 6 mutants with decreased (decreased-MPS mutants) MPS ability were isolated. All seven increased-MPS mutants were efficient at solubilizing phosphate in both solid and liquid NBRIP medium. Among the increased-MPS mutants, EMS XVIII Sm-35 showed the maximum (40%) increase in the amount of phosphate released in liquid medium compared with wild-type S. marcescens GPS-5, therefore, it would be a useful microbial inoculant in groundnut cultivation. EMS III Sm W, a nonpigmented mutant, showed the lowest solubilization of phosphate among the 6 decreased-MPS mutants.
Zhao, L; Li, T; Song, B; Sun, F
In the spring 1986, an acute infectious disease occurred in Wuhan Second Producing Medical Manufactory, and the rabbit almost died. We tested the mortal symptom and confirmed rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) as same as Huang Yinyao report. Hubei Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute appear this RHD also. After we purified virus of above two source by low speed, high speed and sucrose density gradient centrifugation, they can react with antiserum of RHDV from Nanjing Agricultural University in agar gel immunodiffusion tests. These results proved that they belong to the same serotype. Data indicate RHDV have difference morphological superstructure, viral polypeptides and especially RHDV can't react with antiserum of standard Parvovirus of rabbit and so on, so we suggest RHDV is a new virus.
Asare, Emmanuel Kwasi; Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene
Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3) was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave R(2) values ranging from 52.8% (for the b-value) to 86.5% (for bulk density). The models developed suggested that the optimal process variables for the production of a puffed snack with an enhanced nutrition and spongy structure from a rice-cowpea-groundnut blend are low feed moisture of 14-20% and maximum additions of 20% cowpea and 10% groundnut. A lack-of-fit test showed no significance, indicating that the models adequately fitted the data.
Hui Hui Chai
Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc. is an underutilised legume crop, which has long been recognised as a protein-rich and drought-tolerant crop, used extensively in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL involved in agronomic and drought-related traits using an expression marker-based genetic map based on major crop resources developed in soybean. The gene expression markers (GEMs were generated at the (unmasked probe-pair level after cross-hybridisation of bambara groundnut leaf RNA to the Affymetrix Soybean Genome GeneChip. A total of 753 markers grouped at an LOD (Logarithm of odds of three, with 527 markers mapped into linkage groups. From this initial map, a spaced expression marker-based genetic map consisting of 13 linkage groups containing 218 GEMs, spanning 982.7 cM (centimorgan of the bambara groundnut genome, was developed. Of the QTL detected, 46% were detected in both control and drought treatment populations, suggesting that they are the result of intrinsic trait differences between the parental lines used to construct the cross, with 31% detected in only one of the conditions. The present GEM map in bambara groundnut provides one technically feasible route for the translation of information and resources from major and model plant species to underutilised and resource-poor crops.
Full Text Available This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile. This is due among others to the strong virus-induced type I interferon response. Other viral characteristics are lack of interaction with host cell DNA, lack of genetic recombination and independence of virus replication from cell proliferation. In this millennium, new recombinant strains of viruses are being produced with improved therapeutic properties. Clinical applications include single case observations, case series studies and Phase I to III studies.
Milton, I D; Vlasak, R; Nowotny, N; Rodak, L; Carter, M J
Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. Rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in which isolation was made. This supports the rapid spread of a new virus across Europe. The capsid protein sequences of these rabbit viruses differ markedly from those determined for feline calicivirus, but a hypothetical 3' open reading frame is relatively well conserved between the caliciviruses of these two different hosts and argues for a functional role.
Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Payet, Jérôme P; Thurber, Andrew R; Correa, Adrienne M S
Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling. Last, we outline how marine viruses are an integral part of the reef system and suggest that the influence of viruses on reef function is an essential component of these globally important environments.
Monies, R J; Paton, D J; Vilcek, S
An enteric disease characterised by diarrhoea and ill thrift affected 12 of a flock of 700 six- to 12-month-old ewe lambs in Cornwall between December 1996 and September 1997. The affected lambs were undersized, became thin and suffered an unremitting diarrhoea until they died. The illness lasted for three to 14 days, although, with hindsight, the owner considered that the lambs had been below average size before the enteric signs developed. The outbreak ceased only as a result of the dispersal sale of the flock as breeding ewes. The flock had been purchased from different sources, but 11 of the cases occurred in a group of 40 purchased from one source. Postmortem, the alimentary changes resembled mucosal disease in cattle, and immunostaining of histological sections of the affected tissues revealed pestiviral antigen. Non-cytopathic pestiviruses were isolated from the lesions of two of the affected lambs and from the blood of several clinically normal ewe lambs from the same group. All the pestivirus isolates were typed as Border disease virus.
Khattab, Mahmoud Aboelneen; Eslam, Mohammed; Alavian, Seyed Moayed
Hepatitis C virus infection is an emerging disease and a public health problem in the world. There are accumulating data regarding extra hepatic manifestation of HCV, such as rheumatologic manifestations, endocrine, hematologic, dermatologic, renal, neurologic, and systemic manifestations. The therapy of them needs more attention to some exacerbations of extra hepatic manifestation and in some situation it needs different approaches. In this review we tried to provide latest evidence for extra hepatic manifestation and management of them.
Kuppachi, Sarat; Kaur, Deepkamal; Holanda, Danniele G; Thomas, Christie P
BK virus (BKV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family that causes an interstitial nephritis in immunosuppressed patients. BKV nephropathy is now a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and early allograft failure following kidney transplantation. It is also known to cause renal disease with a progressive decline in kidney function in non-renal solid organ transplant (NRSOT) recipients, although the disease may not be recognized nor its impact appreciated in this patient population. In this report, we review the existing literature to highlight our current understanding of its incidence in NRSOT populations, the approaches to diagnosis and the potential treatment options.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms in FMDV-infected animals appear within 2 to 3 days of exposure. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses agai...
Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII throug...
Gatton Michelle L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of outbreaks is an important part of disease surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed for detecting outbreaks, few have been specifically assessed against diseases that have distinct seasonal incidence patterns, such as those caused by vector-borne pathogens. Methods We applied five previously reported outbreak detection algorithms to Ross River virus (RRV disease data (1991-2007 for the four local government areas (LGAs of Brisbane, Emerald, Redland and Townsville in Queensland, Australia. The methods used were the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS C1, C2 and C3 methods, negative binomial cusum (NBC, historical limits method (HLM, Poisson outbreak detection (POD method and the purely temporal SaTScan analysis. Seasonally-adjusted variants of the NBC and SaTScan methods were developed. Some of the algorithms were applied using a range of parameter values, resulting in 17 variants of the five algorithms. Results The 9,188 RRV disease notifications that occurred in the four selected regions over the study period showed marked seasonality, which adversely affected the performance of some of the outbreak detection algorithms. Most of the methods examined were able to detect the same major events. The exception was the seasonally-adjusted NBC methods that detected an excess of short signals. The NBC, POD and temporal SaTScan algorithms were the only methods that consistently had high true positive rates and low false positive and false negative rates across the four study areas. The timeliness of outbreak signals generated by each method was also compared but there was no consistency across outbreaks and LGAs. Conclusions This study has highlighted several issues associated with applying outbreak detection algorithms to seasonal disease data. In lieu of a true gold standard, a quantitative comparison is difficult and caution should be taken when interpreting the true positives, false positives
Goris, N.E.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Clercq, K.
Foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. To understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers a
The eight cases described herein represent the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in wild turkeys and the first identification of LPDV in North America. Systemic lymphoproliferative disease was presumably the cause of morbidity and mortality in five of the eight turk...
Ho, Hanley; Win, Mar-Kyaw; Leo, Yee-Sin
We evaluated performance of 5 case definitions for Zika virus disease surveillance in a human cohort during an outbreak in Singapore, August 26–September 5, 2016. Because laboratory tests are largely inaccessible, use of case definitions that include rash as a required clinical feature are useful in identifying this disease. PMID:28117032
Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...
Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Created: 8/19/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/19/2014.
The thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to control Newcastle disease (ND) for village flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. To explore the potential use of the thermostable NDV as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of the...
Newcastle disease (ND) is a continual problem for the poultry industry with synanthropic birds representing one of the possible reservoirs of infection. Outbreaks of ND are regularly confirmed among pigeons in different regions of the Russian Federation. The spread of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) a...
Inoue, Toru; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Leyuan
Pathogenic and attenuated strains of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), an enterovirus, have been characterized previously and, by using chimeric infectious cDNA clones, the key determinants of pathogenicity in pigs have been mapped to the coding region for 1D–2A. Within this region, residue 20...... and appearance of significant disease....
Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions...
Dieleman-van Zaayen, A.
1972-01-01During the 1960s, Dutch mushroom farmers suffered severe losses from an infectious disease. Three types of virus particles were associated with the disease: isometric particles 25 and 34 run in diameter and bacilliform particles 19 run wide and 50 nm long. Symptoms were highly variable.
Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie
Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden...
Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C
Information was sought on the temporal replication of Aleutian disease virus in 27 royal pastel mink. Groups of three were examined 8 to 126 days after they were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(3) 50% lethal doses of the Pullman strain. Much individual variation was noted in the onset of infection, occurrence of viremia, and extent of virus replication in the tissues. Thus, virus was detected in lymph nodes regional to the site of inoculation in only some mink during the first 14 days after inoculation. During this period, virus was often present as well in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen. First detected on day 10, viremia was present in all mink examined on day 28 but occurred irregularly thereafter, even when virus was widespread in the tissues. Except in five mink succumbing to the disease, the tissue distribution of virus after day 28 tended to be more limited, and the titers were generally lower than they had been earlier. Even though present in the lymph nodes and spleen, virus was often absent from the kidney, liver, and intestine after day 28. Specific antibody was detected on day 28 and was present in all mink thereafter, ostensibly without any adverse effect on virus replication. In most mink, the infection was considered subclinical, for it was usually not accompanied by a rise in serum gamma globulin or by morphologic evidence of the disease. The virologic findings in this study have a bearing on the relationship of subclinical infections to both horizontal and vertical transmission of the virus.
Ghosh, Raju; Palit, Paramita; Paul, Sujay; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Roy, Anirban
Yellow mosaic disease, caused by a whitefly transmitted New World Begomovirus, named Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV), is emerging as a serious biotic constraint for jute fibre production in Asia. For rapid and sensitive diagnosis of the Begomovirus associated with this disease, a non-radiolabelled diagnostic probe, developed against the DNA A component of the east Indian isolate of CoGMV, detected the presence of the virus in infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies following Southern hybridization and nucleic acid spot hybridization tests. Presence of the virus was also confirmed when polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using virus-specific primers on DNA templates isolated from infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies.
Chen, Xinxin; Yang, Jifei; Ji, Yanhong; Okoth, Edward; Liu, Bin; Li, Xiaoyang; Yin, Hong; Zhu, Qiyun
African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease that affects wild and domestic swine. The etiological agent of ASF is African swine fever virus (ASFV). Since the first case was described in Kenya in 1921, the disease has spread to many other countries. No commercial vaccines are available to prevent ASF. In this study, we generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing ASFV protein 72 (p72) by reverse genetics and evaluated its humoral and cellular immunogenicity in a mouse model. The recombinant virus, rNDV/p72, replicated well in embryonated chicken eggs and was safe to use in chicks and mice. The p72 gene in rNDV/p72 was stably maintained through ten passages. Mice immunized with rNDV/p72 developed high titers of ASFV p72 specific IgG antibody, and had higher levels of IgG1 than IgG2a. Immunization also elicited T-cell proliferation and secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4. Taken together, these results indicate that rNDV expressing ASFV p72 might be a potential vaccine candidate for preventing ASF.
Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.
Witter, R L
Tests confirmed that turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine protected chickens poorly against challenge with the highly virulent Md5 strain of Marek's disease (MD) virus, especially in chickens with homologous HVT antibodies. The naturally avirulent SB-1 vaccine virus was likewise poorly protective against challenge with the Md5 strain. Homologous antibodies reduced the protective efficacy of both vaccines, but SB-1 was not affected by HVT antibodies. In order to provide better protection against strains of MD virus poorly protected against by HVT, such as Md5, the Md11 strain of MD virus was attenuated by 75 cell culture passages and evaluated for protective efficacy. This vaccine virus, designated Mdl 1/75C, provided good protection against challenge with Md5 and most other highly virulent MD viruses tested, but was less efficacious against challenge with the JM/102W strain, a prototype MD virus protected against well by HVT and SB-1 vaccines. Furthermore, its efficacy was consistently lower in chicks with HVT antibody. Thus, although HVT, SB-1, and Md11/75C were all efficacious against certain MD viruses, none of these vaccines protected optimally against all MD challenge viruses in all chickens. A polyvalent vaccine composed of Md11/75C, HVT and SB-1 viruses protected chickens better against a battery of five highly virulent MD challenge viruses, including three strains poorly protected against by HVT, than any single vaccine and was not influenced by HVT antibody. These data suggest that vaccinal immunity may be partially viral strain specific.
Hercules Sakkas; Vangelis Economou; Chrissanthy Papadopoulou
Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymp...
Diana Sánchez; Rosana Pelayo; Luis Alberto Medina; Eduardo Vadillo; Rogelio Sánchez; Luis Núñez; Gabriela Cesarman-Maus; Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva
Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic s...
Botelho, Luciane Francisca Fernandes; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki
Necrolytic acral erythema is a rare skin disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection. We report a case of a 31-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus infection and decreased zinc serum level. Physical examination revealed scaly, lichenified plaques, well-demarcated with an erythematous peripheral rim located on the lower limbs. After blood transfusion and oral zinc supplementation the patient presented an improvement of lesions. PMID:27828642
A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...
Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most contagious animal viruses and has a devastating effect on livestock industries if an outbreaks occurs, especially in FMD-free countries. The virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type I interferons. Currently, a reported assay to measure FM...
Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.
Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272
Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk
Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains.
Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang
To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively (P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans.
Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang
AIM To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. RESULTS The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively (P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. CONCLUSION The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans. PMID:27895431
Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28, as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in
Fringe, Raul; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Ebersohn, Karen; Bisschop, Shahn; Abolnik, Celia; Venter, Estelle
Newcastle disease (ND) is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F) protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28), as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in Mozambique.
Stenfeldt, Carolina; Belsham, Graham; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten
experiments, investigating the host response to FMD infection in sheep and cattle. FMD infection in ruminants involves initial viral replication in pharyngeal epithelia, from where the virus spreads systemically via the lymphatic system. Characteristic vesicular lesions develop in the cornified stratified...
Hole, K; Ahmadpour, F; Krishnan, J; Stansfield, C; Copps, J; Nfon, C
In a laboratory, disinfectants used to inactivate pathogens on contaminated surfaces and to prevent spread of diseases often have adverse side effects on personnel and the environment. It is, therefore, essential to find safer, fast-acting and yet effective disinfectants. The objective of this study was to evaluate an accelerated hydrogen peroxide(®) (AHP(®) )-based disinfectant against high consequence foreign animal disease pathogens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), as well as Senecavirus A (SVA), which causes similar lesions as FMDV and SVDV. We tested varying dilutions and contact times of AHP against FMDV, SVDV and SVA by the standard US EPA and modified methods. AHP was effective against all three viruses, albeit at a higher concentration and double the manufacturer recommended contact time when testing wet films of SVDV. AHP is an effective disinfectant against FMDV, SVDV and SVA. AHP-based disinfectant can, therefore, be used in high containment laboratories working with FMDV, SVDV and related pathogens. © 2016 The Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Bingham, Andrea M; Cone, Marshall; Mock, Valerie; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Stanek, Danielle; Blackmore, Carina; Likos, Anna
In May 2015, Zika virus was reported to be circulating in Brazil. This was the first identified introduction of the virus in the Region of the Americas. Since that time, Zika virus has rapidly spread throughout the region. As of April 20, 2016, the Florida Department of Health Bureau of Public Health Laboratories (BPHL) has tested specimens from 913 persons who met state criteria for Zika virus testing. Among these 913 persons, 91 met confirmed or probable Zika virus disease case criteria and all cases were travel-associated (1). On the basis of previous small case studies reporting real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of Zika virus RNA in urine, saliva, and semen (2-6), the Florida Department of Health collected multiple specimen types from persons with suspected Zika virus disease. Test results were evaluated by specimen type and number of days after symptom onset to determine the most sensitive and efficient testing algorithm for acute Zika virus disease. Urine specimens were collected from 70 patients with suspected Zika virus disease from zero to 20 days after symptom onset. Of these, 65 (93%) tested positive for Zika virus RNA by RT-PCR. Results for 95% (52/55) of urine specimens collected from persons within 5 days of symptom onset tested positive by RT-PCR; only 56% (31/55) of serum specimens collected on the same date tested positive by RT-PCR. Results for 82% (9/11) of urine specimens collected >5 days after symptom onset tested positive by RT-PCR; none of the RT-PCR tests for serum specimens were positive. No cases had results that were exclusively positive by RT-PCR testing of saliva. BPHL testing results suggest urine might be the preferred specimen type to identify acute Zika virus disease.
Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry. The NDV LaSota strain, a naturally occurring low-virulence NDV strain, has been routinely used as a live vaccine throughout the world. This chapter describes the generation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain-based recombinant viruses expressing glycoprotein B (gB) or glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV as dual vaccines against ND and ILT using reverse genetics technology.
Ja Hye Kim
Full Text Available <B>Purpose:</B> The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD by using multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. <B>Methods:</B> RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. <B>Results:</B> Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811. However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease and coronary artery diameter. <B>Conclusion:</B> A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.
Lau, R Y; Nonoyama, M
MKT-1, a virus nonproducer lymphoblastoid cell line established from a Marek's disease tumor, was synchronized by double thymidine block to determine the sequence of events in the synthesis of cellular and latent marek's disease virus DNA. Cellular DNA synthesis was measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine, whereas viral DNA synthesis was determined by DNA-DNA reassociation kinetics. The results of these studies indicate that the resident Marek's disease viral DNA in MKT-1 cells replicates during the early S phase of the cell cycle, before the onset of active cellular DNA synthesis. This observation is similar to that seen in the replication of resident Epstein-Barr virus DNA in synchronized Raji cells.
Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim; Jedda Elhag
Two diseased red-headed lovebirds were presented for diagnosis to the Department of Avian Diseases and Diagnosis, Veterinary Research Institute, aged 37 days and 4 years. The symptoms were dyspnea, cyanosis of the comb, diarrhea, and fever. Postmortem lesions included pale liver and bloody enteritis. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from lungs, trachea, and intestines following inoculation in the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old fertile eggs; the NDV was identified by the means of HA&HI tes...
Latent parasitic infections can reactivate because of immunosuppression. We conducted a prospective observational study of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected immigrants who visited the Infectious Diseases Department of the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain, during June 2010–May 2011. Screening of the most prevalent tropical diseases (intestinal parasitosis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis) was performed according t...
Arwady, M. Allison; Bawo, Luke; Hunter, Jennifer C.; Massaquoi, Moses; Matanock, Almea; Dahn, Bernice; Ayscue, Patrick; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Forrester, Joseph D; Hensley, Lisa E.; Monroe, Benjamin; Schoepp, Randal J.; Chen, Tai-Ho; Schaecher, Kurt E.; George, Thomas
Over the span of a few weeks during July and August 2014, events in West Africa changed perceptions of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from an exotic tropical disease to a priority for global health security. We describe observations during that time of a field team from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and personnel of the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. We outline the early epidemiology of EVD within Liberia, including the practical limitations on surveillance and th...
Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O
Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas of the stem in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport, resulting in reduced plant growth and yield. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-limited closterovirus, induces economically important stem-pitting diseases of citrus. CTV has three nonconserved genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not related to genes of other viruses and that are not required for systemic infection of some species of citrus, which allowed us to examine the effect of deletions of these genes on symptom phenotypes. In the most susceptible experimental host, Citrus macrophylla, the full-length virus causes only very mild stem-pitting symptoms. Surprisingly, we found that certain deletion combinations (p33 and p18 and/or p13) induced greatly increased stem-pitting symptoms, while other combinations (p13 or p13 plus p18) resulted in reduced stem pitting. These results suggest that the stem-pitting phenotype, which is one of more economically important disease phenotypes, can result not from a specific sequence or protein but from a balance between the expression of different viral genes. Unexpectedly, using green fluorescent protein-tagged full-length virus and deletion mutants (CTV9Δp33 and CTV9Δp33Δp18Δp13), the virus was found at pitted areas in abnormal locations outside the normal ring of phloem. Thus, increased stem pitting was associated not only with a prevention of xylem production but also with a proliferation of cells that supported viral replication, suggesting that at random areas of stems the virus can elicit changes in cellular differentiation and development.
Suen, Willy W; Uddin, Muhammad J; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A; Bowen, Richard A; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle
The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.
Willy W. Suen
Full Text Available The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp., were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.
Ohimain, Elijah Ige
Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous microorganisms in the world causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a zoonotic infection, which emerges and re-emerges in human populations. The 2014 outbreak was caused by the Zaire strain, which has a kill rate of up to 90%, though 40% was recorded in the current outbreak. The 2014 outbreak is larger than all 20 outbreaks that have occurred since 1976, when the virus was first discovered. It is the first time that the virus was sustained in urban centers and spread beyond Africa into Europe and USA. Thus far, over 22,000 cases have been reported with about 50% mortality in one year. There are currently no approved therapeutics and preventive vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Responding to the devastating effe1cts of the 2014 outbreak and the potential risk of global spread, has spurred research for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. This review is therefore aimed at presenting the progress of vaccine development. Results showed that conventional inactivated vaccines produced from EBOV by heat, formalin or gamma irradiation appear to be ineffective. However, novel vaccines production techniques have emerged leading to the production of candidate vaccines that have been demonstrated to be effective in preclinical trials using small animal and non-human primates (NHP) models. Some of the promising vaccines have undergone phase 1 clinical trials, which demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity. Many of the candidate vaccines are vector based such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Rabies Virus (RABV), Adenovirus (Ad), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Other platforms include virus like particle (VLP), DNA and subunit vaccines.
MARCOS FERNANDO BASSO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine (Vitis spp. is a major vegetative propagated fruit crop with high socioeconomic importance worldwide. It is susceptible to several graft-transmitted agents that cause several diseases and substantial crop losses, reducing fruit quality and plant vigor, and shorten the longevity of vines. The vegetative propagation and frequent exchanges of propagative material among countries contribute to spread these pathogens, favoring the emergence of complex diseases. Its perennial life cycle further accelerates the mixing and introduction of several viral agents into a single plant. Currently, approximately 65 viruses belonging to different families have been reported infecting grapevines, but not all cause economically relevant diseases. The grapevine leafroll, rugose wood complex, leaf degeneration and fleck diseases are the four main disorders having worldwide economic importance. In addition, new viral species and strains have been identified and associated with economically important constraints to grape production. In Brazilian vineyards, eighteen viruses, three viroids and two virus-like diseases had already their occurrence reported and were molecularly characterized. Here, we review the current knowledge of these viruses, report advances in their diagnosis and prospection of new species, and give indications about the management of the associated grapevine diseases.
Nivia Gontán Quintana
Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was conducted. The Russell Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were used. Patients were classified taking into account clinical and immunological categories. Statistical processing was performed through SPSS program version 15.0 and Chi-square tests were applied.Results: a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease was observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Correlation with the oral hygiene of the patients studied was found. CD4 count showed no statistical significance in periodontal disease severity. All patients classified as A2 suffer from some stage of periodontal disease, which was the most affected clinical category in spite of presenting mild immunodeficiency.Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cienfuegos and it is correlated with patient’s oral hygiene.
Little is known on the interactions between avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) when coinfecting the same poultry host. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) can reduce highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) replication, clinic...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outer capsid proteins 1B, 1C and 1D contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. This study presents a phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analysis of the South African Territories (SAT) seroty...
The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was inserted into the very virulent Marek’s disease virus (MDV) Md5 bacterial artificial chromosome clone. The insertion site was nearly identical to the REV LTR that was naturally inserted into the JM/102W strain of MDV fo...
Co-cultivation of strain JM/102W of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the generation of a recombinant MDV containing REV long terminal repeat (LTR) named RM1 strain of MDV; a strain that was highly attenuated for oncogenicity, but induced severe bursal an...
Cristina Freitas Nunes
Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.
Martínez-Gamba, R; Pradal-Roa, P; Castrejón, F P; Herradora, M; Galván, E; Mercado, C
This study was carried out to determine the survival time of Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Aujeszky's Disease virus and Blue Eye Disease virus in ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces. The four micro-organisms were inoculated into microsilos based on the solid fraction of pig faeces, sorghum and molasses. They were left for 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days, after which the state of each microsilo was evaluated, and isolation of the inoculated agents was attempted. The four inoculated agents were isolated only on day 0 of ensilage. The viral agents were identified through the cytopathic effect and fluorescence. It is concluded that ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces appear to reduce the risk of the transmission of the agents inoculated in this study and help to reduce the environmental impact by using the solid in animal feed.
Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke
The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric me...
Williams, Susan M; Sellers, Holly S
The effects of viral-induced immunosuppression on the infectious status (viremia and antibody) and shedding of avian leukosis virus (ALV) were studied. Experimental white leghorn chickens were inoculated with ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at day of hatch with the ALV-J ADOL prototype strain Hcl, the Lukert strain of IBDV, or both. Appropriate groups were exposed a second time with the Lukert strain at 2 wk of age. Serum samples were collected at 2 and 4 wk of age for IBDV antibody detection. Samples for ALV-J viremia, antibody detection, and cloacal shedding were collected at 4, 10, 18, and 30 wk of age. The experiment was terminated at 30 wk of age, and birds were necropsied and examined grossly for tumor development. Neoplasias detected included hemangiomas, bile duct carcinoma, and anaplastic sarcoma of the nerve. Control birds and IBDV-infected birds were negative for ALV-J-induced viremia, antibodies, and cloacal shedding throughout experiment. By 10 wk, ALV-J-infected groups began to develop antibodies to ALV-J. However, at 18 wk the incidence of virus isolation increased in both groups, with a simultaneous decrease in antibody levels. At 30 wk, 97% of birds in the ALV-J group were virus positive and 41% were antibody positive. In the ALV-J/IDBV group, 96% of the birds were virus positive at 30 wk, and 27% had antibodies to ALV-J. In this study, infection with a mild classic strain of IBDV did not influence ALV-J infection or antibody production.
LI Xiao; JIN Ningyi; LIAN Hai; GUAN Goufang; SUN Lili; LI Xuemei; ZHENG Hongling
Hemagglutinin-neuramidinase (HN), aNewcastle disease virus-derived protein, not only mediates receptor recognition but also possesses neuraminidase (NA) activity, the ability to cleave a component of those receptors, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NAcneu, sialic acid). It is known that this protein in mammalian species, including human beings, has interesting anti-neoplastic as well as immune stimulating properties. To explore the use of the HN gene in cancer gene therapy, we constructed a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing the HN protein (vFV-HN) and compared the anti-tumor activity of the recombinant virus with that of wild-type fowlpox virus (FPV) in vivo and in vitro. Here we found that although B16 cells were somewhat resistant to the basal cytotoxic effect of wild-type fowlpox virus, infection with vFV-HN caused a pronounced cytotoxic effect and, the survival of tumor-bearing mice immunized with vFV-HN was significantly increased compared with the survival of mice immunized with the FPV alone. Furthermore, the immunization of mice with vFV-HN elicited a B16 tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and clonal expansion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in vivo. In addition, T cells from lymph nodes of mice vaccinated with vFV-HN secreted high levels of the Th1 cytokine IL-2 and IFN-y, indicating that the regression of tumor cells is related to a Th1-type dominant immune response. These results demonstrate that vaccination with vFV-HN may be a potential strategy for cancer gene therapy.
Chesters, P M; Heritage, J; McCance, D J
Available evidence suggests that BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) persist in the kidneys of healthy individuals after primary infection and may reactivate when the host's immune response is impaired. Data supporting this hypothesis are presented. A previous study had shown BKV to be present in the kidneys of eight (57%) of 14 subjects. In the present study, which extended the investigation to a total of 30 subjects, BKV DNA was found in the renal tissues of 10 (33%) subjects, and JCV DNA was found in the renal tissues of three (10%) subjects. The viral DNA detected appeared not to be integrated with host DNA and to be isolated in foci. Investigation of normal and diseased brain tissue, including tissue from six subjects with multiple sclerosis, failed to reveal the presence of either JCV DNA or BKV DNA.
Su, Shuai; Cui, Ning; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yanpeng; Ding, Jiabo; Dong, Xuan
Marek's disease virus (MDV) Chinese strain GX0101, isolated in 2001 from a vaccinated flock of layer chickens with severe tumors, was the first reported recombinant MDV field strain with one reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) insert. GX0101 belongs to very virulent MDV (vvMDV) but has higher horizontal transmission ability than the vvMDV strain Md5. The complete genome sequence of GX0101 is 178,101 nucleotides (nt) and contains only one REV-LTR insert at a site 267 nt upstream of the sorf2 gene. Moreover, GX0101 has 5 repeats of a 217-nt fragment in its terminal repeat short (TRS) region and 3 repeats in internal repeat short (IRS) region, compared to the other 10 strains with only 1 or 2 repeats in both TRS and IRS.
Zawilińska, Barbara; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena
Epidemic of Ebola hemorrhagic fever which appeared in the countries of West Africa in 2014, is the largest outbreak which occurred so far. The virus causing this epidemic, Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV), along with four other species of Ebolaviruses is classified to the genus Ebolavirus in the family Filoviridae. ZEBOV is one of the most virulent pathogens among the viral haemorrhagic fevers, and case fatality rates up to 90% have been reported. Mortality is the result of multi-organ failure and severe bleeding complications. The aim of this review is to present the general characteristics of the virus and its biological properties, pathogenicity and epidemiology, with a focus on laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of these infections.
Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. Two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. These problems are the FMDV "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. Here we show by laser capture microdissection in combination with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis and corroborate by in situ hybridization that FMDV locates rapidly to, and is maintained in, the light zone of germinal centres following primary infection of naïve cattle. We propose that maintenance of non-replicating FMDV in these sites represents a source of persisting infectious virus and also contributes to the generation of long-lasting antibody responses against neutralising epitopes of the virus.
Kotecha, Abhay; Seago, Julian; Scott, Katherine; Burman, Alison; Loureiro, Silvia; Ren, Jingshan; Porta, Claudine; Ginn, Helen M; Jackson, Terry; Perez-Martin, Eva; Siebert, C Alistair; Paul, Guntram; Huiskonen, Juha T; Jones, Ian M; Esnouf, Robert M; Fry, Elizabeth E; Maree, Francois F; Charleston, Bryan; Stuart, David I
Virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. Chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus. Here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein-protein interfaces and used it to design improved candidate vaccines for two poorly stable, but globally important, serotypes of FMDV: O and SAT2. We used a restrained molecular dynamics strategy to rank mutations predicted to strengthen the pentamer interfaces and applied the results to produce stabilized capsids. Structural analyses and stability assays confirmed the predictions, and vaccinated animals generated improved neutralizing-antibody responses to stabilized particles compared to parental viruses and wild-type capsids.
Alpren, Charles; Sloan, Michelle; Boegler, Karen A; Martin, Daniel W; Ervin, Elizabeth; Washburn, Faith; Rickert, Regan; Singh, Tushar; Redd, John T
On January 14, 2016, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation was notified that a buccal swab collected on January 12 from a deceased female aged 22 years (patient A) in Tonkolili District had tested positive for Ebola virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The most recent case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Sierra Leone had been reported 4 months earlier on September 13, 2015 (1), and the World Health Organization had declared the end of Ebola virus transmission in Sierra Leone on November 7, 2015 (2). The Government of Sierra Leone launched a response to prevent further transmission of Ebola virus by identifying contacts of the decedent and monitoring them for Ebola signs and symptoms, ensuring timely treatment for anyone with Ebola, and conducting an epidemiologic investigation to identify the source of infection.
Jeger, Michael J; Madden, Laurence V; van den Bosch, Frank
A model for indirect vector transmission and epidemic development of plant viruses is extended to consider direct transmission through vector mating. A basic reproduction number is derived which is the sum of the R(0) values specific for three transmission routes. We analyse the model to determine the effect of direct transmission on plant disease control directed against indirect transmission. Increasing the rate of horizontal sexual transmission means that vector control rate or indirect transmission rate must be increased/decreased substantially to maintain R(0) at a value less than 1. By contrast, proportionately increasing the probability of transovarial transmission has little effect. Expressions are derived for the steady-state values of the viruliferous vector population. There is clear advantage for an insect virus in indirect transmission to plants, especially where the sexual and transovarial transmission rates are low; however information on virulence-transmissibility relationships is required to explain the evolution of a plant virus from an insect virus.
Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Montiel, Enrique R; Lemiere, Stephane; Pandiri, Arun K R
Dilution of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines is a common practice in the field to reduce the cost associated with vaccination. In this study we have evaluated the effect of diluting MD vaccines on the protection against MD, vaccine and challenge MD virus (MDV) kinetics, and body weight when challenged with strains Md5 (very virulent MDV) and 648A (very virulent plus MDV) by contact at day of age. The following four vaccination protocols were evaluated in meat-type chickens: turkey herpesvirus (HVT) at manufacturer-recommended full dose; HVT diluted 1:10; HVT + SB-1 at the manufacturer-recommended full dose; and HVT + SB-1 diluted 1:10 for HVT and 1:5 for SB-1. Vaccine was administered at hatch subcutaneously. One-day-old chickens were placed in floor pens and housed together with ten 15-day-old chickens that had been previously inoculated with 500 PFU of either Md5 or 648A MDV strains. Chickens were individually identified with wing bands, and for each chicken samples of feather pulp and blood were collected at 1, 3, and 8 wk posthatch. Body weights were recorded at 8 wk for every chicken. Viral DNA load of wild-type MDV, SB-1, and HVT were evaluated by real time-PCR. Our results showed that dilution of MD vaccines can lead to reduced MD protection, reduced relative body weights, reduced vaccine DNA during the first 3 wk, and increased MDV DNA load. The detrimental effect of vaccine dilution was more evident in females than in males and was more evident when the challenge virus was 648A. However, lower relative body weights and higher MDV DNA load could be detected in chickens challenged with strain Md5, even in the absence of obvious differences in protection.
Reimann-Philipp, Ulrich; Beachy, Roger N.
Genetically engineered resistance against plant virus diseases has been achieved by transforming plants with gene constructs that encode viral sequences. Several successful field trials of virus-resistant transgenic plants have been carried out. Specific features of virus infection make it possible to interfere with different steps of the infection and disease cycle by accumulating products of chimeric genes introduced into transgenic plants. In this paper we describe the most common methods ...
Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C
Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink.
Bhattacharya, Kashinath; Raha, Subrata
This paper deals with investigations on fungal infection, moisture content, germinability and deterioration of three seeds, viz., maize (starchy), groundnut (oily) and soybean (proteinaceous) in storage at the locality of Santiniketan, West Bengal, India, under natural condition for 1 year. The airspora of storage environment was trapped using culture plate method. Different species of Aspergillus (A. candidus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. ruber) were dominant followed by Rhizopus, Penicillium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Alternaria, etc. Seed moisture was maximum in the rainy season followed by a gradual decrease during longer storage. A gradual decrease in field fungi with simultaneous increase in storage fungi accompanied by a reduction in germinability occurred in all seeds as storage proceeded. A gradual loss of carbohydrate (both soluble and insoluble) content in all the seeds were recorded. A loss of protein content was recorded followed by a small increase. Oil content decreased in prolonged storage with simultaneous increase in fatty acid.
Chaitanya R. KOKKIRIPATI
Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHIATS, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh during kharif 2014. The experimental material consisted of 11 Groundnut genotypes along with one check (IND-156. The genotypes were sown at Field Experimentation Centre in three replications adopting randomized block design to evaluate seed yield and quality traits. Analysis of variance revealed that the presence of considerable variation among the genotypes for all the characters studied. On the basis of mean performance, genotype ICG 14127 revealed better performance in primary branches/ plant, pods per plant, pod yield/plant, seed yield/plant and ICG 14482 showed better performance in kernel yield q/ha, oil content, oil yield while ICG 188 showed higher protein content.
Sharma, S B; Siddiqi, M R
Paralongidorus bullatus n. sp. from groundnut soils in Sador'é Niger is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from most species of the genus by its body and odontostyle lengths, knob-like head, and digitate ending of the protoplasmic region of the tail. Length of the female body is 4.4-5.5 mm, of the odontostyle 132-156 mum, and of the tail 32-44 mum. Tail terminus is conoid to broadly rounded. Uteri are well developed, without sperms. Males are not found. Xiphinema parasetariae Luc 1958, a species inquirenda, is validated and, based on measurements and tail structures, X. attorodorum Luc 1961 is proposed as a synonym of X. parasetariae. Additional measurements are given for its females and juveniles.
Yadav, Pragya D; Vincent, Martin J; Khristova, Marina; Kale, Charuta; Nichol, Stuart T; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T
Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) virus, the prototype tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae is associated with acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats in East and Central Africa. The closely related Ganjam virus found in India is associated with febrile illness in humans and disease in livestock. The complete S, M and L segment sequences of Ganjam and NSD virus and partial sequence analysis of Ganjam viral RNA genome S, M and L segments encoding regions (396 bp, 701 bp and 425 bp) of the viral nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and L polymerase (L) proteins, respectively, was carried out for multiple Ganjam virus isolates obtained from 1954 to 2002 and from various regions of India. M segments of NSD and Ganjam virus encode a large ORF for the glycoprotein precursor (GPC), (1627 and 1624 amino acids in length, respectively) and their L segments encode a very large L polymerase (3991 amino acids). The complete S, M and L segments of NSD and Ganjam viruses were more closely related to one another than to other characterized nairoviruses, and no evidence of reassortment was found. However, the NSD and Ganjam virus complete M segment differed by 22.90% and 14.70%, for nucleotide and amino acid respectively, and the complete L segment nucleotide and protein differing by 9.90% and 2.70%, respectively among themselves. Ganjam and NSD virus, complete S segment differed by 9.40-10.40% and 3.2-4.10 for nucleotide and proteins while among Ganjam viruses 0.0-6.20% and 0.0-1.4%, variation was found for nucleotide and amino acids. Ganjam virus isolates differed by up to 17% and 11% at the nucleotide level for the partial S and L gene fragments, respectively, with less variation observed at the deduced amino acid level (10.5 and 2%, S and L, respectively). However, the virus partial M gene fragment (which encodes the hypervariable mucin-like domain) of these viruses differed by as much as 56% at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic
Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C
Information was sought on the varied responses of royal pastel mink (a non-Aleutian genotype) to Aleutian disease virus of low virulence. Thus, of 20 yearling female pastel mink inoculated subcutaneously with a large amount of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus, only 3 succumbed to the disease. Of the other 17 mink, 3 had neither viremia nor a rise in level of serum gamma globulin during the 24 weeks after inoculation. The other 14 mink were viremic for variable periods during the first 12 weeks. In only five mink was the viremia accompanied by elevated levels of serum gamma globulin, usually from week 8 on. Of the 16 subclinically infected mink that did not succumb to intercurrent disease and otherwise remained healthy, 9 were examined at 19 to 31 months for persisting virus. In only one mink, small amounts were detected in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen nearly 28 months after inoculation. The other seven mink that survived the infection were not protected when challenged 31 months later with a small amount of the highly virulent Utah-1 strain. Even though still poorly understood, these varied responses of the royal pastel mink to infection with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence have important pathogenetic and epidemiological implications.
Crouch Jonathan H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. is the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, grown mainly in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates. Due to its origin through a single and recent polyploidization event, followed by successive selection during breeding efforts, cultivated groundnut has a limited genetic background. In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. The low level of polymorphism in cultivated germplasm, however, warrants a need of larger number of polymorphic microsatellite markers for cultivated groundnut. Results A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype TMV2. Sequencing of 720 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 3,072 provided 490 SSRs. 71.2% of these SSRs were perfect type, 13.1% were imperfect and 15.7% were compound. Among these SSRs, the GT/CA repeat motifs were the most common (37.6% followed by GA/CT repeat motifs (25.9%. The primer pairs could be designed for a total of 170 SSRs and were optimized initially on two genotypes. 104 (61.2% primer pairs yielded scorable amplicon and 46 (44.2% primers showed polymorphism among 32 cultivated groundnut genotypes. The polymorphic SSR markers detected 2 to 5 alleles with an average of 2.44 per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC value for these markers varied from 0.12 to 0.75 with an average of 0.46. Based on 112 alleles obtained by 46 markers, a phenogram was constructed to understand the relationships among the 32 genotypes. Majority of the genotypes representing subspecies hypogaea were grouped together in one cluster, while the genotypes belonging to subspecies fastigiata were grouped mainly under two clusters. Conclusion Newly developed set of 104 markers extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated groundnut. These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm
Full Text Available The Ebola virus created a ripple of fear when its number of cases rose rapidly and drastically in recent years. Ebola infection is transmitted in humans when contact closely with blood, organs or other body fluids of infected animals or secretions. It is often mortal as it affects vascular system of the body, results in organ failure and serious internal bleeding. Hence, this review was aimed to summarize various essential aspects of Ebola virus disease and its management. A systematic review was carried out by collecting various literatures, published research articles, notes and other published date related to Ebola virus disease. Standard supporting care in a hospital setting such as replenishment of fluid and electrolytes, ventilation support, pain control and nutritional support is initiated to the patients to manage the symptoms and prevent any complications of Ebola disease since there are no Food and Drug Administrationapproved medications available. In terms of pharmacological drug therapy, favipiravir has been shown to be efficacious and safe in treating the Ebola virus disease. Nevertheless, there are some preventive measures as well to decrease the risk of getting the disease. Further, the review suggests the efficient control and prevention of Ebola epidemic require adequate political support from the government as well as the establishment of a robust public health infrastructure and medical reserve. Strengthening of contact tracing and quarantine policies are also important for the prevention of Ebola virus disease. There should be a well-designed disease surveillance system when a suspected case is reported. Given the elevated case-fatality rate and the absence of effective treatment, it is sensible to evade research ethics and develop the promising future of experimental vaccines. The collection of clinical and epidemiological information of Ebola should be vigorous and systematic in the endemic affected areas.
Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A; Marquez, Miguel A; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L
Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissimilar in genotype to the virulent Newcastle disease viruses that had been circulating in Mexico until 2008. Here, 28 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 from different regions of Mexico from free-living wild birds, captive wild birds, and poultry were phylogenetically and biologically characterized in order to study the recent epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Mexico. Here we demonstrate that, until recently, virulent viruses from genotype V continued to circulate and evolve in the country. All of the Newcastle disease viruses of low virulence, mostly isolated from nonvaccinated free-living wild birds and captive wild birds, were highly similar to LaSota (genotype II) and PHY-LMV42 (genotype I) vaccine strains. These findings, together with the discovery of two virulent viruses at the Mexican zoo, suggest that Newcastle disease viruses may be escaping from poultry into the environment.
In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...
Alakali, J S; Irtwange, S V; Mzer, M T
This study evaluated composite beef-bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) seed flour patties to determine the effect of bambara groundnut flour (BGF) inclusion on the quality and acceptability of the products. The effect of different levels of BGF (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) on the proximate composition and pH indicate that BGF had no significant (p0.05) effect on moisture, protein and carbohydrate of raw patties except ash and pH whereas there was significant (p0.05) effect on all the parameters for the cooked patties. BGF significantly (p0.05) reduced the shrinkage of the cooked patties from 9.13% to 6.76%, while percentage cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention increased significantly (p0.05) with increasing BGF levels from 79.1% to 87.2%, 67.51% to 78.05% and 73.51% to 88.34%, respectively. The use of BGF significantly (p0.05) increased the pH of cooked patties from 6.16 to 6.23. Beef patties extended with BGF up to 5% addition exhibited good quality attributes most acceptable to the consumers. The pH of the 0% BGF-beef patties decreased significantly during storage, up to day 14, and increased thereafter. However, the pH of the patties with BGF consistently decreased significantly up to day 21. The TBA values of both (0% and 5% BGF-beef patties) increased significantly (p0.05) from 0.054 to 0.25 and from 0.05 to 0.24mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively. All sensory attributes decreased significantly (p0.05) as storage time progressed. The physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the patties were found to be acceptable after 21days refrigerated storage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...
Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in poultry characterized by T-cell lymphomas, nerve lesions and mortality. Vaccination is used worldwide to control MD, but increasingly virulent field strains can overcome this protection, d...
Ge, Jingping; Liu, Ying; Jin, Liying; Gao, Dongni; Bai, Chengle; Ping, Wenxiang
Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-GED), (2) woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE), (3) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of adeno-associated virus (AAV Serotype II), and (4) the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. To test the in vivo efficacy of the viruses, we vaccinated chickens with each construct and characterized the cellular and humoral immune response to challenge with virulent NDV (F48E9). All of the vaccine constructs provided some level of protection (62.5-100% protection). The F-series of vaccines provided a greater degree of protection (87.5-100%) than the HN-series (62.5-87.5%). While all of the vaccines elicited a robust cellular and humoral response subtle differences in efficacy were observed. The combination of the WPRE and VSV-GED regulatory elements enhanced the immune response and increased antigen expression. The ITRs effectively increased the length of time IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 were expressed in the plasma. The F-series elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibody and NDV-specific IgG. The baculovirus system is a promising platform for NDV vaccine development that combines the immunostimulatory benefits of a recombinant virus vector with the non-replicating benefits of a DNA vaccine.
Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious
Ehlkes, L; Kreuels, B; Schwarz, N G; May, Jürgen
Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola, Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially become more common with the discontinuation of the cross-protective smallpox vaccination. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that emerged in 2002/2003 is another pathogen with significant epidemic potential. Typical for these diseases is a natural circulation between reservoir animals in remote areas. Sporadic transmission to humans can occur through contact with an infected animal. Subsequent human-to-human transmission can lead to epidemics, such as the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.
Sequence analysis of virus isolation DNA of tobacco leaf curl disease shows that there is the second geminivirus (not Chinese Tobacco Leaf Curl Virus, TbLCV-CHI) that causes tobacco leaf curl disease in the field in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. This virus DNA-A contains 2 734 nt. Large intergenic region (LIR) contains 269 nt, the virus sense strand contains 2 open reading frames (ORFs): AV1 (115 aa) and AV2 (coat protein gene, CP, 256 aa), and the complementary sense strand contains 4 ORFs: AC1 (replicase gene, 361 aa), AC2 (transactivator, 134 aa), AC3 (134 aa) and AC4 (97 aa). The virus belongs to one kind of subgroup Ⅲ gemini- viruses from old world, and could be the Chinese tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-CHI).
Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A.; Marquez, Miguel A.; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.
Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissi...
Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril
Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs...... from the O/UKG/34/2001 or A/Turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the O1K B64 cDNA, and viable viruses (O1K/O-UKG and O1K/A-Tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in each case. These viruses grew well in primary bovine thyroid cells but grew less efficiently in BHK...
DIAO Xiu-guo; ZHU Guo; CHENG Zi-qiang,; WANG Gui-hua; MENG Xiang-kai; GAO Ting-ting; CUI Zhi-zhong
To further understand the generation and development of coinfection of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in broiler breeders, and then find the method and optimal time of differential diagnosis for complex clinic multiple infection, the authors studied the pathohistological changes, apoptosis, immunohistochemistry (immunofluorescence), and ultrastrueture of tumor tissues of broiler breeders inoculated with MDV and REV. The study showed that proliferation of small lymphocytes was seen in the main organs at the age of 1 week, then immature lymphocytes, all kinds of lymphocytes, primitive reticulum cells, and Marek's disease cells (MDCs) were observed at 2-9 weeks. Apoptosis of lymphocytes could not be seen until the age of 10 weeks in the immune system. Immunohistochemistry detection showed that the positive signs of MDV and REV antigen were observed in the main organs at 2 weeks of age. Multi-morphology lymphocytes, MDV, and REV, mitotic figures and apoptosis of lymphocytes were observed with the help of transmission electron microscopy. MDV cooperating with REV promotes the course of disease of coinfection. Differential diagnosis can be done by immunohistochemistry in the early stage (before 2 weeks), and histopathology in the late stage (post 4 weeks). MDCs, primitive reticulum cells, immature lymphocytes, and two kinds of virions can serve as a basis for histopathology differential diagnosis.
Spitteler, Marcelo A; Fernández, Ignacio; Schabes, Erika; Krimer, Alejandro; Régulier, Emmanuel G; Guinzburg, Mariela; Smitsaart, Eliana; Levy, M Susana
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. The recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140S quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. This method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. We developed a method to quantify FMDV particles during the vaccine manufacturing process that is based on separation of components by size-exclusion chromatography and measurement of virus by absorption at 254nm. The method is linear in the 5-70μg/mL range, it is applicable to different FMDV strains, and has a good correlation with the 140S test. The proposed method uses standard chromatographic media and it is amenable to automation. The method has potential as a process analytical technology and for control of final product by manufacturers, international vaccine banks and regulatory agencies.