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Sample records for groundnut complementary foods

  1. Health promoting properties of Alternanthera brasiliana leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces used in fortification of maize-bambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaugwu, R.N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the chemical and antioxidant properties of Alternanthera brasiliana leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces used in iron and zinc fortification of maizebambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods. A. brasiliana leaves and H. sabdariffa calyces were freshly harvested, dried at 50oC for 48 hours and analyzed for the relevant chemical components and antioxidant activities. The vitamin A content was 6996 and 745.6 μgRE/kg while the vitamin C was 238.26 and 294.78 mg/kg respectively. The aqueous extracts of A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa calyces contained 509.5 mg/kg and 5234.72 mg/kg of alkaloids, 1545 mg/kg and 384 mg/kg of anthocyanins, 767.3 and 235.83 mg/kg of carotenoids, 14,702.8 and 26,428.3 mg/kg of phenols, 1043.5 and 897.63 mg/kg steroids and 462.0 mg/kg and 1006.5 mg/kg of flavonoids respectively. A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa extracts had concentration-dependent DPPH activity with IC50 of 1.76 mg/ml and 5.745 mg/ml, nitric oxide scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.675 mg/ml and 3.976 mg/ml while the ferric reducing power had an absorbance range of 0.5 – 0.982 and 0.959 – 0.986 respectively. The study revealed that A.brasiliana leaves and H. sabdariffa calyces contain components that will impact positively on the health of the infants when used to formulate complementary foods.

  2. Nematode parasites of groundnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundnut is the common name for several leguminous plant species producing seed that mature underground, including Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), Hausa groundnut (Macrotyloma geocarpum), and peanut (Arachis spp.). Hausa groundnut is cultivated as a food crop primarily in West Africa and t...

  3. BASED COMPLEMENTARY FOODS USING GERMINAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... Malnutrition affects physical growth, morbidity, mortality, cognitive development, reproduction, and ... malnutrition. Development of complementary foods is guided by nutritional value, acceptability, availability and affordability of raw materials, and simplicity of food processing ... (Memmert, Germany) at 55. 0.

  4. Optimization of food materials for development of nutritious pasta utilizing groundnut meal and beetroot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, D; Gupta, R K; Bhadwal, Sheetal; Khaira, Harjot; Tyagi, S K

    2016-04-01

    Present study was undertaken to optimize the level of food materials viz. groundnut meal, beetroot juice and refined wheat flour for development of nutritious pasta using response surface methodology. Box-benken design of experiments was used to design different experimental combinations considering 10 to 20 g groundnut meal, 6 to 18 mL beetroot juice and 80 to 90 g refined wheat flour. Quality attributes such as protein content, antioxidant activity, colour, cooking quality (solid loss, rehydration ratio and cooking time) and sensory acceptability of pasta samples were the dependent variables for the study. The results revealed that pasta samples with higher levels of groundnut meal and beetroot juice were high in antioxidant activity and overall sensory acceptability. The samples with higher content of groundnut meal indicated higher protein contents in them. On the other hand, the samples with higher beetroot juice content were high in rehydration ratio and lesser cooking time along with low solid loss in cooking water. The different level of studied food materials significantly affected the colour quality of pasta samples. Optimized combination for development of nutritious pasta consisted of 20 g groundnut meal, 18 mL beetroot juice and 83.49 g refined wheat flour with overall desirability as 0.905. This pasta sample required 5.5 min to cook and showed 1.37 % solid loss and rehydration ratio as 6.28. Pasta sample prepared following optimized formulation provided 19.56 % protein content, 23.95 % antioxidant activity and 125.89 mg/100 g total phenols with overall sensory acceptability scores 8.71.

  5. Consumer awareness and acceptability of bambara groundnut as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adewumi Toyin Oyeyinka

    willingness to use the bambara groundnut in complementary feeding if it was accessible, affordable, and beneficial to health. Conclusion:Bambara ... major cause of deaths in children globally1 and is a concern in most developing ... nutritional status of infants and children.12 Animal food sources, which are expensive, are ...

  6. Young children feeding and Zinc levels of complementary foods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young children feeding and Zinc levels of complementary foods in Western ... localities helped to identify the recipes used for preparation of complementary foods. ... foods given to them, the cooking methods and the frequency of consumption.

  7. Orange-fleshed sweet potato-based infant food is a better source of dietary vitamin A than a maize-legume blend as complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Coad, Jane

    2014-03-01

    White maize, which is widely used for complementary feeding and is seldom fortified at the household level, may be associated with the high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among infants in low-income countries. The nutrient composition of complementary foods based on orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and cream-fleshed sweet potato (CFSP), maize-soybean-groundnut (Weanimix), and a proprietary wheat-based infant cereal (Nestlé Cerelac) were assessed using the Codex Standard (CODEX STAN 074-1981, Rev. 1-2006) specification as a reference. Additionally, the costs of OFSP complementary food, CFSP complementary food, and Weanimix production at the household level were estimated. Phytate and polyphenols, which limit the bioavailability of micronutrients, were assessed. Energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients listed as essential composition in the Codex Standard were determined and expressed as energy or nutrient density. All the formulations met the stipulated energy and nutrient densities as specified in the Codex Standard. The beta-carotene content of OFSP complementary food exceeded the vitamin A specification (60 to 180 microg retinol activity equivalents/100 kcal). All the formulations except Weanimix contained measurable amounts of ascorbic acid (> or = 32.0 mg/100 g). The level of phytate in Weanimix was highest, about twice that of OFSP complementary food. The sweet potato-based foods contained about twice as much total polyphenols as the cereal-based products. The estimated production cost of OFSP complementary food was slightly higher (1.5 times) than that of Weanimix. OFSP complementary food is a good source of beta-carotene and would therefore contribute to the vitamin A requirements of infants. Both OFSP complementary food and Weanimix may inhibit iron absorption because of their high levels of polyphenols and phytate, respectively, compared with those of Nestlé Cerelac.

  8. Results with Complementary Food Using Local Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, Munirul; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, Iqbal; Huq, Sayeeda; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Sarker, Shafiqul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate complementary food is a must for optimum growth of infants and children. The food should be diverse and be given in sufficient quantities 2-4 times a day depending upon age. Poverty, food insecurity, and lack of awareness regarding the choice of nutritious food ingredients are deterrents to optimum complementary feeding. In Bangladesh, 77% of children do not receive appropriate complementary food and, hence, the high prevalence of childhood malnutrition. We developed ready-to-use complementary foods (RUCFs) using locally available food ingredients, rice/lentil and chickpea, which conform to standard specifications. These foods were found to be acceptable by children and their mothers compared to the Pushti packet, the cereal-based supplement used in the erstwhile National Nutrition Program of Bangladesh. In a cluster-randomized community-based trial in rural Bangladesh among more than 5,000 children, the efficacy of rice/lentil- and chickpea-based RUCFs was compared with another commonly used supplementary food called wheat-soy blend++ (WSB++) and a commercial product called Plumpy'doz. Deceleration in length for age was significantly lower (by 0.02-0.04/month) in the rice/lentil, Plumpy'doz, and chickpea groups compared to the control group at 18 months of age. Weight-for-length z-score decline was lower only in Plumpy'doz and chickpea groups. WSB++ was not different from the control group. In children who received chickpea RUCF or Plumpy'doz, the prevalence of stunting was 5-6% lower at 18 months. These foods can be used to prevent or treat malnutrition among children, particularly those from food-insecure households. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Adoption of Enriched Local Complementary Food in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locally processed complementary foods, appropriately enriched can complement breast milk and traditional foods during the nutritionally vulnerable periods of a child life. The study therefore examines the adoption of enriched local complementary foods in Osun State Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to ...

  10. Biodiverse food solutions to enhance complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; Parlesak, Alexandr; Greiner, Ted

    2016-01-01

    In her recent editorial, Dr. de Pee (2015) states there are two main ways to provide additional nutrients during complementary feeding: fortification and supplementation. She illustrates some problems associated with these ‘solutions’, including lack of compliance. Rather than conclude that lipid...

  11. Selection of complementary foods based on optimal nutritional values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Partho; Mardinogulu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is beneficial for growth and development of infants. Several factors result in mothers ceasing breastfeeding which leads to introduction of breast-milk substitutes (BMS). In some communities traditional foods are given as BMS, in others they are given as complementary foods during...

  12. Toward a Scalable and Sustainable Intervention for Complementary Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Musarrat J; Nizame, Fosiul A; Nuruzzaman, Mohammad; Akand, Farhana; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Parvez, Sarker Masud; Stewart, Christine P; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P; Winch, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Contaminated complementary foods are associated with diarrhea and malnutrition among children aged 6 to 24 months. However, existing complementary food safety intervention models are likely not scalable and sustainable. To understand current behaviors, motivations for these behaviors, and the potential barriers to behavior change and to identify one or two simple actions that can address one or few food contamination pathways and have potential to be sustainably delivered to a larger population. Data were collected from 2 rural sites in Bangladesh through semistructured observations (12), video observations (12), in-depth interviews (18), and focus group discussions (3). Although mothers report preparing dedicated foods for children, observations show that these are not separate from family foods. Children are regularly fed store-bought foods that are perceived to be bad for children. Mothers explained that long storage durations, summer temperatures, flies, animals, uncovered food, and unclean utensils are threats to food safety. Covering foods, storing foods on elevated surfaces, and reheating foods before consumption are methods believed to keep food safe. Locally made cabinet-like hardware is perceived to be acceptable solution to address reported food safety threats. Conventional approaches that include teaching food safety and highlighting benefits such as reduced contamination may be a disincentive for rural mothers who need solutions for their physical environment. We propose extending existing beneficial behaviors by addressing local preferences of taste and convenience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Chemical composition of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L) landraces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... purpose. Key words: Arachis hypogaea, groundnut, protein, oil, minerals. INTRODUCTION ... absence of flowers on main stem, flower arrangement on leaf axils: (1) hypogaea ..... growing location and their interaction on the fatty acid composition of peanuts. J. Food Sci. ... Analysis of groundnuts content by ...

  14. Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional and functional properties of Amaranthus cruentus grain grown in Kenya for preparation of a ready-to-eat product that can be recommended as infant complementary food. Amaranth grains were subjected to steeping and steam pre-gelatinization to produce a ...

  15. Technological aspects of preparing affordable fermented complementary foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Ngoddy, P.O.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements and manufacturing procedure of complementary (weaning) foods is discussed. Nutritional requirements for infants (aged 6-12 months) include approx. 3 MJ energy and 14 g digestible protein per litre, of a semi-liquid porridge. Microbiological safety is enhanced by biological

  16. effect of thermoxidised groundnut oil on aminotransferase activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The feeding experiment lasted for a period of twenty one days after which ... low cost. Different food processing techniques have been found to have adverse effects on consumers. Groundnut .... Some physic- chemical properties of thermally ...

  17. Indigenous food ingredients for complementary food formulations to combat infant malnutrition in Benin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadare, Flora J; Madode, Yann E; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Kindossi, Janvier M; Ayosso, Juvencio Og; Honfo, S Hermann; Kayodé, Ap Polycarpe; Linnemann, Anita R; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional value. The selected foods encompass 347 food resources, namely 297 plant products from home gardens or collected from natural vegetation and 50 animals, either domesticated or from the wild. The compiled data reveal that the distribution of the available food resources was unbalanced between agro-ecological zones. Only a few animal ingredients are obtainable in northern Benin. Most resources are seasonal, but their availability may be extended. A high variation was observed in energy and nutrient contents. Antinutritional factors were identified in some resources, but processing techniques were reported to reduce their presence in meals. In general, ingredients from local tree foods (Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa) were adequate as sources of nutrients for complementary infant foods. Based on this review, local foods for the development of complementary food formulas for Beninese infants and children may be selected for each agro-ecological zone. The approach used is exemplary for other sub-Saharan African countries in need of complementary infant foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. PRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF GROUNDNUT, ( ARACHIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production analysis of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) was carried out in Ezeagu local government Area of Enugu State. This was done by randomly sampling 105 groundnut farmers from seven autonomous communities in the local government area. The overall aim was to determine, specifically the profitability of groundnut ...

  19. A DIFFERENTIATED APPROACH TO THE INTRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY BABY FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kondrat'eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of organization of rational feeding of children in the first year of life with the use of industrial production of weaning foods are discussed. The article provides guidance on the timing and sequence of the introduction of complementary baby food in healthy children and children with alimentary disorders. The sequence of individual products and administration of individual meals depends on the health status, nutritional status of the child and the state of his digestive system. In the diet of the child should be used food and meals of industrial production, made of raw materials of high quality which meet the stringent hygienic requirements for safety parameters and have guaranteed by chemical composition. The article presents data on practical advice on the introduction of feeding in the Centre of breast feeding support and management of Tomsk.

  20. Indigenous food ingredients for complementary food formulations to combat infant malnutrition in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, Flora J.; Madode, Yann E.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Kindossi, Janvier M.; Ayosso, Juvencio O.G.; Honfo, S.H.; Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional

  1. INTRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS AND FOOD ALLERGIES: NEW STUDIES AND MODERN CLINICAL GUIDELINES

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    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted  to the issues  of introducing  complementary  foods  as prevention  of atopy  and diet therapy in children with food allergy. Food sensibilization,  as a rule, is the initial link of allergy manifestations.  It represents  the first step of the so-called atopic  march,  followed  by  possible  development  of more  severe,  including  respiratory,  manifestations.  Considering  the  fact  that allergic diseases  are currently one of the most common pathologies with a growing tendency,  the correct choice of foods and the timely introduction of complementary foods are relevant, especially for children with hereditary tainted allergies. These products should be as safe as possible, should not cause sensibilization and at the same time should provide the child with the necessary macroand micronutrients. The publication provides an overview of the most relevant studies conducted in this field as well as a modern approach based on evidence-based  medicine and presented in the clinical guidelines on food allergy in children developed and approved by the professional association «Union of Pediatricians of Russia».

  2. Possibilities of dietary diversification of complementary foods in children with a family history of allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zavyalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experience of complementary feeding in children with manifestations of food allergy. The 4-day food rotation diet proposed by a group of authors from the Children’s Health Research Center (2009 for children 3 years of age and older has been used. The diet has been modified for babies of the first year of life who have manifestations of polyvalent food allergy, which could maximally extend the range of foods and minimize the clinical manifestations of food allergy.It is concluded that to diversify the range of complementary foods, it is appropriate to use the 4-day food rotation diet designed by a group of authors from the Children’s Health Research Center; the first complementary foods should include specialized commercial infant formulas proven to be hypoallergenic.

  3. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M; O'Neill, Lynda; Carr, B Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines.

  4. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C.; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M.; O’Neill, Lynda; Carr, B. Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines. PMID:29706668

  5. Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer

    2013-01-01

    A range of compounds with negative nutritional impact - 'anti-nutrients' - are found in most plant foods. The contents of anti-nutrients in processed foods depend on the ingredients and processing. Anti-nutrients in complementary foods for children can have a negative impact on nutritional status...

  6. Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Oliveros, Maria Guadalupe; Bisogni, Carole A; Frongillo, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics attributed to complementary foods by caregivers in four countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanushree; Sywulka, Sara M; Frongillo, Edward A; Lutter, Chessa K

    2006-12-01

    Attributes that caregivers assign to complementary foods have been primarily described in the context of illness, but attributes assigned to foods in everyday circumstances must be understood to effectively promote good complementary feeding. This study aimed to understand how mothers judge complementary foods to be appropriate by cross-cultural examination of food perceptions in four different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We used semistructured interviews to assess attributes that mothers ascribed to a list of key foods, both home-made and manufactured, and reasons for feeding or not feeding them. We elicited attributes from 79 caregivers with children 6 to 24 months of age from two urban and perirban sites each in Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico, and Panama. Textual analysis based on six home foods common to the four countries and manufactured foods resulted in six attribute categories, five of which could be positive or negative (Nutrient Content, Effects on Child, Child's Response, Availability and Accessibility, and Other Food Attributes); one (Food Quality and Safety) was only negative. Analysis of attributes of home foods (chicken, eggs, beans, carrots, bananas or plantains, and oranges) revealed many beliefs that were common within and across countries, whereas analysis of the attributes of manufactured foods revealed that these foods were less known. The consistency of the attribute categories across countries and across home and manufactured foods suggests their relevance to planning programs to improve complementary feeding in Latin America and the Caribbean and possibly other developing countries. These results can be used programmatically to assess the need for and the focus of food education programs, and to indicate which countries will be more receptive to certain foods as a means of improving complementary feeding.

  8. Acceptability of Complementary Foods That Incorporate Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder Among Infants and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Laurene; Nyarko, Ruth; Asante, Matilda; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda

    2018-03-01

    Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP) is a nutrient-rich and readily available food resource that has the potential to improve the micronutrient quality of complementary foods in developing countries. To investigate the acceptability of complementary foods fortified with MLP. Moringa oleifera leaf powder was fed to infants either as part of a cereal-legume complementary food blend (MCL-35 g) or by sprinkling as a food supplement (MS-5 g) on infant's usual foods. Mother-infant pairs (n = 18 for the MCL-35 g group and n = 16 for the MS-5 g group) attending regular weight monitoring sessions were recruited to participate in the acceptability trial. The study consisted of an initial tasting session after which mothers were to feed the assigned foods to their infants for 14 days. Mothers rated color, odor, taste, and overall liking of the complementary foods using a 5-point hedonic scale. Primary outcome was the proportion of test porridge consumed. On the tasting day, MCL-35 g group infants consumed an average of 64.27% ± 25.02 of the test porridge offered, whereas MS-5 g group infants consumed an average of 66.43% ± 29.09. During the 14-day period, median percent daily consumption for MCL-35 g was 71.5% of the daily recommended intake, whereas median percent daily consumption for MS-5 g was 86.2%. We conclude that complementary foods incorporating Moringa oleifera leaf powder either as part of a cereal-legume complementary food blend (MCL-35 g) or when sprinkled as a food supplement (MS-5 g) on infant's usual foods were well accepted.

  9. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries – lessons from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motuma A Abeshu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding is the process starting when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient, the target age being between 6 to 23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200kcal, 300kcal and 550kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as: iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6–23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. However, unfortified complementary foods that are predominantly plant-based provide insufficient amounts of key nutrients (particularly iron, zinc and calcium during the age of 6 – 23 months even, when based on an improved recipe. This review thus assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods.

  10. Foliar disease assessment of groundnut ( Arachis hypogea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) is an important food and oil legume but its commercial production is often limited to some regions in Nigeria due to attack by pests ... rust) and insect pest damage under natural infection during the 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons in the forest/savanna transition agroecology of Osun State.

  11. Introduction of new food textures during complementary feeding: Observations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marduel Boulanger, A; Vernet, M

    2018-01-01

    Complementary feeding plays a crucial role in the development of infants and toddlers and studies suggest benefits specific to the introduction of food textures. Evaluate the recommendations given to parents, their practices, and their attitudes towards the introduction of food textures during complementary feeding in France. This was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted in 2013. One hundred and eighty-one parents with at least one child aged 6-36 months living in France completed an ad hoc questionnaire. Eighty-eight percent of the parents surveyed received oral information on complementary feeding, but only 46% received such information on the introduction of food textures. Pediatricians were the most frequently listed source of oral information on complementary feeding. More than half the parents also looked for additional information in books and on the internet. While oral recommendations matched parents' practices, they seemed to occur at a later age compared to infants' physiological ability to handle new textures. The quality of information on food texture advice available in paper and electronic formats evaluated using a 4-point scale was found to be limited. Introducing new food texture was spontaneously reported as the most common difficulty in complementary feeding (16%). Fear of choking when first introducing food pieces was reported by 54% of the parents. The parents' lack of information on the introduction of food textures, as well as their fear that their child may choke, should encourage providing new recommendations in France. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Timing of introduction of complementary food: short- and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    Complementary food is needed when breast milk (or infant formula) alone is no longer sufficient for both nutritional and developmental reasons. The timing of its introduction, therefore, is an individual decision, although 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding can be recommended for most healthy term infants. The new foods are intended to 'complement' ongoing breastfeeding with those dietary items whose intake has become marginal or insufficient. Both breastfeeding and complementary feeding can have direct or later consequences on health. The evaluation of consequences of both early and late introduction of complementary food can neither disregard the effect of breastfeeding compared to formula feeding nor the composition or quality of the complementary food. Possible short-term health effects concern growth velocity and infections, and possible long-term effects may relate to atopic diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity and neuromuscular development. On the basis of the currently available evidence, it is impossible to exactly determine the age when risks related to the start of complementary feeding are lowest or highest for most of these effects, with the possible exception of infections and early growth velocity. The present knowledge on undesirable health effects, however, is mainly based on observational studies, and although some mechanisms have been proposed, further prospective studies have to clarify these unsolved issues. Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF......) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). Design: In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo...... increase in knee-heel length in WF-L compared with CSB+ was not significant. Conclusions: No difference was found between the locally produced products (WF and WF-L) and the CSBs. Micronutrient fortification may be necessary, and small fish may be an affordable alternative to milk to improve complementary...

  14. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood undernutrition is prevalent in low and middle income countries. It is an important indirect cause of child mortality in these countries. According to an estimate, stunting (height for age Z score Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized and quasi-randomized trials on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. The included studies were abstracted and graded according to study design, limitations, intervention details and outcome effects. The primary outcomes were change in weight and height during the study period among children 6-24 months of age. We hypothesized that provision of complementary food and education of mother about complementary food would significantly improve the nutritional status of the children in the intervention group compared to control. Meta-analyses were generated for change in weight and height by two methods. In the first instance, we pooled the results to get weighted mean difference (WMD which helps to pool studies with different units of measurement and that of different duration. A second meta-analysis was conducted to get a pooled estimate in terms of actual increase in weight (kg and length (cm in relation to the intervention, for input into the LiST model. Results After screening 3795 titles, we selected 17 studies for inclusion in the review. The included studies evaluated the impact of provision of complementary foods (±nutritional counseling and of nutritional counseling alone. Both these interventions were found to result in a significant increase in weight [WMD 0.34 SD, 95% CI 0.11 – 0.56 and 0.30 SD, 95 % CI 0.05-0.54 respectively and linear growth [WMD 0.26 SD, 95 % CI 0.08-0.43 and 0.21 SD, 95 % CI 0.01-0.41 respectively]. Pooled results for actual increase in weight in kilograms and length in centimeters showed that provision of appropriate complementary foods (±nutritional counseling resulted in an extra gain of 0.25kg (±0.18 in weight

  15. Escherichia coli contamination of child complementary foods and association with domestic hygiene in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Sarker Masud; Kwong, Laura; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Md Zahidur; Das, Kishor Kumar; Luby, Stephen P; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-05-01

    To determine the frequency and concentration of Escherichia coli in child complementary food and its association with domestic hygiene practices in rural Bangladesh. A total of 608 households with children 4 h (APR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.2), in compounds where water was unavailable in the food preparation area (APR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 4.2), where ≥1 fly was captured in the food preparation area (APR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.6), or where the ambient temperature was high (>25-40 °C) in the food storage area (APR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.4). Interventions to keep stored food covered and ensure water availability in the food preparation area would be expected to reduce faecal contamination of complementary foods. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding....

  17. MODERN COMPLEMENTARY FOODS IN THE PREVENTION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES: PROSPECTIVE STUDY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. E. Borovik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rate allergenic properties of the complementary food line based on grains, fruits/vegetables and meat in the diet of infants (0–1 years old. Methods: The study included children aged 4–6 months with natural, mixed or artificial feeding, who had not received any complementary food before. The children were almost healthy or had a burdened allergic history. Complementary foods (porridge, vegetable puree, meat puree and fruit puree were administered basing on an individual plan depending on age, nutritional status and nature of feces. Tolerability of products and dynamics of mass-height and laboratory parameters were evaluated. At the beginning and at the end of the study, capillary blood was taken to determine the content of hemoglobin in red blood cells (MCH, the equivalent of hemoglobin in reticulocytes (RetHe, iron, ferritin, prealbumin, and specific E class immunoglobulin (IgE to the proteins in cow's and goat milk, apples, pears, prunes, zucchini, broccoli, cauliflower, rice, maize, buckwheat, turkey meat, and rabbit meat (quantitative allergy diagnostics using an express method. In addition, a scatological study was performed. Results: 60 healthy children received complementary foods based on grains, fruits/vegetables and meat on a step-by-step basis. The level of specific IgE to food allergens in all children under the study was within normal range (0–135 IU/ml both initially and after the administration of all the complementary foods studied. Conclusion: The investigated complementary foods have a low sensitizing potential, including in children with a burdened allergic history. This allows us to describe them as hypoallergenic products.

  18. Nutrient composition of commonly used complementary foods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... from exclusive breastfeeding to semi-solid foods begins. It is at this stage ..... period, the iron requirements in relation to energy intake are the highest of .... Children's and Women's Rights in Nigeria: A Wake-up call. National.

  19. 171 Adoption of Enriched Local Complementary Food in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... blended with legumes to give the protein portion of the diet (Lartey et al. 1999). Often such foods are introduced to mothers, made available and methods of preparation are taught in either hospital during antenatal care or in the communities. Adoption of innovation is defined as a point of decision to make ...

  20. Formulation of a complementary food fortified with broad beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate nutrient intake, especially of protein and micronutrients, enhances growth of children and decreases susceptibility to disease. Major contributing factors to malnutrition among infants and children are low purchasing power of the family resulting in poor quality foods. A cross-sectional and laboratory-based study ...

  1. Introducing complementary foods in the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tandoi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of solid foods is a fundamental step in the development of an individual. There are many implications that weaning contains not only on a nutritional plan, but also on the contingent and long-term health of an individual. Over time this nutritional passage has evolved through the acquisition of new knowledge about maturation of anatomical and neurosensory structures involved in all the phases of such a complex process. The understanding of a maturing taste of infant and cultural changes is another key to understand the evolution of introduction of solid foods in infants. What is contained in this text encapsulates thus the evolutionary path of weaning in recent years, showing current trends in the light of cultural changes and new scientific acquisitions.

  2. Vitamin-fortified complementary foods for infant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kodentsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of modern nursing women consisting of natural foods is adequate for the consumption of energy and sometimes excessively caloric can not to provide the organism with the necessary amounts of vitamins. The content of vitamins in breast milk of insufficiently supplied women is less than in nursing mothers, adequate supply of vitamins. The needs of the growing breast-fed child by women with multivitamin deficiency can not to satisfied by means breast milk. Based on the analysis of the vitamin status of pregnant and lactating women, as well as the content of vitamins in breast milk of mothers with various vitamins sufficiency conclusion for inclusion in the diet of infants enriched with vitamins and minerals weaning cereal-based products (cereals had been made. Vitamin and mineral supplements or vitamin enriched foods must be included in the diet to maintain the vitamin status of lactating women. 

  3. REACTIONS OF SOME CONFECTIONERY GROUNDNUT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Agriculture is the mainstay of Ghana‟s economy with about 60% of the rural folks depending on it for their livelihood. ... have been reported to negatively affect the production of groundnut. The most ..... Nutrition and Cancer. 36 (2): 238-241.

  4. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  5. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, J.C.; Doak, C.M.; Albernaz, E.; Victora, C.G.; Haisma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  6. GENETIC OF DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIP BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (Vigna Subteranea L. GENOTYPE LANDRACES OF WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enceng Sobari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subteranea L. is one of underutliized crops in Indonesia. Bambara groundnut is potential to be developed and can be utilized as an alternative food source in Indonesia. Bambara groundnut greatly varies and has a very wide area of adaptation. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field station at Ciparanje in Padjadjaran University. Starting on September 2014 until March 2015 with Randomized Block Design (RBD and repeated two times. The research used 30 accessions originally from various locations in West Java (Bandung, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Sumedang, Bogor, Majalengka and East Java (Lamongan, Madura. Genetic variability of Bambara groundnut landrace  in some West Java showed broad criteria on the characters fresh pod weight, dry pod weight, weight of 100 seeds, and weight per plot. Genotypes which had many similarities in some characters based on euclidian distance coefficient had close relationship.

  7. Factors influencing first-time mothers' introduction of complementary foods: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne; Kearney, Lauren; Dennis, Nicole

    2015-09-22

    Optimal infant nutrition comprises exclusive breastfeeding, with complementary foods introduced from six months of age. How parents make decisions regarding this is poorly studied. This study begins to address the dearth of research into the decision-making processes used by first-time mothers relating to the introduction of complementary foods. This qualitative explorative study was conducted using interviews (13) and focus groups (3). A semi-structured interview guide based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The TPB, a well-validated decision-making model, identifies the key determinants of a behaviour through behavioural beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control over the behaviour. It is purported that these beliefs predict behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, and performing the behaviour. A purposive, convenience, sample of 21 metropolitan parents recruited through advertising at local playgroups and childcare centres, and electronically through the University community email list self-selected to participate. Data were analysed thematically within the theoretical constructs: behavioural beliefs, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Data relating to sources of information about the introduction of complementary foods were also collected. Overall, first-time mothers found that waiting until six months was challenging despite knowledge of the WHO recommendations and an initial desire to comply with this guideline. Beliefs that complementary foods would assist the infants' weight gain, sleeping patterns and enjoyment at meal times were identified. Barriers preventing parents complying with the recommendations included subjective and group norms, peer influences, infant cues indicating early readiness and food labelling inconsistencies. The most valued information source was from peers who had recently introduced complementary foods. First-time mothers in this study did not demonstrate a good understanding of the

  8. Vitamin D toxicity of dietary origin in cats fed a natural complementary kitten food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Crossley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary This case series describes two young sibling cats and an additional unrelated cat, from two separate households, that developed hypercalcaemia associated with hypervitaminosis D. Excessive vitamin D concentrations were identified in a natural complementary tinned kitten food that was fed to all three cats as part of their diet. In one of the cases, there was clinical evidence of soft tissue mineralisation. The hypercalcaemia and soft tissue mineralisation resolved following withdrawal of the affected food and medical management of the hypercalcaemia. Relevance and novel information This case series demonstrates the importance of obtaining a thorough dietary history in patients presenting with hypercalcaemia and the measurement of vitamin D metabolites when investigating such cases. Complementary foods may have the potential to induce nutritional toxicity even when fed with complete, nutritionally balanced diets.

  9. Timing and Determinants of the Introduction of Complementary Foods in Kuwait: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jane A; Dashti, Manal; Al-Sughayer, Mona; Edwards, Christine A

    2015-08-01

    The early introduction of complementary foods is common in Middle Eastern countries but little is known about the determinants of this practice in this region. This prospective cohort study conducted from October 2007 to October 2008 investigated the determinants of the very early (before 17 weeks) introduction of complementary foods in Kuwait and compared rates of this practice against rates reported in the mid-1990s. A total of 373 women were recruited from maternity hospitals in Kuwait City and followed to 26 weeks postpartum. Data on complementary feeding practices were available from 303 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association of very early introduction of complementary foods with infant sex and maternal characteristics including age, years of education, employment intentions at 6 months postpartum, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, and prepregnancy smoking status. All infants had received complementary foods by 26 weeks of age, with 30.4% receiving complementary foods before 17 weeks of age. Women born in other Arabic countries were less likely to introduce complementary foods before 17 weeks (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.73) than women born in Kuwait. Women who were exclusively formula feeding at 6 weeks postpartum were less likely to introduce complementary foods before 17 weeks (adj OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.71) than women who were still breastfeeding. Compared to the mid-1990s, fewer infants in Kuwait were receiving complementary foods before 17 weeks. Nevertheless, all infants had received complementary foods by 6 months of age. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Isolation, characterization and comparative analysis of plant-associated bacteria for suppression of soil-borne diseases of field-grown groundnut in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, C.N.; Hoang, T.K.; Thai, T.H.; Tran, T.L.; Phan, T.P.N.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop worldwide and used extensively for feed and food. In Vietnam, groundnut cultivation is hampered by several soil-borne fungal pathogens, in particular Sclerotium rolfsii. To develop sustainable measures to control stem rot disease

  11. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  12. 256 253 Profitability Analysis of Groundnut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Metropolitan Council of Borno State, Nigeria. * A. Iliyasu, I. ... processing and determine the return on investment in groundnut processing in the study area. Structured ... It was recommended that large scale groundnut production should be encouraged .... increasing rate, increases at decreasing rate and.

  13. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that

  14. Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) contain approximately 44-56% oil made up of fatty acids. Oleic and linoleic acids comprise about 80% of fatty acids in groundnuts. Groundnuts with >80% oleic are beneficial health-wise and also improve groundnut quality, flavour, and extended shelf-life, which is beneficial to traders.

  15. The effect of replacing Fish meal with 10% of Groundnut cake in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, food conversion efficiency and survival of H. longifilis fed diets with varying levels of protein in which 10% of fish meal was replaced with groundnut cake were studied for 84 days. Fish fed the diet containing 44.17% crude protein showed the best weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and efficiency.

  16. What are the beliefs of pediatricians and dietitians regarding complementary food introduction to prevent allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of complementary food introduction is controversial. Providing information on the timing of dietary introduction is crucial to the primary prevention of food allergy. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers dietary recommendations that were updated in 2008. Objective Identify the recommendations that general pediatricians and registered dietitians provide to parents and delineate any differences in counselling. Methods A 9-item survey was distributed to pediatricians and dietitians online and by mail. Information on practitioner type, gender, length of practice and specific recommendations regarding complementary food introduction and exposure was collected. Results 181 surveys were returned with a 54% response rate from pediatricians. It was not possible to calculate a meaningful dietitian response rate due to overlapping email databases. 52.5% of all respondents were pediatricians and 45.9% were dietitians. The majority of pediatricians and dietitians advise mothers that peanut abstinence during pregnancy and lactation is unnecessary. Dietitians were more likely to counsel mothers to breastfeed their infants to prevent development of atopic dermatitis than pediatricians. Hydrolyzed formulas for infants at risk of developing allergy were the top choice of formula amongst both practitioners. For food allergy prevention, pediatricians were more likely to recommend delayed introduction of peanut and egg, while most dietitians recommended no delay in allergenic food introduction. Conclusions In the prophylaxis of food allergy, pediatricians are less aware than dietitians of the current recommendation that there is no benefit in delaying allergenic food introduction beyond 4 to 6 months. More dietitians than pediatricians believe that breastfeeding decreases the risk of atopic dermatitis. Practitioners may benefit from increased awareness of current guidelines.

  17. Marketing complementary foods and supplements in Burkina Faso, Madagascar, and Vietnam: lessons learned from the Nutridev program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyeron, Olivier; Denizeau, Mirrdyn; Berger, Jacques; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and to report on the feasibility of local production and marketing of fortified complementary foods to increase usage of high-quality foods among children of low-income families in a self-sustaining manner. Project documents, surveys of mothers, and production and sales reports were reviewed. Nutridev experience in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso demonstrates that it is possible to produce affordable, high-quality complementary foods and supplements locally in developing countries. Strategies to make products readily available to the targeted population and to convince this population to consume them yielded mixed results, varying greatly based on the strategy utilized and the context in which it was implemented. In several contexts, the optimal approach appears to be strengthening the existing food distribution network to sell complementary foods and supplements, with the implementation of a temporary promotion and nutrition education network in partnership with local authorities (e.g., health services) to increase awareness among families about the fortified complementary food product and optimal feeding practices. In urban areas, where the density of the population is high, design and implementation of specific networks very close to consumers seems to be a good way to combine economic sustainability and good consumption levels.

  18. Canadian infants' nutrient intakes from complementary foods during the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prowse Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary feeding is currently recommended after six months of age, when the nutrients in breast milk alone are no longer adequate to support growth. Few studies have examined macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from complementary foods (CF only. Our purpose was to assess the sources and nutritional contribution of CF over the first year of life. Methods In July 2003, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on a nationally representative sample of mothers with infants aged three to 12 months. The survey was administered evenly across all regions of the country and included a four-day dietary record to assess infants' CF intakes in household (tablespoon measures (breast milk and formula intakes excluded. Records from 2,663 infants were analyzed for nutrient and CF food intake according to 12 categories. Mean daily intakes for infants at each month of age from CF were pooled and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the respective age range. Results At three months of age, 83% of infants were already consuming infant cereals. Fruits and vegetables were among the most common foods consumed by infants at all ages, while meats were least common at all ages except 12 months. Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes from CF generally increased with age. All mean nutrient intakes, except vitamin D and iron, met CF recommendations at seven to 12 months. Conclusions Complementary foods were introduced earlier than recommended. Although mean nutrient intakes from CF at six to 12 months appear to be adequate among Canadian infants, further attention to iron and vitamin D intakes and sources may be warranted.

  19. Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L. Cultivation in Türkiye and Osmaniye Peanut as a Geographical Indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. whose fatherland is South America outshines with its several aspects at agricultural field. First of all, even though the almost all of the harvest is consumed as food, since the seeds of this plant includes pretty much amount of oil, they constitute a highyl important raw material. The reason why demand of people for groundnut has been increasing as years go by, is the great quality degree of the oil handled and its benefits for human health. Another significant feature of this plant is that, as a member of bean family it has the ability of providing nitrogene fixation. From this point of view, groundnut is considered as the most essential plant of crop rotation technique. Most of the groundnut -also known as “araşit” in Türkiye- growth is done in Mediterranean Region, especially the zone of Adana. In our country, almost all of the harvest handled is consumed as sustenance in addition to that, remarkable increases are observed in the production of the plant mentioned above; furthermore by the year 2011, Türkiye has become the most important producer at his territory. In Türkiye, Osmaniye is now the center of groundnut generation and therefore the city is identical with its product. This could widely be understood from that the plant is secured by geographical indication patent in the name of “Groundnut of Osmaniye”. In that research, the main scope is agricultural geography and the highlighted topics are botanical properties, planting and the disrribution and commerce of the recommendations about the requirements follow. Moreover, the groundnut of Osmaniye, in terms of geographical indication is reconized to the reader

  20. Strategies to reduce exposure of fumonisins from complementary foods in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimanya, Martin E; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Van Camp, John; Baert, Katleen; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Feeding infants with maize can expose them to fumonisin mycotoxins. We assessed fumonisin exposure from complementary foods in rural Tanzania and determined strategies to reduce the exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study in four villages of Tarakea division, Northern Tanzania. We used a repeat 24-hour dietary recall to collect data of maize consumption as complementary food for 254 infants aged 6-8 months. Fumonisin concentrations in the maize were also estimated. Fumonisin exposure was assessed using @risk analysis software. With the software, several maximum fumonisin contamination and maize consumption patterns were combined in order to determine effective strategies for minimizing fumonisin exposure. Of the infants, 89% consumed maize at amounts up to 158g/person/day (mean; 43g/person/day±28). The maize was contaminated with fumonisins at levels up to 3201µgkg(-1) . Risk of fumonisin intake above the provisional maximum tolerable daily limit of 2µgkg(-1) body weight was 15% (95% confidence interval; 10-19). The risk was minimized when the maximum contamination was set at 150µgkg(-1) . The risk was also minimized when the maximum consumption was set at 20g/child/day while keeping the maximum contamination at the European Union (EU) maximum tolerated limit (MTL) of 1000µgkg(-1) . Considering the economical and technological limitations of adopting good agricultural practices in rural Tanzania, it is practically difficult to reduce contamination in maize to 150µgkg(-1) . We suggest adoption of the EU MTL of 1000µgkg(-1) for fumonisins in maize and reduction, by replacement with another cereal, of the maize component in complementary foods to a maximum intake of 20g/child/day. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Migliozzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  2. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell

    2015-11-11

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  3. Maternal prepregnant body mass index, duration of breastfeeding, and timing of complementary food introduction are associated with infant weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    ). In this sample, prepregnant obesity (BMI > or = 30.0), short durations of breastfeeding, and earlier introduction of complementary food were associated with 0.7 kg of additional weight gain during infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Infant weight gain is associated with maternal prepregnant BMI and with an interaction between...... these associations among 3768 mother-infant dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses, increasing maternal prepregnant BMI, decreasing durations of breastfeeding, and earlier complementary food introduction were associated with increased infant weight gain. An interaction...... was identified for short durations of breastfeeding (food introduction (associated with greater infant weight gain; however, the timing of complementary food introduction did not increase infant weight gain at longer durations of breastfeeding (> or =20 wk...

  4. Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods to US Infants, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Chloe M; Hamner, Heather C; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2018-03-01

    Although there has been inconsistency in recommendations regarding the optimal time for introducing complementary foods, most experts agree that introduction should not occur before 4 months. Despite recommendations, studies suggest that 20% to 40% of US infants are introduced to foods at younger than 4 months. Previous studies focused on the introduction of solid foods and are not nationally representative. Our aims were to provide a nationally representative estimate of the timing of introduction of complementary foods and to describe predictors of early (introduction. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The study included 1,482 children aged 6 to 36 months. Timing of first introduction to complementary foods (anything other than breast milk or formula) was analyzed. Prevalence estimates of first introduction to complementary foods are presented by month. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics associated with early (introduction. In this sample, 16.3% of US infants were introduced to complementary foods at introduction varied by breastfeeding status; race/Hispanic origin; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation; and maternal age. In adjusted analyses, only breastfeeding status remained significant; infants who never breastfed or stopped at introduction in this nationally representative sample than previous studies that included only solids. However, many young children were still introduced to complementary foods earlier than recommended. Strategies to support caregivers to adhere to infant feeding guidelines may be needed. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the genetic diversity of 48 groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Richard

    2015-08-12

    Aug 12, 2015 ... genetic variations in cultivated crops, especially groundnut. Key words: Phenotypic traits, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, simple sequence repeats ..... of N2 fixation in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and cowpea (Vigna.

  6. Enhancing rural economies: women in groundnut marketing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing rural economies: women in groundnut marketing in the Bolgatanga area. ... The findings were that lack of credit support, transport limitations, inefficient groundnut marketing channels and systems, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Assessment of Tolerability and Safety of Monocomponent Complementary Food Products in the Diet of Infants With Risk for Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Namazova-Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with burdened allergological history and/or having preliminary allergy manifestations need the effective prevention of allergy from the first months of life.Objective: Our aim was to assess the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of monocomponent complementary food products in the diet of infants with high risk for allergic diseases.Methods: Tolerability, safety, and efficacy of monocomponent complementary food products (vegetable puree, fruit juices, and after 6 months — meat sauce were studied in a singlecentre, prospective, comparative study. The symptoms of indigestion, skin allergy symptoms were registered, the results of coprological research and immunogenicity of complementary food products were assessed.Results: The study included 200 children in the age from 5 months from the risk group of allergy developing. Children were divided into 4 groups of 50 people. It was found that complementary food products were well tolerated and assimilated by children, did not cause skin and gastrointestinal allergic reactions in healthy children with risk of allergy developing. Food antigens of complementary food components (pumpkin, rabbit meat, turkey meat, apples, pears, plums were characterized by low immunogenicity: the level of specific IgE to the specified products did not change in blood serum and remained at a low level at the beginning and at the end of the study (ranging from 0.01 to 0.03 kE/l.Conclusion: Studied complementary food products (vegetable-, fruit- and meat-based can be used in the diet of children with high risk for allergy.

  8. New complementary foods in the diet of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kaznacheev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the physical development and health status of babies receiving goat’s milk-based formula “Bibikasha”.Patients and methods. An open-label uncontrolled trial was conducted in 47 babies aged 5 to 6.5 months. Their weight and height changes, neuropsychological development, and the skin were assessed. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, the manifestations of dyspepsia, and number of bowel movement a day were estimated; fecal macroscopy, microbiological examination, and complete blood count were carried out. The data were statistically processed using Statistica Advanced.Results. At complementary feeding, there was constipation and hard stools in approximately 20% the infants in the study group and fecal opportunistic bacteria in 63.8%. When eating Bibikasha, the number of infants with opportunistic pathogenic bacteria reduced by 3 times and hard stools and constipation disappeared completely. During their follow-up, none of the babies developed anemia, acute respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases; weight gain rates and psychomotor development were age-appropriate, indicating their harmonious development.Conclusion. Bibikasha used as a complementary food has a positive effect on a baby’s health and contributes to the prevention of nutrition-related diseases. Adding Bibikasha to the diet of infants with constipation normalizes their bowel function

  9. Meat as an early complementary food for infants: implications for macro- and micronutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy F

    2007-01-01

    Optimal complementary feeding is recognized to be critical for prevention of infectious morbidity and mortality and for optimal growth and development. The nutrients which become limiting in human milk after approximately 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding are predictable based on the dynamic composition of human milk and the physiology of infant nutritional requirements. Iron and zinc are two micronutrients for which the concentrations in human milk are relatively independent of maternal intake, and for which the older infant is most dependent on complementary foods to meet requirements. Traditional feeding practices, including reliance on cereals and plant-based diets, do not complement these recognized gaps in human milk. Meats or cellular animal proteins are richer sources of these critical minerals as well as other essential nutrients. Yet, cellular animal proteins are often introduced only late in infancy in developed countries, and may be only rarely consumed by young children in developing countries. Plant-based diets result in a predominance of energy from carbohydrates, often including highly refined carbohydrates that are also likely to have a high glycemic index. This pattern of macronutrient intake is contrary to that of the period when the human genome evolved, and may influence the metabolic profile in young children, especially under conditions of nutritional abundance.

  10. Adaptation of New Colombian Food-based Complementary Feeding Recommendations Using Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharrey, Marion; Olaya, Gilma A; Fewtrell, Mary; Ferguson, Elaine

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to use linear programming (LP) analyses to adapt New Complementary Feeding Guidelines (NCFg) designed for infants aged 6 to 12 months living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in Bogota to ensure dietary adequacy for young children aged 12 to 23 months. A secondary data analysis was performed using dietary and anthropometric data collected from 12-month-old infants (n = 72) participating in a randomized controlled trial. LP analyses were performed to identify nutrients whose requirements were difficult to achieve using local foods as consumed; and to test and compare the NCFg and alternative food-based recommendations (FBRs) on the basis of dietary adequacy, for 11 micronutrients, at the population level. Thiamine recommended nutrient intakes for these young children could not be achieved given local foods as consumed. NCFg focusing only on meat, fruits, vegetables, and breast milk ensured dietary adequacy at the population level for only 4 micronutrients, increasing to 8 of 11 modelled micronutrients when the FBRs promoted legumes, dairy, vitamin A-rich vegetables, and chicken giblets. None of the FBRs tested ensured population-level dietary adequacy for thiamine, niacin, and iron unless a fortified infant food was recommended. The present study demonstrated the value of using LP to adapt NCFg for a different age group than the one for which they were designed. Our analyses suggest that to ensure dietary adequacy for 12- to 23-month olds these adaptations should include legumes, dairy products, vitamin A-rich vegetables, organ meat, and a fortified food.

  11. An Investigation Into the Use of Groundnut as Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical properties of cement, groundnut shells and aggregates were determined. Concrete cubes measur- ing 150x150x150mm were cast. Groundnut shells were used to replace ne aggregate at 0, 5, 15, 25, 50 and 75% replacement levels. The e ects of the groundnut shells on the workability of fresh concrete were ...

  12. profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accounting for all cost. The rate of return on investment (RRI) analysis shows that groundnut/sorghum enterprise has RRI of. 232%, while sole groundnut enterprise has RRI of. 260%. This implies that an average farmer earns N232 profit for every naira invested in groundnut/sorghum production, while N260 is earned for ...

  13. Aspergillus and aflatoxin in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and groundnut cake in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdi; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla; Fininsa, Chemeda; Hoisington, David A; Sobolev, Victor S; Arias, Renee S

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22.5% and 41.3% of samples were positive, with total aflatoxin concentrations of 786 and 3135 ng g -1 from 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 samples, respectively. The level of specific aflatoxin concentration varied between 0.1 and 2526 ng g -1 for B 2 and B 1 , respectively. Among contaminated samples of groundnut cake, 68% exhibited aflatoxin concentration below 20 ng g -1 , while as high as 158 ng g -1 aflatoxin B 1 was recorded. The study confirms high contamination of groundnut products in East Ethiopia.

  14. Complementary feeding: study on prevalence of food intake in two health centers of São Paulo city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, D M; Latorre, M do R; Szarfarc, S C; de Souza, S B

    2001-06-01

    The infant feeding practices in the first year of life are of fundamental importance for their growth and development. This study was carried out aiming at checking on the prevalence of food intake by the infants during their first year of life. One-hundred-and-seventy-five children aged up to one year, attended to in two Health Centers of São Paulo city, Brazil, participated in this study. Their feeding practices, obtained through the status quo approach, were analyzed through multiple logistic regression models, using curves of prevalence for complementary food consumption. Fruit was the first solid food to be part of the infant diet, followed by vegetables, cereal, meat and/or eggs and, beans. Animal-protein-containing source foods (meat and eggs) entered the diet much later, being consumed by practically all children only at the end of their first year of life. The early introduction of complementary foods into the infant diet was made evident. The introduction of solid foods to complement breastfeeding is started with low-calorie density foods, in disagreement with the recommendations for Brazilian children. Results of this paper disclose a need for having programmatic actions in health education being carried out, in special those regarding exclusive breastfeeding promotion and orientation on the adequate introduction of complementary feeding.

  15. Development of an improved local-ingredient-based complementary food and technology transfer to rural housewives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Traoré, Tahirou; Zèba, Augustin; Tiemtoré, Saïdou; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Hennart, Philippe; Donnen, Philippe

    2009-06-01

    Food technology transfer to rural households, based on local ingredients, is a relevant and sustainable strategy to ensure better nutrition of young children. Objective. To develop an improved mush based on local ingredients and evaluate the potential for transferring its technology to rural housewives. We developed a flour-based food using Alicom software and performed laboratory trials to evaluate its actual nutritional quality. Then we recruited housewives from each of the 27 project villages and trained them in flour production and mush preparation twice daily, 6 days a week, for 26 weeks. Mush was sampled during the training session and at weeks 4, 12, and 22 and evaluated for actual flow distance and dry matter content, which served to estimate energy density and iron and zinc contents. The laboratory trials reported average energy densities of 103 kcal/l00 g, iron contents of 2.6 mg/100 kcal, and zinc contents of 1.2 mg/100 kcal. The average (+/- SD) energy densities of the mush samples obtained during the training session and at weeks 4, 12, and 22 were 103.0 +/- 5.6, 103.3 +/- 5.2, 107.9 +/- 11.5, and 101.3 +/- 8.7 kcal/100 g, respectively. The average iron contents were 2.3 +/- 0.5, 2.3 +/- 0.5, 2.6 +/- 0.3, and 1.8 +/- 0.8 mg/ 100 kcal, respectively, and the average zinc contents were 1.6 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.1, 1.7 +/- 0.1, and 1.6 +/- 0.2 mg/100 kcal. Developing a suitable complementary food from local ingredients and educating households in nutrition and use of local products are feasible. Such education should come with measures aimed at improving the accessibility of some ingredients to ensure feasibility and sustainability.

  16. Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbithi-Mwikya, Stephen; Van Camp, John; Mamiro, Peter R S; Ooghe, Wilfried; Kolsteren, Patrick; Huyghebaert, Andre

    2002-05-08

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency.

  17. Total aflatoxins in complementary foods produced at community levels using locally available ingredients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Abebe; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Adish, Abdulaziz; De Saeger, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of total aflatoxins in complementary foods (CFs) and their ingredients. A total of 126 samples collected from 20 Districts from Amhara, Tigray, Oromia, and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions were analysed for levels of total aflatoxins using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were detected in 62 out of 66 pre-milling samples with mean range of 0.3-9.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were also detected in 19 out of 20 post-production CFs and in all of the one-month stored CFs at households and grain banks, with a mean range of 0.5-8.0, 3.6-11.3, and 0.2-12.4 µg/kg, respectively. Overall, 3 out of 126 samples exceeded the maximum limit (10 µg/kg). Although most aflatoxin levels were below the maximum limit and thus considered to be safe for consumption, more effort should be implemented to reduce contamination, as these CFs are intended for consumption by young children.

  18. Reactions of bambara groundnut accessions to photoperiods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two light-controlled experiments conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, the effects of six photoperiods (8, 10, 12, 14, 16 hours and natural photoperiod) on growth and flower induction in six accessions of bambara groundnut ...

  19. Mutation breeding in groundnut in Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.H.; Chandra Mouli

    1978-01-01

    Mutation breeding in groundnut was initiated with a view to develop improved cultures for increasing production in India, which contributes over 33 percent to the world groundnut production. More than 50 mutants were isolated-influencing almost all features of a groundnut plant. Cytological M 1 variants produced more mutants and in advanced generations. Some mutants showed interesting genetic behaviour, while others exhibited differential expression in different seasons leading to masking of mutant characters. In addition, mutants having economically useful characters, such as large kernel size and increased yielding potential were also isolated. Using these and other mutants new Trombay Groundnut (TG) varieties were developed which had large kernels suitable for export trade, improved oil content and increased yields. Among them TG-17 was unique for its extreme fastigiata character leading to flowering at all nodes and reduced number of vegetative branches. Demonstrations of TG-varieties for high yielding potential, on the fields of cultivators were successful. Because of increasing demand for the seed, a seed multiplication programme was initiated in 1974-1975 in collaboration with a private organisation. Starting with one ton seed more than 2000 tons of seed was produced till the end of 1977 and distributed for cultivation in the current year. (author)

  20. Improving bambara groundnut productivity using gamma irradiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times efforts are being made to improve the productivity of bambara groundnut. Studies were initiated (i) to characterise and evaluate landraces and to select superior ones for irradiation, (ii) to induce genetic variation through gamma irradiation and (iii) to use biotechnological approaches to shorten the generation ...

  1. susceptibility of some kersting's groundnut landrace cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT: Seeds of five different landrace cultivars of Kersting's groundnut, Macrotyloma geocarpum. (Harms) Marechal and Baudet, obtained from northern Ghana, were evaluated for their suscep- tibility to infestation and damage by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. The com- pletely randomized design ...

  2. Modelling Bambara Groundnut Yield in Southern Africa: Towards a Climate-Resilient Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, A. S.; Walker, S.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Current agriculture depends on a few major species grown as monocultures that are supported by global research underpinning current productivity. However, many hundreds of alternative crops have the potential to meet real world challenges by sustaining humanity, diversifying agricultural systems for food and nutritional security, and especially responding to climate change through their resilience to certain climate conditions. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilised African legume, is an exemplar crop for climate resilience. Predicted yield performances of Bambara groundnut by AquaCrop (a crop-water productivity model) were evaluated for baseline (1980-2009) and mid-century climates (2040-2069) under 20 downscaled Global Climate Models (CMIP5-RCP8.5), as well as for climate sensitivities (AgMIPC3MP) across 3 locations in Southern Africa (Botswana, South Africa, Namibia). Different land - races of Bambara groundnut originating from various semi-arid African locations showed diverse yield performances with diverse sensitivities to climate. S19 originating from hot-dry conditions in Namibia has greater future yield potential compared to the Swaziland landrace Uniswa Red-UN across study sites. South Africa has the lowest yield under the current climate, indicating positive future yield trends. Namibia reported the highest baseline yield at optimum current temperatures, indicating less yield potential in future climates. Bambara groundnut shows positive yield potential at temperatures of up to 31degC, with further warming pushing yields down. Thus, many regions in Southern Africa can utilize Bambara groundnut successfully in the coming decades. This modelling exercise supports decisions on genotypic suitability for present and future climates at specific locations.

  3. Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize in Zambia: observed and potential concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapulula, P W; Akello, J; Bandyopadhyay, R; Cotty, P J

    2017-06-01

    The aims of the study were to quantify aflatoxins, the potent carcinogens associated with stunting and immune suppression, in maize and groundnut across Zambia's three agroecologies and to determine the vulnerability to aflatoxin increases after purchase. Aflatoxin concentrations were determined for 334 maize and groundnut samples from 27 districts using lateral-flow immunochromatography. Seventeen per cent of crops from markets contained aflatoxin concentrations above allowable levels in Zambia (10 μg kg -1 ). Proportions of crops unsafe for human consumption differed significantly (P agroecologies with more contamination (38%) in the warmest (Agroecology I) and the least (8%) in cool, wet Agroecology III. Aflatoxin in groundnut (39 μg kg -1 ) and maize (16 μg kg -1 ) differed (P = 0·032). Poor storage (31°C, 100% RH, 1 week) increased aflatoxin in safe crops by over 1000-fold in both maize and groundnut. The L morphotype of Aspergillus flavus was negatively correlated with postharvest increases in groundnut. Aflatoxins are common in Zambia's food staples with proportions of unsafe crops dependent on agroecology. Fungal community structure influences contamination suggesting Zambia would benefit from biocontrol with atoxigenic A. flavus. Aflatoxin contamination across the three agroecologies of Zambia is detailed and the case for aflatoxin management with atoxigenic biocontrol agents provided. The first method for evaluating the potential for aflatoxin increase after purchase is presented. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Nutrient Content And Acceptability Of Snakehead-Fish (Ophiocephalus Striatus) And Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Based Complementary Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Noer, Etika; Candra, Aryu; Panunggal, Binar

    2017-02-01

    Poor nutrient-dense complementary foods is one of the common factors contributed for decline growth pattern in children. Snakehead-fish and Pumpkin Complementary Feeding (SPCF) base on locally food can help to reduce child malnutrition. Specifically, high protein and vitamin A in SPCF may improve immunity and nutrition status of malnutrition children. This study aimed to formulate low-cost, nutritive value and acceptable of SPCF on malnutrition children in coastal area. Carbohydrate content was determined by difference, protein by Kjeldahl, betacaroten by spectofotometri and sensory evaluation using a five point hedonic scale. Fe and zinc was determined by AAS. There is an effect of the substitution of snake-head fish flour and yellow pumpkin flour toward the nutrient content and the acceptability

  6. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  7. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    2000-07-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  8. Integrated Management of Stem Rot Disease (Sclerotium rolfsii) of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Using Rhizobium and Trichoderma harzianum (ITCC - 4572)

    OpenAIRE

    GANESAN, S.; KUPPUSAMY, R. GANESH; SEKAR, R.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi cause heavy crop losses all over the world. With variable climate from region to region, most crops grown in India are susceptible to diseases caused by soil-borne fungal pathogens. Among tropical and subtropical land crops, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop, providing vegetable oil as human food and oil cake meal as animal poultry feed. A large number of diseases attack groundnut plants in India; of these, stem rot (collar rot) ca...

  9. Responsive feeding and child interest in food vary when rural Malawian children are fed lipid-based nutrient supplements or local complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Mäkinen, Samppa; Ashorn, Ulla; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-07-01

    Caregiver and child behaviours during feeding have been used to measure responsiveness, which has been recognised as important for child growth and development. The aims of this study were to understand how caregiver and child behaviours differ when feeding lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) vs. local complementary food and to detect associations between behaviours and child interest in food. Sixteen moderately underweight 6-17-month-old Malawian children receiving 50 g/day of supplementary LNS for 12 weeks were videotaped during LNS (n = 32) and local complementary feeding (n = 28) episodes. Behaviours were coded at the level of the intended bite (1674 total bites). The analysis used regression models adjusted for within-subject correlation. Caregivers were less likely to allow children to self-feed and more likely to use physical pressure during LNS vs. complementary food bites. Positive caregiver verbalization was infrequent and did not differ by type of food. Higher odds of accepting a bite were associated with the bite containing LNS, odds ratio (OR) 3.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 4.71), the child self-feeding, OR 5.70; 90% CI (2.77, 11.69), and positive caregiver verbalization, OR 2.46; 90% CI (1.26, 4.80), while lower odds of acceptance were associated with negative child verbalization during feeding, OR 0.27; 90% CI (0.17, 0.42). In this sample, caregivers used more responsive feeding practices during bites of local complementary food and were more controlling when feeding LNS. Responsive caregiver behaviours predicted child acceptance of food. These results could be used to design interventions in Malawi to improve responsive feeding practices in general and during LNS use. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The role of complementary foods in the psychomotor development of a baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Yatsyshina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the impact of complementary feeding on the psychomotor development of a baby. It describes possible psychomotor developmental disorders due to inadequate feeding of an infant during the first year of life.

  11. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  12. A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Bailey, Karl B; Gibbs, Michelle; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2010-06-01

    Plant-based complementary foods often contain high levels of phytate, a potent inhibitor of iron, zinc, and calcium absorption. This review summarizes the concentrations of phytate (as hexa- and penta-inositol phosphate), iron, zinc, and calcium and the corresponding phytate:mineral molar ratios in 26 indigenous and 27 commercially processed plant-based complementary foods sold in low-income countries. Phytate concentrations were highest in complementary foods based on unrefined cereals and legumes (approximately 600 mg/100 g dry weight), followed by refined cereals (approximately 100 mg/100 g dry weight) and then starchy roots and tubers (source foods and/or fortification with minerals. Dephytinization, either in the household or commercially, can potentially enhance mineral absorption in high-phytate complementary foods, although probably not enough to overcome the shortfalls in iron, zinc, and calcium content of plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries. Instead, to ensure the World Health Organization estimated needs for these minerals from plant-based complementary foods for breastfed infants are met, dephytinization must be combined with enrichment with animal-source foods and/or fortification with appropriate levels and forms of mineral fortificants.

  13. A Food Transfer Program without a Formal Education Component Modifies Complementary Feeding Practices in Poor Rural Mexican Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; González de Cosío, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions. This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6-23 mo. A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6-23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score. Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P diversity by 21.6 PP (P effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Complementary feeding of infants in their first year of life: focus on the main pureed baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano de; Caetano, Michelle Cavalcante; Ortiz, Thaís Tobaruela; Silva, Simone Guerra Lopes da; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the complementary feeding practices for infants, focusing on the main pureed baby foods, and verify adherence to the guidelines adopted in Brazil. Through cross-sectional study, aspects of complementary feeding of 404 healthy infants between 4 and 9 months of age (São Paulo, Curitiba and Recife) were evaluated. Socio-demographic data, history and food habits were collected. Mothers described three recipes (preparations) usually used in key baby foods. The findings were compared with those recommended by the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. The average age was 6.9 ± 1.6 months. Among infants, 241/404 (59.6%) were still breastfeeding. Among those who received another type of milk, 193/368 (52.4%) received whole cow's milk, while 151/368 (41.0%) drank infant or follow-on formulas. Regarding baby food recipes salted reported by mothers, it was seen that 30% and 60% contained meat and vegetables, respectively. The percentages less suitable for feeding in general were observed for use of cow's milk and added sugar, chocolate and cereal in feeding bottles; 79% and 80.5% of the families interviewed would adopted such practices. The early termination of exclusive/predominant breastfeeding and the practice of an inadequate transition diet have shown a picture of quantitatively and qualitatively inadequate feeding, with the risk of causing serious nutritional problems in later ages, such as anemia and vitamin A deficiency, or excess of nutrients, leading to obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemias.

  15. Point‐of‐sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to assess the prevalence of point‐of‐sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point‐of‐sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one‐third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Key messages Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point‐of‐sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one‐third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu).Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores.Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS.Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061961

  16. Point-of-sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeny, Mary; Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of point-of-sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point-of-sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one-third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point-of-sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one-third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu). Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores. Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS. Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition

  17. Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Infant and Young Child Nutrition: Considerations for the Development and Delivery of High Quality Complementary Food Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shibani; Kurpad, Anura; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Otoo, Gloria E; Aaron, Grant A; Toride, Yasuhiko; Uauy, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of malnutrition in infants and children is multifaceted and requires the following: access to and intake of nutritious food starting at birth with exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life, continued breastfeeding in combination with complementary foods from 6-24 mo of age, access to clean drinking water and sanitation, and access to preventive and curative health care (including prenatal). Nutrient-dense complementary foods can improve nutritional status and have long-term benefits; however, in a review of plant-based complementary foods in developing countries, most of them failed to meet many micronutrient requirements. There is need to provide other cost-effective alternatives to increase the quality of the diet during the complementary feeding stage of the lifecycle. This paper provides an overview of the development, testing, efficacy and effectiveness of the delivery of KOKO Plus on the growth and nutritional status of infants 6-24 mo of age.

  18. Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age-appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Kodio, Joseph; Iknane, Akory Ag; Sodjinou, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of dietary diversity using locally available nutritious foods is an effective approach in low-income areas to improve the quality of young children's diet and, hence, their growth and development. To identify the nutritional values of locally acceptable, feasible, affordable, and sustainable foods and develop a number of recipes that could be used to complement effectively nutrient intakes provided through breastfeeding to children 6 to 23 months of age in Bandiagara, Mali. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain lists of all locally available foods during village assembly meetings and identify the food basket of households and child feeding practices during interviews with mothers and fathers. The nutritional values of the foods were estimated, and the Malian food composition table was used to identify the combinations that would result in the most nutritious recipes. Breastfeeding was widely practiced, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was extremely low (7%). The practice of early introduction of water and complementary foods was a problem. Forty recipes for improved dishes, including puddings, drinks and juices, purees, salads, and soups, were proposed. The nutritional values of the 10 most nutritious of these recipes, the types and quantities of the ingredients, and the method of preparation of each recipe are described. Locally produced indigenous foods in rural Mali were used to develop energy- and nutrient-dense complementary foods for children. Further research is needed to test the short- and long-term effects of consuming these dishes on the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age in Mali.

  19. Nitrogen effects on maize yield following groundnut in rotation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotating maize (Zea mays L.) with groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been proposed as a way to maintain soil fertility and prevent maize productivity declines in the smallholder cropping systems of sub-humid Zimbabwe. Field experiments with fertilizer-N on maize in rotation with groundnut were conducted at three ...

  20. The replacement value of groundnut cake with cooked Bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in which groundnut cake (GNC) was replaced by cooked bambara groundnut meal (CBGM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels of inclusion for both starter and finisher phases. Replacement levels of cooked bambara ...

  1. determination of some physical properties of three groundnut varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    groundnuts. Three varieties of groundnuts namely ICGV-SM-93523, RMP-9 and RMP- 12 were collected and some of the physical properties, such as weight, angle of repose, coefficient of friction, bulk density, size, shape and moisture content were determined. The angle of repose for the three varieties was found to range ...

  2. Water use characteristics of a bambara groundnut ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara groundnut is slow to establish and this has negative implications for total water use. Consideration of bambara groundnut as a water-efficient crop for dry areas will benefit from an understanding of water use efficiency and water use characteristics during establishment. We investigated whether there is an ...

  3. PICS bags safely store unshelled and shelled groundnuts in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baributsa, D; Baoua, I B; Bakoye, O N; Amadou, L; Murdock, L L

    2017-05-01

    We conducted an experiment in Niger to evaluate the performance of hermetic triple layer (Purdue Improved Crop Storage- PICS) bags for the preservation of shelled and unshelled groundnut Arachis hypogaea L. Naturally-infested groundnut was stored in PICS bags and woven bags for 6.7 months. After storage, the average oxygen level in the PICS bags fell from 21% to 18% (v/v) and 21%-15% (v/v) for unshelled and shelled groundnut, respectively. Identified pests present in the stored groundnuts were Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). After 6.7 months of storage, in the woven bag, there was a large increase in the pest population accompanied by a weight loss of 8.2% for unshelled groundnuts and 28.7% for shelled groundnut. In PICS bags for both shelled and unshelled groundnuts, by contrast, the density of insect pests did not increase, there was no weight loss, and the germination rate was the same compared to that recorded at the beginning of the experiment. Storing shelled groundnuts in PICS bags is the most cost-effective way as it increases the quantity of grain stored.

  4. Breeding in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows how different strategies have been combined to establish the basis of a strategic breeding programme in bambara groundnut. The paper also illustrates the use of landraces in the bambara groundnut breeding programme, as an example of the contribution that landraces can make to increasing ...

  5. Factors affecting groundnut yield in pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Tariq, S.A.; Nasir, M.; Saeed, R.; Mahmood, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut being an important oilseed crop in the Pothwar region of Pakistan has the productivity level of 609 kg ha/sup -1/ , much lower from the potential yield of 3000 kg ha/sup -1/. Present study was designed to explore factors affecting productivity of groundnut along with its profitability analysis. The sample farms were classified into small, medium and large farms. Farm-level crop data were gathered during two cropping seasons i.e., rabi 2008-09 and kharif 2009. One hundred and forty groundnut producers were selected for collecting data using the well-structured questionnaire from two important districts recognised for area and production of groundnut. Results showed that large farmers allocated significantly higher area (34 percent) to groundnut cultivation compared to other categories of farmers. The gross margins were also significantly higher at large farms. Ploughing frequency, seed rate and labor man-days have positive relationship with groundnut productivity. Therefore, the provision of improved groundnut production technologies package and improved seed to groundnut growers may enhance the productivity and area under this crop. (author)

  6. Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van W.C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant

  7. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.

  8. Contribution of complementary foods to the total daily water needs of urban Guatemalan infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A.; Campos, R.; Hernandez, L.; Palma, A.V.; Vossenaar, M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare

  9. Effect of fortified complementary food supplementation on child growth in rural Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee; Mitra, Maithilee; Ali, Hasmot; Merrill, Rebecca D; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Parveen, Monira; Fuli, Rachel D; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, Md Munirul; Klemm, Rolf; Schulze, Kerry; Labrique, Alain; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; West, Keith P

    2015-12-01

    Growth faltering in the first 2 years of life is high in South Asia where prevalence of stunting is estimated at 40-50%. Although nutrition counselling has shown modest benefits, few intervention trials of food supplementation exist showing improvements in growth and prevention of stunting. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in rural Bangladesh to test the effect of two local, ready-to-use foods (chickpea and rice-lentil based) and a fortified blended food (wheat-soy-blend++, WSB++) compared with Plumpy'doz, all with nutrition counselling vs nutrition counselling alone (control) on outcomes of linear growth (length and length-for-age z-score, LAZ), stunting (LAZ food groups, provided with one of the allocated supplements daily for a year. Growth deceleration occurred from 6 to 18 months of age but deceleration in LAZ was lower (by 0.02-0.04/month) in the Plumpy'doz (P = 0.02), rice-lentil (food groups relative to the control. In rural Bangladesh, small amounts of daily fortified complementary foods, provided for a year in addition to nutrition counselling, modestly increased linear growth and reduced stunting at 18 months of age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    1999-01-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  11. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1999-09-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author) 37 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Popularization of groundnut varieties through BARC-UASD collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudan, K.; Nadaf, H.L.; Hanchinal, R.R.; Krishna Naik, L.; Motagi, B.N.; Biradar Patil, N.K.; Hunje, Ravi; D'Souza, S.F.; Badigannavar, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    To boost the productivity of groundnut, farmers need to have an access to improved seeds of the right variety, at the right time, at the right place, at an affordable price. The awareness and benefits of the improved varieties and quality seeds of groundnut was carried out by carefully planned co-ordinated educational systems such as field trials, demonstrations, field days, training farmers, interface meetings through the well established network of the University and mass media promotional tools. The BARC-UASD collaboration led to the popularization of BARC groundnut varieties like TAG-24, TG-26, TPG-41 and TDG-39 among the farming community of north Karnataka. (author)

  13. Sodium, sugar, and fat content of complementary infant and toddler foods sold in the United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Bates, Marlana; Yuan, Keming; Scanlon, Kelley S; Pehrsson, Pamela; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K

    2017-06-01

    Background: As part of a healthy diet, limiting intakes of excess sodium, added sugars, saturated fat, and trans fat has been recommended. The American Heart Association recommends that children aged sugars. Objective: We sought to determine commercial complementary infant-toddler food categories that were of potential concern because of the sodium, added sugar, saturated fat, or trans fat content. Design: Nutrition label information (e.g., serving size, sodium, saturated fat, trans fat) for 1032 infant and toddler foods was collected from manufacturers' websites and stores from May to July 2015 for 24 brands, which accounted for >95% of infant-toddler food sales. The presence of added sugars was determined from the ingredient list. Reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) categories were used to group foods and standardize serving sizes. A high sodium content was evaluated on the basis of the Upper Intake Level for children aged 1-3 y and the number of potential servings per day ([i.e., 1500 mg/7 servings (>210 mg/RACC)], a sodium amount >200 mg/100 g, or a mean sodium density >1000 mg/1000 kcal. Results: In 2015, most commercial infant-only vegetables, fruit, dinners, and cereals were low in sodium, contained no saturated fat, and did not contain added sugars. On average, toddler meals contained 2233 mg Na/1000 kcal, and 84% of the meals had >210 mg Na/RACC (170 g), whereas 69% of infant-toddler savory snacks had >200 mg Na/100 g. More than 70% of toddler meals, cereal bars and breakfast pastries, and infant-toddler grain- or dairy-based desserts contained ≥1 sources of added sugar. Approximately 70% of toddler meals contained saturated fat (mean: 1.9 g/RACC), and no commercial infant-toddler foods contained trans fats. Conclusion: Most commercial toddler meals, cereal bars and breakfast pastries, and infant-toddler snacks and desserts have high sodium contents or contain added sugars, suggesting a need for continued public health efforts to support parents

  14. Legislation should support optimal breastfeeding practices and access to low-cost, high-quality complementary foods: Indonesia provides a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekarjo, Damayanti; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy environment necessary to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Legislative and policy changes are also necessary for introducing complementary food supplements, allowing them to be marketed to those who need them, and ensuring that marketing remains appropriate and in full compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. This paper aims to illustrate the above with examples from Indonesia and to identify legislative requirements for supporting breastfeeding and enabling appropriate access to high-quality complementary food supplements for children 6-24 months of age. Requirements include improved information, training, monitoring and enforcement systems for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; implementation and monitoring of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; establishment of a registration category for complementary food supplements to enhance availability of high-quality, low-cost fortified products to help improve young child feeding; clear identification and marketing of these products as complementary food supplements for 6-24-month-olds so as to promote proper use and not interfere with breastfeeding. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Two-dimensional partitioning of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YCA) was evaluated using a groundnut, (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop at four plant population densities or five thinning intensities (%) after flowering. The experiments were carried out during the 1989/90 cropping season at the University of ...

  16. Productivity of Cassava, Sorghum and Groundnut Intercrop Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of Cassava, Sorghum and Groundnut Intercrop Using Poultry Manure with Chemical Fertilizer Replacement Combinations. II Ibeawuchi, CI Duruigbo, LU Ihenacho, GO Ihejirika, MO Ofor, OP Obilo, JC Obiefuna ...

  17. gene effects for resistance to groundnut rossette disease in exotic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-25

    Feb 25, 2016 ... The materials were evaluated for biotic and abiotic stresses, but succumbed to groundnut rosette disease .... done, where male parents were planted 10 days ... pm) for 21 days. .... particular environment is paramount for.

  18. Assessing the genetic diversity of 48 groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the genetic diversity of 48 groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L. ) ... both at the phenotypic and molecular level is important in all plant breeding programs. ... other and could therefore serve as effective parental material for future work.

  19. Genetic diversity of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORRESTER

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... The existence of genetic diversity in germplasm collections is crucial for cultivar development. ... program for Bambara groundnut, a thorough under- ..... na* = Observed number of alleles; ne* = Effective number of alleles ...

  20. Nitrogen credits from cowpea, soybean, groundnut and Mucuna to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    fixing capacity. A field study was conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Ejura in the forest savanna transition ..... plants. Soybean, cowpea, and groundnut could be susceptible to various root knot nematode ..... Maize and legumes production guide.

  1. Growth, phenological and yield responses of a bambara groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of irrigation levels and seed coat colour on growth, development, yield and ... Drought tolerance in bambara groundnut landraces was achieved by reduced canopy ... and maturity, and maintaining high water use efficiency under stress.

  2. Food and Crime Fiction: Two Complementary Approaches to the Vietnamese Past in Tran-Nhut's Les travers du docteur Porc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Do

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With a series of detective novels set in 17th century Dai-Viet that showcase the traditions, beliefs and customs of an exotic culture, in which the food and food habits of the Vietnamese people play a prominent role, Thanh-Van Tran-Nhut, an engineer-turned-novelist of Vietnamese origins, has carved a niche for herself in the popular crime fiction market in France. This paper focuses on the novel Les Travers du Docteur Porc, in which Doctor Porc, forensic investigator and gourmand extraordinaire, adopts the mantle of chief detective from Tran-Nhut’s usual protagonist, the loyal mandarin Tan. In this movement, we argue, the author has shaped two different but complementary approaches to her birth-country’s turbulent past that coalesce in the gargantuan figure of the (politically unencumbered doctor and connoisseur of Vietnamese cuisine. Whereas the process of ‘solving the crime’ can be read as an attempt to seek answers and restore order in the wake of senseless bloodshed, it is food, we contend, that emerges, not only as a source of pleasure, succour and stability, but as a cultural heritage that war and upheaval failed to destroy.

  3. Determination of Some Physical Properties of Three Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coefficient of friction averaged 0.56 on wood and 0.41 on galvanized steel for the three varieties of groundnut pods. The moisture contents of the pods, seeds and shells were found to be 7.4%, 6.4% and 11.3% (wet basis) on the average respectively. The results also showed that groundnut pods and seeds were neither ...

  4. The performance characteristics of groundnut ( Arachis hypogea , L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethyl-esters were blended with automotive gas oil at (0 to 20%) mix with 5% increment of groundnut ethyl-esters to produce biodiesel. The performance of a 2.46 kW diesel engine was evaluated using the groundnut biodiesel at five loading conditions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full load). Automotive gas oil was used as ...

  5. Modelling the canopy development of bambara groundnut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunaratne, A.S.; Azam-Ali, S.N.; Al-Shareef, I.

    2010-01-01

    Canopy development of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) is affected by temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiod. The quantification of these documented effects by means of a suitable crop model, BAMGRO is presented in this paper. Data on canopy development from five growth...... chamber, four glasshouse and three field experiments were analyzed to calibrate and validate the BAMGRO model to produce simulations for temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiodic effect on two contrasting landraces; Uniswa Red (Swaziland) and S19-3 (Namibia). The daily initiation rate of new...... leaves is calculated by means of a Gaussian function and is altered by temperature stress, drought stress, photoperiod and plant density. The rate in dead leaf number is dependent upon the maximum senescence fraction which can be explained by physiological maturity, mutual shading, temperature stress...

  6. Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour and green gram flour (sprouted as well as unsprouted were blended in different proportions with apple pulp, sugar, milk and water for formulation of 12 hypoallergic diets. The formulations were studied for physico-chemical properties, antinutrient content (phytate and oxalate and in vitro protein digestibility. Blending and sprouting significantly affected all the studied parameters. Sprouting significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, while carbohydrate content and antinutrients decreased significantly. Nutrition profile of water-based diets met RDA guidelines only after addition of sprouted green gram flour and were comparable to control (commercial weaning food. Water-based formulation showed lower sensory score than milk-based diets; however, addition of sprouted green gram flour significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved their overall acceptability. It could be concluded that by incorporating sprouted green gram flour, milk could be replaced with water for production of hypoallergic weaning foods without affecting the nutritional and sensory attributes of formulations and thereby making the production more economical, especially for underdeveloped countries.

  7. Nutrition education and introduction of broad bean-based complementary food improves knowledge and dietary practices of caregivers and nutritional status of their young children in Hula, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Canaan; Belachew, Tefera; Henry, Carol J; Kebebu, Afework; Abegaz, Kebede; Whiting, Susan J

    2014-12-01

    Nutritious complementary foods are needed in countries where undernutrition and stunting are major problems, but mothers may be reluctant to change from traditional gruels. To test whether a recipe-based complementary feeding education intervention would improve knowledge and practice of mothers with young children in Hula, Ethiopia. A baseline survey of 200 eligible, randomly selected mother-child pairs gathered data on sociodemographic characteristics, food security status, knowledge and practices concerning complementary feeding, food group intakes of children aged 6 to 23 months by 24-hour recalls, and children's anthropometric measurements. Twice a month for 6 months, women in the intervention group received an education session consisting of eight specific messages using Alive and Thrive posters and a demonstration and tasting of a local barley and maize porridge recipe containing 30% broad beans. The control group lived in a different area and had no intervention. At 6 months, knowledge and practice scores regarding complementary feeding were significantly improved (p nutrition education over 6 months that included demonstration of a local porridge recipe with broad beans added improved the complementary feeding practices of caregivers and the nutritional status of their young children.

  8. an investigation into the use of groundnut shell as fine aggregate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Groundnut Shell Use as Fine Aggregate Replacement. 55. (a) Plate A. (b) Plate B ... as a waste from a household which uses groundnut for oil making. ..... Analysis of Cement and Aggregate Replacement Ma- terials. Nigerian ...

  9. The effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on micronutrient status, growth and development of 6- to 12-month-old disadvantaged urban South-African infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Benade, A.J.S.; Dhansay, M.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to look at the effectiveness of a multimicronutrient-fortified complementary food on the micronutrient status, linear growth and psychomotor development of 6- to 12-month-old infants from a black urban disadvantaged community in the Western Cape, South Africa. The study was

  10. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  11. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  12. Age of the introduction of the first complementary food and determinants of its early introduction by Slovak mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Mrosková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the age of introduction of complementary food (CF and the factors leading to early introduction of CF (≤ four months. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In the period October 2011 to April 2012 we conducted research on 405 mothers of infants living in the Slovak Republic, particularly in the regions of Prešov (56.0% and Košice (20.5%. The questionnaire, of our own design, integrated 13 factors. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and logistic regression (95% CI. Results: The first CF was introduced at 5.5 months (M = 5.47; SD = 1.22; range 1.0 to 10.0. Early introduction of CF was identified in 24.2% of children. A significantly higher risk of early introduction of first CF was found in respondents with: lower maternal age (OR = 4.436, lower levels of education (secondary education without GCE/vocational qualifications - OR = 10.140, lower maternal awareness of healthy nutrition (OR = 2.996, lower levels of satisfaction with their financial situation (OR = 1.927, and in single mothers (OR = 5.143, and children receiving combined milk nutrition rather than purely breastfeeding (OR = 3.888. Conclusion: Recognition of the factors leading to early introduction of CF allows the implementation of effective prevention strategies by health professionals.

  13. Improvement of bambara groundnut production using induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoatey, H M; Klu, G Y.P. [Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Inst., Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon (Ghana)

    1997-12-01

    Induction of variation in bambara groundnut using gamma radiation has been tried before. However, no mutants with the desired determinate flowering habit and synchronous pod maturity were obtained. This project is aimed at: conducting a nationwide exploration exercise to collect germplasm of bambara groundnut for agronomic evaluation with respect to flowering and fruiting characteristics and their effects on yield; and, applying the technique of mutation induction to create variability (if this is not found in the germplasm to be collected) from which mutants with determinate flowering and fruiting habit may be selected for use in breeding. 6 refs.

  14. Improvement of bambara groundnut production using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoatey, H.M.; Klu, G.Y.P.

    1997-01-01

    Induction of variation in bambara groundnut using gamma radiation has been tried before. However, no mutants with the desired determinate flowering habit and synchronous pod maturity were obtained. This project is aimed at: conducting a nationwide exploration exercise to collect germplasm of bambara groundnut for agronomic evaluation with respect to flowering and fruiting characteristics and their effects on yield; and, applying the technique of mutation induction to create variability (if this is not found in the germplasm to be collected) from which mutants with determinate flowering and fruiting habit may be selected for use in breeding. 6 refs

  15. Estimating the month-specific effect of complementary food on weight loss occurrence rate in less than 2 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weight loss in children is one of the health problems that could occur several times for achild; therefore it is categorized as a recurrent event. In this study, we investigated the weight loss riskfactors firstly by using proportional rates model and then by applying time-dependent coefficient ratesmodel.Materials and Methods: In this study, the information of 1673 babies who were born in 2006 or 2007and were visited for monthly check ups at Tehran east health centers during their first two years of life wereincluded in the analysis. We first fitted the standard proportional rates model to this data with the purposeof determining weigh loss major risk factors. After adjusting these factors, the month-specific effect ofcomplementary foods on weight loss occurrence rate was explored using time-varying coefficient ratesmodel.Results: Our findings showed that the risk of weight loss gets heightened as with the increase in theintake of complementary foods. This negative effect is likely to be the most between 9 and 11 months ofage and then tends to weaken as the baby grows older. The results of Wald-type statistic showed that theimpact of complementary food on the occurrence of weight loss is significantly different with respect to thechild ‘age (P<0.001.Conclusion: Considering the variability of the effect of complementary food on the occurrence of weightloss, time-varying coefficient rates model can give more appropriate estimation of this effect thanproportional rates model.

  16. On-Farm Demonstrations with a Set of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs Proved Cost-Effective in Reducing Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraju Parimi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut is an important qualitative issue posing a threat to food safety. In our present study, we have demonstrated the efficacy of certain good agricultural practices (GAPs in groundnut, such as farmyard manure (5 t/ha, gypsum (500 kg/ha, a protective irrigation at 90 days after sowing (DAS, drying of pods on tarpaulins after harvest in farmers’ fields. During 2013–2015, 89 on-farm demonstrations were conducted advocating GAPs, and compared with farmers’ practices (FP plots. Farmers’ awareness of GAPs, and knowledge on important aspects of groundnut cultivation, were also assessed during our experimentation in the selected villages under study. Pre-harvest kernel infection by Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin contamination, and pod yields were compared in GAPs plots, vis-à-vis FP plots. The cost of cultivation in both the plots was calculated and compared, based on farmer’s opinion surveys. Results indicate kernel infections and aflatoxins were significantly lower, with 13–58% and 62–94% reduction, respectively, in GAPs plots over FP. Further, a net gain of around $23 per acre was realized through adoption of GAPs by farmers besides quality improvement of groundnuts. Based on our results, it can be concluded that on-farm demonstrations were the best educative tool to convince the farmers about the cost-effectiveness, and adoptability of aflatoxin management technologies.

  17. Germination of several groundnut cultivars in relation to incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is concerned with the germination of nine cultivars of groundnut grown in Nigeria in relation to incidence of fungi. The cultivars were NHK 5V8, NUTII 288, Samnut 10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24 and MK 373. Germination potential was assessed after 10 days of planting in petri-dishes. Parameters such as seedling ...

  18. Mechanical Oil Expression from Groundnut ( Arachid hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro and medium scale groundnut (Arachid hypogaea L) oil processors are earnestly struggling to increase their production capacity to meet market demands in terms of quantity and quality. The existing traditional method of extraction involves roasting of the kernels using firewood as a fuel; pounding and crushing of the ...

  19. development of a motorized kneader for groundnut oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    The machine was constructed, and evaluated for its performance in terms of, its kneading time and ... groundnut oil extraction is a profitable business, and mosly done by women. It was also .... (2.0 hp) single-phase electric motor and its small.

  20. Consumer awareness and acceptability of bambara groundnut as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adewumi Toyin Oyeyinka

    major cause of deaths in children globally1 and is a concern in ... attitudes and translates into purchasing behaviour. ... Third-year students from the Department of Dietetics and .... Willingness to include bambara groundnut in family cooking. Yes. 64. 91.4 ... and climate conditions and lack of proper knowledge on cultivation.

  1. Shelf Life Extension of Toasted Groundnuts through the Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate edible coatings containing 20% glycerol in extending the shelf life of toasted groundnut during ambient (27 ± 1oC) storage for 14 days was studied. Chemical indices of oxidative rancidity and sensory parameters were evaluated using standard procedures. Moisture ...

  2. Enhancing rural economies: women in groundnut marketing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incomes for rural women are generally low and continue to dwindle. For women living in rural Northern Ghana, a major source of income and therefore economic sustenance is groundnut production. The empirical findings of this study conducted in Kalbeo, a peri-urban Community Institutional Mapping (CIM) and ...

  3. Profitability and Econimic Efficientcy of Groundnut Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This could be attributed to high demand for labour, land and agrochemicals which ... The socio-economic factors that affect groundnut production in the study area ... Furthermore, the elasticity of cost of production with respect to cost of hired ...

  4. Drought affects protein and phenolic content in bambara groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) is a legume crop, which has long been recognised as a protein-rich and drought-tolerant crop, used extensively in sub-Saharan Africa. This study evaluates the effect of experimental water deficit stress on total protein concentration, secondary protein structure and the total ...

  5. Economic evaluation of soil fertility management in groundnut fields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides the economic evaluation of soil fertility replenishing technologies (use of inorganic fertilizers, organic manure, and rhizobium inoculant) that were tested and recommended. Data on groundnut technologies used, yields, resource availability and use, and farmers' characteristics were collected through ...

  6. Profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnut is an important cash crop and a good source of vegetable oil to resource-poor farmers. The study examined the Profitability of Groundnut–based Cropping Systems among farmers in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers were ...

  7. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  8. Farmers' perception on the effects of climate change on groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed farmer's perception on the effect of climate change on groundnut production in Obi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Despite the fact that efforts have been made towards combating climate change, research and policies directed towards understanding of local perception are useful in ...

  9. Effects of partial replacement of soyabean meal or groundnut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    160 unsexed Nera day old chicks were weighed and randomly divided into 8 experimental groups such that there were 2 replicates of 10 birds each per diet. Eight diets were formulated for the starter and finisher phases. The first four diets had groundnut cake as the protein source and were gradually replaced by sunflower ...

  10. Genetic diversity of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of genetic diversity in germplasm collections is crucial for cultivar development. Genetic relationships among 105 Bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) accessions from Kenya were evaluated using 12 microsatellite markers. The Bambara landraces were collected from farmers in the western ...

  11. Evaluation of resistance of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of resistance of different strains of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon serratus against some synthetic insecticides formulas and to compare their biodemographic parameters. Methodology and results: The insecticides tests were done in three localities of Senegal (Mpal, ...

  12. Evaluation of nutritional quality of groundnut ( Arachis Hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil, fatty acids, protein, oleic/linoleic (O/L) acid ratio, iodine value and free soluble sugars were studied in 20 groundnut varieties grown in Ghana to determine their nutritional quality and to inform endusers which variety to choose for maximum benefit. Results indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in oil content among ...

  13. Degradation characteristics of urea and lime treated groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to investigate the chemical composition and rumen degradation characteristics of treated groundnut shells (GNS) based diets in the rumen. It was carried out in the Teaching and Research farm of the Department of Animal Science A.B.U. Zaria. Three fistulated Yankasa rams with average ...

  14. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect o replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's dried grains at 0 25 50, 75 and 100 % graded levels in broiler chick starter diets was investigated. Five dietary treatments were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 23 % crude protein and 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy.

  15. Degradation of Crude Protein in Groundnut Cake, Guinea Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely randomized design for degradation of crude protein (CP) of groundnut cake (GNC), Panicum maximum, rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), ...

  16. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  17. Profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in Hong local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information ...

  18. Microbiology of natural fermentation of cowpea and groundnut for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, locustbean is fermented naturally for dawadawa production. Scarcity of locustbean indicated a need for using other legumes as substitutes for producing dawadawa. The feasibility of using cowpea and groundnut was therefore investigated. The microorganisms associated with natural fermentation of cowpea ...

  19. Breastfeeding, Infant Formula, and Introduction to Complementary Foods-Comparing Data Obtained by Questionnaires and Health Visitors' Reports to Weekly Short Message Service Text Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Signe; Buhl, Susanne; Husby, Steffen; Jacobsen, Lotte Neergaard; Michaelsen, Kim F; Sørensen, Jan; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-11-01

    Studies on prevalence and effects of breastfeeding call for reliable and precise data collection to optimize infant nutrition, growth, and health. Data on breastfeeding and infant nutrition are at risk of, for example, recall bias or social desirability bias. The aim of the present analysis was to compare data on infant nutrition, that is, breastfeeding, use of infant formula, and introduction to complementary foods, obtained by four different methods. We assumed that weekly short message service (SMS) questions were the most reliable method, to which the other methods were compared. The study population was part of the Odense Child Cohort. The four methods used were: (a) self-administered questionnaire 3 months postpartum, (b) self-administered questionnaire 18 months postpartum, (c) registrations from health visitors visiting the families several times within the first year of life, and (d) weekly SMS questions introduced shortly after birth. In total, 639 singleton mothers with data from all four methods were included. The proportion of mothers initiating breastfeeding varied from 86% to 97%, the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding from 12 to 19 weeks, and the mean age when introduced to complementary foods from 19 to 21 weeks. The mean duration of any breastfeeding was 33 weeks across methods. Compared with the weekly SMS questions, the self-administered questionnaires and the health visitors' reports resulted in a greater proportion of mothers with an unknown breastfeeding status, a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and later introduction to complementary foods, while the duration of any breastfeeding did not differ.

  20. Mothers' Knowledge and Attitude toward Food Security in Complementary Feeding of 1-2 Year Old Children and its Relation with Demographic Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Yeganeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity denotes failure to provide adequate food. Knowledge and attitude play a key role in food security, which is of paramount importance in the first two years of life. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate mothers' knowledge and attitude towards food security in complementary feeding of 1-2 year-old offspring. Method: Using a cross-sectional study, 400 mothers of children 1-2 years old were selected from comprehensive health service centers in Bushehr, in 2016. The data collection instrument included a self-made questionnaire with 20 knowledge questions with CVR=0.95, CVI=0.95, and reliability 0.7 as well as a questionnaire with 26 questions on the attitude with CVI=0.94, CVR=0.91 and reliability 0.76 which were completed by the mothers and analysis with Spearman correlation, logistic regression and descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 29.5±4.9 years. We found that 74 (18.5% of the mothers had an inappropriate level of knowledge and 10.5% of them had a negative attitude toward food security in complementary feeding. There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and attitude (r=0.26, P=0.001. Maternal age (OR=1.10, P

  1. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT PRODUCTION IN SABONGARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Usman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut an important oil seed crop provides significant sources of cash through the sales of seed, cakes, oil and haulms. Groundnut plays an important role in the diets of rural populations. Groundnut pod yields from farmer’s field are low, averaging about 800 kg per ha, less than one-third the potential yield of 3000 kg per ha. This large gap is of concern and in view of this, the study was carried out to assess the socio economic characteristics of groundnut farmers, determine the level of profitability of groundnut production, the resource use efficiency as well as to find out problems encountered in groundnut production in Sabon-gari local government area. Seventy-nine farmers involved in groundnut production were randomly selected from the various farms located within the local government area. Data were collected using primary and secondary sources. To examine the profitability of groundnut production, the gross margin and cost benefit analysis were carried out. The result of the study shows that experienced farmers are less involved in groundnut production and most groundnut farmers are engaged in other form of businesses. The cost, availability, and lack of technical knowledge of inputs requirements are responsible for poor use of the inputs. Labour, fertilizer, seed and herbicides are all over utilized except insecticide which is underutilized. Among the problems encountered in groundnut production in the study are lacks of capital and extension services. These two problems accounted for over 78% of the problem of groundnut in the study area. It is therefore recommended that government and research institutes should strengthen extension services to deliver improved technologies to the farmers. Farmers are also advised to source for loans through cooperatives, banks and other available sources at low charges and the procedure for loan should be made simple to enable farmers’ access loans so that groundnut production can be improved.

  2. Effects of Animal-Source Foods and Micronutrient-Fortification Complementary Foods on Body Composition, Linear Growth, Iron Status – the WinFood Project in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhoun, Chamnan; Kloppenborg Heick Skau, Jutta; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Roos, Nanna; Touch, Bunthang; Chea, Mary; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The nutritional quality of CF in developing countries is often insufficient to sustain optimal growth. The Winfood project evaluated the efficacy of two new, processed rice-fish based CF with local ASF in Cambodia: non-fortified ‘WinFood’ (WF) with 14% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish (Esomus longimanus and Paralaubuca typus) and edible spiders (Haplopelma sp.); an adjusted ‘lite’ WinFood (WF-L) with 10% by dry-weight ASF from small-sized fish of mixed species, and fortified with minerals and vitamins. The products were precooked by extrusion. The WF-products were compared with two standard products from World Food Programme: Corn-Soy-Blend (CSB+) and CSB++ (8% by dry-weight skimmed-milk powder), in a single-blinded randomized trial. Methods: 419 Cambodian infants at age 6 months were randomized to daily rations of one of the four products for nine months period. BC (deuterium dilution) and iron status (serum ferritin and hemoglobin) were measured before and after intervention; and anthropometry (knee-heel-length, length, weight, MUAC, head circumference and skinfolds) monthly. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat. Results: Among 358 children completing the study, no significant difference in BC between the groups where found, but knee-heel length increments differed (P = 0.046: WF-L: 3.6 cm, CSB++: 3.6 cm, WF: 3.5 cm, CSB+: 3.4 cm), suggesting that micronutrient-fortified products with 8-10% ASF (CSB++ and WF-L) promoted better linear growth than products without fortification or ASF. Knee-heel and total length increment was significantly higher in the highest food compliance quartile compared to the lowest, across food groups. There were no differences in ferritin and hemoglobin concentration. There was higher prevalence of anemic children in the WF group. Conclusion: Products with ASF (milk or small fish) and micronutrient premix resulted in slightly better linear growth. Small fish is a cheap ASF with high potential

  3. Success story of radiation based induced mutagenesis in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badigannavar, Anand M.; Mondal, Suvendu; D'Souza, Stanislaus F.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic improvement of groundnut through sustained mutation and recombination breeding at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai resulted in the development of 260 new mutants and breeding lines having unique traits and desirable attributes. Among them, 14 Trombay groundnut (TG) varieties with superior agronomic features were released for commercial cultivation for different states across the country. Most of these varieties have significantly contributed towards the enhancement of groundnut production and productivity in the country. Majority of these varieties were also utilized as parents in the national and state groundnut breeding programmes. Additionally induced TG mutants are the source material for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of different traits. (author)

  4. Breastfeeding, infant formula, and introduction to complementary foods - comparing data obtained by questionnaires and health visitors' reports to weekly short message service text messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Buhl, Susanne; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    compared. DESIGN: The study population was part of the Odense Child Cohort. The four methods used were: (a) self-administered questionnaire 3 months postpartum, (b) self-administered questionnaire 18 months postpartum, (c) registrations from health visitors visiting the families several times within...... weeks, and the mean age when introduced to complementary foods from 19 to 21 weeks. The mean duration of any breastfeeding was 33 weeks across methods. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the weekly SMS questions, the self-administered questionnaires and the health visitors' reports resulted in a greater...

  5. Utilization of induced mutations for groundnut breeding in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busolo-Bulafu, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are on high demand in Uganda. There is, therefore, an urgent need to improve groundnut yields through breeding. The main objectives besides yield are the following: 1. To improve disease resistance: (a) rosette virus transmitted by aphids (Aphis craccivora); (b) leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola (early) and Cercosporidium personatum (late). 2. To advance the maturity period of high yielding varieties so as to fit better into the rainfall pattern of the main growing areas. 3. To improve seed uniformity, seed size and quality (protein, oil). 4. To reduce plant height by shortening the internodes so as to have more flower production near the ground. For mutation breeding three erect groundnut cultivars were used, Roxo a recommended commercial variety; Red Beauty (Bl) a recommended local variety and No. 534 a tan skinned variety. Seeds of the three varieties were irradiated in 1976 at the FAO/IAEA Agricultural Section of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, with 1500 rad of fast neutrons (Nf) or 20 krad of 60 Co gamma rays. The pedigree method of selection was used until M9. During 1985 and 1986, seven mutant selections of Red Beauty and one from Roxo were tested in replicated yield trials. Results are given. On the basis of plot yields some of the Red Beauty mutant lines outyielded the parent but not the commercial variety Roxo

  6. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, T; Murthy, V S

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  7. Biological and water-use efficiencies of sorghum-groundnut intercrop

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to compare water-use efficiency of sole crops and intercrops, 2 experiments were conducted in 2 consecutive years with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on a loamy, Grossarenic Paleudult. In a randomized block, split-plot design, sorghum (SS), groundnut (GG), ...

  8. Aqueous plant extracts for control of groundnut leaf spot in Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early and late leaf spots, the two fungal diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori. and Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk and Curt), respectively, cause severe groundnut crop losses in arid zone of West Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of aqueous extracts ...

  9. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  10. Molecular Responses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L. to Zinc Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John De Britto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, evolutionary and environmental reasons. The interference of germination related proteins by heavy metals has not been well documented at the proteomic and genomic level. In the current study, molecular responses of germinating groundnut seeds were investigated under Zinc stress. The SDS-PAGE showed the preliminary changes in the polypeptides patterns under Zinc stress. Restriction digestion banding pattern of EcoRI and Hind III enzymes showed distinct banding pattern in the treated plants.

  11. The use of linear programming to determine whether a formulated complementary food product can ensure adequate nutrients for 6- to 11-month-old Cambodian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skau, Jutta K H; Bunthang, Touch; Chamnan, Chhoun; Wieringa, Frank T; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Roos, Nanna; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2014-01-01

    A new software tool, Optifood, developed by the WHO and based on linear programming (LP) analysis, has been developed to formulate food-based recommendations. This study discusses the use of Optifood for predicting whether formulated complementary food (CF) products can ensure dietary adequacy for target populations in Cambodia. Dietary data were collected by 24-h recall in a cross-sectional survey of 6- to 11-mo-old infants (n = 78). LP model parameters were derived from these data, including a list of foods, median serving sizes, and dietary patterns. Five series of LP analyses were carried out to model the target population's baseline diet and 4 formulated CF products [WinFood (WF), WinFood-Lite (WF-L), Corn-Soy-Blend Plus (CSB+), and Corn-Soy-Blend Plus Plus (CSB++)], which were added to the diet in portions of 33 g/d dry weight (DW) for infants aged 6-8 mo and 40 g/d DW for infants aged 9-11 mo. In each series of analyses, the nutritionally optimal diet and theoretical range, in diet nutrient contents, were determined. The LP analysis showed that baseline diets could not achieve the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, and zinc (range: 14-91% of RNI in the optimal diets) and that none of the formulated CF products could cover the nutrient gaps for thiamin, niacin, iron, and folate (range: 22-86% of the RNI). Iron was the key limiting nutrient, for all modeled diets, achieving a maximum of only 48% of the RNI when CSB++ was included in the diet. Only WF and WF-L filled the nutrient gap for calcium. WF-L, CSB+, and CSB++ filled the nutrient gap for zinc (9- to 11-mo-olds). The formulated CF products improved the nutrient adequacy of complementary feeding diets but could not entirely cover the nutrient gaps. These results emphasize the value of using LP to evaluate special CF products during the intervention planning phase. The WF study was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN19918531.

  12. Development of food-based complementary feeding recommendations for 9- to 11-month-old peri-urban Indonesian infants using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Otte; Fahmida, Umi; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2009-01-01

    Effective population-specific, food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are required to combat micronutrient deficiencies. To facilitate their formulation, a modeling approach was recently developed. However, it has not yet been used in practice. This study therefore aimed to use this approach to develop CFR for 9- to 11-mo-old Indonesian infants and to identify nutrients that will likely remain low in their diets. The CFR were developed using a 4-phase approach based on linear and goal programming. Model parameters were defined using dietary data collected in a cross-sectional survey of 9- to 11-mo-old infants (n = 100) living in the Bogor District, West-Java, Indonesia and a market survey of 3 local markets. Results showed theoretical iron requirements could not be achieved using local food sources (highest level achievable, 63% of recommendations) and adequate levels of iron, niacin, zinc, and calcium were difficult to achieve. Fortified foods, meatballs, chicken liver, eggs, tempe-tofu, banana, and spinach were the best local food sources to improve dietary quality. The final CFR were: breast-feed on demand, provide 3 meals/d, of which 1 is a fortified infant cereal; > or = 5 servings/wk of tempe/tofu; > or = 3 servings/wk of animal-source foods, of which 2 servings/wk are chicken liver; vegetables, daily; snacks, 2 times/d, including > or = 2 servings/wk of banana; and > or = 4 servings/wk of fortified-biscuits. Results showed that the approach can be used to objectively formulate population-specific CFR and identify key problem nutrients to strengthen nutrition program planning and policy decisions. Before recommending these CFR, their long-term acceptability, affordability, and effectiveness should be assessed.

  13. The Correlation between Providing Complementary Food and Breast-Feeding with the Growth and Development of Children under the Age of Five Years Old (6-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Cahya Rahmadiyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A toddler is a group on the stage of human development that is vulnerable to the risk affecting their health specifically about their growth and development. Providing the appropriate nutrition to toddlers during this risky age of 6 to 24 months is crucial in promoting a proper growth and development. The proper nourishment for toddlers at the age of 6 to 24 months includes breast-feeding and complimentary solid foods. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the specific characteristics of a family or a household and the provision of complementary feeding about the growth and development of children (6-24 months in the village of Curug Cimanggis, Depok. This study used a descriptive correlational, cross-sectional approach using a sample that consisted of 102 children aged 6-24 months, which were collected using a proportional cluster sampling. Based on the Chi Square test, the researchers found no correlation between the provision of complementary feeding with a child’s growth and development. This is because breast-feeding as the source of nourishment is still the major factor that directly influences the growth and development of any toddler between the age of 6-24 months. However, by applying better financial management in conjunction with the ability to modify the practices of how families feed their toddlers, a family may raise and nurture their toddlers so they may grow according to the proper stages of development. The results of this study are expected to serve as an input in improving toddlers’ health care concerning their growth and development by promoting the importance of providing the appropriate complimentary food by the proper guidelines while continuing to breast feed toddlers between the age of 6 to 24 months.

  14. The response of Heterobranchus longifilis to the combination of fish meal at different levels with 40% of groundnut cake in its diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ovie, S.O.; Ovie, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    A study was carried out on the response of Heterobranchus longifilis to the replacement of fish meal with 40% of groundnut cake in six experimental diets with varying protein levels (26.13%, 30.88%, 34.87%, 39.28%, 44.19% and 50.76%). The highest weight gain (72.46g), specific growth rate (SGR) (2.16), the best food conversion ratio (FCR) (1.91) and gross food conversion efficiency (GCE) (0.016) were recorded for fish fed diet with 50.76% (Diet VI) crude protein (40%groundnutcake and 38.15% f...

  15. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoharan, V; Thangavelu, S [Regional Research Station, Vriddhachalam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    1990-07-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M{sub 1} generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M{sub 2} generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M{sub 2} plants being 1,730. All the M{sub 2} plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  16. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoharan, V.; Thangavelu, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M 1 generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M 2 generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M 2 plants being 1,730. All the M 2 plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  17. Food fortification as a complementary strategy for the elimination of micronutrient deficiencies: case studies of large scale food fortification in two Indian States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Sadhana; Gulati, Deepti; Sachdeva, Ruchika; Sankar, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    The burden of micronutrient malnutrition is very high in India. Food fortification is one of the most cost-effective and sustainable strategies to deliver micronutrients to large population groups. Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) is supporting large-scale, voluntary, staple food fortification in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh because of the high burden of malnutrition, availability of industries capable of and willing to introduce fortified staples, consumption patterns of target foods and a conducive and enabling environment. High extraction wheat flour from roller flour mills, edible soybean oil and milk from dairy cooperatives were chosen as the vehicles for fortification. Micronutrients and levels of fortification were selected based on vehicle characteristics and consumption levels. Industry recruitment was done after a careful assessment of capability and willingness. Production units were equipped with necessary equipment for fortification. Staffs were trained in fortification and quality control. Social marketing and communication activities were carried out as per the strategy developed. A state food fortification alliance was formed in Madhya Pradesh with all relevant stakeholders. Over 260,000 MT of edible oil, 300,000 MT of wheat flour and 500,000 MT of milk are being fortified annually and marketed. Rajasthan is also distributing 840,000 MT of fortified wheat flour annually through its Public Distribution System and 1.1 million fortified Mid-day meals daily through the centralised kitchens. Concurrent monitoring in Rajasthan and Madhya has demonstrated high compliance with all quality standards in fortified foods.

  18. Effects of replacing groundnut cake with rumen content supplemented with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, A A; Rumak, S; Oluwafemi, R A

    2015-12-18

    Rabbits are also herbivores which efficiently convert fodder to food. They are prolific and converter of plant proteins of little or no use to people as food into high-value animal protein. Rabbit meat is high in protein, low in calories and low in fat and cholesterol contents, being considered as a delicacy and a healthy food product. Feeding rabbits with concentrates is expensive and therefore in order to reduce cost of production, hence the use of rumen content in this study as alternative feedstuff without competition. A total of thirty six (36) weaner rabbits (oryctalagus cuniculus) of different body weight and age where use in this experiment to determine the effects of replacing rumen content with or without enzyme supplementation for groundnut cake. This feeding trial which lasted for 8 weeks was carried out in order to determine the replacement value of groundnut cake with rumen content with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbit. A 3x2 factorial experiment was adopted such that there where three (3) replacement level of rumen content (0, 25 and 50 %) for groundnut cake by two supplemental level (no enzyme and enzyme supplement). The results showed that increased inclusion level of rumen content has significant effects (p  0.05) with weight gained value of 7.62,7.44 and 7.36 g respectively. Similarly there was a significant (p  0.05) of the treatment on urinary nitrogen. Significant (p  0.05) of the supplementation on the nitrogen intake. The interaction between the varying levels of rumen content supplementation had significant effects (p < 0.05) on the feacal nitrogen, feed intake and feed to gain ratio but no significant (p < 0.05) effects on interaction of nitrogen intake. In conclusion, since the results from this study showed no negative effects on the performance of the experimental animals, the test ingredient can be used as alternative feedstuff at a lower inclusion level so as to reduce production cost and expand

  19. The genotoxic effect of lead and zinc on bambara groundnut (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladele Sunday

    pollution can lead to some irreversible cytogenetic effects in plants and higher organisms. ... disease caused by consumption of mercury. .... Chromosome aberrations in bambara groundnut root tips cells treated with different concentrations of ...

  20. aqueous plant extracts for control of groundnut leaf spot in burkina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Early and late leaf spots, the two fungal diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori. and .... effect of extracts of Azacdiractha indica on ... fruits of the other plants species were dried in.

  1. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM GROUNDNUTS IN SOME LOCATIONS OF WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.s. DHARMAPUTRA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ninety eight groundnut samples were collected from freshly harvested groundnuts (FHG, farmer storage systems (FSS, middlemen warehouses (MW, wholesalers (WS and retailer sample (RS during the dry and wet seasons from Cidolog, Cianjur, Sukabumi and Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, in 1990/1991. The moisture content (m.c., intactness of kernels, and the percentages of groundnut kernels infected by each species of fungi were analyzed. In genera, the m.c. of the samples collected during the dry season was lower than of those collected during the wet season. Also, the m.c. of samples collected from FHG, FSS and MW was higher than of those collected from WS and RS. The m.c. of samples collected from FHG was the highest (12.5-45.75%, but the percentages of damaged kernels were the lowest (2.5-13.8%, because the samples were shelled manually. A total of 25 species of fungi were isolated from samples collected from the 4 localities. They were Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii, A. wentii, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, Eumtium chevalieri, E. repens, E. rubrum, Fusarium equiseti, F. longipes, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, Mucor sp., Papulaspora sp., Pestalotia sp., Penicillium aethiopicum, P. citrinum, Rhizapus sp., R. stolonifer and Syncephalastrum sp. The predominant fungi in samples collected from Cidolog and Sukabumi during the dry season were Aspergillus wentii, while those collected from Cianjur and Bogor were A. niger. The percentages of kernels infected by A. wentii in samples collected from Cidolog and Sukabumi were between 30-100% and 36-100%, respectively, while those of kernels infected by A. nigerin samples collected from Cianjur and Bogor were between 34-93% and 14-98%, respectively. The predominant fungi in samples collected from each location during the wet season were A. flavus. The percentage of kernels infected by the fungus in

  2. Nutrient composition of premixed and packaged complementary foods for sale in low- and middle-income countries: Lack of standards threatens infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, William A; Nene, Marc D; Bell, Winnie

    2017-10-01

    Premixed flours for infant porridge are increasingly produced and sold in developing countries to complement continued breastfeeding. Such complementary food (CF) products have known efficacy against malnutrition in children from 6 to 24 months of age, but ingredient ratios and production processes may vary. This study provides the first systematic measurement of their actual nutrient composition. We purchased samples of 108 premixed CF products in 22 low- and middle-income countries, and commissioned blind laboratory measurement of each product's macronutrients and micronutrients. We compared measured contents to nutrient claims on their packaging and to CF standards from the Codex Alimentarius, the Super Cereal Plus product used in nutrition assistance programs, and the Lutter and Dewey (2003) recommendations, as well as our own modeled nutrient requirements for a healthy breastfed child. Actual densities are significantly different from nutrient claims for protein (p = .013) and fat (p = .000). Only 15% of samples met two of the three benchmarks for fat, 32% met the most stringent protein standard, while only 22% met them for iron, and 21% for zinc. The median healthy child consuming breast milk plus enough of these solid foods to meet energy needs would experience deficits of zinc at 6 months, iron at 6 and 9 months, and dietary fat from 12 months of age. In summary, premixed CF products can provide adequate nutrient density but usually do not, revealing the need and opportunity for independent monitoring and quality assurance to help grain millers making premixed foods maintain uniform ingredient ratios and production practices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Reinbott

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3-23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, and retinol binding protein (RBP were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored.Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%. Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin.Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young children.German Clinical Trials

  4. Acceptability of amaranth grain-based nutritious complementary foods with dagaa fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and edible termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) compared to ‘Corn-Soy-Blend Plus’ among young children/mothers dyads in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konyole, Silvenius O.; Kinyuru, John N.; Owuor, Bethwell O.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed acceptability of two flours and porridges of complementary foods based on germinated grain amaranth and maize with or without edible termites and dagaa small fish named "Winfood Classic" (WFC) and "Winfood Lite" (WFL), respectively, compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus (CSB+) among mothers...

  5. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Harries, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum.

  6. Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseni O. W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0% with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32 mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1 compressive strength, and the (2 slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 – 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

  7. Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA) Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, O. W.; Audu, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 - 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

  8. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2011-02-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15-100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorption capacity 135.6 ± 1.97 ml %, oil absorption capacity 100.3 ± 1.16 ml % and foam capacity 33 ± 1%. Protein, fat and ash contents were 51.6 ± 0.06, 4.5 ± 0.05 and 4.2 ± 0.11%, respectively. Tannins and aflatoxin B1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5.5 to 21.9%. Shelf-life studies indicated the maximum storability for 90 days for all the products except laddoo, which could be stored for 30 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C). All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults (fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo) and children (biscuits, laddoo, extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder) varied.

  9. Nutrient composition of five varieties of commonly consumed Nigerian groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayo, G. O.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient composition of the five major varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. commonly consumed in the south-western part of Nigeria was investigated. Raw dryshelled samples were analyzed for proximate (moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber and carbohydrate, ‘vitamins’ (β-carotene, thiamine, niacin and tocopherol and minerals (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, Al, As, Cd and Pb. Results showed that the groundnuts had 4.12-9.26% moisture, 2.77-3.31% ash, 24.26-26.35% protein, 45.41-48.14% fat, 2.51-2.94% fiber and 15.90-17.75% carbohydrate. All the varieties analyzed showed β-carotene (63.32-65.35mg/100g, thiamin (0.73-0.98mg/100g, niacin (14.00-16.03mg/100g and tocopherol (18.62-21.07mg/100g activities; with boro red having significantly (P P> Mg> Ca> Mn> Cu> Na> Zn> Fe> Al> Se in most of the varieties. Boro red also had the highest elemental contents in most of the minerals analyzed. Thus, these groundnuts can be considered useful foodstuffs in minimizing proteinenergy malnutrition (PEM and micronutrient deficiencies in Nigeria. However, the boro red variety is most recommended. The outcome of this research is a contribution to the food composition table.Se ha investigado la composición en nutrientes de las cinco principales variedades de maní (Arachis hypogaea L. de consumo habitual en la parte sur-occidental de Nigeria. A las muestras crudas con cáscara y secas se les analizó su composición proximal (humedad, ceniza, proteína, grasa, fibra e hidratos de carbono, vitaminas (β-caroteno, tiamina, niacina y tocoferol y minerales (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, Al, As, Cd y Pb. Los resultados mostraron que el maní tenía entre 4.12 - 9.26% de humedad, 2.77- 3.31% de cenizas, 24.26 - 26.35% de proteína, 45.41 - 48.14% de materia grasa, 2.51 - 2.94% de fibra y 15.90 -17.75% de carbohidratos. Todas las variedades analizadas contenían β-caroteno (63.32-65.35mg/100g, tiamina (0.73-0.98mg/100g, niacina (14

  10. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  11. Breast-milk intake of 9-10-mo-old rural infants given a ready-to-use complementary food in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, Victor O; Bahwere, Paluku; Bisimwa, Ghislain; Mwangi, Christine M; Collins, Steve

    2011-06-01

    Lipid-based ready-to-use foods are currently used for infant feeding, but their potential effect on breast-milk intake is not well documented. The objective was to assess the breast-milk intake of 9-10-mo-old infants given either a ready-to-use complementary food (RUCF) paste or a standard corn-soy blend (UNIMIX) porridge in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Infants were randomly assigned at 6 mo of age to receive either RUCF (n = 700) or UNIMIX (n = 700) for 6 mo. Breast-milk intake was measured at 9-10 mo in a subsample of 58 infants (29 from each group). Mothers received a dose of ≈30 g deuterium oxide. Predose and postdose saliva samples were collected from both mothers and infants over 2 wk. Breast-milk intake (g/d) was measured from saliva samples by using infrared spectroscopy. Mean (±SD) breast-milk intake was not significantly (P = 0.69) different between the 2 groups: RUCF (705 ± 236 g/d) and UNIMIX (678 ± 285 g/d). Mean (±SD) nonmilk oral water intakes were 338.3 ± 251.1 and 336.4 ± 227.2 g/d for RUCF and UNIMIX, respectively (P = 0.98). No differences in breast-milk intake were observed between infants consuming either RUCF or UNIMIX. The deuterium-dose-to-the-mother dilution technique is an affordable technique that we recommend for periodic evaluation of breast-milk intake in resource-poor settings. This trial is registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN20267635.

  12. Modelling climate change impact: A case of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Chimonyo, Vimbayi Grace Petrova; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi

    2018-06-01

    Climate change projections for southern Africa indicate low and erratic rainfall as well as increasing frequency and intensity of rainfall extremes such as drought. The 2015/16 drought devastated large parts of southern Africa and highlighted the need for drought tolerant crops. Bambara groundnut is an African indigenous crop, commonly cultivated in southern Africa, with a higher potential for drought tolerance compared to other staple legumes. AquaCrop model was used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on yield, water use (ET) and water productivity (WP) of bambara groundnut using climate change data representative of the past (1961-1991), present (1995-2025), mid-century (2030-2060) and late century (2065-2095) obtained from five global circulation models (GCMs). The carbon dioxide (CO2) file selected was for the A2 scenario. The model was run at a sub-catchment level. Model simulations showed that yield and WP of bambara groundnut will increase over time. The mean values of yield at the different time scales across the GCMs showed that yield of bambara groundnut increased by ∼9% from the past to the present, will increase by ∼15% from the present to mid-century and will increase by 6% from mid-to late-century. The simulated results of ET showed seasonal ranges of 703-796 mm. Of this, 45% was lost to soil evaporation, suggesting the need for developing bambara groundnut varieties with faster establishment and high canopy cover. Model simulations showed an increase in WP by ∼13% from the past to present and ∼15% from the present to mid-century and ∼11% from mid-century to late century. While the results of these simulations are preliminary, they confirm the view that bambara groundnut is a potential future crop suitable for cultivation in marginal agricultural production areas. Future research should focus on crop improvement to improve current yield of bambara groundnut.

  13. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis K; Hardacre, Allan; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Weber, Janet L; Brough, Louise; Coad, Jane

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy densities compared with maize, millet or sorghum-only porridge. However, unfortified cereal-legume and cereal-only porridges are low in vitamin A. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food, rich in vitamin A, has been developed to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. A composite flour containing sweet potato, soybean, soybean oil and fishmeal was processed as complementary food by oven toasting (denoted oven-toasted ComFa). The oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (processed from dehulled maize, dehulled soybean, groundnut and fishmeal) were assessed for suitability as complementary food based on the nutrient composition using specifications in the Codex Standard (CS) as a reference. The sweet potato-based formulation and enriched Weanimix met the energy, protein, fructose and fat specifications but barely met the amino acid score as indicated in the CS. However, only the oven-toasted ComFa met the calcium and almost half the vitamin A levels as specified in the CS. Oven-toasted ComFa was slightly lower in energy, protein and fat by a difference not greater than 4.0% but was higher by more than 100% in fructose and vitamin A levels. Therefore, the sweet potato-based complementary food is likely to support vitamin A supplementation initiatives in low-income countries better than the cereal-based formulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A Delivery Model for Home Fortification of Complementary Foods with Micronutrient Powders: Innovation in the Context of Vietnamese Health System Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Adding micronutrient powders (MNP to complementary foods at the point of preparation (home fortification can improve micronutrient status of young children. Ensuring sustained access to MNPs at scale, however, remains challenging in many countries. The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN partnered with the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN in Vietnam to pioneer the distribution of a locally-produced MNP, provided for sale through the public health system with counseling on optimal infant and young child feeding practices by trained health workers. Different packaging options were available to adapt to caregivers’ disposable income. During the six-month pilot, 1.5 million sachets were sold through 337 health centers across four provinces, targeting children 6–59 months of age. Sales were routinely monitored, and a cross-sectional survey in 32 communes for caregivers (n = 962 and health staff (n = 120 assessed MNP coverage and compliance, five months after the start of distribution. A total of 404 caregivers among the 962 caregivers surveyed (i.e., 42% had visited the health center in the past year. Among them, 290 caregivers had heard about the product and a total of 217caregivers had given the MNP to their child at least once, representing a conversion rate from product awareness to product trial of 74.8%. The effective coverage (i.e., consumption of ≥3 sachets/child/week was 11.5% among the total surveyed caregivers and reached 27.3% amongst caregivers who visited health centers in the previous month. The MNP purchase trends showed that the number of sachets bought by caregivers was positively correlated with the wealth index. The pilot showed that providing MNPs for sale in packs of various quantities, combined with infant and young child feeding (IYCF counseling at the health center, is effective for groups accessing the health system.

  15. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Pend-line survey found that feeding practices had improved significantly following the intervention. An enabling policy and regulatory environment in which CFSs are defined and parameters for appropriate marketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. © 2011 Blackwell

  16. Absorbed zinc and exchangeable zinc pool size are significantly greater in Pakistani infants receiving traditional complementary foods with zinc fortified micronutrient powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Shabina; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Krebs, Nancy; Westcott, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Adequacy of zinc intake from breast milk alone becomes marginal in relation to infant requirements by around six months of age. Simple and cost effective strategies are needed at population level to ensure adequate intakes of zinc in infants and toddlers in populations at risk of zinc deficiency. We determined the amount of absorbed zinc (AZ) from a micronutrient powder (MNP) without and with 10 mg of zinc (MNP, MNP+Zn, respectively) added to local complementary foods used in Pakistan, and the impact on the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size. As a nested study within a large prospective cluster randomized trial, 6 month old infants were randomized to receive MNP or MNP+Zn. Stable isotope methodology was applied after ~ 3 and 9 months of use to measure AZ from MNP-fortified test meals of rice-lentils (khitchri) and EZP. Nineteen infants per group completed the first metabolic studies; 14 and 17 infants in MNP and MNP+Zn groups, completed the follow-up studies. Mean (±SD) AZs were 0.1± 0.1 and 1.2±0.5 mg at the first point for the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively (p <0.001); results were nearly identical at the follow-up measurement. EZP did not differ between groups at the first measurement but was less in the MNP group (3.7±0.6 mg/kg) than in the MNP+Zn group (4.5±1.0 mg/kg) at the second measurement (P = 0.01). These data confirm that the MNP+Zn in khitchri were well absorbed, and after a year of home fortification, zinc status assessed by EZP was significantly better for the MNP+Zn group. Additional field studies may be necessary to ascertain the adequacy of this dose for infants at high risk of deficiency. (author)

  17. Prevalance of aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut in Ghana: Population structure, distribution, and toxigenicity of the causal agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut is perennial in Ghana with substantial health and economic burden on the population. The present study examined for the first time the prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut in major producing regions across three agroecological zo...

  18. Effectiveness of community-based complementary food supplement (Yingyangbao distribution in children aged 6-23 months in poor areas in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation.Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6-23 months for 18 months. Representative children were selected by probability proportional to size sampling methods to assess compliance of YYB and the intervention efficacy. A questionnaire was designed to collect data on basic characteristics of children, breastfeeding, 24-hour dietary intake, and consumption and appetite of YYB. Anthropometrics and hemoglobin were measured in the field, and anemia prevalence was evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from children aged 12-35 months to evaluate micronutrient status. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for children's anemia.Of the children involved in the follow-up survey (n = 693, the P50 (P25, P75 intake of YYB was 6.7 (3.5, 7.0 sachets weekly, and 54.7% of the children liked the taste of YYB. Compared with the baseline situation (n = 823, the proportion of children fed a diverse diet and foods rich in iron or vitamin A increased (P < 0.01 in the follow-up study. The prevalence of stunting and underweight decreased (P < 0.05, the prevalence of anemia decreased from 28.0% to 19.9% (P < 0.01, and the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 26.8% to 15.4% (P < 0.01. For children aged 12-23 months, those who liked YYB and consumed 6 or more sachets of YYB weekly were at lower risk for anemia (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.90, P < 0.05, but the risk of stunting was associated

  19. Physicochemical and micro-structural properties of flours, starch and proteins from two varieties of legumes: bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptso, Kuaté Giscard; Njintang, Yanou Nicolas; Nguemtchouin, Mbouga Marie Goletti; Scher, Joël; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2015-08-01

    This work is part of a large study aimed to evaluate the potential of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) flour as starting raw material for the preparation of a widely cherished legume-based food product known as koki. Towards this objective, the flours from two varieties of bambara groundnut along with their respective starch and protein isolates were analyzed for some physicochemical and microstructural properties. It was observed that bambara flour contained appreciable amount of proteins (24.0-25.5 g/100 g), carbohydrates (57.9-61.7 g/100 g), fiber (3.45-3.68 g/100 g) and ash (3.65-3.85 g/100 g) with marginal differences between both varieties. The properties of starch and proteins isolated from the flours were different from one variety to another. In particular the starch granules of the white variety were larger (size range 10-35 μm) and polygonal while those from the black variety were smaller (size range 6-15 μm) and spherical in shape. In addition, the peak of gelatinization temperature was higher for white variety (81.7 °C) than for black variety (77.5 °C). The gelatinization temperature and the enthalpy of gelatinization of starch in the flours were systematically lower than for the starch isolates, suggesting an interaction of starch with other components on the gelatinization process.

  20. Oil synthesis and composition in developidng cotyledons of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Niranjan; Srivastava, K.N.; Sharma, N.D.; Mehta, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Oil synthesis in groundnut mutants TG-1 and TG-16 along with its parent Spanish Improved was studied during kernel development. Dry weight, oil and protein content increased progressively with kernel development. Acetate 2- 14 C incorporation in lipids increased in both the mutants during development, while in parent it increased up to 95 day stage and then showed a decline at maturity. However, during development the rate of incorporation per kernel was lower in parent than mutants. Polar lipids decreased while non-polar lipids increased during development both in parent as well as mutants. Fatty acid composition of the oil differed between mutants and also from the parent during development. TG-16 had higher oleic and lower linoleic than parent Spanish Improved while TG-1 had intermediate oleic acid levels. During development, palmitate decreased slightly in parent while in TG-1 and TG-16, the decrease at maturity was lesser than the parent. The other fatty acid present in minor amounts, showed variation which was neither characteristic of the variety nor of any stage. Results, thus indicate developmental differences with respect to oil content and quality between mutant and parent. (author). 21 refs

  1. Oil synthesis and composition in developidng cotyledons of groundnut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Niranjan; Srivastava, K N; Sharma, N D; Mehta, S L [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi (India). Div. of Biochemistry

    1988-03-01

    Oil synthesis in groundnut mutants TG-1 and TG-16 along with its parent Spanish Improved was studied during kernel development. Dry weight, oil and protein content increased progressively with kernel development. Acetate 2-{sup 14}C incorporation in lipids increased in both the mutants during development, while in parent it increased up to 95 day stage and then showed a decline at maturity. However, during development the rate of incorporation per kernel was lower in parent than mutants. Polar lipids decreased while non-polar lipids increased during development both in parent as well as mutants. Fatty acid composition of the oil differed between mutants and also from the parent during development. TG-16 had higher oleic and lower linoleic than parent Spanish Improved while TG-1 had intermediate oleic acid levels. During development, palmitate decreased slightly in parent while in TG-1 and TG-16, the decrease at maturity was lesser than the parent. The other fatty acid present in minor amounts, showed variation which was neither characteristic of the variety nor of any stage. Results, thus indicate developmental differences with respect to oil content and quality between mutant and parent. (author). 21 refs.

  2. Gasification of ‘Loose’ Groundnut Shells in a Throathless Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aondoyila Kuhe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, gasification potential of biomass residue was investigated using a laboratory scale throatless downdraft gasifier. Experimental results of groundnut shell was gasified in the throatless downdraft gasifier to produce a clean gas with a calorific value of around 5.92 MJ/Nm3 and a combustible fraction of 45% v/v. Low moisture (8.6% and ash content (3.19% are the main advantages of groundnut shells for gasification. It is suggested that gasification of shell waste products is a clean energy alternative to fossil fuels. The product gas can be used efficiently for heating and possible usage in internal combustion engines.

  3. Gasification of ‘Loose' Groundnut Shells in a Throathless Downdraft Gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhe, Aondoyila; Aliyu, Samuel Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, gasification potential of biomass residue was investigated using a laboratory scale throatless downdraft gasifier. Experimental results of groundnut shell was gasified in the throatless downdraft gasifier to produce a clean gas with a calorific value of around 5.92 MJ/Nm3 and a combustible fraction of 45% v/v. Low moisture (8.6%) and ash content (3.19%) are the main advantages of groundnut shells for gasification. It is suggested that gasification of shell waste products is a ...

  4. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  5. Early introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight in breastfed and formula-fed infants in the Netherlands: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluymen, Linda P M; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; Smit, Henriëtte A; van Rossem, L

    2018-02-22

    To investigate whether early introduction of complementary foods (CF) is associated with an increased risk of overweight during childhood, and whether this association differs between formula-fed and breastfed infants. We included 2611 participants that were born at term from a Dutch population-based birth cohort (n = 3963) designed to investigate the development of asthma and allergies. Parents kept records of their infant's age when CF were first introduced. Weight and height were parent reported yearly from age 1 to 8 years, and at ages 11, 14 and 17 years. We used multivariate generalized estimating equations analysis to investigate the association between timing of CF introduction (before 4 months vs at or after 4 months of age) and overweight at ages 1-17 years. Children with CF introduction before 4 months had higher odds of being overweight during childhood than children with CF introduction at or after 4 months (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47). This association was observed in formula-fed infants (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.17, 1.94) and breastfed infants (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47). The duration of breastfeeding modified the association between CF introduction and overweight: children breastfed for shorter than 4 months, but not children breastfed for 4 months or longer with CF introduction before 4 months had higher odds of being overweight (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.19, 1.57 and 1.07, 95% CI 0.87, 1.32, respectively), compared to those with CF introduction at or after 4 months. In children born at term, formula-fed infants and infants who were breastfed for shorter than 4 months, but not infants who were breastfed for 4 months or longer, had a higher risk of being overweight during childhood when being introduced to CF before 4 months of age.

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of Bambara groundnut dietary fibres extracted using wet milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Maphosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to extract soluble and insoluble dietary fibres from four Bambara groundnut (BGN varieties (black-eye, brown-eye, brown and red using the wet milling method and evaluate their physicochemical properties. The swelling capacities of brown-eye (6.5 g/mL and black-eye (6.2 g/mL fibres were higher (p≤0.05 than those of red (6.0 g/mL and brown (5.5 g/mL fibres while the water holding capacities of black-eye and brown-eye fibres (2.84 g and 2.83 g water/g sample were higher (p≤0.05 than those of brown and red fibres. The bulk densities of insoluble dietary fibres (IDFs and soluble dietary fibres (SDFs ranged between 0.57 g/mL (red to 0.67 g/mL (brown-eye and 0.46 g/mL (brown-eye to 0.57 g/mL (black-eye, respectively. The oil binding capacities (OBCs of SDFs ranged between 2.78 g oil/g sample (brown and 4.03 g oil/g sample (brown-eye while the OBC of all IDFs did not differ (p>0.05, ranging between 1.52 g oil/g sample (brown and 1.40 g oil/g sample (brown-eye and black-eye. Black-eye and brown-eye dietary fibres had higher phenolic and total sugar content. The findings of this study indicate the potential of BGN fibres in food systems as fat replacers, emulsion stabilisers, water binders, bulking agents, thickeners and nutritional additives.

  7. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Promising mutant varieties of groundnut evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, P.K.; Rahman, H.

    1980-01-01

    The Chotanagpur plateau region of Bihar is the main potential area for groundnut cultivation in the State. Var. AK 12-24 - an early, bunch type - has been the predominant variety under cultivation. Because of special nature of soil and rainfall pattern of this area, it is desirable to evolve a variety with early to mid-early maturity and bunch habit, but with improved yield potential over the ruling var. AK 12-24. Two bold podded mutants BP 1 and BP 2 were obtained throuo.h gamma irradiation of var 41-C which is a late maturing variety (135-140 days), spreading in habit and with medium kernel and pod size, whereas the mutant varieties have early (110-115 days for BP 1) to mid-early (115-120 days for BP 2) maturity, bunch habit and bold kernel and pods (HKW 55-60 gm for BP 1 and 60-66 gms for BP 2). Both have 20-25% higher yield potential over AK 12-24. The results of 3 years' yield evaluation trials at Kanke and one year minikit trials at different locations in Bihar show that BP 1 and BP 2 have significantly outyielded the check AK 12-24 and were at par with each other. Both varieties -because of their bold seededness - come under HPS type and have good export market. These varieties have now been released by the Rajendra Agricultural University as Sonya Bold 1 and Sonya Bold 2 for cultivation in Bihar. (author)

  9. Climate variability and sustainable food production: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The past two decades have seen invigorated debates on the causal link between climate variability and food crop production. This study[1] extends the debate further by investigating how climate variability has affected the production of four specific food crops: maize, millet, rice, and groundnuts in north-eastern Ghana.

  10. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-09-07

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food.

  11. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N’Dri Yao, Denis; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d’Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d’Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  12. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM), a new broad-based journal, is founded on two key tenets: To publish exciting research in all areas of applied medicinal plants, Traditional medicines, Complementary Alternative Medicines, food and agricultural technologies, and ...

  13. Phenological development in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) transferred from 14 to 11 h photoperiods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The developmental phase in which photoperiod sensitivity for podding occurs was determined for two bambara groundnut genotypes grown in 1987 and 1990 in glasshouse experiments in the Netherlands, namely genotypes ‘Tiga Nicuru’ from Mali (day-neutral for flowering and photoperiod-sensitive for

  14. Photoperiod regulation of development and growth in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Westphal, E.; Wessel, M.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of constant photoperiods of 10, 12, 14 and 16 h on development and growth in two bambara groundnut genotypes (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc., syn. Voandzeia subterranea (L.) Thouars) was studied in a greenhouse experiment in the Netherlands. Data on dry matter accumulation were

  15. Timing of mounding for bambara groundnut affects crop development and yield in a rainfed tropical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouedrago, Mahama; M'bi, Bertin Zagre; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    -ecological zone of Burkina Faso were conducted. Yield data confirm the findings from a drier part of Burkina Faso; i.e., mounding of bambara groundnut should not be carried out around the time of flowering. In a semi-arid area, such as Sudan–Sahel agro-ecological zone and with germplasm maturing within 90 days...

  16. Metabolism of labelled ziram in groundnut plants and its microbiological degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.; Kumarasamy, R.; Rao, S.R.; Murthy, N.B.K.; Sane, P.V.

    1976-01-01

    Groundnut plants were sprayed with [ 35 S]-ziram when 62 days old. The unchanged fungicide and derivatives were recovered, identified and assayed. A bacterial species capable of metabolizing the fungicide residue was isolated. At the time of harvest (124 days) of the seed pods more of the radioactive tracer was found in the shell than in the seed. (author)

  17. Monitoring and evaluating the adherence to a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) among young children in rural Qinghai, China: a mixed methods evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chang, Suying; Wang, Wei; Helena van Velthoven, Michelle; Han, Huijun; Xing, Min; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    Large investments are currently made in community-based complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao, YYB) programs to improve nutrition of young children in rural areas in China. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the experience and challenges of implementing YYB programs in China. We aimed to: 1) monitor distribution of YYB; 2) assess children's adherence to and acceptability of YYB; and 3) evaluate community-based strategies to improve the program. This mixed methods evaluation study combined data from surveys and focus groups that took place during a controlled interventional evaluation trial. The trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based YYB distribution on improving children's health status in rural areas in China. We conducted five cross-sectional surveys with caregivers of children aged 6-23 months (baseline survey (N = 1804) in August 2012 and four follow-up cross-sectional surveys: 1) N = 494 in January 2013; 2) N = 2187 in August 2013; 3) N = 504 in January 2014; and 4) N = 2186 in August 2014) in one rural county in Qinghai Province. We used a two-stage cluster sampling technique to select mothers with eligible children for each survey. Information was collected from caregivers on household characteristics, YYB consumption and acceptability in the surveys. High adherence in each survey was defined as children who consumed at least four YYB sachets during the previous week. A logistic regression model was developed to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals of factors associated with high adherence. Also, we conducted 10 focus groups with73 caregivers and health workers involved in the YYB distribution. Content analysis was used to explore qualitative findings, which were used to gain deeper insight into the quantitative results. Around 90% of caregivers had ever received YYB and more than 80% of children ever took YYB. Caregivers mainly knew about YYB through their village doctors. High

  18. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulically operated briquetting machine was used with the pressure kept at 5MPa. The results of the properties evaluated shows that biomass increases the burning efficiency of briquettes with increase in the biomass material, increasing combustion rate, faster ignition, producing lesser ash and fewer pollutants. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from coal-groundnut shells and coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 16.94 - 20.81 and 17.31 – 21.03 MJ/kg respectively. The ignition time ranges from 6.9 – 12.5 minutes for coal-groundnut shells briquettes while that of coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 6.5 – 11.1 minutes. The bio-coal blends with sugarcane bagasse were better than that of groundnut shells. However, both sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shells produce bio-coal briquettes that are very efficient, providing sufficient heat as at the time necessary, generating less smoke and gases (e.g sulphur that are harmful to environment, and generating less ash, as these have adverse effect during cooking.

  19. Breeding for high N2 fixation in groundnut and soybean in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Xuan Hong

    1998-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Mer.) are grown mainly on two types of soil in Viet Nam: coastal-sandy and upland-degraded soils. These soils are deficient in N, and considering that fertilizer N is not only costly to farmers but also a threat to the environment, it is important to maximize productivity by exploiting the ability of these legumes to fix N 2 symbiotically in their root nodules. We initiated programmes of breeding and selection to combine high N 2 fixation and high grain-yielding capacity. In the spring of 1992, breeding lines of groundnut and soybean were tested under greenhouse conditions for varietal differences in the capacity to fix N 2 using the acetylene reduction assay and the 15 N-dilution technique, with upland rice as reference plants. Varietal differences were found in nitrogenase activity, and percent N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) ranged from 11 to 63% for groundnut and from 9 to 79% for soybean. Field experiments in the autumn-winter season of 1992 again revealed significant varietal differences; %Ndfa ranged from 36 to 56% for groundnut and from 28 to 58% for soybean. Gamma-irradiated seeds of soybean were propagated in bulk from M 1 to M 4 . Five high-yielding mutant lines of both species were selected from the M 5 populations, and N 2 fixation was estimated using the 15 N-dilution technique. The average values for %Ndfa of the mutants were 55 and 57%, significant improvements over the parent-cultivar values of 25 and 29% for soybean and groundnut, respectively

  20. Physiological Responses of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to Short Periods of Water Stress During Different Developmental Stages

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vurayai; V. Emongor and B. Moseki

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the responses of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to short periods of water stress imposed at different growth stages, and the recuperative ability of the species from drought stress. A major problem associated with Bambara groundnut production is its very low yields due to intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability in rainfall in semi-arid regions. The response pattern of physiological processes to water stress imposed at different growth ...

  1. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.

  2. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  4. The use of linear programming to determine whether a formulated complementary food product can ensure adequate nutrients for 6- to 11-month-old Cambodian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Bunthang, Touch; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2014-01-01

    A new software tool, Optifood, developed by the WHO and based on linear programming (LP) analysis, has been developed to formulate food-based recommendations.......A new software tool, Optifood, developed by the WHO and based on linear programming (LP) analysis, has been developed to formulate food-based recommendations....

  5. Factors and Caregiver’s Behavior Affecting Inadequate Complementary Food of Infants Aged 6-12 Months in Naresuan University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitima Ngoenmak, M.D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Food plays an important role in infant nutrition. Hence, the various factors and behavior that affect the right choice of nutrition for infants aged 6-12 months by caregivers need to be investigated. The objectives were to study the associated factors and caregiver’s behavior affecting inadequate feeding of food to infants aged 6-12 months. Methods: This present work was a cross-sectional study in which 54 caregivers for infants were included. In this study, a survey was performed by using questionnaires for collecting data. The data were analyzed statistically in terms of percentage and mean and by using Chi-Square test (Fisher’s Exact Test and z-test. Results: It was found that most of the infants (79.6 % had normal weight. The age at the start of proper feeding was 5 months and 27 days old. The education level, age, occupation, and income of the caregivers were factors affecting the food choices for the infants at p< 0.05. Inappropriate feeding practices were as follows: feeding pre- masticated foods, liquid food feeding, drinking sweetened juice and soft drinks, eating sweets, and adding salt, sugar, monosodium glutamate and fish sauce to the infants’ food. The caregivers chose food by judging for age and FDA logo on product labels. Advertising did not affect their decision to purchase food. Moreover, occupation, education, and income of the caregivers were not associated with purchasing the right food for the baby. Conclusion: Occupation, income, age, and education level of the infant caregivers were associated with the food selection. The inappropriate feeding behaviors were still persisting.

  6. Effect of bambara groundnut flour (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) supplementation on chemical, physical, nutritional and sensory evaluation of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y; Ali, Ali O; Elkhalifa, Elamin A; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim E

    2012-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verdc) is a major source of vegetable protein in sub-Saharan Africa. And the aim of this study was to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread through the addition of bambara groundnut flour to wheat four. For this, bambara groundnut seeds were soaked in tap water, manually decorticated, sun dried and milled into fine flour. Proximate analysis of flours of de-hulled bambara groundnut and wheat were conducted. Flour of de-hulled bambara groundnut was used for bread supplementation in ratios of 5, 10 and 15%. Rheological properties of the control flour and wheat flour supplemented with 10% of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour were conducted. The total area and dough development time increased. However, water absorption, stability and extensibility respectively decreased, from 71.3; 8.5; 190 in the control flour to 71.0; 5.5; 180 in the 10% supplemented flour. The increases in the resistance to extension and proportional number from 260 to 280 and 1.37 to 1.56, respectively resulted in stiff dough. The most important effect of wheat bread supplementation was the improvement of protein quantity from 13.74 +/- 0.02% for the control bread to 15.49 +/- 0.02, 17.00 +/- 0.05 and 18.98 +/- 0.02% for the 5, 10 and 15% blending ratios, respectively. The in-vitro protein digestibility progressively increased from 84.33 +/- 0.03 in the control bread to 85.42 +/- 0.04, 86.57 +/- 0.04 and 87.64 +/- 0.03 in breads containing 5, 10 and 15% bambara groundnut flour. The sensory attributes of different types of bread showed that, a significant difference was observed in texture, colour and overall acceptability. However, the panelists gave higher score for 10% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour bread than bread made from other blends. The loaf weights, loaf volume and specific volume increased. However, while the loaf weight increased with addition of 15% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour, both of loaf volume and specific volume decreased

  7. Uptake of radiactive calcium by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. ) and efficiency of utilisation of applied calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, S; Krishnamoorthy, K K [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry

    1977-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with groundnut applying labelled calcium as its sulphate and carbonate at two levels namely 75 and 150 kg Ca per ha with varying levels of P, K and Mg. Plant samples were taken at different stages of crop growth and analysed for the content of radioactive calcium. Calcium sulphate treatment has resulted in larger uptake of calcium compared to calcium carbonate. An application of 150 kg Ca per ha has caused significantly higher uptake by groundnut plant than 75 kg Ca per ha. The percentage of utilisation of added calcium ranged from 2.2 to 5.4 Recovery of calcium by plants was more in calcium sulphate treatment rather than in calcium carbonate. The plants showed a preference for absorbing applied calcium rather than native calcium.

  8. Uptake of radiactive calcium by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and efficiency of utilisation of applied calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loganathan, S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with groundnut applying labelled calcium as its sulphate and carbonate at two levels namely 75 and 150 kg Ca per ha with varying levels of P, K and Mg. Plant samples were taken at different stages of crop growth and analysed for the content of radioactive calcium. Calcium sulphate treatment has resulted in larger uptake of calcium compared to calcium carbonate. An application of 150 kg Ca per ha has caused significantly higher uptake by groundnut plant than 75 kg Ca per ha. The percentage of utilisation of added calcium ranged from 2.2 to 5.4 Recovery of calcium by plants was more in calcium sulphate treatment rather than in calcium carbonate. The plants showed a preference for absorbing applied calcium rather than native calcium

  9. The effect of microwave roasting on the antioxidant properties of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Islam, Anowarul; Pal, Tarun K

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut seeds are an important source of bioactive phenolic compounds with noteworthy antioxidant capacity, which may be enhanced by the microwave roasting process. The aim of this work is   to study the changes in antioxidant activity in groundnut seeds during microwave roasting, as a function of roasting time and extract concentration, in order to maximise the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of roasted seeds. The study was conducted to evaluate total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidative activity of methanolic (GME), ethanolic (GEE), and chloroform (GCE) extracts and methanolic extract of oil (GMO) from groundnut seeds exposed to microwaves. The antioxidant activity was investigated using several assays, namely phosphomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The microwave roasting process significantly increased the TPC, whilst the TFC decreased with roasting time. Antioxidant activity increased with increased roasting time and extract concentration in all extracts. Antioxidant activity increased significantly at lower concentrations; however, the rate of increment decreased gradually as the concentration of the solvent extract increased. Thus, among all the extracts, methanol extracts at all roasting times and extract concentrations appeared to display the highest effectiveness. The various scavenging activities of the samples are ranked in the following order: GME > GEE > GCE > GMO, in both raw and roasted samples. Both roasting time and extract concentration were found to be critical factors in determining the overall quality of the product. This investigation is important to determine optimum roasting conditions, in order to maximise the anti-oxidative health benefits of the Bangladeshi groundnut cultivar.

  10. Evaluation of chickpea and groundnut for N2 fixation and yield in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.; Podder, A.K.; Das, M.L.; Shaikh, M.A.Q.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments on chickpea and groundnut were variously carried out at four locations in Bangladesh. Generally consistent trends were obtained in terms of positive effects of inoculation with rhizobia, and genotypic diversity for components of N 2 fixation and yield. Inoculation of groundnut increased average nodule number by 77% at Rajshahi, 99% at Mymensingh and 148% at Jamalput. The increases in nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, pod and stover yields due to inoculation ranged from 93 to 146%, 55 to 77%, 43 to 50% and 29 to 80%, respectively. At all three locations, significant differences were found amongst the genotypes for nodulation, dry matter production and yield. Mutant genotype 62-30 was superior for most components, and statistically better than the present variety Dacca-1 for all characteristics investigated. Inoculant application to chickpea resulted in at least a doubling of nodule number at Ishurdi and Mymensingh; on average, there was a three-fold increase in nodule mass as a result of inoculation. Seed-yield increases due to inoculation ranged from 24 to 50%. Inoculated cv. G-97 recorded a seed yield of about 1.5 t/ha at Ishurdi, 47% higher than that produced by Nabin, a variety widely cultivated in Bangladesh. Total-N yield and the amount of N fixed by G-97 with inoculant were also higher than for Hyprosola, which is known for high yield and protein content. In a screening trial at Mymensingh the commercial chickpea Nabin and Hyprosola were consistently inferior to advanced lines produced by mutation breeding. Of 12 mutant groundnut genotypes tested, D1-15KR/62-30 maintained superiority for almost all components. Most of the mutants performed better than the commercial variety Dacca-1. The data show the potential for increasing chickpea and groundnut yields in Bangladesh by improving N 2 fixation via selection of superior genotype in conjunction with compatible rhizobia

  11. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of maize and groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapulula, Paul W; Akello, Juliet; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J

    2017-11-16

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil. However, relationships between Aspergillus populations on crops and those resident in non-cultivated soils have not been explored. Because characterization of similar fungal populations outside of Zambia have resulted in strategies to prevent aflatoxins, the current study sought to improve understanding of fungal communities in cultivated and non-cultivated soils and in crops. Crops (n=412) and soils from cultivated (n=160) and non-cultivated land (n=60) were assayed for Aspergillus section Flavi from 2012 to 2016. The L-strain morphotype of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were dominant on maize and groundnut (60% and 42% of Aspergillus section Flavi, respectively). Incidences of A. flavus L-morphotype were negatively correlated with aflatoxin in groundnut (log y=2.4990935-0.09966x, R 2 =0.79, P=0.001) but not in maize. Incidences of A. parasiticus partially explained groundnut aflatoxin concentrations in all agroecologies and maize aflatoxin in agroecology III (log y=0.1956034+0.510379x, R 2 =0.57, Pagroecologies across Zambia gives support for modifying fungal community structure to reduce the aflatoxin-producing potential. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Management of Stem-rot of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. Cultivar in Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khirood DOLEY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted at University of Pune for biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii by incorporating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasciculatum and conventional system of cultivation with different spacing pattern (15 and 30 cm in field. Both mycorrhizal inoculation and 30 cm spacing pattern significantly increased growth and yield as compared to control or 15 cm spacing pattern. The pathogenic mycorrhizal groundnut plants in 30 as well as 15 cm spacing pattern showed better growth in terms of plant height, leaf and pod number, fresh and dry weight of whole groundnut plant in comparison to non-mycorrhizal pathogenic ones and the plant growth was better in 30 spacing than 15 cm. The colonization by AM fungi in both spacing pattern was higher in absence of pathogen S. rolfsii. However, pathogen’s presence decreased the mycorrhizal colonization considerably in 30 and 15 cm. The disease severity and incidence were recorded to be lowered when inoculated with mycorrhiza in pathogenic groundnut plants as compared to non-mycorrhizal pathogenic ones in both spacing pattern and incidence and severity was significantly lower in 30 cm as compared to 15 cm. Therefore, it was observed from our results that for management of soil-borne pathogens inoculation of AM fungi and spacing patterns are necessary.

  13. Microbiological screening of street-vended groundnut cake, Kulikuli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural spices for reducing microbial contamination in the food snack. Femi AYOADE* ... Nigeria from two experimental blocks and compared for microbial quality with laboratory-prepared samples ..... the products by eating it, then rinsing their.

  14. Plant growth-promoting Methylobacterium induces defense responses in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) compared with rot pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaiyan, M; Suresh Reddy, B V; Anandham, R; Senthilkumar, M; Poonguzhali, S; Sundaram, S P; Sa, Tongmin

    2006-10-01

    This study, framed in two different phases, studied the plant-growth promotion and the induction of systemic resistance in groundnut by Methylobacterium. Seed imbibition with Methylobacterium sp. increased germination by 19.5% compared with controls. Combined inoculation of Methylobacterium sp. with Rhizobium sp. also significantly increased plant growth, nodulation, and yield attributes in groundnut compared with individual inoculation of Rhizobium sp. Methylobacterium sp. challenge-inoculated with Aspergillus niger/Sclerotium rolfsii in groundnut significantly enhanced germination percentage and seedling vigour and showed increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), beta-1,3-glucanase, and peroxidase (PO) activities. Under pot-culture conditions, in Methylobacterium sp. seed-treated groundnut plants challenge-inoculated with A. niger/S. rolfsii through foliar sprays on day 30, the activities of enzymes PO, PAL, and beta-1,3-glucanase increased constantly from 24 to 72 hours, after which decreased activity was noted. Five isozymes of polyphenol oxidase and PO could be detected in Methylobacterium-treated plants challenged with A. niger/S. rolfsii. Induced systemic resistance activity in groundnut against rot pathogens in response to methylotrophic bacteria suggests the possibility that pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria might be used as a means of biologic disease control.

  15. Exploiting Genomic Resources for Efficient Conservation and Use of Chickpea, Groundnut, and Pigeonpea Collections for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Laxmipathi Gowda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Both chickpea ( L. and pigeonpea [ (L. Millsp.] are important dietary source of protein while groundnut ( L. is one of the major oil crops. Globally, approximately 1.1 million grain legume accessions are conserved in genebanks, of which the ICRISAT genebank holds 49,485 accessions of cultivated species and wild relatives of chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut from 133 countries. These genetic resources are reservoirs of many useful genes for present and future crop improvement programs. Representative subsets in the form of core and mini core collections have been used to identify trait-specific genetically diverse germplasm for use in breeding and genomic studies in these crops. Chickpea, groundnut, and pigeonpea have moved from “orphan” to “genomic resources rich crops.” The chickpea and pigeonpea genomes have been decoded, and the sequences of groundnut genome will soon be available. With the availability of these genomic resources, the germplasm curators, breeders, and molecular biologists will have abundant opportunities to enhance the efficiency of genebank operations, mine allelic variations in germplasm collection, identify genetically diverse germplasm with beneficial traits, broaden the cultigen’s genepool, and accelerate the cultivar development to address new challenges to production, particularly with respect to climate change and variability. Marker-assisted breeding approaches have already been initiated for some traits in chickpea and groundnut, which should lead to enhanced efficiency and efficacy of crop improvement. Resistance to some pests and diseases has been successfully transferred from wild relatives to cultivated species.

  16. Infant Weaning Foods in Jos and Environs, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enrich this pap, most mothers add all sorts of food items. Some of these are ground fish, half cooked egg, soya-bean, grotmd groundnut, peanut, ground. crayfish, honey and even some canned infant foods such as Nutrend"and Cere1ac°. D D. Total aerobic counts on food products reflect not only the history of handling, ...

  17. Performance of five bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to promote drought tolerant crop cultivars acceptable to consumers cannot be ... it a crop of choice to achieve food security especially in the dry areas of Africa. ... up of water bodies even when irrigation facilities are available, research on crops with ... Sowing dates have been identified to affect the yield of the crop.

  18. Effects of bradyrhiziobium and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) inoculation on symbiotic properties, yield and seed quality of groundnut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamedzein, Ekhlas Mohamedzein M [Department of Biochemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1996-11-01

    A local and introduced Bradyrhizobium strains and a locally-isolated VAM fungi were used to study their effects on groundnut in clay (Shambat) and sandy (El-Rwakeeb) soil in a pot experiment. A field experiment was carried out at El-Rwakeeb to study the effect of urea, superphosphate and chicken manure on inoculated or uninoculated groundnut. Inoculation significantly increased number of nodules, dry weight of shoot, root and nodules, plant N and P content, number and dry weight of pods, yield and seed composition and quality in both pot and field experiments. Introduced strain (TAL 1000) was more effective than locally- isolated strain (ENRRI 16). All fertilizers added to inoculated or uninoculated groundnut significantly increased all measured parameters. Chiken manure reflected good results than rea and superphosphate, which showed comparable results. All treatents significantly improved the seed composition especially protein and oil content. (Author) 89 refs. , 25 tabs.

  19. Effects of bradyrhiziobium and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) inoculation on symbiotic properties, yield and seed quality of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamedzein, Ekhlas Mohamedzein M.

    1996-11-01

    A local and introduced Bradyrhizobium strains and a locally-isolated VAM fungi were used to study their effects on groundnut in clay (Shambat) and sandy (El-Rwakeeb) soil in a pot experiment. A field experiment was carried out at El-Rwakeeb to study the effect of urea, superphosphate and chicken manure on inoculated or uninoculated groundnut. Inoculation significantly increased number of nodules, dry weight of shoot, root and nodules, plant N and P content, number and dry weight of pods, yield and seed composition and quality in both pot and field experiments. Introduced strain (TAL 1000) was more effective than locally- isolated strain (ENRRI 16). All fertilizers added to inoculated or uninoculated groundnut significantly increased all measured parameters. Chiken manure reflected good results than rea and superphosphate, which showed comparable results. All treatents significantly improved the seed composition especially protein and oil content. (Author)

  20. Growth performance and hematology of Djallonké rams fed haulms of four varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Ansah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the chemical composition of the haulms of 4 dual-purpose groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. varieties and their effects on the growth and hematology of Djallonké rams. The groundnut varieties were ICGV 97049 (Obolo, ICGX SM 87057 (Yenyawoso, RMP 12 (Azivivi and Manipinta. Rams (live weight 15.0 ± 3.0 kg were randomly assigned to 4 sole groundnut haulm meal (GHM treatments, with 4 rams each in an individual pen per treatment (total n = 16 rams. Samples of the groundnut haulms were milled and analyzed for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The CP concentration was higher (P  0.05 when the Djallonké rams were fed the haulms. However, significant differences were observed in final live weight and average daily live weight gain. Rams fed the Yenyawoso variety had higher (P < 0.05 final live weight and average daily live weight gain compared with those fed Obolo and Azivivi varieties. Consumption of any of the 4 varieties of groundnut haulms by Djallonké rams did not have any harmful effect on their red and white blood cell numbers and hemoglobin concentration. The study revealed that the different varieties of groundnut haulms differ in nutrient composition and also affect the growth performance of the rams. The Yenyawoso variety may be used as a sole diet for fattening Djallonké rams.

  1. Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Low Temperatures Response in Bambara Groundnut by Network-Based Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Suresh Bonthala

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc. is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and gene modules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has no microarray chip coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01 under the sub-optimal (23°C and very sub-optimal (18°C temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC, WRKY, WHIRLY & GATA classes that may regulate the downstream genes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified gene modules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties.

  2. Acceptability of Iron- and Zinc-Biofortified Pearl Millet (ICTP-8203)-Based Complementary Foods among Children in an Urban Slum of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Samantha Lee; Venkatramanan, Sudha; Udipi, Shobha A; Finkelstein, Julia Leigh; Ghugre, Padmini; Haas, Jere Douglas; Thakker, Varsha; Thorat, Aparna; Salvi, Ashwini; Kurpad, Anura V; Mehta, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Biofortification, a method for increasing micronutrient content of staple crops, is a promising strategy for combating major global health problems, such as iron and zinc deficiency. We examined the acceptability of recipes prepared using iron- and zinc-biofortified pearl millet (FeZnPM) (~80 ppm Fe, ~34 ppm Zn, varietal ICTP-8203), compared to conventional pearl millet (CPM) (~20 ppm Fe, ~19 ppm Zn) in preparation for an efficacy trial. Our objective was to examine the acceptability of FeZnPM compared to CPM among young children and mothers living in the urban slums of Mumbai. Standardized traditional feeding program recipes ( n  = 18) were prepared with either FeZnPM or CPM flour. The weight (g) of each food product was measured before and after consumption by children ( n  = 125) and the average grams consumed over a 3-day period were recorded. Mothers ( n  = 60) rated recipes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Mean intakes and hedonic scores of each food product were compared using t -tests across the two types of pearl millet. There were no statistically significant differences in consumption by children (FeZnPM: 25.27 ± 13.0 g; CPM: 21.72 ± 6.90 g) across the food products ( P  = 0.28). Overall mean hedonic scores for all recipes were between 7 to 9 points. CPM products were rated higher overall (8.22 ± 0.28) compared to FeZnPM products (7.95 ± 0.35) ( P  = 0.01). FeZnPM and CPM were similarly consumed and had high hedonic scores, demonstrating high acceptability in this population. These results support using these varieties of pearl millet in a proposed trial [http://Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02233764; Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI), reference number REF/2014/10/007731, CTRI number CTRI/2015/11/006376] testing the efficacy of FeZnPM for improving iron status and growth.

  3. Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.; Ramteke, D.S.; Wate, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    In the present technologically fast changing situation related to waste management practices, it is desirable that disposal of plant waste should be done in a scientific manner by keeping in view economic and pollution considerations. This is only possible when the plant waste has the potential to be used as raw material for some useful product. In the present study, groundnut shell, an agricultural waste, was used for the preparation of an adsorbent by chemical activation using ZnCl 2 under optimized conditions and its comparative characterisation was conducted with commercially available powdered activated carbon (CPAC) for its physical, chemical and adsorption properties. The groundnut shell based powdered activated carbon (GSPAC) has a higher surface area, iodine and methylene blue number compared to CPAC. Both of the carbons were used for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution and the effect of various operating variables, viz. adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g l -1 ), contact time (5-120 min) and adsorbate concentrations (100-200 mg l -1 ) on the removal of dye, has been studied. The experimental results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 g l -1 and initial concentration of 100 mg l -1 , GSPAC showed 94.5% removal of the dye in 30 min equilibrium time, while CPAC removed 96% of the dye in 15 min. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the linearized forms of Freundlich, Langmuir and BET equations to determine maximum adsorptive capacities. The equilibrium data fit well to the Freundlich isotherm, although the BET isotherm also showed higher correlation for both of the carbons. The results of comparative adsorption capacity of both carbons indicate that groundnut shell can be used as a low-cost alternative to commercial powdered activated carbon in aqueous solution for dye removal

  4. Performance Evaluation of the Effect of waste paper on Groundnut Shell Briquette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde A Oyelaran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current energy shortage and environmental issues resulting from the use of fossil fuels have lead to exploitation of renewable energy resources that includes municipal waste and agricultural residues. These residues are available, indigenous and are environmental friendly but some can not be used directly in combustion process due high moisture content and low volumetric energy unless by briquetting. The study was undertaken to assess the combustion characteristic of binderless briquettes produced from waste paper and groundnut shell. Combustion characteristics investigated were ignition time, burning time, calorific values, burning rate, specific fuel consumption, fuel efficiency and water boiling time. The calorific values of the briquettes ranged from 19.51 - 19.92 MJ/kg, while the thermal efficiency ranges between 13.75 – 21.64%, other results shows that the average burning rate between 0.511 and 1.133 kg/hr and the specific fuel consumption ranges between 0.087 and 0.131 J/g. The recorded boiling time values were between 17.5 and 30.0 minutes for cold start and 15.0 and 20.0 minutes for hot start. The results shows that waste paper and groundnut shell up to 25% in composition composite briquettes were found to have good combustion characteristics which qualify them as alternative to firewood for domestic and industrial energy. However, production of briquettes from waste paper and groundnut shell at mixing ratio of 85:15 was found to comparatively better from all experiment conducted.

  5. RESISTANCE OF SOME GROUNDNUT CULTIVARS TO SOYBEAN POD BORER, ETIELLA ZINCKENELLA TREIT. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinardi Apriyanto, Edi Gunawan, dan Tri Sunardi .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of some groundnut cultivars to soybean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treit. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.  Five groundnut cultivars: Badak, Panther, Sima, Gajah, and Simpai, were grown in field in June-August, 2006 to determine their resistance/susceptibility to Etiella zinckenella Treit.  Two local cultivars (big and small seeds were included as comparison (controls. All cultivars were grown in experimental plots arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD, replicated three times. The incidence of soybean pod borer and damaged pods were observed at 9, 11, 13 weeks after sowing (WAS at 10 sample plants taken randomly from each plot. All cultivars were harvested at 13 WAS. Number of damaged pods was counted and percentages per plant were calculated. Larvae observed inside pod or in the soil were counted and collected. The seed yield per plant and weight of 100 seeds from 100 sample plants taken randomly at harvest were weighted to nearest gram at 10% water content. Pod toughness (hardness was measured with penetrometer. Resistance level of each cultivar was determined based on cultivar’s means and overall mean and standard deviation of the percentages of damaged pods. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA and means were separated with DMRT. The result revealed that mean percentages of damaged pod differed significantly between cultivars. Seed yield of cultivar Panther, Sima and Badak were significantly higher than those of the other two and local cultivars. Cultivar Panther was categorized as resistant, cultivar Sima and Badak as moderately resistant, while the others as susceptible. The relative resistance of groundnut cultivar seems, at least in part, to correlate with the structural hardness of pod.

  6. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-01-01

    An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulical...

  7. Plant growth analysis used as secondary traits in selection for high yield on groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manshuri, A.G.; Nugrahaeni

    1996-01-01

    Groundnut growth and yield can be expressed as the product to solar radiation interception (Qi), conversion efficiency of radiation to total dry matter (Ek) and partitioning efficiency to economic yield (Ep) or harvest index. Groundnut genotypes differ in characters related to Qi, Ek and Ep, and the characters have the possibility to be used as secondary traits in selection for high yield. Extinction coefficient (k) and leaf area index (LAI) are the influential factors in increasing Qi. Variability in leaf size lead to the description of the existence of variability in k value within the genotypes under study. LAI three is the level necessary to attain 90 percent total radiation absorption in groundnut. An increased of LAI exceeding four would be inefficient for increasing the fraction of radiation absorption. Convertion efficiency of radiation to total dry matter (Ek) related to the rate of plant photosynthesis and respiration, inspite of the need study the field, however, the study was still limited. Harvest index can be used as a secondary trait to identify high yield genotypes. There was a positive correlation between pod yield and harvest index. An increased of harvest index by 1 percent caused an increased of dry pod as high as 0.365 g/plant. ICG 1697, ICGV 86844 and ICGV 87161 gave yield more than 3.5 t/ha, and their total dry matter (TDM) were 49.2, 52.5 and 40.7 g/plant, whereas their harvest indexes (HI) were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.55, respectively. Theoretically, improvement of the groundnut pod yield can be attained by using variety which has TDM 52.5 g/plant and HI 0.55. Using HI as secondary selection criteria, five genotypes were selected, i.e., G/C/LM-88-B-25 (HI 0.59), local Irian and local Lombok (HI 0.57), ICGV 87161 and LM/ICGV 87165-B-2-1 (HI 0.55). Two genotypes were selected for their high TDM, namely ICGV 86844 and LM/ICGV 87165-88-B-82 [in

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapies are often lacking; therefore, the safety and effectiveness of many CAM therapies are uncertain. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is sponsoring research designed to fill this ...

  9. Optimisation and Evaluation of the Effect of Bambara Groundnut Addition on the Nutritional Quality and Functional Properties of Amaranth Grain-Based Composite Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality and functional properties of composite flour consisting amaranth grain, bambara groundnut, carrot and rice bran flours were evaluated. The dependent variables were optimized using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology. Amaranth grain flour (70 – 80.75%, bambara groundnut flour (15-25%, carrot flour (2-5% and rice bran (2-10% were the independent variables. From the results, very high protein content (about 40% was obtained when the bambara content inclusion was 25%. Bambara groundnut flour inclusion up to 15% also resulted in high protein contents (≤ 37%. Supplementation of the composite flour with high carrot flour content (up to 10% also enhanced the protein content when the bambara groundnut content was low. High carrot flour inclusion had the highest positive effect on the crude fibre content (3.7-3.9% followed by rice bran and bambara groundnut flours in that order. Bambara groundnut had highest positive effect on the ash content; followed by carrot and rice flours. While amaranth grain, carrot and rice bran significantly (p≤0.05 affect the proximate and functional compositions, bambara groundnut had the highest and best effect on the proximate, functional, mineral properties as well as the amino acid profile of the composite flour.

  10. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF COTTONSEED AND GROUNDNUT OIL USED FOR FRYING BHAJIAS AND ITS SENSORY QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep fried snacks, which evolved as snacks between meals include bhajia, samosa, etc are very popular in India and commercially exploited on a wide scale.Cottonseed and Groundnut oil frequently used in Gujarat for cooking purpose studied for its intermittent frying stability. Indian fried snack popularly known as ‘Bhajia’ fried for 5 min at an interval of 1 h; 5 times a day for 5 consecutive days and studied for its various sensory attributes using 9-point hedonic scale. Standard AOCS and AOAC methods were used to determine the quality of oil. Peroxide and p-anisidine values of both oils increased significantly p<0.001 during the 25 h of intermittent frying. Iodine value of cottonseed oil did not decrease throughout the intermittent frying period. Polar components increased 257.5% in cottonseed oil (CSO and 142.9% in groundnut oil (GNO.The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content increased significantly with the increase in frying hours.No significant change was seen in linoleic/palmitic acid ratio of both the oils during bhajias frying. The sensory qualities of bhajia fried at different intervals did not change significantly for various attributes namely flavor, taste, crispness, greasiness, odor, color, appearance and overall acceptability.

  11. Thermal Degradation of Complexes Derived from Cu (II) Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Soaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joram, Anju; Sharma, Rashmi; Sharma, Arun kumar

    2018-05-01

    The complexes have been synthesized from Cu (II) soaps of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils, with ligand containing nitrogen and sulfur atoms like 2-amino-6-methyl benzothiazole. The complexes were greenish brown in color. In order to study TGA, first characterized them by elemental analysis, and spectroscopic technique such as IR, NMR and ESR. From the analytical data, the stoichiometry's of the complexes have been observed to be 1:1 (metal:ligand). These complexes have been thermally analyzed using TGA techniques to determine their energy of activation. These complexes show three step thermal degradation corresponding to fatty acid components of the edible oils and each complex has three decomposition steps in the range of 439-738 K. Various equations like Coats-Redfern (CR), Horowitz-Metzger (HM) and Broido equations (BE) were applied to evaluate the energy of activation. The values of energy of activation are observed to be in the following order for both copper groundnut benzothiazole (CGB) and copper sesame benzothiazole (CSeB) complexes: CGB > CSeB. CGB is observed to be more stable than CSeB due to its higher activation energy. The above studies would provide significant information regarding the applications of synthesized agrochemicals and their safe removal through parameters obtained in degradation curves and its relation with energy.

  12. Physicotechnical, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric properties of powdered cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose derived from groundnut shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders, derived from agricultural waste products, that have for the pharmaceutical industry, desirable physical (flow properties were investigated. α–Cellulose (GCN was extracted from groundnut shell (an agricultural waste product using a non-dissolving method based on inorganic reagents. Modification of this α -cellulose was carried out by partially hydrolysing it with 2N hydrochloric acid under reflux to obtain microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN. The physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of the derived α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders were compared with Avicel® PH 101, a commercial brand of microcrystalline cellulose (MCCA, using standard methods. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the α-cellulose had lower crystallinity. This suggested that treatment with 2N hydrochloric acid led to an increase in the crystallinity index. Thermogravimetric analysis showed quite similar thermal behavior for all cellulose samples, although the α-cellulose had a somewhat lower stability. A comparison of the physical properties between the microcrystalline celluloses and the α-cellulose suggests that microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN and MCCA might have better flow properties. In almost all cases, MCGN and MCCA had similar characteristics. Since groundnut shells are agricultural waste products, its utilization as a source of microcrystalline cellulose might be a good low-cost alternative to the more expensive commercial brand.

  13. Genetic analysis of some agronomic traits in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Alam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 10×10 half diallel experiment was conducted on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. to ascertain the gene action and genetic parameters of ten traits including 50% flowering, no. of pods per plant, plant height, harvest index, pod index, 100 pod weight, 100 kernel weight, pod size, diseases infection and yield per plot. The experiments were carried out in the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU, Mymensingh during the cropping season of 2010-2011. The estimates of gene effects indicated that significance of both additive and non-additive variance for pod size, 100 pod weight and diseases infection among the traits and presence of over dominance satisfying assumptions of diallel except dormancy. However, both the additive and non-additive gene affects together importance to control of most quantitative traits in the groundnut. The average degree of dominance (H1/D 1/2 (H1 = dominance variance, D = additive variance was higher than one, indicating over dominance for all the traits. The narrow-sense heritability was high for 50% flowering (38%, harvest index (35%, pod size (52%, 100 pod weight (35% and yield per plot (41% indicating that great genetic gain could be achieved for them.

  14. The phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Botswana soils : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramolemana, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdec.) is a legume crop grown especially by small farmers mainly in semi-arid parts of Africa both in mixed cultivation and pure stands. It is considered as a hardy crop because of its drought tolerance, resistance to pests

  15. Application of response surface methodology for studying the product characteristics of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Emmanuel Kwasi; Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-08-01

    Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3) was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave R(2) values ranging from 52.8% (for the b-value) to 86.5% (for bulk density). The models developed suggested that the optimal process variables for the production of a puffed snack with an enhanced nutrition and spongy structure from a rice-cowpea-groundnut blend are low feed moisture of 14-20% and maximum additions of 20% cowpea and 10% groundnut. A lack-of-fit test showed no significance, indicating that the models adequately fitted the data.

  16. Complementary feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Goulet, Olivier; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Moreno, Luis; Puntis, John; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a

  17. Business opportunities and food safety of the Myanmar edible oil sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Biersteker, J.; Hagedoorn, L.F.; Louisse, J.

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of the oilseed and edible oil sector in Myanmar as well as the food safety control system. Myanmar is a significant producer of oilseed specialities. It is world’s largest producer of sesame seeds, ranks on the sixth position for groundnut production

  18. Efficacy of Carbofuran in Controlling Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica Whitehead, 1949) on Cultivars of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Yola, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jada, M. Y.; Gungula, D. T.; Jacob, I.

    2011-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc.) is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.). Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo) were evaluated using three...

  19. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  20. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: • Acupressure and acupuncture • Aromatherapy • Art therapy and music therapy • Chiropractic medicine and massage • Guided imagery • Meditation and ... should I avoid? • Is this complementary therapy (name therapy) safe? Is there research showing it is safe? • Are there side effects ...

  1. FORMULATION OF COMPLEMENTARY FOOD USING AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsigereda

    CHICKPEA AND MAIZE IMPROVES IRON, CALCIUM AND ZINC CONTENT .... Fisher least significance difference (LSD) at p <0.05 was used to determine the .... Macharia-Mutie CW, Van de Wiel AM, Moreno-Londono AM, Mwangi AM.

  2. Nature of fireside deposits in a bagasse and groundnut shell fired 20 MW thermal boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srikanth, S.; Das, S.K.; Ravikumar, B.; Rao, D.S.; Nandakumar, K.; Vijayan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of deposit formation on the fireside surfaces of the boiler tubes in the various parts (water walls, platen superheater, final superheater, economizer, electrostatic precipitator etc.) of a commercial 20 MW stoker-fired boiler being fired with a mixture of 80% bagasse and 20% groundnut shell has been analyzed. The deposits in the various portions of the boiler were characterized by particle size analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The deposits were found to be mainly quartz, alkali and alkaline earth silicates and sulfates. From the phase constitution and other microscopic characteristics of the deposit, it can be inferred that the silicates in the deposit formed through inertial impaction and the sulfates formed by vapor phase deposition

  3. Nature of fireside deposits in a bagasse and groundnut shell fired 20 MW thermal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth, S.; Rao, D.S. [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, Chennai (India); Swapan, S.K.; Das, K.; Ravikumar, B. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India). Materials Characterization Division; Nandakumar, K.; Vijayan, P. [Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli (India). Research and Development Section

    2004-10-01

    The nature of deposit formation on the fireside surfaces of the boiler tubes in the various parts (water walls, platen superheater, final superheater, economizer, electrostatic precipitator etc.) of a commercial 20 MW stoker-fired boiler being fired with a mixture of 80% bagasse and 20% groundnut shell has been analyzed. The deposits in the various portions of the boiler were characterized by particle size analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The deposits were found to be mainly quartz, alkali and alkaline earth silicates and sulfates. From the phase constitution and other microscopic characteristics of the deposit, it can be inferred that the silicates in the deposit formed through inertial impaction and the sulfates formed by vapor phase deposition. (author)

  4. STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L. GENOTYPES FOR SEED YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya R. KOKKIRIPATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHIATS, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh during kharif 2014. The experimental material consisted of 11 Groundnut genotypes along with one check (IND-156. The genotypes were sown at Field Experimentation Centre in three replications adopting randomized block design to evaluate seed yield and quality traits. Analysis of variance revealed that the presence of considerable variation among the genotypes for all the characters studied. On the basis of mean performance, genotype ICG 14127 revealed better performance in primary branches/ plant, pods per plant, pod yield/plant, seed yield/plant and ICG 14482 showed better performance in kernel yield q/ha, oil content, oil yield while ICG 188 showed higher protein content.

  5. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics of groundnut shell and waste paper admixture briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to assess the heat released of briquettes produced from waste paper and groundnut shell admixture in five mixing ratios (90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; and 50:50. The briquettes were prepared on an existing motorized briquetting machine. The suitability of briquetted fuel as domestic fuel was studied in terms of flame propagation, afterglow, calorific value, and utilized heat, after sun drying the prepared briquettes for nineteen (19 days. The results of propagation rate and afterglow obtained for all the six compositions are satisfactory they range between 0.13 to 0.14 and 365 to 380 respectively. These energy values obtained for the whole samples are sufficient enough to produce heat required for household cooking and small scale industrial cottage applications. Finally it was observed that composition variation affects the properties of the briquettes.

  6. Evaluation of yield and N2 fixation of mutant lines of groundnut in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, I.; Harun, A.R.; Rahman, K.A.; Shamsuddin, S.; Rahim, K.A.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1998-01-01

    The 15 N-dilution technique was used to evaluate N 2 fixation in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in three field trials of cultivars Matjan and V-13 (parents), their selected mutant lines, and a other local and foreign genotypes. Matjan mutant MJ/40/42 consistently produced the highest pod yields, at above 4 t ha -1 , 14-22% higher yields than the parent. In contrast, none of the V-13 mutants had consistently better yields than the parent. The mutant lines did not show consistent agronomic performance from year to year. Total dry matter yield did not correlate with pod yield, and pod yield did not correlate with amount of N fixed

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers and their application for diversity assessment in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Jonathan H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. is the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, grown mainly in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates. Due to its origin through a single and recent polyploidization event, followed by successive selection during breeding efforts, cultivated groundnut has a limited genetic background. In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. The low level of polymorphism in cultivated germplasm, however, warrants a need of larger number of polymorphic microsatellite markers for cultivated groundnut. Results A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype TMV2. Sequencing of 720 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 3,072 provided 490 SSRs. 71.2% of these SSRs were perfect type, 13.1% were imperfect and 15.7% were compound. Among these SSRs, the GT/CA repeat motifs were the most common (37.6% followed by GA/CT repeat motifs (25.9%. The primer pairs could be designed for a total of 170 SSRs and were optimized initially on two genotypes. 104 (61.2% primer pairs yielded scorable amplicon and 46 (44.2% primers showed polymorphism among 32 cultivated groundnut genotypes. The polymorphic SSR markers detected 2 to 5 alleles with an average of 2.44 per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC value for these markers varied from 0.12 to 0.75 with an average of 0.46. Based on 112 alleles obtained by 46 markers, a phenogram was constructed to understand the relationships among the 32 genotypes. Majority of the genotypes representing subspecies hypogaea were grouped together in one cluster, while the genotypes belonging to subspecies fastigiata were grouped mainly under two clusters. Conclusion Newly developed set of 104 markers extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated groundnut. These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm

  8. Quantifying N2-fixed by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as compared to some summer legumes using ''1''5N methodology with different reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlan, M. A. M.; Mukhtar, N. O.

    2004-01-01

    Using the ''1''5N methodology, one of the cultivar of groundnut repeated once (as groundnut 1 and 2) and one cultivar of each of the summer legumes guar, pigeon pea and mungbean were studied (a) to determine the amounts of nitrogen fixed by these legumes using different reference crops and (b) to compare N-fixation by groundnut to that of the above mentioned summer legumes. The reference crops used were, sorghum, soybean and a non-nodulating groundnut isoline. Each of the studied legumes and reference crops was grown at the Gezira Research Station Farm, in a microplot of 2.4 m''2 situated at one side of a main-plot of 24 m''2. The N 2 fixing legumes guar, mung bean, and pigeon pea and sorghum were given 20 kg N/ha as urea at 5.0% ''1''5N atom excess, and the reference crops of soybean and non -nodulating groundnut were given 100 kg N/ha at 1.0% ''1''5N atom excess. ''1''4N/''1''5N ratios were determined in plants sampled from the microplots. The results showed that pigeon pea and guar could compete well with groundnut as N 2 -fixers. Levels of fixation (%Ndfa) were 79% (108 kg N/ha), 77% (138 kg N/ha) and 80% (70 kg N/ha) of the total crop's N need for guar, groundnut and pigeon pea, respectively. Mungbean fixed about 12% (6 kg N/ha) of its N need. The variation in the amounts of N 2 fixed in kg/ha is dependent on the total plant N yield of each legume which was 160-180, 139, 87 and 68 for groundnut, guar, pigeon pea and mug bean, respectively. The non-nodulating groundnut was a superior reference crop over sorghum and soybean. Thus, the studied reference crops can be listed in a descending order of excellence as follows: non-nodulating groundnut, sorghum, soybean.(Author)

  9. First report of natural infection of Vigna mungo var. silvestris L. by Groundnut bud necrosis virus, a tospovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AKRAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2008, Vigna mungo var. silvestris growing in the experimental field of the Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India, showed chlorosis around some lateral veins and vein branches (mainly near the leaflet margin, downward curling of the leaf margins, necrosis of the stems and petioles, and twisting of the leaflets. Disease incidence was 20%. Symptoms indicated that the cause was Groundnut bud necrosis virus. The virus was identified on the basis of the symptoms on the diagnostic host, and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using specific primers of the NSm and NP genes. To our knowledge this is the first report of Groundnut bud necrosis virus on V. mungo var. silvestris.

  10. Fibromyalgia and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Web site . What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for Fibromyalgia Mind ... Complementary and alternative medical therapies in fibromyalgia . Current Pharmaceutical Design . 2006;12(1):47–57. Sherman KJ, ...

  11. Effects of application of groundnut biomass compost on uptake of phosphorus by maize grown on an Ultisol of South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasifah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Low crop production is acid dryland area of South Sulawesi is due to low availability of P in the soils. One of alternatives that can be performed to overcome the problems of acid soils having high level of exchangeable Al, is through the addition of organic material. In the upland areas in South Sulawesi, crop rice, maize and groundnut crop residues are readily available, but the crop residues are generally only used as animal feed or even burned. This study was aimed to elucidate the effects of groundnut compost on P uptake by maize in Ultisol of Moncongloe, South Sulawesi. Eight kilograms of air dried soil was mixed with compost according to the following treatments; 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 t compost/ha. All pots received 200 kg/ha KCl and 300 kg Urea/ha as basal fertilizers. Two maize seeds were planted in each pot and thinned to one plant per pot after one week. At harvest maize shoot dry weight and maize root dry weight, length of maize cop, cob weight, cob diameter, weight grains per cob, P uptake by maize, P content in maize grain, soil available P were measured. Results of the study showed that groundnut compost has the ability to improve the availability of P in the soil and increase P uptake by maize grown on an Ultisol of South Sulawesi. Application of 25 t groundnut compost/ha was the optimal rate that can be used to increase P availability in an Ultisol of South Sulawesi.

  12. AN INTEGRATED ON-FARM EXPERIMENT AND SURVEY APPROACH TO MAIZE AND GROUNDNUT CONSTRAINT ANALYSIS IN ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    Shumba, Enos Mutambu

    1987-01-01

    On-farm trials conducted in Zimbabwe communal areas (peasant sector) have demonstrated the existence of a yield gap between potential farm yields and those achieved by farmers. This study utilizes the experimental and survey approach to quantify the size of the maize and groundnut yield gaps at the farm level and evaluates the economic returns associated with the yield increasing technologies. Three major conclusions drawn from the study are: First, the diagnostic survey and the yield gap pac...

  13. Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in groundnut, Arachis hypogaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) was studied in groundnut genotypes (ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 and ICG 1697) with different levels of resistance to insects and the susceptible check JL 24 under greenhouse conditions. Activities of oxidative enzymes and the amounts of secondary metabolites and proteins were quantified at 6 days after JA and SA application/insect infestation. Data were also recorded on plant damage and H. armigera larval weights and survival. Higher levels of enzymatic activities and amounts of secondary metabolites were observed in the insect-resistant genotypes pretreated with JA and then infested with H. armigera than in JL 24. The insect-resistant genotypes suffered lower insect damage and resulted in poor survival and lower weights of H. armigera larvae than JL 24. In some cases, JA and SA showed similar effects. JA and SA induced the activity of antioxidative enzymes in groundnut plants against H. armigera, and reduced its growth and development. However, induced response to application of JA was greater than to SA, and resulted in reduced plant damage, and larval weights and survival, suggesting that induced resistance can be used as a component of pest management in groundnut. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Nutrient content and acceptability of soybean based complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient content and acceptability of soybean based complementary food. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... A study was carried out in Morogoro region, Tanzania, to determine composition and acceptability of soy-based formulations with banana and cowpeas as traditional staples.

  15. A Coordinated Research Project on the Implementation of Nuclear Techniques to Improve Food Traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew; Zandric, Zora; Maestroni, Britt; Abrahim, Aiman

    2013-04-01

    Traceability systems play a key role in assuring a safe and reliable food supply. Analytical techniques harnessing the spatial patterns in distribution of stable isotope and trace element ratios can be used for the determination of the provenance of food. Such techniques offer the potential to enhance global trade by providing an independent means of verifying "paper" traceability systems and can also help to prove authenticity, to combat fraudulent practices, and to control adulteration, which are important issues for economic, religious or cultural reasons. To address some of the challenges that developing countries face in attempting to implement effective food traceability systems, the IAEA, through its Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, has initiated a 5-year coordinated research project involving institutes in 15 developing and developed countries (Austria, Botswana, Chile, China, France, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Uganda, UK, USA). The objective is to help in member state laboratories to establish robust analytical techniques and databases, validated to international standards, to determine the provenance of food. Nuclear techniques such as stable isotope and multi-element analysis, along with complementary methods, will be applied for the verification of food traceability systems and claims related to food origin, production, and authenticity. This integrated and multidisciplinary approach to strengthening capacity in food traceability will contribute to the effective implementation of holistic systems for food safety and control. The project focuses mainly on the development of techniques to confirm product authenticity, with several research partners also considering food safety issues. Research topics encompass determination of the geographical origin of a variety of commodities, including seed oils, rice, wine, olive oil, wheat, orange juice, fish, groundnuts, tea, pork, honey and

  16. A complementary MOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhabvala, M.D.

    1977-03-01

    The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included

  17. Farmers' contributions to the conservation of tree diversity in the Groundnut Basin, Senegal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antoine Sambou; Bienvenu Sambou; Anders R(ae)bild

    2017-01-01

    Tree diversity in West Africa is threatened by intensified land uses and salinization,and farmers' role in conservation of tree species is unclear.We hypothesized that farmers contribute to conservation of tree diversity through protection of trees in their agroforestry landscapes and compared the diversity and structure of the tree vegetation across landscape classes.Inventories were carried out in three villages in the Groundnut Basin in Senegal,assessing tree diversity,density and crown cover.Tree diversity as assessed by species accumulation curves was high in forests,but cultivated landscapes had comparable or almost comparable diversity,especially in the cases where the forest was planted or was affected by charcoal production.However,the occurrence of exotic species was higher in cultivated parts of the landscape,and although many species were in common,ordination plots indicated that forests and cultivated landscapes to some degree had different species composition.Salinity had a strong influence on vegetation,not only in the tans (salt marshes) but also across the other landscape classes.In conclusion,agroforestry landscapes in the three villages harbor considerable tree diversity,but insufficient to fully conserve the tree species.We argue that informing and including farmers in tree management in the region will contribute to overall conservation of tree genetic resources.

  18. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tariq A; Thakur, S S; Mahesh, M S; Yogi, R K

    2017-10-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC) by rice gluten meal (RGM) and maize gluten meal (MGM) at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg) and age (6 to 12 mo), and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I) was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N) of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44). The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  19. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq A. Malik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC by rice gluten meal (RGM and maize gluten meal (MGM at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Methods Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg and age (6 to 12 mo, and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II and third (GP-III groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44. Results The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Conclusion Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  20. Compatibility of Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens in growth promotion of groundnut ( Arachis hypogea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Andhare A; Babu, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to study the compatibility among plant beneficial bacteria in the culture level by growing them near in the nutrient agar plates. Among all the bacteria tested, Rhizobium was found to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. From the compatible group of PGPR, we have selected one biofertilizer (Azospirillum brasilense strain TNAU) and one biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PF1) for further studies in the pot culture. We have also developed a bioformulation which is talc powder based, for individual bacteria and mixed culture. This formulation was used as seed treatment, soil application, seedling root dip and foliar spray in groundnut crop in vitro germination conditions. A. brasilense was found to enhance the tap root growth and P. fluorescens, the lateral root growth. The other growth parameters like shoot growth, number of leaves were enhanced by the combination of both of the bacteria than their individual formulations. Among the method of application tested in our study, soil application was found to be the best in yielding better results of plant growth promotion.

  1. Compatibility of Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens in growth promotion of groundnut ( Arachis hypogea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDHARE A. PRASAD

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We attempted to study the compatibility among plant beneficial bacteria in the culture level by growing them near in the nutrient agar plates. Among all the bacteria tested, Rhizobium was found to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. From the compatible group of PGPR, we have selected one biofertilizer (Azospirillum brasilense strain TNAU and one biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PF1 for further studies in the pot culture. We have also developed a bioformulation which is talc powder based, for individual bacteria and mixed culture. This formulation was used as seed treatment, soil application, seedling root dip and foliar spray in groundnut crop in vitro germination conditions. A. brasilense was found to enhance the tap root growth and P. fluorescens, the lateral root growth. The other growth parameters like shoot growth, number of leaves were enhanced by the combination of both of the bacteria than their individual formulations. Among the method of application tested in our study, soil application was found to be the best in yielding better results of plant growth promotion.

  2. Effects of mutagens on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthusamy, A.; Vasanth, K.; Sivasankari, D.; Chandrasekar, B.R.; Jayabalan, N.

    2007-01-01

    The embryogenic calli (EC) were obtained from hypocotyl explants of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in combination with 0.5 mg dm −3 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The EC were exposed to γ-radiation (10–50 Gy) or treated with 1–5 mM of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) or sodium azide (SA). The mutated EC were subcultured on embryo induction medium containing 20 mg dm −3 2,4-D. Somatic embryos (SE) developed from these calli were transferred to MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg dm −3 ) and 0.5 mg dm −3 2,4-D for maturation. The well-developed embryos were cultured on germination medium consisting of MS salts with 2.0 mg dm −3 BAP and 0.25 mg dm −3 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Well-developed plantlets were transferred for hardening and hardened plants produced normal flowers and set viable seeds. The fresh mass of the EC, mean number of SE per explant and regeneration percentage were higher at lower concentrations of mutagens (up to 30 Gy/3 mM). Some abnormalities in regenerated plants were observed, especially variations in leaf shape. (author)

  3. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed using 6×6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants.

  4. Response surface methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on some nutritional and textural properties of bambara groundnuts (Voandzei subterranea) during canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Merson, Alan Bullock

    2007-06-01

    The response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=3 was used to study the combined effect of blanching, soaking and sodium hexametaphosphate salt concentration on moisture, ash, leached solids, phytates, tannins and hardness of bambara groundnut during canning. Regression models were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (64.4-82.6%). Blanching and soaking of the seeds prior to canning led to increases in moisture content and leached solids, while significant decreases were observed for phytates, tannins and hardness of the canned bambara groundnuts. Increasing the concentration of sodium salt added during soaking caused significant (Pcanning treatments of blanching, soaking and sodium hexametaphosphate salt addition can be used to effectively reduce the phytates, tannin levels with minimal mineral (ash) loss and enhanced textural integrity of the canned bambara groundnuts.

  5. Efficacy of Carbofuran in Controlling Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica Whitehead, 1949 on Cultivars of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc. in Yola, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Jada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc. is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.. Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo were evaluated using three application timings (at planting, 3 and 6 weeks after planting, and none. Results indicated that applying carbofuran at planting provided the greatest reduction in M. javanica population levels, which lead to increased yields in bambara groundnuts compared to the other two application timings. Furthermore, both Kwachanjiwa and Kwatolotolo provided similar high yields compared to Kwaheuma, which was most likely related to the M. javanica tolerance in these cultivars.

  6. The effect of iron-fortified complementary food and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on anaemia in 12- to 36-month-old children: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brittenham, Gary M; Adiossan, Lukas G; Righetti, Aurélie A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Diakité, Victorine G; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Wegmüller, Rita

    2015-09-17

    Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria co-exist in tropical regions and both contribute to high rates of anaemia in young children. It is unclear whether iron fortification combined with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria would be an efficacious strategy for reducing anaemia in young children. A 9-month cluster-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out in children aged 12-36 months in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, an area of intense and perennial malaria transmission. The study groups were: group 1: normal diet and IPT-placebo (n = 125); group 2: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified complementary food (CF) with optimised composition providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferrous fumarate 6 days per week (CF-FeFum) and IPT-placebo (n = 126); group 3: IPT of malaria at 3-month intervals, using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine and no dietary intervention (n = 127); group 4: both CF-FeFum and IPT (n = 124); and group 5: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified CF with the composition currently on the Ivorian market providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferric pyrophosphate 6 days per week (CF-FePP) and IPT-placebo (n = 127). The primary outcome was haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Linear and logistic regression mixed-effect models were used for the comparison of the five study groups, and a 2 × 2 factorial analysis was used to assess treatment interactions of CF-FeFum and IPT (study groups 1-4). After 9 months, the Hb concentration increased in all groups to a similar extent with no statistically significant difference between groups. In the 2 × 2 factorial analysis after 9 months, no treatment interaction was found on Hb (P = 0.89). The adjusted differences in Hb were 0.24 g/dl (95 % CI -0.10 to 0.59; P = 0.16) in children receiving IPT and -0.08 g/dl (95 % CI -0.42 to 0.26; P = 0.65) in children receiving CF-FeFum. At baseline, anaemia (Hb

  7. A Novel WRKY Transcription Factor, MuWRKY3 (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Verdc. Enhances Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnool Kiranmai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has adverse effects on growth, water relations, photosynthesis and yield of groundnut. WRKY transcription factors (TFs are the plant-specific TFs which regulate several down-stream stress-responsive genes and play an essential role in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. We found that WRKY3 gene is highly up-regulated under drought stress conditions and therefore isolated a new WRKY3TF gene from a drought-adapted horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Verdc.. Conserved domain studies revealed that protein encoded by this gene contains highly conserved regions of two WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. The fusion protein localization studies of transient MuWRKY3-YFP revealed its nuclear localization. Overexpression of MuWRKY3 TF gene in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. showed increased tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT plants. MuWRKY3 groundnut transgenics displayed lesser and delayed wilting symptoms than WT plants after 10-days of drought stress imposition. The transgenic groundnut plants expressing MuWRKY3 showed less accumulation of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙-, accompanied by more free proline, total soluble sugar content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT plants under drought stress. Moreover, a series of stress-related LEA, HSP, MIPS, APX, SOD, and CAT genes found up-regulated in the transgenic groundnut plants. The study demonstrates that nuclear-localized MuWRKY3 TF regulates the expression of stress-responsive genes and the activity of ROS scavenging enzymes which results in improved drought tolerance in groundnut. We conclude that MuWRKY3 may serve as a new putative candidate gene for the improvement of stress resistance in plants.

  8. A Novel WRKY Transcription Factor, MuWRKY3 (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Verdc.) Enhances Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranmai, Kurnool; Lokanadha Rao, Gunupuru; Pandurangaiah, Merum; Nareshkumar, Ambekar; Amaranatha Reddy, Vennapusa; Lokesh, Uppala; Venkatesh, Boya; Anthony Johnson, A M; Sudhakar, Chinta

    2018-01-01

    Drought stress has adverse effects on growth, water relations, photosynthesis and yield of groundnut. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are the plant-specific TFs which regulate several down-stream stress-responsive genes and play an essential role in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. We found that WRKY3 gene is highly up-regulated under drought stress conditions and therefore isolated a new WRKY3TF gene from a drought-adapted horsegram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Verdc.). Conserved domain studies revealed that protein encoded by this gene contains highly conserved regions of two WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. The fusion protein localization studies of transient MuWRKY 3-YFP revealed its nuclear localization. Overexpression of MuWRKY3 TF gene in groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) showed increased tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT) plants. MuWRKY3 groundnut transgenics displayed lesser and delayed wilting symptoms than WT plants after 10-days of drought stress imposition. The transgenic groundnut plants expressing MuWRKY3 showed less accumulation of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and superoxide anion (O 2 ∙- ), accompanied by more free proline, total soluble sugar content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT plants under drought stress. Moreover, a series of stress-related LEA, HSP, MIPS, APX, SOD , and CAT genes found up-regulated in the transgenic groundnut plants. The study demonstrates that nuclear-localized MuWRKY3 TF regulates the expression of stress-responsive genes and the activity of ROS scavenging enzymes which results in improved drought tolerance in groundnut. We conclude that MuWRKY3 may serve as a new putative candidate gene for the improvement of stress resistance in plants.

  9. Production and quality evaluation of extruded snack from blends of bambara groundnut flour, cassava starch, and corn bran flour

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunmuyiwa, O. H.; Adebowale, A. A.; Sobukola, O. P.; Onabanjo, O. O.; Obadina, A. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Kajihausa, O. E.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Protein dense, fiber-rich extruded snacks were produced from blend of bambara groundnut flour, cassava starch, and corn bran flour using a single screw cooking extruder. The snacks were analyzed for their physical properties and proximate composition using standard laboratory procedures. The expansion ratio, specific volume, breaking force, and breaking strength index (BSI) of the snacks ranged from 0.85 to 1.22, 0.75 to 1.30 g/cm3, 3.95 to 36.45 N, and 0.99 to 9.11 N/mm, respectively. The br...

  10. Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. A…fify

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the ‡exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.

  11. Complementary alternative medicine and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werneke, Ursula; McCready, V.Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Complementary alternative medicines (CAMs), including food supplements, are taken widely by patients, especially those with cancer. Others take CAMs hoping to improve fitness or prevent disease. Physicians (and patients) may not be aware of the potential side-effects and interactions of CAMs with conventional treatment. Likewise, their known physiological effects could interfere with radiopharmaceutical kinetics, producing abnormal treatment responses and diagnostic results. Nuclear medicine physicians are encouraged to question patients on their intake of CAMs when taking their history prior to radionuclide therapy or diagnosis. The potential effect of CAMs should be considered when unexpected therapeutic or diagnostic results are found. (orig.)

  12. Complementary feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Goulet, Olivier; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Moreno, Luis; Puntis, John; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula) should not be introduced before 17 weeks and not later than 26 weeks. There is no convincing scientific evidence that avoidance or delayed introduction of potentially allergenic foods, such as fish and eggs, reduces allergies, either in infants considered at increased risk for the development of allergy or in those not considered to be at increased risk. During the complementary feeding period, >90% of the iron requirements of a breast-fed infant must be met by complementary foods, which should provide sufficient bioavailable iron. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods. It is prudent to avoid both early (or=7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast-fed, inasmuch as this may reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and wheat allergy. Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount ( approximately 500 mL) of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet.

  13. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Sofia Irene; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant's energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0-2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value.

  14. Draft whole genome sequence of groundnut stem rot fungus Athelia rolfsii revealing genetic architect of its pathogenicity and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iquebal, M A; Tomar, Rukam S; Parakhia, M V; Singla, Deepak; Jaiswal, Sarika; Rathod, V M; Padhiyar, S M; Kumar, Neeraj; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-07-13

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop having major biotic constraint in production due to stem rot disease caused by fungus, Athelia rolfsii causing 25-80% loss in productivity. As chemical and biological combating strategies of this fungus are not very effective, thus genome sequencing can reveal virulence and pathogenicity related genes for better understanding of the host-parasite interaction. We report draft assembly of Athelia rolfsii genome of ~73 Mb having 8919 contigs. Annotation analysis revealed 16830 genes which are involved in fungicide resistance, virulence and pathogenicity along with putative effector and lethal genes. Secretome analysis revealed CAZY genes representing 1085 enzymatic genes, glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, carbohydrate-binding modules, auxillary activities, glycosyl transferases and polysaccharide lyases. Repeat analysis revealed 11171 SSRs, LTR, GYPSY and COPIA elements. Comparative analysis with other existing ascomycotina genome predicted conserved domain family of WD40, CYP450, Pkinase and ABC transporter revealing insight of evolution of pathogenicity and virulence. This study would help in understanding pathogenicity and virulence at molecular level and development of new combating strategies. Such approach is imperative in endeavour of genome based solution in stem rot disease management leading to better productivity of groundnut crop in tropical region of world.

  15. Fostering triacylglycerol accumulation in novel oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD utilizing groundnut shell for improved biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Negi, Yuvraj S

    2017-10-01

    The investigation was carried out to examine the potential of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation by novel oleaginous yeast isolate Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD on utilizing groundnut shell acid hydrolysate (GSH) as cost-effective medium. The maximum biomass productivity and lipid productivity of 0.095±0.008g/L/h and 0.044±0.005g/L/h, respectively with lipid content 46% was recorded on GSH. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile obtained by GC-MS analysis revealed oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic (29.4%) and linoleic (32.8%) as major fatty acids representing balance between oxidative stability (OS) and cold flow filter properties (CFFP) for improved biodiesel quality. The biodiesel property calculated were correlated well with the fuel standards limits of ASTM D6751, EN 14214 and IS 15607. The present findings raise the possibility of using agricultural waste groundnut shell as a substrate for production of biodiesel by novel oleaginous yeast isolate C. psychrotolerans IITRFD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FEEDING OF FERRETS WITH THE RAW MEAT AND LIVER OF CHICKENS CHRONICALLY POISONED WITH TOXIC GROUNDNUT MEAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PLATONOW, N; BEAUREGARD, M

    1965-03-01

    Chickens were fed a ration containing 30 per cent of toxic groundnut meal for up to six weeks. The concentration of aflatoxin (toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus) in the above ration was 3.06 p.p.m. At the end of 2nd, 4th or 6th week the birds were killed. The meat was removed from the bones and put through a meat grinder. The livers of three groups were pooled together. Three control groups of birds kept on commercial pellets were treated similarly. Female ferrets, two years of age, were used in the present study. They were divided into four groups. The first three groups were given for one month meat from chickens fed the toxic ration for 2, 4, and 6 weeks, respectively. Each of these three groups contained one control ferret that was fed with the meat of chickens fed a commercial ration for a similar period of time. One half of the 4th group was fed pooled liver from intoxicated birds and one half was fed liver from control birds. No significant changes in the ferret tissues were observed as a consequence of feeding them with the meat or liver from the chickens chronically poisoned with toxic groundnut meal.

  17. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum biomass and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain NC 92 to control leaf blight disease of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea caused by Rhizoctonia solani in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana Kanjanamaneesathian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and sixty two strains of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from 23 soil samples in which groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. and bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. had been planted in Songkhla, Phattalung, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat and Yala provinces. These fungi were tested against Rhizoctonia solani, a causal agent of leaf blight of bambara groundnut, using dual culture technique on PDA medium. Among 462 isolates tested, 226 isolates had an ability to overgrow R. solani completely. Further testing found 13 isolates having the ability to parasitize mycelia of R. solani. Among these isolates, ThB-1-54 produced a cellulolytic enzyme on congo-red agar. This isolate was later identified as T. harzianum Rifai. In the field test, applying biomass of the isolate ThB-1-54 cultured on ground mesocarp fiber of oil palm, the combination of the isolate ThB-1-54 on ground mesocarp fiber of oil palm and Bradyrhizobium sp. (strain NC 92, or fungicide (iprodione had no effect on disease severity, yield, or the amount of total nitrogen content in stems or seeds of bambara groundnut plant.

  18. DROUGHT TOLERANCE OF LOCAL ROTE AND CHECK VARIETIES OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L. UNDER DRY SEASON IN TWO LOCATIONS IN EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep S. Mau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut is the most important pulse crop in East Nusa Tenggara (ENT; however, the crop yield in ENT is low due to erratic climatic condition, drought stress, and low yielding ability of most cultivated genotypes. Local Rote is a well-known local groundnut variety in ENT, which is a potential superior variety and parental source due its large seed size and high yielding ability. Information on its resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses is important for its future development. Five groundnut genotypes, Local Rote and check varieties were elucidated to identify drought resistant genotypes. The study was carried out in a split-plot design with three replicates in two locations during dry season 2013. Two irrigation regimes (optimum and stress conditions were assigned as main plot and 5 groundnut geno-types as sub-plot. Research results revealed significant effect of irrigation by genotype interaction on observed yield and yield compo-nent characters in both locations. Seed yields of most tested genotypes were below their yield potential. Local Rote yielded best over two locations (1.26 t.ha-1 seed yield. Yields of check varieties were below 1.0 t.ha-1. Local Rote was considered tolerant to drought based on STI, GMP, SSI and YL selection indices.

  19. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) haulms as supplements to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stover : intake, digestibility and optimum feeding levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savadogo, M.; Zemmelink, G.; Nianogo, A.J.; Keulen, van H.

    2000-01-01

    Two feeding trials were conducted to study the combined effects of (i) varying degrees of selective consumption and (ii) supplementation with cowpea (Trail 1) or groundnut haulms (Trial 2), on intake of organic matter (IOM) from sorghum stover, and total intake of digestible organic matter (IDOM).

  20. Aspergillus flavus infection triggered immune responses and host-pathogen cross-talks in groundnut during in-vitro seed colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination, caused by fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus, is a major quality and health problem delimiting the trade and consumption of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) worldwide. RNA-seq approach was deployed to understand the host-pathogen interaction by identifying differentially expr...

  1. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review and meta-analysis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology . 2014;112(6):503–510. Ethical Conduct of ... Print this page Health Topics A–Z Related Topics Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a ...

  2. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Prof. Asouzu

    Glossary of Igbo Terms and Phrases ihe ahụ na anya ... other words, it is in mutual dependence that the feeling of intimacy found among kindred ..... Complementary Reflection, Communalism and Theory Formulation in African Philosophy 25.

  3. Cancer and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which included a comprehensive survey on the use ... their use of complementary health approaches. In the NHIS, survey respondents who had been diagnosed with cancer ...

  4. Complementary Feeding Pattern in a Population of Pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: It has been postulated that offering bland diets to infants could habituate to food refusal during early childhood. To investigate the complementary feeding pattern in Nigerian preschool children and a possible association with their current feeding habits, a cross-sectional study of two hundred (200) children was ...

  5. Assessment of the Essential and Toxic Elements in Complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the commonly used complementary foods (Unga wa Lishe) for children 0-5 years in Tanzania were analyze for essential and toxic elements in order to assess their nutritional levels. 60 samples were purchased from shops in Dar es Salaam, Moshi and Arusha regions and analyzed using Energy Dispersive ...

  6. Introdução de alimentos complementares nos primeiros dois anos de vida de crianças de escolas particulares no município de São Paulo Introduction of complementary foods in the first two years of life of children attending private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gabriela N Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a idade de introdução de alimentos complementares nos primeiros dois anos de vida e sua relação com variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas de crianças matriculadas em pré-escolas particulares do município de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com informações demográficas e socioeconômicas de 566 crianças, sendo verificada a idade em meses de introdução dos alimentos complementares. Foi considerada como variável dependente a idade em meses da introdução dos alimentos complementares e, como variáveis independentes ou explanatórias, a idade e escolaridade maternas, a condição de trabalho materno e a renda familiar. Para análise da relação entre as variáveis, utilizou-se a técnica de regressão múltipla de Cox. RESULTADOS: 50% das crianças eram do sexo masculino e 61% maiores de 4 anos. A maior proporção das mães tinha nível superior de escolaridade e trabalhava fora. A renda familiar mostrou uma população de alto nível socioeconômico. A água e/ou chá, frutas e leite não-materno foram introduzidos antes do sexto mês de vida. A variável 'idade da mãe' mostrou associação com introdução de três grupos de alimentos: cereais, carne e guloseimas. CONCLUSÃO: Alimentos complementares foram introduzidos precocemente nessa população de nível socioeconômico elevado e a única variável que se associou à introdução desses alimentos foi a idade materna.OBJECTIVE: To verify the age of complementary food introduction in the first two years of life and its relation to demographic, social, and economic status of preschool children of private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey with demographic, social and economic status information. The studied population included 566 children. The age in months of complementary foods introduction was verified. The dependent variable was the age in months of complementary foods introduction. Independent or

  7. [Obesity and complementary feeding time: a period at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M

    2010-12-01

    Relation between rapid growth during the first months of life and secondary risk of excessive adiposity is well demonstrated. Many works have indicated a birth feeding effect on weight gain during the first year of life and a protective effect towards later childhood and adult obesity. However all these studies are observational and several works denied this protective effect. Concerning complementary feeding, 3 interventional, randomized, studies achieved between 4 and 6 months of age, showed a good regulation of caloric intake and no weight gain modification due to complementary foods. Most of others studies are observational and don't show any relation between time of introduction of complementary foods and later fat mass. However 3 recent studies indicate, respectively at 7, 10 and 42 years of age, an increased adiposity, suggesting the possibility of a programmed excessive fat gain induced by an early complementary foods introduction. Very few studies have evaluated, besides the time of weaning, the kind, quantity and caloric density of foods used as complements, whereas other recent studies show the importance of appetite differences since the first months of life and the importance of genetic influence on these variations. Others works have emphasized the possible role of an excessive protein intake during the first 2 years of life. So, it appears that it may be necessary to pay attention not only on the date, but also on the kind and quantity of complementary foods, particularly in infants at risk for obesity, because of parental obesity, rapid weight growth or an excessive appetite. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among more than twenty food additives and GRAS (generally regarded as safe) compounds that were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of California peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogen...

  9. Economic Evaluation of Cookie made from blend of Brewers′ Spent Grain (BSG, Groundnut cake and Sorghum Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawoye Babatunde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bakery and pastry products such as cookies are usually produced from wheat flour and as such contribute to high foreign exchange for tropical countries where such cereal is not cultivated. In view of this, we evaluated the engineering economics for the utilization of dried brewers′ spent grain, groundnut cake and sorghum flour in the industrial production of cookies. The production was based on the assumption that the cash flow was uniform over the plant life (i.e. 10 years with no salvage value. The equipment required for the production process was identified and estimates obtained from equipment manufactures. The production of the cookies was based on constant mass flow rate of 90 packets/min. The effects of uncertainties on cookie production were evaluated by varying the operation days (330, 300 and 250 days and also by varying the price of some key variables required for the production processes. The results indicate that the capital cost (fixed and working capital and the annual production cost (APC were US$1.39×106 and US$10.08×106/year, respectively. The after tax annual revenue was US$1.63×106/yr. The return on investment (ROI, single payback period (SPBP, discounted payback period, gross margin and internal rate of return (IRR of the plant were 63%, 1.58 years, 2.08 years, 23% and 77.52%, respectively. The result also showed that the production plant is feasible and could be operated for 330, 300 and 250 days. The difference between operation times lies in the profitability, which decreases as the number of days reduces. Based on the result of this analysis, brewers’ spent grain, groundnut cake, and sorghum flour can be utilized in industrial production of cookies with guaranteed profitability.

  10. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  11. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  12. Complementary therapies in social psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe

    three residential homes (n= 51 / 91 respondents - response rate 56 %) shows that the most common used complementary therapy is music therapy 43%, and only 10% of residents do not use these therapies at all. Overall, 43% of residents strongly agree, that these therapies strengthens their recovery process...

  13. Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...

  14. Food legume production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  15. High transpiration efficiency increases pod yield under intermittent drought in dry and hot atmospheric conditions but less so under wetter and cooler conditions in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea (L.)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadez, Vincent; Ratnakumar, Pasala

    2016-07-01

    Water limitation is a major yield limiting factor in groundnut and transpiration efficiency (TE) is considered the main target for improvement, but TE being difficult to measure it has mostly been screened with surrogates. The paper re-explore the contribution of TE to grain yield in peanut by using a novel experimental approach in which TE is measured gravimetrically throughout the crop life cycle, in addition to measurement of TE surrogates. Experimentation was carried out with the groundnut reference collection (n = 288), across seasons varying for the evaporative demand (vapor pressure deficit, VPD) and across both fully irrigated and intermittent water stress conditions. There was large genotypic variation for TE under water stress in both low and high VPD season but the range was larger (5-fold) in the high- than in the low-VPD season (2-fold). Under water stress in both seasons, yield was closely related to the harvest index (HI) while TE related directly to yield only in the high VPD season. After discounting the direct HI effect on yield, TE explained a large portion of the remaining yield variations in both seasons, although marginally in the low VPD season. By contrast, the total water extracted from the soil profile, which varied between genotypes, did not relate directly to pod yield and neither to the yield residuals unexplained by HI. Surrogates for TE (specific leaf area, SLA, and SPAD chlorophyll meter readings, SCMR) never showed any significant correlation to TE measurements. Therefore, TE is an important factor explaining yield differences in groundnut under high VPD environments, suggesting that stomatal regulation under high VPD, rather than high photosynthetic rate as proposed earlier, may have a key role to play in the large TE differences found, which open new opportunities to breed improved groundnut for high VPD.

  16. Utilization of genetic variation created through induced mutations to develop drought tolerant groundnut mutants for the sandy rain-fed areas of western Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E. G. A.

    2000-10-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea. L.) is grown as a cash crop throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Approximately 80% of the global production comes from developing countries and 67% of the total is produced in the seasonally rain fed areas of the semi-arid tropics (Gibbons, 1980). In Sudan, groundnut is grown under rain fed and irrigated sectors. Rain fed production accounts for 80% of the total production. Yield under the traditional rain fed farming conditions are very low (700kg/ha) compared to the world average (1200kg/ha). Low rainfall (250-450 mm) and short growing seasons (<90 days) are major constraints to groundnut production. Under these situations survival of the subsistence farmers depends entirely on minimizing the probabilities of crop failure. This can to some extent be addressed by adopting short term strategies of incorporating various physiological defense mechanisms into crop varieties to allow a certain level of realized yield in a more reliable manner (Subbarao et al, 1995)

  17. Complementary feeding: a Global Network cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasha Omrana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate and inappropriate complementary feeding are major factors contributing to excess morbidity and mortality in young children in low resource settings. Animal source foods in particular are cited as essential to achieve micronutrient requirements. The efficacy of the recommendation for regular meat consumption, however, has not been systematically evaluated. Methods/Design A cluster randomized efficacy trial was designed to test the hypothesis that 12 months of daily intake of beef added as a complementary food would result in greater linear growth velocity than a micronutrient fortified equi-caloric rice-soy cereal supplement. The study is being conducted in 4 sites of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research located in Guatemala, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC and Zambia in communities with toddler stunting rates of at least 20%. Five clusters per country were randomized to each of the food arms, with 30 infants in each cluster. The daily meat or cereal supplement was delivered to the home by community coordinators, starting when the infants were 6 months of age and continuing through 18 months. All participating mothers received nutrition education messages to enhance complementary feeding practices delivered by study coordinators and through posters at the local health center. Outcome measures, obtained at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months by a separate assessment team, included anthropometry; dietary variety and diversity scores; biomarkers of iron, zinc and Vitamin B12 status (18 months; neurocognitive development (12 and 18 months; and incidence of infectious morbidity throughout the trial. The trial was supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring committee provided oversight for the safety and conduct of the trial. Discussion Findings from this trial will test the efficacy of daily intake of meat commencing at age 6 months and, if beneficial, will

  18. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complementary therapies with your healthcare team: Are there complementary therapies that you would recommend? What research is available about this therapy’s safety and effectiveness? What are the benefits and risks of this ...

  19. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Research. Information. Outreach. The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) was established in October 1998 to coordinate ... National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the arena of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). More about us. CAM at the NCI ...

  20. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Very low dose gamma irradiation stimulates gaseous exchange and carboxylation efficiency, but inhibits vascular sap flow in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bhupinder; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Singhal, R K; Venu Babu, P

    2014-02-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of low dose gamma radiation on germination, plant growth, nitrogen and carbon fixation and carbon flow and release characteristics of groundnut. Dry seeds of groundnut variety Trombay groundnut 37A (TG 37A), a radio mutant type developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai, India, were subjected to the pre-sowing treatment of gamma radiation within low to high dose physiological range, i.e., 0.0, 0.0082, 0.0164. 0.0328, 0.0656, 0.1312, 5, 25, 100, 500 Gray (Gy) from a cobalt source ((60)Co). Observations were recorded for the radiation effect on percentage germination, vigour, gas exchange attributes such as photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, chlorophyll content, root exudation in terms of (14)C release, vascular sap flow rate and activities of rate defining carbon and nitrogen assimilating enzymes such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) and nitrate reductase (NR). Seed germination was increased by 10-25% at the lower doses up to 5 Gy while the improvement in plant vigour in the same dose range was much higher (22-84%) than the unirradiated control. For radiation exposure above 5 Gy, a dose-dependent decline in germination and plant vigour was measured. No significant effect was observed on the photosynthesis at radiation exposure below 5 Gy but above 5 Gy dose there was a decline in the photosynthetic rate. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, however, were only inhibited at a high dose of 500 Gy. Leaf rubisco activity and NR activities remained unaffected at all the investigated doses of gamma irradiation. Mean root exudation and sap flow rate of the irradiated plants, irrespective of the dose, was reduced over the unirradiated control more so in a dose-dependent manner. Results indicated that a very low dose of gamma radiation, in centigray to gray range, did not pose any threat and in fact stimulated metabolic functions in such a way to aid

  2. Yield, quality and nodulation studies of Kersting's groundnut (Macrotyloma geocarpum, (Harms) Merachal and Baudet) in the Coastal Savannah Agro-ecological zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adazebra, G. A.

    2013-07-01

    Two investigations were carried out in the field and laboratory to assess variation in yield and nodulation potential as well as differences in the types of Rhizobia nodulating some local accessions of Kersting's groundnut (Macrotyloma geocarpum Harms) Marechal and Baudet in the Coastal Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana. The aim was to obtain information relevant to important yield and nodulation attributes of Kersting's groundnut under prevailing agro-ecological conditions and thereby determine the suitability or otherwise of growing the crop in the Coastal Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone. Ten local accessions of Kersting's groundnuts were obtained from the University for Development Studies (UDS) Nyankpala, Tamale in the Northern Region of Ghana and were evaluated under field conditions at Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research farms in the Greater Accra Region. Significant variations were found in most of quantitative characters that were measured for all the ten accessions. Yield studies conducted identified the Kersting's groundnut accession T8 to be the highest in both shoot dry matter production and grain yield per plot with values of 35.09 t ha -1 and 0.84 t ha -1 respectively. Nodulation studies also identified accessions T5 and T3 to be the best in %N content of roots and shoots with values of 1.43% and 3.05% respectively. The nitrogen yield was however, highest in Kersting's groundnut accession T7 for both roots and shoots with values of 12.29 kg ha -1 and 1,178 kg ha -1 respectively. Again, accession T7 was superior in the total plant nitrogen yield with a value of 1190 kg ha -1 . Correlation analysis revealed perfect association (r =1.0) between grain yield and dry seed and a nearly perfect association (r=0.99) between total plant nitrogen yield and nitrogen yield of shoots. Harvest index was highly positively correlated (r=0.72) with dry pod yield. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis was conducted for nine (9

  3. Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J; Taylor, M A; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. Appropriate complementary foods should be introduced in a timely fashion, beginning when the infant is 6 months old. In developing countries, early or inappropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and poor growth, but in countries such as the United Kingdom and United States of America, where obesity is a greater public health concern than malnutrition, the relationship to growth is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until 30 September 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Twenty-one of the studies considered the relationship between the time at which complementary foods were introduced and childhood body mass index (BMI), of which five found that introducing complementary foods at childhood. Seven of the studies considered the association between complementary feeding and body composition but only one study reported an increase in the percentage of body fat among children given complementary foods before 15 weeks of age. We conclude that there is no clear association between the timing of the introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight or obesity, but some evidence suggests that very early introduction (at or before 4 months), rather than at 4-6 months or >6 months, may increase the risk of childhood overweight.

  4. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  5. Multilocation trial of potential selected mutant lines of groundnut (arachis hypogaea) at 3 location in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Rusli Ibrahim; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin

    2002-01-01

    Two fixed mutant lines of groundnut derived from cultivar Matjan were selected for their yield potential at M 1 0 generation. Multilocation trial of these mutants (MJ40/42 and MJ20/165-5) was carried out to evaluate genotype stability at different climate and soil types in Peninsular Malaysia. The mutant lines were planted and compared with their parent (Matjan) and control variety (MKT1). The identified locations were in Taiping (Perak), Machang (Kelantan), and Air Hitam (Johor). The soils at the locations were of the Serdang, Bungor and Rengam series, respectively. The trial was carried out simultaneously in the same year at each location. Mutant MJ20/165-5 showed stable performance at all location compared to other genotypes tested. Its yield was higher than the parent in Kelantan and Johor trial and showed similar performance in Perak. This mutant also showed better yield performance than the control varieties in the Kelantan trial. Meanwhile, mutant line MJ40/42 gave better yield in Kelantan and Johor but did not perform well in Perak as compared to its parent and control varieties. (Author)

  6. Biological characterization and variability of the nucleocapsid protein gene of Groundnut bud necrosis virus isolates infecting pea from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AKRAM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A disease of pea characterized by browning in veins, leaves and stems, mostly in growing tips, and brown circular spots on pods, was recorded in four districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The causal agent of this disease was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers pair HRP 26/HRP 28 and identified as Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV on the basis of nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. Virus isolates from Bareilly (BRY, Kanpur (KNP, Udham Singh Nagar (USN and Shahjahanpur (SJP were designated as GBNV-[Pea_BRY], GBNV-[Pea_KNP], GBNV-[Pea_USN] and GBNV-[Pea_SJP] and their NP genes sequenced. The sequence data of each isolate were deposited at NCBI database (JF281101-JF281104. The complete nucleotide sequence of the NP genes of all the GBNV isolates had a single open reading frame of 831 nucleotides and 276 amino acids. The isolates had among them 2% variability at amino acid level and 2‒3 variability at nucleotide level, but had variability with other GBNV isolates of fabaceous hosts in the range of 0‒6% at amino acid level and 1‒8% at nucleotide level. Though this variation in nucleotide sequences of GBNV isolates from fabaceous hosts is within the limits of species demarcation for tospoviruses, formation of a separate cluster within the GBNV isolates indicates the possibility of distinct variants in GBNV.

  7. Variation of some chemical and functional properties of Bambara groundnut (Voandzeia Subterranean L. Thouars during sort time storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin GOUDOUM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The storage susceptibility of Bambara groundnut (B. G. (Voandzeia Subterranean (L. Thouars to Callosobruchus maculatus and chemical and functional properties of 11 varieties form Far-North of Cameroon were investigate using standard analytical methods. Storage susceptibility shown that, after five months within treatment, C. maculatus destroy 10 to 50% of grains. The chemical characteristics of none attack grains of 11 varieties were range to 18.64 at 21.08%, 6.85 at 7.44%, 49.75 at 52.68% and to 6.05 at 7.55% respectively for protein, fat, starch and free carbohydrate. These chemical characteristics significantly (p < 0.05 decreases form attacks varieties. For the functional parameters, the none attacks grains was range of 130 at 135%, 19.15 at 20.91%, 18.20 at 21.13%, 2.76 at 3.21% and of 8.54 at 10.14% respectively for water capacity absorption, solubility index, gel length, ash and humidity. The results of this study indicated that storage susceptibility, chemical and functional properties of B. G. be dependant to the varieties.

  8. Demonstration of helicase activity in the nonstructural protein, NSs, of the negative-sense RNA virus, groundnut bud necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Lokesh; Abraham, Ambily; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Rana, Vipin Singh; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Savithri, Handanahal Subbarao

    2015-04-01

    The nonstructural protein NSs, encoded by the S RNA of groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) has earlier been shown to possess nucleic-acid-stimulated NTPase and 5' α phosphatase activity. ATP hydrolysis is an essential function of a true helicase. Therefore, NSs was tested for DNA helicase activity. The results demonstrated that GBNV NSs possesses bidirectional DNA helicase activity. An alanine mutation in the Walker A motif (K189A rNSs) decreased DNA helicase activity substantially, whereas a mutation in the Walker B motif resulted in a marginal decrease in this activity. The parallel loss of the helicase and ATPase activity in the K189A mutant confirms that NSs acts as a non-canonical DNA helicase. Furthermore, both the wild-type and K189A NSs could function as RNA silencing suppressors, demonstrating that the suppressor activity of NSs is independent of its helicase or ATPase activity. This is the first report of a true helicase from a negative-sense RNA virus.

  9. An Assessment of Willingness To Pay by Maize and Groundnut Farmers for Aflatoxin Biocontrol Product in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayedun, Bamikole; Okpachu, Godwin; Manyong, Victor; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Akinola, Adebayo; Abu, G A; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Abdoulaye, Tahirou

    2017-09-01

    In Nigeria, Aflasafe is a registered biological product for reducing aflatoxin infestation of crops from the field to storage, making the crops safer for consumption. The important questions are whether farmers will purchase and apply this product to reduce aflatoxin contamination of crops, and if so under what conditions. A study was carried out to address these questions and assess determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) for the product among maize and groundnut farmers in Kano and Kaduna states in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect primary data from 492 farmers. The majority of farmers who had direct experience with Aflasafe (experienced farmers) in Kano (80.7%) and Kaduna (84.3%) had a WTP bid value equal to or greater than the threshold price ($10) at which Aflasafe was to be sold. The mean WTP estimates for Aflasafe for experienced farmers in Kano and Kaduna were statistically the same. However, values of $3.56 and $7.46 were offered in Kano and Kaduna states, respectively, by farmers who had never applied Aflasafe (inexperienced farmers), and the difference here was significant (P credit (P market strategy promoting a premium price for aflatoxin-safe produce and creating awareness and explaining the availability of Aflasafe to potential users should increase Aflasafe usage.

  10. Effect of annealing and heat moisture conditioning on the physicochemical characteristics of bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Lawal, O.S.

    2002-05-01

    Isolated starch of bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) was subjected to hydrothermal modifications through annealing and heat moisture conditioning. Both annealing and heat moisture conditioning reduced the swelling power and solubility of the starch. Water binding capacity reduced after annealing, heat moisture conditioning at 18% moisture level (HMB 18 ) and heat moisture conditioning at 21% moisture level (HMB 21 ). Both heat moisture conditioning at 24% moisture level (HMB 24 ) and heat moisture conditioning at 27% moisture level (HMB 27 ) increased the water binding capacity. Hydrothermal modifications reduced the oil absorption capacity of the raw starch. Annealing and heat moisture conditioning reduced the peak viscosity, (Pv) viscosity at 95 deg C (Hv) and viscosity at 95 deg. C after 30 minutes holding (Hv 30 ). However, viscosity increased on cooling down to 50 deg. C after annealing. Annealing and heat moisture treatments as revealed by scanning electron micrograph and light micrograph did not alter the shape and size of the raw starch. The results indicate a rearrangement within the starch granule following hydrothermal treatments. (author)

  11. Effect of infection by chlorotic spot virus on 14CO2 fixation in leaves of groundnut Arachis hypogea L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasulu, P.; Nayudu, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthetic incorporation of 14 CO 2 into leaves of groundnut infected by chlorotic spot virus (GCSV) was slightly more at stages 2 and 5 less at stage 4 as compared to control. 14 C incorporation into the alcohol soluble fraction of infected leaves followed the same trend as total 14 CO 2 fixation but in the alcohol-insoluble fraction the same was less at all the sampled stages. 14 C in the alcohol-soluble fraction of fed leaves of both types (stage 5) decreased with time along with simultaneous increase in alcohol-insoluble fraction. The proportion of 14 C incorporated into organic acids, amino acids and sugars was same in both the samples at stage 2, greater into organic and amino acids and less into sugars at stages 4 and 5, and at 12 and 24 hr time periods of stage 5 of virus infected leaves when compared to healthy ones. 14 C incorporated into total sugars and organic acids of infected leaves followed that of total 14 C fixation, and varied in individual sugars and organic acids. 14 C in sugars of both type of leaves decreased with time and with simultaneous increase in organic and amino acids. 14 C incorporated into virus infected leaf proteins was more when compared to healthy leaves. (auth.)

  12. supplementary foods for weaning purposes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The paper focuses on complementary and supplementary foods for weaning purposes. While ... decision, which guides when to introduce semi-solid foods to infants. It considers the .... readiness of many healthy infants. ... foods. However, caution should be exercised .... Attitudes and practices of infants.

  13. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron Fortified Complementary Foods Containing a Mixture of Sodium Iron EDTA with Either Ferrous Fumarate or Ferric Pyrophosphate Reduce Iron Deficiency Anemia in 12- to 36-Month-Old Children in a Malaria Endemic Setting: A Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinz, Dominik; Wegmüller, Rita; Ouattara, Mamadou; Diakité, Victorine G; Aaron, Grant J; Hofer, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Michael B; Adiossan, Lukas G; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Hurrell, Richard F

    2017-07-14

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of iron fortification against IDA is uncertain in malaria-endemic settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a complementary food (CF) fortified with sodium iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA) plus either ferrous fumarate (FeFum) or ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) to combat IDA in preschool-age children in a highly malaria endemic region. This is a secondary analysis of a nine-month cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. 378 children aged 12-36 months were randomly assigned to no food intervention ( n = 125; control group), CF fortified with 2 mg NaFeEDTA plus 3.8 mg FeFum for six days/week ( n = 126; FeFum group), and CF fortified with 2 mg NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg FePP for six days/week ( n = 127; FePP group). The outcome measures were hemoglobin (Hb), plasma ferritin (PF), iron deficiency (PF anemia (Hb iron deficiency with or without anemia ( p = 0.068). IDA prevalence sharply decreased in the FeFum (32.8% to 1.2%, p anemia. These data indicate that, despite the high endemicity of malaria and elevated inflammation biomarkers (C-reactive protein or α-1-acid-glycoprotein), IDA was markedly reduced by provision of iron fortified CF to preschool-age children for 9 months, with no significant differences between a combination of NaFeEDTA with FeFum or NaFeEDTA with FePP. However, there was no overall effect on anemia, suggesting most of the anemia in this setting is not due to ID. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01634945).

  15. [Breastfeeding, complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Jurado, Luis; Jiménez Báez, María Valeria; Olivares Juárez, Sibli; de la Cruz Olvera, Tomas

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the pattern of breastfeeding and weaning as a risk of obesity in pre-school children from a Primary Care Unit. Cross-sectional analytical study LOCATION: Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico). Children from 2-4 years of age from a Primary Care Unit. Duration of total and exclusive breastfeeding, age and food utilized for complementary feeding reported by the mother or career of the child and nutritional status assessment evaluated by body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95 percentile. Determination of prevalence ratio (PR), odds ratio (OR), chi squared (x2), and binary logistic regression. The study included 116 children (55.2% girls) with a mean age of 3.2 years, with obesity present in 62.1%, Exclusive breastfeeding in 72.4% with mean duration of 2.3 months, and age at introducing solids foods was 5.0 months. There was a difference for breastfeeding and complementary feeding by gender sex (P<.05). A PR=3.9 (95% CI: 1.49-6.34) was calculated for exclusive breastfeeding and risk of obesity. The model showed no association between these variables and obesity in children CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding of less than three months is associated with almost 4 more times in obese children. There was a difference in age of complementary feeding, duration of breastfeeding, and formula milk consumption time for obese and non-obese children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh A. Alzaheb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  17. Narrative journalism as complementary inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Jeppesen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Narrative journalism is a method to craft stories worth reading about real people. In this article, we explore the ability of that communicative power to produce insights complementary to those obtainable through traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods. With examples from a study of journalistic narrative as patient involvement in professional rehabilitation, interview data transcribed as stories are analyzed for qualities of heterogeneity, sensibility, transparency, and reflexivity. Building on sociological theories of thinking with stories, writing as inquiry, and public journalism as ethnography, we suggest that narrative journalism as a common practice might unfold dimensions of subjective otherness of the self. Aspiring to unite writing in both transparently confrontational and empathetically dialogic ways, the narrative journalistic method holds a potential to expose dynamics of power within the interview.

  18. Complementary, alternative, integrative, or unconventional medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, R T; Castro, C M; Seiden, M V; Chabner, B A; Lynch, T J

    2001-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded the Kenneth B. Schwartz Center. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and sustenance to the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. Interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has grown exponentially in the past decade, fueled by Internet marketing, dissatisfaction with mainstream medicine, and a desire for patients to be actively involved in their health care. There is a large discordance between physician estimates and reported prevalence of CAM use. Many patients do not disclose their practices mainly because they believe CAM falls outside the rubric of conventional medicine or because physicians do not ask. Concern about drug interactions and adverse effects are compounded by a lack of Food and Drug Administration regulation. Physicians need to be informed about CAM and be attuned to the psychosocial needs of patients.

  19. Complementary medicine in chronic pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Charles A

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses several issues related to therapies that are considered "complementary" or "alternative" to conventional medicine. A definition of "complementary and alternative medicine" (CAM) is considered in the context of the evolving health care field of complementary medicine. A rationale for pain physicians and clinicians to understand these treatments of chronic pain is presented. The challenges of an evidence-based approach to incorporating CAM therapies are explored. Finally, a brief survey of the evidence that supports several widely available and commonly used complementary therapies for chronic pain is provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. KIT RELIABILITY FOR CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF OILS IN FOOD FRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Oloni Kotchoni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Benin, West Africa, frying is one of the major ways of cooking. However, the chemical composition of the oil used in the food frying process contains unsaturated fatty acids and other by-products that compromise the oil quality making it toxic and often carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to check the reliability of kits in controlling three frying yams oil quality. The food frying was performed using oil in a discontinuous heating period of 15 min followed by three hours of cooling period for two experimental days. The temperature, and the oil chemical samplings were assessed with the kit every thirty minutes. In addition, selected oil chemical characteristics were determined to quantitatively and qualitatively appreciate the chemical modifications during the fast food versus the rapid food processing methods. Our findings indicate that water and volatile chemical compounds vary significantly for the first day of analysis from 0.18% to 1.6% for groundnut oil; from 0.14% to 1.4% for palm oil and from 0.17% to 1.6% for cotton oils. We detected a decrease of iodine index to 25%; 35.31% and 27.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. However, the peroxide index increases to 55.33%; 61.90% and 57.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. The increases of acid and saponification indices were also observed. Under conjugated effect of water temperature contained in the yam and air contact, the chemical characteristics of oil vary with the frying time. Our results reveal concordance consistent data with both the rapid methods and laboratory data set analysis.

  1. Interference in plant defense and development by non-structural protein NSs of Groundnut bud necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Sahana, Nandita; Pandey, Vanita; Doblas, Paula; Jain, R K; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) infects a large number of leguminous and solanaceous plants. To elucidate the biological function of the non-structural protein encoded by the S RNA of GBNV (NSs), we studied its role in RNA silencing suppression and in viral pathogenesis. Our results demonstrated that GBNV NSs functions as a suppressor of RNA silencing using the agroinfiltration patch assay. An in silico analysis suggested the presence of pro-apoptotic protein Reaper-like sequences in the GBNV NSs, which were known to be present in animal infecting bunyaviruses. Utilizing NSs mutants, we demonstrated that a Leu-rich domain was required for RNA silencing suppression activity, but not the non-overlapping Trp/GH3 motif of the Reaper-like sequence. To investigate the role of NSs in symptom development we generated transgenic tomato expressing the GBNV NSs and showed that the expression of NSs in tomato mimics symptoms induced by infection with GBNV, such as leaf senescence and necrosis. As leaf senescence is controlled by miR319 regulation of the transcription factor TCP1, we assessed the accumulation of both RNAs in transgenic NSs-expressing and GBNV-infected tomato plants. In both types of plants the levels of miR319 decreased, while the levels of TCP1 transcripts increased. We propose that GBNV-NSs affects miRNA biogenesis through its RNA silencing suppressor activity and interferes with TCP1-regulated leaf developmental pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  3. Acceptance of a complementary food prepared with yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-13

    Jun 13, 2014 ... Dietetics and Human Nutrition, University of KwaZulu-Natal. Derera J, PhD ... decrease in the national prevalence of VAD in children aged five years and ..... With nutritional education and proper marketing strategies, the ...

  4. Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agriculture

    2012-04-02

    Apr 2, 2012 ... The effect of processing on the functional and nutritional properties of amaranth grain was analyzed. Two blends were prepared from raw and processed amaranth grains. Standard procedures of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to determine the proximate chemical composition ...

  5. Proteins in Complementary Food: What Is the Healthiest Level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. K. Netrebenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate protein consumption in infants is a heavily debated issue. First, it is related to the formation of a new scientific field — “Infant prerequisites of man’s wellness and illness,” which directly indicates that excessive intake of proteins during infancy has long-term consequences and greatly contributes to obesity and chronic infectious diseases in adults; second, it is related to new technologies, which improve the protein component of infant formulas and bring them at par with breast milk in terms of quality and quantity. High protein consumption is related to bottle feeding, because starter and further infant formulas are richer in protein than breast milk. Protein-rich menus trigger production of insulinogenic amino acids, insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1. High IFTcombined with branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, isoleucine, threonine activates a set of signalling molecules (mTOR, which are responsible for integrating metabolic and immune response. Repeated activation of mTOR coupled with regular intake of high-protein infant formulas causes health issues in adulthood. Diseases like diabetes type 2, obesity, arterial hypertension, cancer (particularly prostatic cancer, are related to overactivation of the mTOR signalling molecule complex. Intensive consumption of milk in today’s world is the key mTOR activator contributing to an increased risk of lifestyle diseases and triggering the mechanism of their development. The progressing infant formula industry allows to cut protein levels in starter and further infant formulas down to 12 g/l and, respectively, lower the risk of non-infectious diseases in adulthood. 

  6. ALLERGY PREVENTION IN CHILDREN DURING THE INTRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers modern approaches to the prevention of allergic diseases in children. We discuss the most common food allergens in the early childhood, main mechanisms of food tolerance formation and opportunities of dietary preventive measures in a risk group of the allergy development. One of the important issues, in practical terms, is the question of time and peculiarities of the complementary feeding introduction in this category of children. The own experience of use of hypoallergenic complementary feeding products in children from the risk group and with mild manifestations of atopy is presented.

  7. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 ...

  8. Evaluation of BNF by groundnut and responses of cereal crops to different levels of nitrogen fertilizer in the coastal area of the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    1996-01-01

    A two course crop rotation experiment was conducted over a period of two years in order to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and its contribution to the subsequent cereal crop in terms of its N-conserving effect. Also the response of the treatment crop (Zea mays L.) to different levels of N-fertilization (100 and 150 kg N ha -1 ) were evaluated. Moreover, the effect of a previous crop, N rate and timing on the test crop (Triticum aestivum) was assessed. Results showed that groundnut fixed as much as 52.9 and 23.4 kg N ha -1 at pod filling stage and 66.7 and 34.4 at physiological maturity stage for the 1992 and 1993 growing season, respectively. The test crop did not benefit from the residual N due to the high precipitation in the region leaching down most of the inorganic nitrogen beyond the root zone. In the 1992 growing season, the lower N rate for maize (100 kg N ha -1 ) was superior over the higher rate (150 kg N ha -1 ). But due to water stress in the 1993 growing season, a different trend with regard to the response of maize to fertilizer N was obtained. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 10 tabs

  9. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  10. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-19

    Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014,Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four trials in two meta-analyses, with two trials in each meta-analysis. The categories of CAM included

  11. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes 3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  12. Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Bambara Groundnut Starch Films Modified with Stearic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyinka, Samson A; Singh, Suren; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-01-01

    The physicochemical and mechanical properties of biofilm prepared from bambara starch modified with varying concentrations of stearic acid (0%, 2.5%, 3.5%, 5%, 7%, and 10%) were studied. By scanning electron microscopy, bambara starch films modified with stearic acid (≥3.5%) showed a progressively rough surface compared to those with 2.5% stearic acid and the control. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra revealed a peak shift of approximately 31 cm -1 , suggesting the promotion of hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of starch and stearic acid. The addition of 2.5% stearic acid to bambara starch film reduced water vapor permeability by approximately 17%. Bambara starch films modified with higher concentration of stearic acid were more opaque and showed significantly high melting temperatures. However, mechanical properties of starch films were generally negatively affected by stearic acid. Bambara starch film may be modified with 2.5% stearic acid for improved water vapor permeability and thermal stability with minimal effect on tensile strength. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Corporates Governance: A complementary model for multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Architecture" with a complementary framework is important to make sure for ... Research Article. Special Issue ... complimentary is that it helps in providing a lot of Metrics which are very useful .... Data quality. • Data priority ...

  14. complementary techniques of percutaneous closure of ductus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-07

    Jul 7, 2013 ... the complementary use of either type of devices to close small and ... complete occlusion of the ductus. 2F ... release of the device showing complete occlusion. 3E ..... Raskinds prosthesis Circulation 1989; 80:1706-1710 . 5.

  15. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Complementary Health Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS) in adults: conventional and complementary/alternative approaches. Alternative Medicine Review. 2011;16(2):134–151. Herbal Supplements Shi J, Tong Y, Shen JG, et al. Effectiveness and safety of herbal medicines in the treatment ...

  16. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the ... The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats · EMAIL ...

  17. Corporates governance: a complementary model for multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporates governance: a complementary model for multi frameworks and tools. ... Organization became highly needed to transform and convert the available legacy of fragmented solutions and ... Also Data considered as a vital part of the .

  18. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  19. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... based on a descriptive survey from the western black sea region of Turkey · EMAIL ... on volatile oil constituents of Codonopsis radix (dangshen) by GC-MS method ...

  20. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... extracts of three Togolese medicinal plants against ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae strains ... Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of ...

  1. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  2. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These observations could be explained by some qualitative and /or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied. Keywords: Cymbopogon nardus, Essential oil, Chemistry, Analgesic, Comparison, Benin, Congo. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Vol.

  3. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  4. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  5. Detraditionalisation, gender and alternative and complementary medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sointu, Eeva

    2011-03-01

    This article is premised on the importance of locating the appeal and meaning of alternative and complementary medicines in the context of gendered identities. I argue that the discourse of wellbeing--captured in many alternative and complementary health practices--is congruent with culturally prevalent ideals of self-fulfilling, authentic, unique and self-responsible subjectivity. The discourse of wellbeing places the self at the centre, thus providing a contrast with traditional ideas of other-directed and caring femininity. As such, involvement in alternative and complementary medicines is entwined with a negotiation of shifting femininities in detraditionalising societies. Simultaneously, many alternative and complementary health practices readily tap into and reproduce traditional representations of caring femininity. It is through an emphasis on emotional honesty and intimacy that the discourse of wellbeing also captures a challenge to traditional ideas of masculinity. Expectations and experiences relating to gender add a further level of complexity to the meaningfulness and therapeutic value of alternative and complementary medicines and underlie the gender difference in the utilisation of holistic health practices. I draw on data from a qualitative study with 44, primarily white, middle-class users and practitioners of varied alternative and complementary medicines in the UK. © 2010 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Effect of substitution of groundnut with high glucosinolate mustard (Brassica juncea) meal on nutrient utilization, growth, vital organ weight and blood composition of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, M K.; Mishra, A S.; Misra, A K.; Mondal, D; Karim, S A.

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-four 14-day-old weaner Avivastra (Russian MerinoxNali) male lambs were maintained for 180 days on ad libidum Cenchrus (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay and concentrate mixture (CM) contained groundnut meal (control) and mustard meal (MM group) as major protein source. The two CMs were isonitrogenous (21% CP) and isocaloric (2.78McalMEkg(-1) DM), while, CM fed to MM group contained 24.6mg glucosinolatesg(-1) DM. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P>0.05) in the two groups except for CP and hemicellulose, which was higher (P0.05) in the two groups. Average daily gain (ADG) was, however, 22% higher (Pgrowth rate and induced iodine deficiency. Carcass of lambs fed mustard meal had more fat and less protein.

  7. Effect of a short and severe intermittent drought on transpiration, seed yield components, and harvest index in four landraces of bambara groundnut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Thorndal; Ntundu, W.H.; Ouédraogo, M.

    2011-01-01

    % of pot holding capacity until seed maturity or drought-stressed (DS) in the period from 76 to 85 days after sowing (flowering and early podding stage). During drought, although the total water use differed among the four landraces, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance (gs) responded similarly...... to soil drying. The high soil water thresholds for the reduction of transpiration rate and gs of bambara groundnuts indicate their great sensitivity in the stomatal control over plant water loss during soil drying. Even though the shoot dry weight at maturity was hardly affected by DS, seed yield, seed...... number, and harvest index were all significantly decreased in the DS plants. Among landraces, LunT and Ramayana were more susceptible to DS than S19-3 and Uniswa Red in terms of reduction of seed number and seed yield. The different responses of the landraces to DS may reflect their adaptation...

  8. [Complementary and alternative medicine in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, J

    2013-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine are frequently used by cancer patients. The main benefit of complementary medicine is that it gives patients the chance to become active. Complementary therapy can reduce the side effects of conventional therapy. However, we have to give due consideration to side effects and interactions: the latter being able to reduce the effectiveness of cancer therapy and so to jeopardise the success of therapy. Therefore, complementary therapy should be managed by the oncologist. It is based on a common concept of cancerogenesis with conventional therapy. Complement therapy can be assessed in studies. Alternative medicine in contrast rejects common rules of evidence-based medicine. It starts from its own concepts of cancerogenesis, which is often in line with the thinking of lay persons. Alternative medicine is offered as either "alternative" to recommended cancer treatment or is used at the same time but without due regard for the interactions. Alternative medicine is a high risk to patients. In the following two parts of the article, the most important complementary and alternative therapies cancer patients use nowadays are presented and assessed according to published evidence.

  9. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-11-19

    Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake. These learning processes are likely to have a long-term impact. Children's consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) is below recommendations in many countries. Thus, it is crucial to establish preferences for FV early, when infants are learning to eat. The development of food preferences mainly starts when infants discover their first solid foods. This narrative review summarizes the factors that influence FV acceptance at the start of the CF period: previous milk feeding experience; timing of onset of CF; repeated exposures to the food; variety of foods offered as of the start of the CF period; quality and sensory properties of the complementary foods; quality of the meal time context; and parental responsive feeding.

  10. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Nicklaus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Complementary feeding (CF, which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN, is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake. These learning processes are likely to have a long-term impact. Children’s consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV is below recommendations in many countries. Thus, it is crucial to establish preferences for FV early, when infants are learning to eat. The development of food preferences mainly starts when infants discover their first solid foods. This narrative review summarizes the factors that influence FV acceptance at the start of the CF period: previous milk feeding experience; timing of onset of CF; repeated exposures to the food; variety of foods offered as of the start of the CF period; quality and sensory properties of the complementary foods; quality of the meal time context; and parental responsive feeding.

  11. Feeding style of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practice of their infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Adriana Oliveira da COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate feeding styles of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practices of their infants. Methods A cross-sectional study comparing a group of dyads of 50 adolescent mothers (ages 15 to 19 with 62 adult mothers (ages 24 to 44 and their infants (9 to 24 months was performed. All mothers and infants were assisted by three basic health family units in the city of Recife, Brazil. Data were collected through a structured interview on socioeconomic conditions, maternal styles of feeding the child, and evaluation of infant feeding practices. The food styles were classified as responsive, authoritative, and passive, according to the adapted form of Carvalhaes, Perosa and Silveira of 2009. The frequency of food intake was calculated for six food groups (1. Bread and cereals; 2. Fruits and vegetables; 3. Meat, eggs, and beans; 4. Milk and dairy products; 5. Sugars, sweets, and fats; 6. Industrialized food. Children’s anthropometry and body mass index by age were classified into Z-score according to the World Health Organization Standard Curves, 2006. Results Adolescent mothers began complementary feeding more frequently before the seventh month (.=0,02, presented less responsive (.=0.04 and more authoritarian feeding styles (.=0.01, and their children received more foods with sugars, oils, and fats (.=0.02, and less meat, eggs, and beans (.=0.06 than the children of adult mothers. Conclusion Adolescent mothers adopt less responsive eating styles and offer more inadequate complementary feeding for their infants.

  12. Proposal of indicators to evaluate complementary feeding based on World Health Organization indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldan, Paula Chuproski; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Medici; de Mello, Débora Falleiros

    2016-09-01

    This study compares complementary feeding World Health Organization (WHO) indicators with those built in accordance with Brazilian recommendations (Ten Steps to Healthy Feeding). A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Campaign against Poliomyelitis in Guarapuava-Paraná, Brazil, in 2012. Feeding data from 1,355 children aged 6-23 months were obtained through the 24 h diet recall. Based on five indicators, the proportion of adequacy was evaluated: introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods; minimum dietary diversity; meal frequency; acceptable diet; and consumption of iron-rich foods. Complementary feeding showed adequacy higher than 85% in most WHO indicators, while review by the Ten Steps assessment method showed a less favorable circumstance and a high intake of unhealthy foods. WHO indicators may not reflect the complementary feeding conditions of children in countries with low malnutrition rates and an increased prevalence of overweight/obesity. The use of indicators according to the Ten Steps can be useful to identify problems and redirect actions aimed at promoting complementary feeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Complementary structure for designer localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported on metallic structures corrugated by very long and curved grooves have been recently proposed and demonstrated on an extremely thin metallic spiral structure (MSS) in the microwave regime. However, the mode profile for the magnetic LSPs was demonstrated by measuring only the electric field, not the magnetic field. Here, based on Babinet's principle, we propose a Babinet-inverted, or complementary MSS whose electric/magnetic mode profiles match the magnetic/electric mode profiles of MSS. This complementarity of mode profiles allows mapping the magnetic field distribution of magnetic LSP mode profile on MSS by measuring the electric field distribution of the corresponding mode on complementary MSS. Experiment at microwave frequencies also demonstrate the use of complementary MSS in sensing refractive-index change in the environment.

  14. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Nitrogen fixation by groundnut and velvet bean and residual benefit to a subsequent maize crop Fixação de nitrogênio por amendoim e mucuna e benefício residual para uma cultura de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambate Okito

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilisers are rarely avaiable to poor farmers, for whom the nitrogen (N is often the most limiting element for cereal grain production. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF to groundnut (Arachis hypogaea and velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens crops using the 15N natural abundance (delta15N technique and to determine their residual effect and that of a natural fallow, on growth and N accumulation by two rustic maize varieties. The contribution of BNF calculated from delta15N data was 40.9, 59.6 and 30.9 kg ha-1, for groundnut, velvet bean and the natural fallow, respectively. The only legume grain harvested was from the groundnut, which yielded approximately 1.000 kg ha-1. The subsequent maize varieties ("Sol de Manhã" and "Caiana Sobralha" yielded between 1.958 and 2.971 kg ha-1, and were higher after velvet bean for both maize varieties and "Sol da Manhã" groundnut, followed by "Caiana" after groundnut and, finally, the natural fallow. For a small-holder producer the most attractive system is the groundnut followed by maize, as, in this treatment, both groundnut and maize grain harvest are possible. However, a simple N balance calculation indicated that the groundnut-maize sequence would, in the long term, deplete soil N reserves, while the velvet bean-maize sequence would lead to a build up of soil nitrogen.Fertilizantes químicos raramente estão disponíveis aos agricultores com poucos recursos econômicos, e assim o N é, freqüentemente, um elemento mais limitante para a produção de grãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN às culturas de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea e mucuna (Mucuna pruriens, por meio da técnica de abundância natural de 15N e determinar o efeito residual das leguminosas e do pousio sobre o crescimento e acumulação de N em duas variedades de milho. A contribuição da FBN calculada a

  16. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Brondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM represents a popular therapeutic option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of CAM in ASD. The aim of the present systematic review is to investigate trials of CAM in ASD. Material and Methods. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Agricola, and Food Science Source. Results. Our literature search identified 2687 clinical publications. After the title/abstract screening, 139 publications were obtained for detailed evaluation. After detailed evaluation 67 studies were included, from hand search of references we retrieved 13 additional studies for a total of 80. Conclusion. There is no conclusive evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM therapies in ASD. Promising results are reported for music therapy, sensory integration therapy, acupuncture, and massage.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine - representations in popular magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Alexandra; Phillips, Christine

    2010-09-01

    More than half the patients who use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Australia do not discuss it with their doctors. Many consumers use popular media, especially women's magazines, to learn about CAM. To explore representations of CAM in popular Australian women's magazines. Content analysis of three Australian magazines: Australian Women's Weekly, Dolly and New Idea published from January to June 2008. Of 220 references to CAM (4-17 references per issue), most were to biologically based practices, particularly 'functional foods', which enhance health. Most representations of CAM were positive (81.3% positive, 16.4% neutral, 2.3% negative). Explanations of modes of action of CAM tended to be biological but relatively superficial. Australian magazines cast CAM as safe therapy which enhances patient engagement in healthcare, and works in ways analogous to orthodox medical treatments. General practitioners can use discussions with their patients about CAM to encourage health promoting practices.

  18. Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Ren

    2006-01-01

    In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.

  19. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in attitudes towards/beliefs on complementary and alternative medicine witnessed between physiotherapists, nurses/paramedics and physicians · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D Živčić, A Racz, D Naletilić, 57-65.

  20. Mental disorders frequency alternative and complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are chronic disorders with which mental disorders may coexist and for which patients may resort to alternative medicine use. Alternative and complementary medicine is a treatment option that patients tend to use. This study is to determine the prevalence of mental ...

  1. Complementary medicines: When regulation results in revolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dates, depending on their classification, e.g. antiviral complementary medicines had to be ... must be written in English and at least one other official language and must indicate the ... able task. Furthermore, the cost of merely applying, especially for ... the nature of the industry will change once the new laws are fully.

  2. Comparison of the complementary feeding practices between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons. Methods: mother-infant pairs (50 mother-twin pairs and 50 mother-singleton pairs) with children aged 6 to 23 months were recruited from two public health clinics and communities in Tema ...

  3. Complementary Theories to Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldorsson, Arni; Hsuan, Juliana; Kotzab, Herbert

    Borrowing from complementary theories has become an important part of theorizing SCM. We build upon principal-agent theory (PAT), transaction cost analysis (TCA), network theory (NT), and resource-based view (RBV) to provide insights on how to structure a supply chain and manage it. Through...

  4. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-diabetic effects of Zhuoduqing formula, a Chinese herbal decoction, ... Bioactive components of Gynura divaricata and its potential use in health, ... Whole-body vibration exercise improves functional parameters in patients ... Survey of dental students' attitude regarding oriental medicine/complementary and alternative ...

  5. Hypertension management: Perspectives of complementary and al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information available on the various forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) used in the management of hypertension is inadequate and conflicting. The primary objective of this study was to assess the use of CAM in the management of hypertension by CAM practition-ers. A qualitative study utilizing ...

  6. (COPD) on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of complementary and alternative medicine usage in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients living in the eastern part of Turkey. In this study a descriptive design was used. The study was conducted with 216 patients who were present at the clinic.

  7. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Errata | Adewunmi | African Journal of Traditional, Complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The rate of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients is on the increase worldwide. This is due to the innate urge among humans to try new and alternative ways of medicine, especially where conventional medicine failed to provide satisfactory solution such as in sickle cell ...

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine use among diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is common among patients with chronic diseases in developing countries. The rising use of CAM in the management of diabetes is an emerging public health concern given the potential adverse effects, drug interactions and benefits associated with its use.

  11. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4S (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Determining Complementary Properties with Quantum Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkadath, G. S.; Saaltink, R. Y.; Giner, L.; Lundeen, J. S.

    2017-08-01

    In a classical world, simultaneous measurements of complementary properties (e.g., position and momentum) give a system's state. In quantum mechanics, measurement-induced disturbance is largest for complementary properties and, hence, limits the precision with which such properties can be determined simultaneously. It is tempting to try to sidestep this disturbance by copying the system and measuring each complementary property on a separate copy. However, perfect copying is physically impossible in quantum mechanics. Here, we investigate using the closest quantum analog to this copying strategy, optimal cloning. The coherent portion of the generated clones' state corresponds to "twins" of the input system. Like perfect copies, both twins faithfully reproduce the properties of the input system. Unlike perfect copies, the twins are entangled. As such, a measurement on both twins is equivalent to a simultaneous measurement on the input system. For complementary observables, this joint measurement gives the system's state, just as in the classical case. We demonstrate this experimentally using polarized single photons.

  13. Optimizing Usability Studies by Complementary Evaluation Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmettow, Martin; Bach, Cedric; Scapin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines combinations of complementary evaluation methods as a strategy for efficient usability problem discovery. A data set from an earlier study is re-analyzed, involving three evaluation methods applied to two virtual environment applications. Results of a mixed-effects logistic

  14. DNA based methods used for characterization and detection of food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of food borne pathogen is of outmost importance in the food industries and related agencies. For the last few decades conventional methods were used to detect food borne pathogens based on phenotypic characters. At the advent of complementary base pairing and amplification of DNA, the diagnosis of food ...

  15. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with genetically proven mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Sebastian; Huidekoper, Hidde H; Visser, Gepke; de Vries, Maaike; de Boer, Lonneke; Hermans-Peters, Marion; Rodenburg, Richard; Verhaak, Chris; Vlieger, Arine M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Wortmann, Saskia B

    2015-05-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases, clinical management of these conditions remains largely supportive, and no effective treatment is available. We therefore assumed that the burden of disease combined with the lack of adequate treatment leaves open a big market for complementary and alternative medicine use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in children and adults with genetically proven mitochondrial disease. The reported use was surprisingly high, with 88% of children and 91% of adults having used some kind of complementary and alternative medicine in the last 2 years. Also, the mean cost of these treatments was impressive, being 489/year for children and 359/year for adult patients. Over-the-counter remedies (e.g., food supplements, homeopathy) and self-help techniques (e.g., Reiki, yoga) were the most frequently used complementary and alternative therapies in our cohort: 54% of children and 60% of adults reported the various complementary and alternative medicine therapies to be effective. Given the fact that currently no effective treatment exists, further research toward the different therapies is needed, as our study clearly demonstrates that such therapies are highly sought after by affected patients.

  16. Complementary feeding patterns in a developing country: a cross-sectional study across Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, M; Boulghourjian, C; Akik, C

    2010-02-01

    This first, large-scale study on complementary feeding in Lebanon analysed the timing and types of food introduced to infants according to mothers' demographic and socioeconomic and infants' characteristics. A cross-sectional survey over 10 months found that the majority of infants were introduced to solid foods at or after 4 months of age. A large number of infants were given liquids other than breast or formula milk earlier. Women in employment outside the home were almost twice as likely to introduce solid foods before age 4 months. The most common starting food was cereals. More than half the children consumed starchy foods and fruits every day, but not meats and fish.

  17. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  18. Learning from nature: binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this Review, nature-inspired binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials (BCCNMs), consisting of two components with entirely opposite physiochemical properties at the nanoscale, are presented as a novel concept for the building of promising materials. Once the distance between the two nanoscopic components is comparable to the characteristic length of some physical interactions, the cooperation between these complementary building blocks becomes dominant and endows the macroscopic materials with novel and superior properties. The first implementation of the BCCNMs is the design of bio-inspired smart materials with superwettability and their reversible switching between different wetting states in response to various kinds of external stimuli. Coincidentally, recent studies on other types of functional nanomaterials contribute more examples to support the idea of BCCNMs, which suggests a potential yet comprehensive range of future applications in both materials science and engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Complementary methods of transverse emittance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagel, James; Hu, Martin; Jansson, Andreas; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yan, Ming-Jen; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    Several complementary transverse emittance monitors have been developed and used at the Fermilab accelerator complex. These include Ionization profile Monitors (IPM), Flying Wires, Schottky detectors and a Synchrotron Light Monitor (Synchlite). Mechanical scrapers have also been used for calibration purposes. This paper describes the various measurement devices by examining their basic features, calibration requirements, systematic uncertainties, and applications to collider operation. A comparison of results from different kinds of measurements is also presented.

  20. ZEROES OF GENERALIZED FRESNEL COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lobo Segura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are defined by integrals of the same type as the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization intervals. Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all zeros of a given function with an a priori error.

  1. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Zhihao Ma; Zhihua Chen; Sixia Yu

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches ...

  2. Healing and Preventing Pain: Complementary and Integrative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Pain Management Healing and Preventing Pain, Complementary and Integrative Approaches Past ... Pain Management" Articles Putting A Pause In Pain / Healing and Preventing Pain Complementary and Integrative Approaches / Pain ...

  3. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY ...

  4. High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2013 Dietary Supplements Red Yeast ... to exploring complementary health products and practices in the context of rigorous ... health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  5. Discovering complementary colors from the perspective of steam education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabey, Burak; Yigit Koyunkaya, Melike; Enginoglu, Turan; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2018-05-01

    This study explored the theory and applications of complementary colors using a technology-based activity designed from the perspective of STEAM education. Complementary colors and their areas of use were examined from the perspective of physics, mathematics and art, respectively. The study, which benefits from technology, makes the theory of complementary colors accessible to all through practical applications and provides a multidisciplinary, integrated and innovative technique of teaching the subject of colors, which could be used to teach complementary colors.

  6. Comparison of the effects of ploughing and mulching with straw on water economy in the groundnut-millet system in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopart, J.L.; Nicou, R.; Vachaud, G.

    1979-01-01

    In Senegal water availability is very often the principal factor limiting crop yields, and it is necessary to develop techniques for making optimum use of the low rainfall. To this end a comparison was made of the effects on the water economy of (a) post-harvest oxen ploughing and (b) straw mulching with minimum tillage. A neutron probe and tensiometers were used to determine the water balance. It was found that mulching has no effect on water storage during the dry season, if it is not accompanied by a weed-control treatment, but does help to contain evaporation in the rainy season. On the other hand, ploughing reduces water losses in the dry season, and in the wet season helps to increase water uptake by the plant by stimulating root growth. In 1977, a very dry year, the yield of the groundnut plant was increased by 52% by ploughing as compared with a 27% increase from mulching and minimum tillage combined with weed-killing in the dry season; mulching and minimum tillage have no effect (on yield) if no weed-killing treatment is applied during the dry season. As straw mulching is in any case more difficult to practise than post-harvest ploughing in Senegalese agricultural conditions, the latter technique is obviously to be preferred for improving the utilization of available water by crops. (author)

  7. Phytase production by solid-state fermentation of groundnut oil cake by Aspergillus niger: A bioprocess optimization study for animal feedstock applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhiwant, Priyanka; Bhavsar, Kavita; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, Jayant M

    2016-08-17

    This investigation deals with the use of agro-industrial waste, namely groundnut oil cake (GOC), for phytase production by the fungi Aspergillus niger NCIM 563. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of 11 process variables and studies here showed that phytase production was significantly influenced by glucose, dextrin, distilled water, and MgSO4 · 7H2O. The use of response surface methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of experiments further enhanced the production by a remarkable 36.67-fold from the original finding of 15 IU/gds (grams of dry substrate) to 550 IU/gds. This is the highest solid-state fermentation (SSF) phytase production reported when compared to other microorganisms and in fact betters the best known by a factor of 2. Experiments carried out using dried fermented koji for phosphorus and mineral release and also thermal stability have shown the phytase to be as efficient as the liquid enzyme extract. Also, the enzyme, while exhibiting optimal activity under acidic conditions, was found to have significant activity in a broad range of pH values (1.5-6.5). The studies suggest the suitability of the koji supplemented with phytase produced in an SSF process by the "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) microorganism A. niger as a cost-effective value-added livestock feed when compared to that obtained by submerged fermentation (SmF).

  8. Complementary feeding practices and nutritional status of children 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Inappropriate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months is major cause of under nutrition. There is scarce information on the relationship between complementary feeding practices and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the factors contributing to the complementary ...

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Expanding Horizons of Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is this year celebrating 10 years of ... Photo: NCCAM This year, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) celebrates its 10th anniversary. We explore complementary ...

  10. Natural postharvest aflatoxin occurrence in food legumes in the smallholder farming sector of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, David Tinayeshe; Chidewe, Cathrine; Benhura, Mudadi Albert; Mvumi, Brighton Marimanzi; Murashiki, Tatenda Clive; Dembedza, Mavis Precious; Siziba, Lucia; Nyanga, Loveness Kuziwa

    2017-03-01

    Aflatoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are highly toxic and may lead to health problems such as liver cancer. Exposure to aflatoxins may result from ingestion of contaminated foods. Levels of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 and AFG 2 in samples of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and bambara nuts (Vigna subterranean) grown by smallholder farmers in Shamva and Makoni districts, Zimbabwe, were determined at harvesting, using high performance liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity clean-up. Aflatoxins were detected in 12.5% of groundnut samples with concentrations ranging up to 175.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were present in 4.3% of the cowpea samples with concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 103.4 µg/kg. Due to alarming levels of aflatoxins detected in legumes versus maximum permissible levels, there is a need to assist smallholder farmers to develop harvest control strategies to reduce contamination of aflatoxins in legumes.

  11. Designing appropriate complementary feeding recommendations: tools for programmatic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelmans, Bernadette; Ferguson, Elaine; Lutter, Chessa K; Singh, Neha; Pachón, Helena; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Woldt, Monica; Mangasaryan, Nuné; Cheung, Edith; Mir, Roger; Pareja, Rossina; Briend, André

    2013-09-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of stunting in young children from age 6 months. The design of effective programmes to improve infant and young child feeding requires a sound understanding of the local situation and a systematic process for prioritizing interventions, integrating them into existing delivery platforms and monitoring their implementation and impact. The identification of adequate food-based feeding recommendations that respect locally available foods and address gaps in nutrient availability is particularly challenging. We describe two tools that are now available to strengthen infant and young child-feeding programming at national and subnational levels. ProPAN is a set of research tools that guide users through a step-by-step process for identifying problems related to young child nutrition; defining the context in which these problems occur; formulating, testing, and selecting behaviour-change recommendations and nutritional recipes; developing the interventions to promote them; and designing a monitoring and evaluation system to measure progress towards intervention goals. Optifood is a computer-based platform based on linear programming analysis to develop nutrient-adequate feeding recommendations at lowest cost, based on locally available foods with the addition of fortified products or supplements when needed, or best recommendations when the latter are not available. The tools complement each other and a case study from Peru illustrates how they have been used. The readiness of both instruments will enable partners to invest in capacity development for their use in countries and strengthen programmes to address infant and young child feeding and prevent malnutrition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding in relation to body mass index and overweight at ages 7 and 11 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Ängquist, Lars; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2018-01-01

    associations with overweight. Results: Duration of BF was not associated with childhood BMIz at ages 7 and 11 y. Earlier introduction of complementary food (4 mo old) was not associated with BMIz at age 7 y, but with a 0.069 (95% CI: 0.021, 0.117, P = 0.005) higher BMIz at age 11 y and increased risk...

  13. Complementary and alternative interventions in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Bielory, Leonard

    2010-08-01

    The burden of atopic diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD), is significant and far-reaching. In addition to cost of care and therapies, it affects the quality of life for those affected as well as their caretakers. Complementary and alternative therapies are commonly used because of concerns about potential adverse effects of conventional therapies and frustration with the lack of response to prescribed medications, be it due to the severity of the AD or the lack of appropriate regular use. Despite the promising results reported with various herbal medicines and biologic products, the clinical efficacy of such alternative therapies remains to be determined. Physicians need to be educated about alternative therapies and discuss benefits and potential adverse effects or limitations with patients. A systematic approach and awareness of reputable and easily accessible resources are helpful in dealing with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM interventions is common among individuals with AD. Epidemiologic data have been a motivating drive for better elucidation of the efficacy of CAM interventions for allergic disease. Herbal medicines and biologics for AD treatment and, more recently, prevention comprise a major area of clinical investigation. Potential mechanisms of therapeutic effect elucidated by animal models and human clinical studies implicate modulation of TH2-type allergic inflammation and induction of immune tolerance. Population-based research regarding the use of CAM for allergic diseases underscores the increasing challenge for care providers with respect to identifying CAM use and ensuring safe use of allopathic and complementary medicines in disease management. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearing, Michelle M., E-mail: michelle.nearing@rmc.ca; Koch, Iris, E-mail: koch-i@rmc.ca; Reimer, Kenneth J., E-mail: reimer-k@rmc.ca

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  15. Complementary Theories to Supply Chain Management Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldorsson, Arni; Hsuan, Juliana; Kotzab, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to identify ways by which the theorizing of supply chain management (SCM) takes place, with particular attention to complementary theories. SCM suffers as well as benefits from a “conceptual slack”. Design/methodology/approach – The nature of SCM is discussed...... as organizational units that act or consummate an action that delivers a particular performance. Originality/value – This paper portrays SCM sensitivity to managerial challenges by moving from borrowing to a more bilateral view on theorizing of SCM, reflecting the nature of SCM....

  16. The Perils of Complementary Alternative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bayme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 11,000 articles lauding alternative medicine appear in the PubMed database, but there are only a few articles describing the complications of such care. Two patients suffering from complications of alternative medicine were treated in our hospital: one patient developed necrotizing fasciitis after acupuncture, and the second developed an epidural hematoma after chiropractic manipulation. These complications serve as a clarion call to the Israeli Health Ministry, as well as to health ministries around the world, to include complementary medicine under its inspection and legislative authority.

  17. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  18. Explicit MDS Codes with Complementary Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Duals Peter; Jin, Lingfei

    2018-01-01

    In 1964, Massey introduced a class of codes with complementary duals which are called Linear Complimentary Dual (LCD for short) codes. He showed that LCD codes have applications in communication system, side-channel attack (SCA) and so on. LCD codes have been extensively studied in literature....... On the other hand, MDS codes form an optimal family of classical codes which have wide applications in both theory and practice. The main purpose of this paper is to give an explicit construction of several classes of LCD MDS codes, using tools from algebraic function fields. We exemplify this construction...

  19. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  20. Food claims and nutrition facts of commercial infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu-Chin; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi Chun

    2018-01-01

    Composition claim, nutrition claim and health claim are often found on the commercial complementary food packaging. The introduction of complementary foods (CFs) to infants is a turning point in the development of their eating behavior, and their commercial use for Taiwanese infants is growing. In Taiwan, lots of the advertisements for CFs employed health or nutrition claims to promote the products, but the actual nutritional content of these CFs is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the food claims of commercial complementary food products with their actual nutrition facts. A sample of 363 commercial CFs was collected from websites, local supermarkets, and other food stores, and their nutrition-related claims were classified into composition, nutrition, and health categories. Although the World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, 48.2% of the commercial CFs were targeted at infants younger than 6 months. Therefore, marketing regulations should be implemented to curb early weaning as a result of products targeted at infants younger than 6 months. More than 50% of Taiwanese commercial CFs have high sugar content and more than 20% were high in sodium. Products with health claims, such as "provides good nutrition to children" or "improves appetite," have higher sodium or sugar content than do those without such claims. Moreover, products with calcium or iron content claims did not contain more calcium or iron than products without such claims. Additionally, a significantly greater proportion of the products with "no added sugar" claims were classified as having high sugar content as compared to those without such claims. Parents cannot choose the healthiest food products for their children by simply focusing on food claims. Government should regulate the labeling of nutrition facts and food claims for foods targeted at infants younger than 12 months.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine in pulmonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, John D; Chung, Youngran

    2015-06-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies for the treatment of pulmonary disorders in children. The use of complementary medicine (CAM) is commonly used by both children and adults with breathing problems, and especially in chronic pulmonary disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Many clinics and hospitals now offer CAM, even though most of the conventionally trained health practitioners have little knowledge or education regarding CAM therapies. Research in CAM that demonstrates overall benefit is lacking, especially in children. Often parents do not report CAM use to their child's healthcare provider and this could compromise their overall quality of care. Although many research studies evaluating CAM therapies have methodological flaws, data exist to support CAM therapies in treating children with pulmonary disorders. This review examines the latest evidence of CAM use and effectiveness in children with pulmonary disorders. Physicians should be aware of the many CAM therapy options and the research surrounding them in order to provide their patients with the most current and accurate information available.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen

    2013-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis experience high levels of pain, psychological distress and have limited therapeutic options. Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests that both acupuncture and Tai Chi mind-body therapies are safe and effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Acupuncture has effects over and above those of 'sham acupuncture' and the most robust evidence to date demonstrates that acupuncture does have short-term benefits and is a reasonable referral option for patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress and anxiety and depression, as well as improved quality of life. Thus, Tai Chi may be safely recommended to patients with osteoarthritis as a complementary and alternative medical approach to affect patient well-being. Integrative approaches combine the best of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine to ultimately improve patient care. These modalities may lead to the development of better disease modifying strategies that could improve symptoms and decrease the progression of osteoarthritis. This overview synthesizes the current body of knowledge about Chinese mind-body medicine to better inform clinical decision-making for our rheumatic patients.

  3. Control of Microbiological Spoilage of Food by Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. [Central Food Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1978-04-15

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  4. Control of microbiological spoilage of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  5. QTL-seq approach identified genomic regions and diagnostic markers for rust and late leaf spot resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K; Khan, Aamir W; Singh, Vikas K; Vishwakarma, Manish K; Shasidhar, Yaduru; Kumar, Vinay; Garg, Vanika; Bhat, Ramesh S; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Janila, Pasupuleti; Guo, Baozhu; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2017-08-01

    Rust and late leaf spot (LLS) are the two major foliar fungal diseases in groundnut, and their co-occurrence leads to significant yield loss in addition to the deterioration of fodder quality. To identify candidate genomic regions controlling resistance to rust and LLS, whole-genome resequencing (WGRS)-based approach referred as 'QTL-seq' was deployed. A total of 231.67 Gb raw and 192.10 Gb of clean sequence data were generated through WGRS of resistant parent and the resistant and susceptible bulks for rust and LLS. Sequence analysis of bulks for rust and LLS with reference-guided resistant parent assembly identified 3136 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for rust and 66 SNPs for LLS with the read depth of ≥7 in the identified genomic region on pseudomolecule A03. Detailed analysis identified 30 nonsynonymous SNPs affecting 25 candidate genes for rust resistance, while 14 intronic and three synonymous SNPs affecting nine candidate genes for LLS resistance. Subsequently, allele-specific diagnostic markers were identified for three SNPs for rust resistance and one SNP for LLS resistance. Genotyping of one RIL population (TAG 24 × GPBD 4) with these four diagnostic markers revealed higher phenotypic variation for these two diseases. These results suggest usefulness of QTL-seq approach in precise and rapid identification of candidate genomic regions and development of diagnostic markers for breeding applications. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence and use of complementary health approaches among women with chronic pelvic pain in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Maria T; Abercrombie, Priscilla D; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E; Learman, Lee A; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with use of complementary health approaches among women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). We analyzed data from the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy, and Intervention Alternatives, a prospective cohort study of women seeking care for noncancerous pelvic problems with intact uteri at enrollment. Among a subset of 699 participants who reported having CPP, we analyzed the prevalence of complementary health approaches used and associated patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life, attitudes and beliefs, and conventional health care practices. At baseline, slightly over one-half (51%) of women with CPP used at least one complementary health approach in the past year, including acupuncture (8%), special foods or diets (22%), herbs (27%), and vitamins and minerals (29%). During follow-up surveys conducted annually for 4 years, a substantial proportion of women (44.8%) used complementary health approaches at more than half of the assessments. Users of complementary health approaches were more likely to undergo a hysterectomy or oophorectomy or to use gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or opioids during the study compared with nonusers. Women with CPP who used complementary health approaches also had more optimal health-related quality of life measured by the Pelvic Problem Impact Questionnaire (31.6 vs 25.6, P complementary health approaches. The substantial interest in and high prevalence of complementary health approaches used alongside conventional medical approaches highlight the need for better understanding of multimodal approaches to address the complex condition of CPP. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Abrasive water jet: a complementary tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, J.P.; Pecas, P.; Nunes, E.; Gouveia, H.

    1998-01-01

    The abrasive water jet is a powerful cutting tool, whose main advantages lie in the absence of thermal effects and the capability of cutting highly thick materials. Compared with Laser, the abrasive water jet allows the cutting of a larger range of thicknesses and a wider variety of materials such as: ornamental stones, metals, polymers, composites, wood, glass ceramics. The application of this technology has suffered and extensive growth, with successful applications in varied industrial sectors like the automotive, aerospace, textile, metalworking, ornamental stones, etc. The present communication aims at introducing the abrasive water jet as a complementary tool to laser cutting, presenting its advantages by showing some documented examples of pieces cut for different industries. (Author) 5 refs

  8. Complementary and alternative treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazio, Simeon; Balen, Diana

    2011-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high and increasing worldwide. Patients usually use CAM in addition to conventional medicine, mainly to treat pain. In a large number of cases, people use CAM for chronic musculoskeletal pain as in osteoarthritis, back pain, neck pain, or fibromyalgia. Herewith, a review is presented of CAM efficacy in treating musculoskeletal pain for which, however, no scientific research has so far provided evidence solid enough. In some rare cases where adequate pain control cannot be achieved, CAM might be considered in rational and individual approach based on the first general rule in medicine "not to harm" and on the utility theory of each intervention, i.e. according to the presumed mechanism of painful stimulus and with close monitoring of the patient's response. Further high quality studies are warranted to elucidate the efficacy and side effects of CAM methods. Therefore, conventional medicine remains the main mode of treatment for patients with musculoskeletal painful conditions.

  9. Western and Eastern Values are Complementary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available All values are spiritual in their essence, even those that appear to be physical. For all values seek perfection of the whole. The widest and highest perfection is based on the totality and oneness of reality. Such a perfection is comprehensive and inclusive. It is founded on truths that complete other truths rather than compete with them. Despite their vast cultural differences, Eastern and Western values reflect complementary aspects of a unified whole. But the process of developing values in any society depends on its underlying cultural perspective. The nature of mind is such that it divides and analyzes reality, and concentrates on one thing at a time, whereas spirituality is founded on the perception of the whole. This vast difference in underlying cultural orientation helps explain the immense gulf in understanding that has long distinguished and separated the cultures of Asia and Europe.

  10. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding.

  11. Complementary roles of two resilient neotropical mammalian seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana; Morris, Rebecca J.; Lewis, Owen T.; Mikich, Sandra B.

    2018-04-01

    Capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp. and Sapajus spp.) and coatis (Nasua spp.) coexist in most neotropical forests, including small forest remnants. Both capuchins and coatis eat fruit and disperse seeds, but little is known about whether their roles in seed dispersal are redundant or complementary. We compiled 49 studies from the literature on feeding by capuchins and/or coatis, of which 19 were comprehensive enough for our analyses. We determined the relative importance of fruit eating to each species and compared their diets. Additionally, we analysed the structure of three fruit-frugivore networks built with both animal groups and the fruits they eat and evaluated whether fruit traits influenced the network topology. Fruits represented the largest part of capuchin and coati diets, even though coatis have been known for their opportunistic and generalist diets. Capuchins and coatis also exhibited similar general diet parameters (niche breadth and trophic diversity). The three networks exhibited high connectance values and variable niche overlap. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis, failed to detect any trait or trait combination related to food use. In conclusion, capuchins and coatis both have generalist diets; they feed on many different species of fruits and exhibit important complementarity as seed dispersers. Both are likely to be particularly important seed dispersers in disturbed and fragmented forests.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Methods in Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Erdogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite its long history, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM methods has increased dramatically only after 1990s. Up to 57% of patients with chronic renal use CAM methods.These patienys use CAM methods to overcome hypertension, fatigue, constipation, leg edema, pain, cramps, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, to cope with symptoms such as itching, to stop the progression of kidney disease and to improve their quality of life. Methods used are herbal products and food supplements, acupressure, acupuncture, homeopathy, exercise, aromatherapy, yoga and reflexology. Nephrotoxic effect of several CAM therapies used in patients with renal impairment could disturb hemodynamics by reducing the glomerular filtration rate. For this reason, health care providers should question patients about used of CAM, methods. Communication with patients should be clear and should not act judgmental. Health care personnel should learn more about CAM methods in order to avoid unwanted situations that could develop after the application of CAM methods. Patients should be informed correctly and scientifically about these methods to avoid harmful and unnecessary uses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 770-786

  13. Fortified foods, new opportunity for irradiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Sabato, Susy F.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important steps, in order to improve the quality of foodstuffs, in the last forty years is represented by fortified foods. The fortification foods means complementary addition of nutrients to content of foodstuffs. The macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) are relativity steady when submitted to irradiation. The micro-nutrients, speciality the vitamins, can be sensible to any method. This work has analysed fortified foods with Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, vitamin A, riboflavine, vitamin C and folic acid , as well as, the perspective of adjusting the food irradiation process with fortification foods

  14. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Olmedo, Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant’s energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of...

  15. Home-made and commercial complementary meals in German infants: results of the DONALD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, A; Foterek, K; Kersting, M; Alexy, U

    2015-12-01

    Infant complementary food can be home-made or bought as ready-to-eat commercial products. The nutrient composition of commercial products is regularised in a European Commission guideline, whereas the preparation of home-made complementary meals is the responsibility of caregivers. In the present study, the composition of commercial and home-made complementary meals as eaten by healthy German infants was compared. Of 8226 complementary meals (74% commercial and 26% home-made) recorded in 1083, 3-day weighed dietary records from 396 participants (6-12 months old) of the German DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study were analysed. Median energy density (kcal 100 g(-1)) was highest in commercial and home-made cereal-milk meals (89 kcal 100 g(-1)). In home-made savoury and cereal-fruit meals, the energy density was significantly higher compared to their commercial counterparts. Median protein contents were highest in savoury and cereal-milk meals (>2.5 g 100 g(-1)) and dairy-fruit meals (2-4 g 100 g(-1)). Added sugars were found in less than a quarter of meals. Highest median sodium contents were found not only in commercial savoury meals (median 38 mg 100 g(-1)) and vegetable meals (32 mg 100 g(-1)), but also in home-made cereal-milk meals (36 mg 100 g(-1)). Both median fat and iron contents were higher in home-made meals compared to commercial savoury and cereal-fruit meals. With the exception of the higher sodium content in commercial savoury meals for older infants, the lower fat content in commercial savoury and cereal-fruit meals, and the added sugar content in some commercial dairy-fruit meals, a comparison of commercial and home-made complementary meals did not reveal any serious inadequacy. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Nutritional status, complementary feeding practices and feasible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-03

    Feb 3, 2012 ... often coincides with decreased breast milk consumption,7 increased ... discussions were held with adults to determine perceived understanding, .... underweight), and < -3 (severely underweight). .... did not eat enough food to give them energy to produce milk to feed .... for treatment when they are sick.

  17. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  18. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  19. Food consumption data needs for food and agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L H

    1994-09-01

    Food and agricultural policy strives to provide stable, safe, nutritional, and affordable food supplies with policies on farm income, low-income food security, food safety (including nutritional risk), and nutrition education. For each policy area, comparisons are made between food consumption data needs and information currently collected with four human nutrition monitoring system components administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Identified data gaps become the basis for recommendations for future data needs. Food consumption data are essential to management of programs. However, many food safety and nutritional well-being issues require specific food product consumption data for high risk groups. Sampling procedures are often too aggregate to meet these needs. Food consumed away-from-home is not well measured, yet this market segment now accounts for about half of all consumer food expenditures. Surveys should be designed to provide complementary and additive data. A premium should be placed on standardizing household description variables to enable "splicing" together data from different surveys. Survey continuity across time is essential. Data collection should be planned with funding limitations and respondent burden in mind so that a balance is achieved between survey objectives and the practical constraints of obtaining accurate data.

  20. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Xu, Bugao; Yao, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period. (paper)

  1. Cerebral asymmetries: complementary and independent processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjurgjica Badzakova-Trajkov

    Full Text Available Most people are right-handed and left-cerebrally dominant for speech, leading historically to the general notion of left-hemispheric dominance, and more recently to genetic models proposing a single lateralizing gene. This hypothetical gene can account for higher incidence of right-handers in those with left cerebral dominance for speech. It remains unclear how this dominance relates to the right-cerebral dominance for some nonverbal functions such as spatial or emotional processing. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging with a sample of 155 subjects to measure asymmetrical activation induced by speech production in the frontal lobes, by face processing in the temporal lobes, and by spatial processing in the parietal lobes. Left-frontal, right-temporal, and right-parietal dominance were all intercorrelated, suggesting that right-cerebral biases may be at least in part complementary to the left-hemispheric dominance for language. However, handedness and parietal asymmetry for spatial processing were uncorrelated, implying independent lateralizing processes, one producing a leftward bias most closely associated with handedness, and the other a rightward bias most closely associated with spatial attention.

  2. Alternative and complementary medicine in cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) in cancer patients is widespread and it is not surprising as the results gained by conventional treatments are not sufficient. However, the results from the studies with CAM are not always sufficient according to their testing in appropriate clinical studies. Another problem that is present in the use of CAM is the possibility of drug-drug interactions between conventional therapies and CAM. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the oncologist possess a good knowledge of available CAM and provide a sufficient time for discussion with the patient and his/her family about possible alternative treatments and any downside risks. The cornerstone for pertinent discussion is sufficient knowledge on the part of the oncologist about those alternative treatments that are usually presented in the media with incomplete information about their relevant clinical tests and side effects. The following article presents a review of the current alternative treatment methods with a focus on the alternative drugs that have already been clinically tested, and secondarily on the alternative drugs that have been used even without sufficient testing in clinical trials. (author)

  3. Pet birds II. Complementary diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beregi, A.; Molnar, V.; Felkai, F.; Biro, F.

    1997-01-01

    Microscopical examinations are useful in detecting bacteria from droppings and body fluids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests are also used to perform antimicrobial therapy. Parasitological examinations can also be done on pet birds. Hematological examinations are not very common because of the difficulties in determining the normal serum values that might vary by species and sexes. The vena cutanea ulnaris is the best vein for drawing blood from a pet bird but nail clipping for this purpose is also widely used. The most common and basic complementary examination method is radiology. Birds can be radiographed without anesthesia. Ventrodorsal and latero-lateral pictures are required. The right positioning and setting the adequate values is the most important. Contrast radiographs can also be made on birds. Endoscopy is widely used for sex determination but also can be used for the examination of abdominal organs. Ultrasound examination of pet birds is not a common method because of the difficulties provided by the air sacs. ECG is not a widely used method either because of the high heart beat frequency of birds. Other methods such as necropsy, cytological, histological and toxicological examinations can also be performed on pet birds

  4. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of 240 Pu to 239 Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime

  5. Behavior analysis and neuroscience: Complementary disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, John W

    2017-05-01

    Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate. In the case of behavior analysis, the central selection process is selection by reinforcement; in neuroscience it is natural selection. The two selection processes are inter-related in that selection by reinforcement is itself the product of natural selection. The present paper illustrates the complementary nature of behavior analysis and neuroscience through considering their joint contributions to three central problem areas: reinforcement-including conditioned reinforcement, stimulus control-including equivalence classes, and memory-including reminding and remembering. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Work Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Complementary and alternative medicine therapies may improve quality of life, reduce work disruptions and enhance job satisfaction for dentists who suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is important that dentists incorporate complementary and alternative medicine strategies into practice to ...

  7. Discovering Complementary Colors from the Perspective of STEAM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabey, Burak; Koyunkaya, Melike Yigit; Enginoglu, Turan; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the theory and applications of complementary colors using a technology-based activity designed from the perspective of STEAM education. Complementary colors and their areas of use were examined from the perspective of physics, mathematics and art, respectively. The study, which benefits from technology, makes the theory of…

  8. Complementary Therapies – a spiritual resource in recovery-processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe; Johannessen, Helle

    rehabilitative treatments intends to support recovery processes of people with serious mental illness. Aim: To investigate how employees and residents perceive complementary therapies as an integral rehabilitative treatment, and to explore the recovery related implications of spirituality employed in the use...... and health as well as for the ethics of providing complementary treatment practice in social psychiatry....

  9. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to discuss with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... adults 50 and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  10. Reconfigurable Complementary Logic Circuits with Ambipolar Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hocheon; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Smits, Edsger C P; Gelinck, Gerwin H; Lee, Han-Koo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kim, Jae-Joon

    2016-10-20

    Ambipolar organic electronics offer great potential for simple and low-cost fabrication of complementary logic circuits on large-area and mechanically flexible substrates. Ambipolar transistors are ideal candidates for the simple and low-cost development of complementary logic circuits since they can operate as n-type and p-type transistors. Nevertheless, the experimental demonstration of ambipolar organic complementary circuits is limited to inverters. The control of the transistor polarity is crucial for proper circuit operation. Novel gating techniques enable to control the transistor polarity but result in dramatically reduced performances. Here we show high-performance non-planar ambipolar organic transistors with electrical control of the polarity and orders of magnitude higher performances with respect to state-of-art split-gate ambipolar transistors. Electrically reconfigurable complementary logic gates based on ambipolar organic transistors are experimentally demonstrated, thus opening up new opportunities for ambipolar organic complementary electronics.

  11. Introduction of inappropriate complementary feeding in the first year of life and associated factors in children with low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallazen, Camila; Silva, Sara Araújo da; Gonçalves, Vivian Siqueira Santos; Nilson, Eduardo Augusto Fernandes; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Lang, Regina Maria Ferreira; Moreira, Júlia Dubois; Tietzmann, Daniela Cardoso; Vítolo, Márcia Regina

    2018-02-19

    The study aimed to identify factors associated with the introduction of inappropriate complementary feeding in the first year of life in children living in municipalities (counties) with low socioeconomic statusl. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study in 1,567 children 12 to 59 months of age in 48 municipalities participating in the Brazil Without Poverty plan in the South of Brazil. A structured questionnaire was applied to the children's parents to obtain socio-demographic information and the age at which inappropriate complementary foods were introduced for the first time in complementary feeding. Prevalence of introduction of sugar before four months of age was 35.5% (n = 497; 95%CI: 33.1-38.0). The prevalence rates for the introduction of cookies/crackers, creamy yogurt, and jelly before six months of age were 20.4% (n = 287; 95%CI: 18.3-22.3), 24.8% (n = 349; 95%CI: 22.4-27.1), and 13.8% (n = 192; 95%CI: 12.0-15.7), respectively. Associations were identified between low maternal schooling (PR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.03-1.51) and low monthly family income (PR = 1.22; CI95%: 1.01-1.48) and the introduction of inappropriate complementary feeding. The study identified the introduction of inappropriate complementary feeding in the first year of life among children in municipalities with high socioeconomic vulnerability in the South of Brazil, associated with low maternal schooling and low monthly family income.

  12. Use of complementary and alternative medicines during the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallivalapila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; McLay, James S

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, indications, and associated factors for complementary and alternative medicine use during the last trimester of pregnancy. A questionnaire survey was conducted of women with a live birth (N=700) admitted to the postnatal unit at the Royal Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, northeast Scotland. Outcome measures included: complementary and alternative medicine used; vitamins and minerals used; reasons for complementary and alternative medicine use; independent associated factors for use; views; and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed. The response rate was 79.6% of eligible women. Two thirds of respondents (61.4%) reported using complementary and alternative medicine, excluding vitamins and minerals, during the third trimester. Respondents reported using a total of 30 different complementary and alternative medicine modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (38% of respondents, 40 different products). The independent associated factors for complementary and alternative medicine use identified were: complementary and alternative medicine use before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.39-7.95, Palternative medicine use by family or friends (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.47, Palternative medicines were safer than prescribed medicines (P=.006), less likely to be associated with side effects (P≤.001), and could interfere with conventional medicines (P≤.001). Despite the majority of respondents, and notably users, being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, complementary and alternative medicine modalities and complementary and alternative medicine products are widely used during the third trimester of pregnancy in this study population. Although prior use was the most significant independent associated factor, the role of family and friends, rather than health professionals, in the decision to use complementary and alternative medicine may be of concern

  13. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New

  15. Abrasive water jet: a complementary tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte, J. P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The abrasive water jet is a powerful cutting tool, whose main advantages lie in the absence of thermal effects and the capability of cutting highly thick materials. Compared with Laser, the abrasive water jet allows the cutting of a larger range of thicknesses and a wider variety of materials such as: ornamental stones, metals, polymers, composites, wood, glass and ceramics. The application of this technology has suffered an extensive growth, with successful applications in varied industrial sectors like the automotive, aerospace, textile, metalworking, ornamental stones, etc. The present communication aims at introducing the abrasive water jet as a complementary tool to laser cutting, presenting its advantages by showing some documented examples of pieces cut for different industries.

    O jacto de água abrasivo é uma poderosa ferramenta de corte, tendo como principais vantagens a ausência de processo térmico e permitir o corte de elevadas espessuras. Comparativamente com o laser o jacto de água abrasivo permite cortar uma maior gama de espessuras, e uma maior diversidade de materiais: rochas ornamentais, metais, polimeros, compósitos, madeiras, vidro e cerâmicos. A aplicação desta tecnologia tem sofrido um crescimento acentuado, existindo aplicações de sucesso nos mais variados sectores industriáis como a indústria automóvel, aeroespacial, têxtil, metalomecânica e rochas ornamentáis. Esta comunição pretende apresentar o corte por jacto de agua abrasivo como uma ferramenta de corte complementar ao corte por laser, apresentando as suas vantagens documentadas através de alguns exemplos de peças executadas para as diferentes indústrias.

  16. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism and other developmental disabilities: associations with ethnicity, child comorbid symptoms, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Burrows, Bethany; Bernstein, Leora; Hottinger, Kathryn; Lawson, Katharine; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2014-03-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine by children with autism and the association of its use with child comorbid symptoms and parental stress was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interviews. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. In this ethnically diverse sample, the use of complementary and alternative medicine was significantly higher for the autism group. In the autism group, use was significantly related to child's irritability, hyperactivity, food allergies, and parental stress; in the developmental disabilities group, there was no association with child comorbid symptoms or parental stress. The results contribute information to health care providers about families of children with autism who are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine.

  17. Complementary feeding patterns in the first year of life in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: time trends from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze time trends in complementary feeding practices among children under one year of age in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1998 to 2008. Based on comparable questions on food consumption in five surveys conducted in representative randomized samples of children in 1998 (n = 3,762, 2000 (n = 3,670, 2003 (n = 4,305, 2006 (n = 3,686, and 2008 (n = 2,621, 16 complementary feeding indicators were constructed. The percentage frequency of all indicators was estimated for each year of the study. Linear trend analyses were also conducted by means of multivariate regression models. All indicators of early complementary feeding decreased from 1998 to 2008. In the 6-11.9 month age group, there was a significant downward trend in the proportion of children receiving food with adequate consistency for their age, consumption of iron-rich foods, and overall adequacy of the diet. A significant upward trend in fruit consumption was observed. There was a decrease in the early complementary feeding, and generally a worsening of complementary feeding practices in children aged 6-11.9 months in Rio de Janeiro during the period studied.

  18. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine in radiation oncology. Survey of patients' attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, Sabrina; Kessel, Kerstin A.; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2017-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are gaining in importance, but objective data are mostly missing. However, in previous trials, methods such as acupuncture showed significant advantages compared to standard therapies. Thus, the aim was to evaluate most frequently used methods, their significance and the general acceptance amongst cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). A questionnaire of 18 questions based on the categorical classification released by the National Centre for Complementary and Integrative Health was developed. From April to September 2015, all patients undergoing RT at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Technical University of Munich, completed the survey. Changes in attitude towards CAM were evaluated using the questionnaire after RT during the first follow-up visit (n = 31). Of 634 patients, 333 answered the questionnaire (52.5%). Of all participants, 26.4% used CAM parallel to RT. Before RT, a total of 39.3% had already used complementary medicine. The most frequently applied methods during therapy were vitamins/minerals, food supplements, physiotherapy/manual medicine, and homeopathy. The majority (71.5%) did not use any complementary treatment, mostly stating that CAM was not offered to them (73.5%). The most common reasons for use were to improve the immune system (48%), to reduce side effects (43.8%), and to not miss an opportunity (37.8%). Treatment integrated into the individual therapy concept, e.g. regular acupuncture, would be used by 63.7% of RT patients. In comparison to other studies, usage of CAM parallel to RT in our department is considered to be low. Acceptance amongst patients is present, as treatment integrated into the individual oncology therapy would be used by about two-third of patients. (orig.) [de

  1. Modern features of complementary feeding and their efficiency in baby-led feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Duka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Baby-led feeding exists in the practice of pediatrics since 2002. But there are still no clear results on the effectiveness of its implementation and the impact on the health of young children. Particular attention is required to study the effectiveness of introducing complementary feeding. Materials and methods. We analyzed 245 questionnaires of infants with baby-led-feeding. In the questionnaires for mothers, questions were raised about the initiation of the introduction of complementary feeding, its types, the child’s reaction, with the assessment of physical development and the previous diseases. Results. Children with baby-led-feeding have a tendency to late introduction of complementary feeding (from 6 months. It turned out that until this age, the child receives only breast milk, which can’t satisfy the need for important constituent ingredients. They are necessary for the child at this age, and it leads to various metabolic disorders in the form of allergic di­seases, metabolic syndrome, anemia, osteoporosis and others. Particular concern was caused by the fact that children start receiving meat products too late, which naturally leads to the development of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, contrary to the current norms and regulations, we noticed frequent facts of self-consumption of the whole milk itself and fermented milk products made from it (kephir, yoghurt. Conclusions. Based on the study of this question, it was proved that the existing provisions on the introduction of complementary foods with baby-led-feeding require supervision and correction in accordance with the state of children’s health and the existing provisions of the World Health Organization.

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine in radiation oncology : Survey of patients' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettner, Sabrina; Kessel, Kerstin A; Combs, Stephanie E

    2017-05-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are gaining in importance, but objective data are mostly missing. However, in previous trials, methods such as acupuncture showed significant advantages compared to standard therapies. Thus, the aim was to evaluate most frequently used methods, their significance and the general acceptance amongst cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). A questionnaire of 18 questions based on the categorical classification released by the National Centre for Complementary and Integrative Health was developed. From April to September 2015, all patients undergoing RT at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Technical University of Munich, completed the survey. Changes in attitude towards CAM were evaluated using the questionnaire after RT during the first follow-up visit (n = 31). Of 634 patients, 333 answered the questionnaire (52.5%). Of all participants, 26.4% used CAM parallel to RT. Before RT, a total of 39.3% had already used complementary medicine. The most frequently applied methods during therapy were vitamins/minerals, food supplements, physiotherapy/manual medicine, and homeopathy. The majority (71.5%) did not use any complementary treatment, mostly stating that CAM was not offered to them (73.5%). The most common reasons for use were to improve the immune system (48%), to reduce side effects (43.8%), and to not miss an opportunity (37.8%). Treatment integrated into the individual therapy concept, e.g. regular acupuncture, would be used by 63.7% of RT patients. In comparison to other studies, usage of CAM parallel to RT in our department is considered to be low. Acceptance amongst patients is present, as treatment integrated into the individual oncology therapy would be used by about two-third of patients.

  3. Moral injury: A new challenge for complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S; Connery, April L; Bishop, Todd M; Bryan, Craig J; Drescher, Kent D; Currier, Joseph M; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-02-01

    Moral injury represents an emerging clinical construct recognized as a source of morbidity in current and former military personnel. Finding effective ways to support those affected by moral injury remains a challenge for both biomedical and complementary and alternative medicine. This paper introduces the concept of moral injury and suggests two complementary and alternative medicine, pastoral care and mindfulness, which may prove useful in supporting military personnel thought to be dealing with moral injury. Research strategies for developing an evidence-base for applying these, and other, complementary and alternative medicine modalities to moral injury are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Realization of a complementary medium using dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Fang, Anan; Jia, Ziyuan; Ji, Liyu; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-12-01

    By exploiting the scaling invariance of photonic band diagrams, a complementary photonic crystal slab structure is realized by stacking two uniformly scaled double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal slabs together. The space cancellation effect in complementary photonic crystals is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and microwave experiments. The refractive index dispersion of double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal is experimentally measured. Using pure dielectrics, our photonic crystal structure will be an ideal platform to explore various intriguing properties related to a complementary medium.

  5. Complementary bowtie aperture for localizing and enhancing optical magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Kinzel, Edward C.; Xu, Xianfan

    2011-08-01

    Nanoscale bowtie antenna and bowtie aperture antenna have been shown to generate strongly enhanced and localized electric fields below the diffraction limit in the optical frequency range. According to Babinet's principle, their complements will be efficient for concentrating and enhancing magnetic fields. In this Letter, we discuss the enhancement of magnetic field intensity of nanoscale complementary bowtie aperture as well as complementary bowtie aperture antenna, or diabolo nanoantenna. We show that the complementary bowtie antenna resonates at a smaller wavelength and thus is more suitable for applications near visible wavelengths. The near-field magnetic intensity can be further enhanced by the addition of groove structures that scatter surface plasmon.

  6. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  7. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  8. Nutrient Analysis of Indigenous Fortified Baby Weaning Foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Complementary food blends based on some cereals and legumes that are sold in. Plateau State, Nigeria were formulated for baby weaning foods and were analyzed. The cereals used included Zea mays (white corn), Pennisetum typhoides (millet) and. Digitaria exilis (acha). The legumes included Voandzeia ...

  9. Progress update: crop development of biofortified staple food crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past 15 years, biofortification, the process of breeding nutrients into food crops, has gained ample recognition as a cost-effective, complementary, feasible means of delivering micronutrients to populations that may have limited access to diverse diets, supplements, or commercially fortified foods. In 2008, a panel of ...

  10. Regional food culture and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on

  11. Effect of in-home fortification of complementary feeding on intellectual development of Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yu-Ying; Chang, Su-Ying

    2010-04-01

    To explore the effect of in-home fortification of complementary feeding on intellectual development of Chinese children aged below 24 months. One thousand and four hundred seventy eight children aged 4-12 months were recruited and divided into study groups (formula 1 group and formula 2 group) and control group. In two study groups, in addition to the usual complementary food, children were fed with a sachet of fortified food supplement each day. Protein and micronutrients were provided in formula 1 group. Formula 2 group had the same energy intake as the formula 1 group . In addition to measurement of physical growth and detection of hemoglobin level, Development Quotient (DQ) or Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was assessed. The DQ of children aged below 24 months was 97.2, 95.5, and 93.8 in formula 1 group, formula 2 group and control group, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P development of young children which could persist to 6 years of age. The critical time for correction of anemia could be under 18 months.

  12. Assessment of complementary feeding of Canadian infants: effects on microbiome & oxidative stress, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Wafaa; Azad, Meghan B; Hossain, Zakir; Azad, Elnaz; Jorgensen, Sarah; Castillo San Juan, Sandra; Cai, Chenxi; Khafipour, Ehsan; Beta, Trust; Roberts, L Jackson; Friel, James

    2017-02-14

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months followed by introduction of iron-rich complementary foods (CFs). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of different iron-rich CFs on infant gut inflammation and microbiota. Eighty-seven exclusively breastfed infants were randomly assigned to receive one of the following as their first CF: iron-fortified cereal (Cer), iron-fortified cereal with fruit (Cer + Fr), or meat (M). Urine and stool samples were collected to assess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, gut microbiota and inflammation. Fecal iron differed across feeding groups (p microbiota richness increased after introduction of M or Cer + Fr. Regardless of feeding group, Coriobacteriaceae were positively correlated with ROS and Staphylococcaceae were negatively correlated with calprotectin. Choice of first CF may influence gut inflammation and microbiota, potentially due to variations in iron absorption from different foods. Further research is warranted to fully characterize these associations and to establish implications for infant health. This study was registered in the ClinicalTrial.gov registry (Identifier No. NCT01790542 ). This study was registered in the ClinicalTrial.gov registry under the name "Assessment of Complementary Feeding of Canadian Infants" (Identifier No. NCT01790542 ) February 6, 2013.

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  14. Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches : What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches: What the Science Says Share: April 2014 Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, ... five randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of music-assisted relaxation for sleep quality in adults found ...

  15. The use of complementary and alternative therapies in childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... based on a descriptive survey from the western black sea region of Turkey ... Materials and Methods: The study, of cross-sectional design, was conducted with the ...

  16. A complementary model for medical subspecialty training in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research was to develop a business model to complement the current academic ... larger-scale potential public-private partnerships (PPPs). The model ... complementary system, which will benefit both the private and the public sectors.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangioppo, Sandra; Kalaci, Odion; Radhakrishnan, Arun; Fleischer, Erin; Itterman, Jennifer; Lyttle, Brian; Price, April; Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the overall prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use among children with cystic fibrosis, determine specific modalities used, predictors of use and subjective helpfulness or harm from individual modalities. Of 53 children attending the cystic fibrosis clinic in London, Ontario (100% recruitment), 79% had used complementary and alternative medicine. The most commonly used modalities were air purifiers, humidifiers, probiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. Family complementary and alternative medicine use was the only independent predictor of overall use. The majority of patients perceived benefit from specific modalities for cystic fibrosis symptoms. Given the high frequency and number of modalities used and lack of patient and disease characteristics predicting use, we recommend that health care providers should routinely ask about complementary and alternative medicine among all pediatric cystic fibrosis patients and assist patients in understanding the potential benefits and risks to make informed decisions about its use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ayla; Gözüm, Sebahat

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with arthritis, the types of complementary and alternative medicine used, pertinent socio-demographic factors associated with complementary and alternative medicine use and its perceived efficacy. Arthritis is a major health issue, and the use of complementary and alternative medicine among patients with arthritis is common. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from 250 patients with arthritis at the physiotherapy and immunology clinics Atatürk University Hospital in eastern Turkey between May-July 2005 using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The instrument included questions on socio-demographic information, disease specifics and complementary and alternative medicine usage. Seventy-six per cent of participants reported use of at least one form of complementary and alternative medicine in the previous year. Complementary and alternative medicine users and non-users were not significantly different in most socio-demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status and education level with the exception of economic status. We categorised treatment into six complementary and alternative medicine categories: 62.6% of patients used thermal therapies; 41.5% used oral herbal therapies; 40.5% used hot therapies; 32.6% used externally applied (skin) therapies; 28.4% used massage and 12.6% used cold therapies. All forms of complementary and alternative medicine except thermal and oral herbal therapies were perceived as very effective by more than half of study participants. Complementary and alternative medicine therapy is widely used by patients with arthritis and has perceived beneficial effects. It is important for nurses and other health care professionals to be knowledgeable about the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies when providing care to patients with arthritis because of

  20. 76 FR 6487 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Announcement of Workshop on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Announcement of Workshop on Clarifying Directions and Approaches to...: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the research [email protected] . Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was...

  1. 75 FR 52357 - Request for Comment: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Draft Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Draft Strategic Plan ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is developing its third... for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1998 with the mission of...

  2. 77 FR 31862 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Scientific Review, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd... for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; HCS Collaboratory Pragmatic Trials...

  3. Complementary Set Matrices Satisfying a Column Correlation Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Di; Spasojevic, Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of reducing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of transmitted signals, we consider a design of complementary set matrices whose column sequences satisfy a correlation constraint. The design algorithm recursively builds a collection of $2^{t+1}$ mutually orthogonal (MO) complementary set matrices starting from a companion pair of sequences. We relate correlation properties of column sequences to that of the companion pair and illustrate how to select an appropriate...

  4. Complementary Medicine Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery

    OpenAIRE

    Seraji; Vakilian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Half of the pregnant women suffer from the excruciating degrees of labor pain. Nowadays, however, the use of painkillers for decreasing labor pain due to their adverse effects on the mother and child is less common and attention has been shifted towards non-medical methods and complementary medicine such as message therapy, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, and herbal medicine. One of the branches of complementary medicine is hydrotherapy with herbal essences. Breathing techniques, on ...

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Emine; Işler, Ayşegül; Sarvan, Süreyya; Başer, Hayriye; Yeşilipek, Akif

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the types of complementary and alternative medicine use among children with thalassaemia as reported by parents and (2) describe sociodemographic and medical factors associated with the use of such treatments in families residing in southern Turkey. Thalassaemia is one of the most common human genetic diseases. Despite the therapeutic efforts, patients will encounter a variety of physical and psychological problems. Therefore, the use of complementary and alternative medicines among children thalassaemia is becoming increasingly popular. This is a descriptive study of complementary and alternative medicine. This study was conducted in the Hematology Outpatient Clinic at Akdeniz University Hospital and in the Thalassemia Centre at Ministry of Health Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, between January 2010-December 2010. Parents of 97 paediatric patients, among 125 parents who applied to the haematology outpatient clinic and thalassaemia centre between these dates, agreed to take part in the study with whom contact could be made were included. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. The proportion of parents who reported using one or more of the complementary and alternative medicine methods was 82·5%. Of these parents, 61·8% were using prayer/spiritual practice, 47·4% were using nutritional supplements and 35·1% were using animal materials. It was determined that a significant portion of the parents using complementary and alternative medicine use it to treat their children's health problems, they were informed about complementary and alternative medicine by their paediatricians and family elders, and they have discussed the use of complementary and alternative medicine with healthcare professionals. To sustain medical treatment and prognosis of thalassaemia, it is important for nurses to consult with their patients and parents regarding the use and potential risks of some complementary

  6. Supramolecular Assembly of Complementary Cyanine Salt J-Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhong’ an; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Jang, Sei-Hum; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of structure–property relationships in cyanine dyes is critical for their design and application. Anionic and cationic cyanines can be organized into complementary cyanine salts, offering potential building blocks to modulate their intra/intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate how the structures of these complementary salts can be tuned to achieve highly ordered J-type supramolecular aggregate structures of heptamethine dyes in crystalline solids.

  7. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  8. Supramolecular Assembly of Complementary Cyanine Salt J-Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhong’an

    2015-09-09

    An understanding of structure–property relationships in cyanine dyes is critical for their design and application. Anionic and cationic cyanines can be organized into complementary cyanine salts, offering potential building blocks to modulate their intra/intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate how the structures of these complementary salts can be tuned to achieve highly ordered J-type supramolecular aggregate structures of heptamethine dyes in crystalline solids.

  9. Chinese Cyber Espionage: A Complementary Method to Aid PLA Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    COMPLEMENTARY METHOD TO AID PLA MODERNIZATION by Jamie M. Ellis December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Wade L. Huntley Second Reader: Christopher R. Twomey THIS...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHINESE CYBER ESPIONAGE: A COMPLEMENTARY METHOD TO AID PLA MODERNIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jamie M...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In 2013, Mandiant published a report linking one People’s Liberation Army ( PLA ) unit to the

  10. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  11. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim W Faber

    Full Text Available Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one's right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective. Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands. Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., 'hand-shaking' irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances.

  12. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Tim W; van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one's right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., 'hand-shaking') irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances.

  13. Food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  14. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  15. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  17. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  18. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  20. [Alternative and complementary medicine from the primary care physician's viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soós, Sándor Árpád; Eőry, Ajándék; Eőry, Ajándok; Harsányi, László; Kalabay, László

    2015-07-12

    The patients initiate the use of complementary and alternative medicine and this often remains hidden from their primary care physician. To explore general practitioners' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine, and study the need and appropriate forms of education, as well as ask their opinion on integration of alternative medicine into mainstream medicine. A voluntary anonymous questionnaire was used on two conferences for general practitioners organized by the Family Medicine Department of Semmelweis University. Complementary and alternative medicine was defined by the definition of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and certified modalities were all listed. 194 general practitioners answered the questionnaire (39.8% response rate). 14% of the responders had licence in at least one of the complementary and alternative therapies, 45% used complementary and alternative therapy in their family in case of illness. It was the opinion of the majority (91.8%) that it was necessary to be familiar with every method used by their patients, however, 82.5% claimed not to have enough knowledge in complementary medicine. Graduate and postgraduate education in the field was thought to be necessary by 86% of the responders; increased odds for commitment in personal education was found among female general practitioners, less than 20 years professional experience and personal experience of alternative medicine. These data suggest that general practitioners would like to know more about complementary and alternative medicine modalities used by their patients. They consider education of medical professionals necessary and a special group is willing to undergo further education in the field.