WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundhogs marmota monax

  1. Transcriptome Analysis and Comparison of Marmota monax and Marmota himalayana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Liu

    Full Text Available The Eastern woodchuck (Marmota monax is a classical animal model for studying hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in humans. Recently, we found that Marmota himalayana, an Asian animal species closely related to Marmota monax, is susceptible to woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV infection and can be used as a new mammalian model for HBV infection. However, the lack of genomic sequence information of both Marmota models strongly limited their application breadth and depth. To address this major obstacle of the Marmota models, we utilized Illumina RNA-Seq technology to sequence the cDNA libraries of liver and spleen samples of two Marmota monax and four Marmota himalayana. In total, over 13 billion nucleotide bases were sequenced and approximately 1.5 billion clean reads were obtained. Following assembly, 106,496 consensus sequences of Marmota monax and 78,483 consensus sequences of Marmota himalayana were detected. For functional annotation, in total 73,603 Unigenes of Marmota monax and 78,483 Unigenes of Marmota himalayana were identified using different databases (NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, GO. The Unigenes were aligned by blastx to protein databases to decide the coding DNA sequences (CDS and in total 41,247 CDS of Marmota monax and 34,033 CDS of Marmota himalayana were predicted. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the simple sequence repeats (SSRs were also analyzed for all Unigenes obtained. Moreover, a large-scale transcriptome comparison was performed and revealed a high similarity in transcriptome sequences between the two marmota species. Our study provides an extensive amount of novel sequence information for Marmota monax and Marmota himalayana. This information may serve as a valuable genomics resource for further molecular, developmental and comparative evolutionary studies, as well as for the identification and characterization of functional genes that are involved in WHV infection and HCC

  2. The Skeletal Biology of Hibernating Woodchucks (Marmota monax)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H.

    Long periods of inactivity in most mammals lead to significant bone loss that may not be completely recovered during an individual's lifetime regardless of future activity. Extended bouts of inactivity are the norm for hibernating mammals. It remains largely unknown, however, how these animals avoid adversely affecting bone, their quality, and ultimately survival given the challenges posed to their skeletons by inactivity and nutritional deprivation during hibernation. The primary goal of this project was to identify the physiological mechanisms regulating bone density, area and strength during extended periods of annual inactivity in hibernating woodchucks (Marmota monax). The overall hypothesis that bone integrity is unaffected by several months of inactivity during hibernation in woodchucks was tested across multiple levels of biological function. To gain a holistic assessment of seasonal bone integrity, the locomotor behavior and estimated stresses acting on woodchuck bones were investigated in conjunction with computed tomography scans and three-point bending tests to determine bone density, geometry, and mechanical properties of the long bones throughout the year. In addition, serum protein expression was examined to ascertain bone resorption and formation processes indicative of overall annual skeletal health. It was determined that woodchucks avoid significant changes in gait preference, but experience a decrease in bending stresses acting on distal limb bones following hibernation. Computed tomography scans indicated that bone mass, distribution, and trabecular structure are maintained in these animals throughout the year. Surprisingly, cortical density increased significantly posthibernation. Furthermore, three-point bending tests revealed that although less stiff, woodchuck femora were just as tough during the hibernation season, unlike brittle bones associated with osteoporosis. Finally, bone serum markers suggested a net maintenance of bone resorption

  3. Experimental infection of Marmota monax with a novel hepatitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Mei; Li, Li-Li; Xie, Guang-Cheng; Zhang, Cui-Yuan; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2018-05-01

    To establish an animal model for the newly identified Marmota Himalayana hepatovirus, MHHAV, so as to develop a better understanding of the infection of hepatitis A viruses. Five experimental woodchucks (Marmota monax) were inoculated intravenously with the purified MHHAV from wild woodchuck feces. One animal injected with PBS was defined as a control. Feces and blood were routinely collected. After the animals were subjected to necropsy, different tissues were collected. The presence of viral RNA and negative sense viral RNA was analyzed in all the samples and histopathological and in situ hybridization analysis was performed for the tissues. MHHAV infection caused fever but no severe symptoms or death. Virus was shed in feces beginning at 2 dpi, and MHHAV RNA persisted in feces for ~2 months, with a biphasic increase, and in blood for ~30 days. Viral RNA was detected in all the tissues, with high levels in the liver and spleen. Negative-strand viral RNA was detected only in the liver. Furthermore, the animals showed histological signs of hepatitis at 45 dpi. MHHAV can infect M. monax and is associated with hepatic disease. Therefore, this animal can be used as a model of HAV pathogenesis and to evaluate antiviral and anticancer therapeutics.

  4. Groundhog Day for Medical Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Alex John

    2018-05-01

    Following a boom in investment and overinflated expectations in the 1980s, artificial intelligence entered a period of retrenchment known as the "AI winter." With advances in the field of machine learning and the availability of large datasets for training various types of artificial neural networks, AI is in another cycle of halcyon days. Although medicine is particularly recalcitrant to change, applications of AI in health care have professionals in fields like radiology worried about the future of their careers and have the public tittering about the prospect of soulless machines making life-and-death decisions. Medicine thus appears to be at an inflection point-a kind of Groundhog Day on which either AI will bring a springtime of improved diagnostic and predictive practices or the shadow of public and professional fear will lead to six more metaphorical weeks of winter in medical AI. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  5. "Groundhog Day, Deja Vu," and the Myth of the Eternal Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeltz, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Reveals that through the use of the movie "Groundhog Day," students in humanities courses can grasp Friedrich Nietzsche's myth of eternal recurrence; the myth addresses the question of what if everything that occurred in one's life occurred again just as it happened before. Discusses the similarities between Nietzsche's myth and the…

  6. Alimentazione di Marmota marmota in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of Marmota marmota in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (Poa, Phleum, Compositae (Achillea, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (Anthyllis, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (Prunella, Stachys formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  7. Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  8. Streptococcus himalayensis sp. nov., isolated from the respiratory tract of Marmota himalayana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lina; Lu, Shan; Lai, Xin-He; Hu, Shoukui; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Gui; Yang, Jing; Jin, Dong; Wang, Yi; Lan, Ruiting; Lu, Gang; Xie, Yingping; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Five strains of Gram-positive-staining, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped, chain-forming organisms isolated separately from the respiratory tracts of five Marmota himalayana animals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China were subjected to phenotypic and molecular taxonomic analyses. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these singular organisms represent a new member of the genus Streptococcus, being phylogenetically closest to Streptococcus marmotae DSM 101995T (98.4 % similarity). The groEL, sodA and rpoB sequence analysis showed interspecies similarity values between HTS2T and Streptococcus. marmotae DSM 101995T, its closest phylogenetic relative based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, of 98.2, 78.8 and 93.7 %, respectively. A whole-genome phylogenetic tree built from 82 core genes of genomes from 16 species of the genus Streptococcus validated that HTS2T forms a distinct subline and exhibits specific phylogenetic affinity with S. marmotae. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization of HTS2T showed an estimated DNA reassociation value of 40.5 % with Streptococcus. marmotae DSM 101995T. On the basis of their phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the five isolates be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus himalayensis sp. nov. The type strain is HTS2T (=DSM 101997T=CGMCC 1.15533T). The genome of Streptococcus himalayensis sp. nov. strain HTS2T contains 2195 genes with a size of 2 275 471 bp and a mean DNA G+C content of 41.3 mol%.

  9. Hibernation metabolism of mammalia (marmota menzeri kaschk) and reptiles (testudo horsfieldi gray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibarova, S.

    2001-01-01

    It has been revealed that, upon hypnosis resulting from the winter hibernation, the content of glucose in the blood of mammals (Marmota menzberi Kaschk.) and reptiles( Testudo horsfieldi Gray) has decreased whereas the components of the lipid exchange and the activity of the enzyme alanin and aspartate transaminase have increased, the changes observed being more pronounced in the tortoise than in marmote. On a level of the intact organism in vitro, over the 30 fold and 100 fold decrease of gas oxygen exchange takes place in marmots and tortoises, respectively upon the body temperature decreases as low as 4-5 degree Celsius as a result of winter hibernation. At a mitochondrial level, a decrease in the bio energetic parameters by 4-6 times with a prevailing inhibition of succinate oxidation was recorded in marmots and by 3 times in tortoises in the state of hypo biosis, which witnesses deep restructuring of the enzymatic metabolic characteristics of the tissue energetics under these conditions. More significant inhibition of the respiratory activity in the mitochondria of the liver, kidney and heart against the other organs was reported in ground squirrel when in the state of natural winter sleeping. Upon the temperature drop in vitro by 37,25,16 degree Celsius the respiratory activity of the liver mitochondria of active rodents was recorded to decrease to a significantly smaller degrees ( by 4 times ) than in those of the reptiles ( by 12 times ), thus witnessing a smaller temperature dependence of the subcellular energetics of the warm blooded animals and the necessity of functioning of special mechanism decreasing mitochondrial respiration in this group as compared with the cold blooded animals while in hypo biosis

  10. Fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus and orthopoxvirus in a group of Asian marmots (Marmota caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Sattler, U; Pilo, P; Waldvogel, A S

    2013-09-01

    A fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) and orthopoxvirus (OPXV) in Asian marmots (Marmota caudata) is reported in this article. A total of 7 Asian marmots from a small zoological garden in Switzerland were found dead in hibernation during a routine check in the winter of 2011. The marmots died in February 2011. No clinical signs of disease were observed at any time. The viruses were detected in all individuals for which the tissues were available (n = 3). Detection of the viruses was performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The most consistent gross lesion was a neck and thorax edema. A necrotizing pharyngitis and a multifocal necrotizing pneumonia were observed histologically. Numerous large intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions were seen in the epithelial cells of the pharynx, of the airways, and in the skin keratinocytes. Brain lesions were limited to mild multifocal gliosis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the marmot CDV strain was closely related to the clusters of CDVs detected in Switzerland in wild carnivores during a local outbreak in 2002 and the 2009-2010 nationwide epidemic, suggesting a spillover of this virus from wildlife. The OPXV was most closely related to a strain of cowpoxvirus, a poxvirus species considered endemic in Europe. This is the first reported instance of CDV infection in a rodent species and of a combined CDV and OPXV infection.

  11. Responses of high-elevation herbaceous plant assemblages to low glacial CO₂ concentrations revealed by fossil marmot (Marmota) teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S; Ward, Joy K; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric CO2 cycles of the Quaternary likely imposed major constraints on the physiology and growth of C3 plants worldwide. However, the measured record of this remains both geographically and taxonomically sparse. We present the first reconstruction of physiological responses in a late Quaternary high-elevation herbaceous plant community from the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA. We used a novel proxy-fossilized tooth enamel of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)-which we developed using detailed isotopic analysis of modern individuals. Calculated C isotopic discrimination (Δ) of alpine plants was nearly 2 ‰ lower prior to the Last Glacial Maximum than at present, a response almost identical to that of nonherbaceous taxa from lower elevations. However, initial shifts in Δ aligned most closely with the onset of the late Pleistocene bipolar temperature "seesaw" rather than CO2 increase, indicating unique limitations on glacial-age high-elevation plants may have existed due to both low temperatures and low CO2. Further development of system-specific faunal proxies can help to clarify this and other plant- and ecosystem-level responses to past environmental change.

  12. On the status of the Long-tailed Marmot Marmota caudata (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in Kargil, Ladakh (Indian Trans-Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of marmots occur in India, the Himalayan Marmot Marmota himalayana and the Long-tailed Marmot or Golden Marmot Marmota caudata.  Marmots constitute part of the diet of some globally endangered carnivores in the Trans-Himalaya, yet studies on marmots in India are scanty.  Besides, the status of the Long-tailed Marmot is still unknown in India.  Considering this, a survey was carried out in Rangdum Valley, Kargil between May and July 2011 to collect baseline information on the Long-tailed Marmot.  Trails and roads were explored through walk and slow moving vehicle, respectively.  The Long-tailed Marmot was found to have a density of 14.31±2.10 per sq.km. and an encounter rate of 2.86±0.42 per km.  Most of the observations of Long-tailed Marmot were in hilly areas (77.7%, lower slope (48.8% and herbaceous meadow (38.0%.  The current information is expected to bring concern towards this lesser known species in India.  

  13. Niche modeling predictions of the potential distribution of Marmota himalayana, the host animal of plague in Yushu County of Qinghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the earthquake on 14, April 2010 at Yushu in China, a plague epidemic hosted by Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana became a major public health concern during the reconstruction period. A rapid assessment of the distribution of Himalayan marmot in the area was urgent. The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between environmental factors and the distribution of burrow systems of the marmot and to predict the distribution of marmots. Methods Two types of marmot burrows (hibernation and temporary in Yushu County were investigated from June to September in 2011. The location of every burrow was recorded with a global positioning system receiver. An ecological niche model was used to determine the relationship between the burrow occurrence data and environmental variables, such as land surface temperature (LST in winter and summer, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI in winter and summer, elevation, and soil type. The predictive accuracies of the models were assessed by the area under the curve of the receiving operator curve. Results The models for hibernation and temporary burrows both performed well. The contribution orders of the variables were LST in winter and soil type, NDVI in winter and elevation for the hibernation burrow model, and LST in summer, NDVI in summer, soil type and elevation in the temporary burrow model. There were non-linear relationships between the probability of burrow presence and LST, NDVI and elevation. LST of 14 and 23 °C, NDVI of 0.22 and 0.60, and 4100 m were inflection points. A substantially higher probability of burrow presence was observed in swamp soil and dark felty soil than in other soil types. The potential area for hibernation burrows was 5696 km2 (37.7 % of Yushu County, and the area for temporary burrows was 7711 km2 (51.0 % of Yushu County. Conclusions The results suggested that marmots preferred warm areas with relatively low altitudes and good

  14. Stable isotopes in yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) fossils reveal environmental stability in the late Quaternary of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Linda M.; Meltzer, David J.; Emslie, Steven D.; Tuross, Noreen

    2015-03-01

    High elevation plant and animal communities are considered extremely sensitive to environmental change. We investigated an exceptional fossil record of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) specimens that was recovered from Cement Creek Cave (elev. 2860 m) and ranged in age from radiocarbon background circa 49.8 cal ka BP to ~ 1 cal ka BP. We coupled isotopic and radiocarbon measurements (δ18O, δD, δ15N, δ13C, and 14C) of bone collagen from individually-AMS dated specimens of marmots to assess ecological responses by this species to environmental change over time in a high elevation basin in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. We find little change in all four isotope ratios over time, demonstrating considerable environmental stability during periods when the marmots were present. The stable ecology and the apparent persistence of the small mammal community in the cave fauna throughout the late Quaternary are in marked contrast to the changes that occurred in the large mammal community, including local extirpation and extinction, at the end of the Pleistocene.

  15. Insights into the evolution of pathogenicity of Escherichia coli from genomic analysis of intestinal E. coli of Marmota himalayana in Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Jin, Dong; Wu, Shusheng; Yang, Jing; Lan, Ruiting; Bai, Xiangning; Liu, Sha; Meng, Qiong; Yuan, Xuejiao; Zhou, Juan; Pu, Ji; Chen, Qiang; Dai, Hang; Hu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Yanwen; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo

    2016-12-07

    Escherichia coli is both of a widespread harmless gut commensal and a versatile pathogen of humans. Domestic animals are a well-known reservoir for pathogenic E. coli. However, studies of E. coli populations from wild animals that have been separated from human activities had been very limited. Here we obtained 580 isolates from intestinal contents of 116 wild Marmot Marmota himalayana from Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, with five isolates per animal. We selected 125 (hereinafter referred to as strains) from the 580 isolates for genome sequencing, based on unique pulse field gel electrophoresis patterns and at least one isolate per animal. Whole genome sequence analysis revealed that all 125 strains carried at least one and the majority (79.2%) carried multiple virulence genes based on the analysis of 22 selected virulence genes. In particular, the majority of the strains carried virulence genes from different pathovars as potential 'hybrid pathogens'. The alleles of eight virulence genes from the Marmot E. coli were found to have diverged earlier than all known alleles from human and other animal E. coli. Phylogenetic analysis of the 125 Marmot E. coli genomes and 355 genomes selected from 1622 human and other E. coli strains identified two new phylogroups, G and H, both of which diverged earlier than the other phylogroups. Eight of the 12 well-known pathogenic E. coli lineages were found to share a most recent common ancestor with one or more Marmot E. coli strains. Our results suggested that the intestinal E. coli of the Marmots contained a diverse virulence gene pool and is potentially pathogenic to humans. These findings provided a new understanding of the evolutionary origin of pathogenic E. coli.

  16. Environmental Statement, Oswego Steam Station, Unit Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-29

    Tamias striatus) muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) woodchuck (Marmota monax) Rept ile s eastern painted turtle (Chrysemys pi~cta) Amphibians grass frog (Rana...Terrestrial Ecoloqy The analysis presented on terrestrial ecology is somewhat nebulous due to the fact that the location of the generating facility is in...The analysis presented on terrestrial ecology is somewhat nebulous due to the - fact that the location of the generating facility is in an industrial

  17. Nothing left to learn: translation and the Groundhog Day of bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Izak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the existing theorizing of translation as a creative disruption in both occupational and semantic terms, the current study explores it critically in the experiential framework of professional translators and as a meaning-making process. Acknowledging the role of translation in creating dialogic and radical climates for learning, the article proposes to explore the other side of this relationship by studying how the limiting of space for translation delimits the possibilities for meanin...

  18. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of fecal bacterial communities of marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris latirostris) in High Tatras (Slovakia) and their population fragmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečný, Jan; Novotný, M.; Kmeť, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2004), s. 35-36 ISSN 1210-3209 Grant - others:Science and Technology Assistance Agency(SK) APVT-20-026102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : marmot * DGGE * Tatras Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  19. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized.

  20. Lance and Leana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Kathy

    1992-01-01

    "Lance" and "Leana" are two posterboard groundhog characters used in a language experience program with elementary students with mild disabilities. The activity provides an opportunity for students to brainstorm, organize their thoughts, and make complete sentences. Suggestions for construction, use, and adaptations are offered. (DB)

  1. What's Happening in February?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Ron; And Others

    Brief information is given on 12 February events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Groundhog Day; Candlemas; St. Valentine's Day; Mardi Gras; Ash Wednesday; Black History; and the birthdays of Thomas Alva Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Julia de Burgos, Luis Munoz Marin, and George Washington. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet…

  2. UTILIZAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO POR ABSORÇÃO PARA FINS GERENCIAIS

    OpenAIRE

    César Augusto Tibúrcio Silva

    2009-01-01

    O urso grizzly gasta o outono a caçar e comer marmotas (McGee, 294). Para tanto, ele move grandes e profundas pedras. Considerando em termos globais, este trabalho do urso, quando comparado com o seu tamanho e o da marmota, leva à conclusão de que o urso desperdiça tempo e energia. Como o inverno é geralmente longo e rigoroso, esta dedução pode ser precipitada. O urso talvez esteja praticando esporte, divertindo-se ou exercitando-se ou talvez variando sua dieta. Ou ainda tudo isto em conjun-t...

  3. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    the infectivity of infectious clones of HCV without chimpanzees. Chimpanzees became infected when RNA transcripts from molecular clones were inoculated directly into the liver. The infection generated by such transfection did not differ significantly from that observed in animals infected intravenously with wild-type HCV. It furthermore permits true homologous challenge in studies of protective immunity and in testing the efficacy of vaccine candidates.

    Finally, this in vivo transfection system has made it possible to test for the first time the importance of genetic elements for HCV infectivity.

    Although chimpanzees are the only animals fully permissive for HBV infection, their use for research purpose is severely limited by the high costs and strong ethical constrains. The only alternative source of HBV-permissive hepatocytes is the Asian tree shrew Tupaia belangeri. Though experimental infection of these squirrel-like mammals, phylogenetically related to primates, results only in a mild, transient replication, primary hepatocytes isolated from T. belangeri turned out to be a reliable tool for in vitro HBV infection experiments.

    Along with invaluable infection studies in chimpanzees, avian and mammalian HBV-related viruses continue to offer ample opportunities for studies in naturally occurring hosts. In general, most of our progresses in hepatitis B virus research are based on infection studies with two HBV-related animal viruses: the woodchuck HBV (WHV, which infects the Eastern American woodchuck (Marmota monax, and the duck HBV (DHBV, which infects Peking ducks. Both animal models have been essential for understanding various steps of viral life-cycle and factors involved in establishment of virus

  4. Lähme, naised / Tiina Kuuler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuler, Tiina, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Muusikasündmustest: "Flamenkofantaasiad" 2. mail Jõhvi kontserdimajas, "Frank Sinatra gala" 6. mail Vanemuise kontserdisaalis, 7. mail Pärnu kontserdimajas ja 9. mail Tallinna Linnahallis, Brides in Bloom 2. mail Tallinnas Rock Cafes, Demis Roussos 6. mail Saku Suurhallis, Vaiko Epilk ja Eliit heliplaadi "3: Kosmoseodüsseia" esitluskontsert 8. mail Rock Cafés, Chalice'i ja Jürmo Eespere trio kontserdist 6. mail Estonia Talveaias, Ultima Thule, Evergreen 86, Groundhog Day rokk-kontserdil 2. mail Tartus Vabaduse puiesteel

  5. Bulk monitoring and segregation of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddow, H.; Adsley, I.; Pearman, I.; Sweeney, A.; Davies, M., E-mail: helen.beddow@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Several sites in the UK are contaminated by radioactive legacy wastes. These include; radium luminising sites and more recently the oil, and (potentially) fracking industries; sites contaminated from thorium gas mantle factories; old nuclear research sites; nuclear power sites, and the Sellafield reprocessing site. Nuvia has developed a suite of technologies to map the location of and to recover and process wastes during remedial operations. The main method for delineating contaminated areas in-situ is by use of the Groundhog system, whilst bulk monitoring methods employ the Gamma Excavation Monitor, the High Resolution Assay Monitor, and the Conveyor Active Particle System. (author)

  6. Bulk monitoring and segregation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddow, H.; Adsley, I.; Pearman, I.; Sweeney, A.; Davies, M.

    2014-01-01

    Several sites in the UK are contaminated by radioactive legacy wastes. These include; radium luminising sites and more recently the oil, and (potentially) fracking industries; sites contaminated from thorium gas mantle factories; old nuclear research sites; nuclear power sites, and the Sellafield reprocessing site. Nuvia has developed a suite of technologies to map the location of and to recover and process wastes during remedial operations. The main method for delineating contaminated areas in-situ is by use of the Groundhog system, whilst bulk monitoring methods employ the Gamma Excavation Monitor, the High Resolution Assay Monitor, and the Conveyor Active Particle System. (author)

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for Republic of Singapore Air Force F-15SG Beddown at Mountain Home AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Bighorn Sheep, a BLM sensitive species. Two herds of California bighorn sheep occur in the area: the Owyhee River herd and the Bruneau/Jarbidge...Rivers herd . The Owyhee herd range includes portions of the East and South Forks of the Owyhee River, as well as Battle, Deep, and Dickshooter Creeks...Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 12 12 North American Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) 1 1 Yellow-bellied Marmot (Marmota flaviventris) 1 1

  8. Once upon an algorithm how stories explain computing

    CERN Document Server

    Erwig, Martin

    2017-01-01

    How Hansel and Gretel, Sherlock Holmes, the movie Groundhog Day, Harry Potter, and other familiar stories illustrate the concepts of computing. Picture a computer scientist, staring at a screen and clicking away frantically on a keyboard, hacking into a system, or perhaps developing an app. Now delete that picture. In Once Upon an Algorithm, Martin Erwig explains computation as something that takes place beyond electronic computers, and computer science as the study of systematic problem solving. Erwig points out that many daily activities involve problem solving. Getting up in the morning, for example: You get up, take a shower, get dressed, eat breakfast. This simple daily routine solves a recurring problem through a series of well-defined steps. In computer science, such a routine is called an algorithm. Erwig illustrates a series of concepts in computing with examples from daily life and familiar stories. Hansel and Gretel, for example, execute an algorithm to get home from the forest. The movie Groundho...

  9. Stars on Local Time: A Personal Almanac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb-Roberts, M.

    2016-01-01

    First presented at INSAP VIII, the artwork A Personal Almanac is my interpretation of the familiar seasons-of-life allegory. The booklet's eight pairs of seasonal pages— spring equinox through the cross-quarter Groundhog Day—portray a life in the decades from the 1940s to the 2010s under the stars of rural Georgia, France, Miami, West Africa and the other places I have lived. A Personal Almanac is included in the art book A Durable Tale, the illustrated story of my thirty-year search in the Southeast United States and in West Africa for living memories of old star almanacs. In that odyssey I uncovered some very deep roots for an oral literature of the African desert, the nomadic bard's star story that I believe inspired creation of the first nine tablets of the standard version Babylonian Gilgamesh.

  10. UTILIZAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO POR ABSORÇÃO PARA FINS GERENCIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Tibúrcio Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O urso grizzly gasta o outono a caçar e comer marmotas (McGee, 294. Para tanto, ele move grandes e profundas pedras. Considerando em termos globais, este trabalho do urso, quando comparado com o seu tamanho e o da marmota, leva à conclusão de que o urso desperdiça tempo e energia. Como o inverno é geralmente longo e rigoroso, esta dedução pode ser precipitada. O urso talvez esteja praticando esporte, divertindo-se ou exercitando-se ou talvez variando sua dieta. Ou ainda tudo isto em conjun-to. Provavelmente, a energia obtida em decorrência da ingestão da marmota seja superior aos custos da caça. O presente texto revela como o custeio por absorção pode ser utilizado para fins gerenciais. Apresenta, inicialmente, discus-são acerca da não utilização do custeio por absorção com a referida finalidade, em razão de promover distorções nas decisões devido à arbitrariedade dos rateios e de incentivar a superprodu-ção, aspecto enfatizado pela bibliografia da área de contabilidade gerencial. Por fim, demonstra que tal sistema de custeio pode ser um meio de implantação de certas estratégias empresariais e um substituto para mensuração das denominadas externalidades. (Custeio por Absorção – Contabilidade Gerencial

  11. Sex-specific determinants of fitness in a social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition.

  12. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. [Origin of the plague microbe Yersinia pestis: structure of the process of speciation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the plague microbe Yersinia pestis are considered in the context of propositions of modern Darwinism. It was shown that the plague pathogen diverged from the pseudotuberculous microbe Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1b in the mountain steppe landscapes of Central Asia in the Sartan: 22000-15000 years ago. Speciation occurred in the tarbagan (Marmota sibirica)--flea (Oropsylla silantiewi) parasitic system. The structure of the speciation process included six stages: isolation, genetic drift, enhancement of intrapopulational polymorphism, the beginning of pesticin synthesis (genetic conflict and emergence of hiatus), specialization (stabilization of characteristics), and adaptive irradiation (transformation of the monotypic species Y. pestis tarbagani into a polytypic species). The scenario opens up wide prospects for construction of the molecular phylogeny of the plague microbe Y. pestis and for investigation of the biochemical and molecular-genetic aspects of "Darwinian" evolution of pathogens from many other nature-focal infections.

  14. [Macro- and microevolution as related to the problem of origin and global expansion of the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V; Suntsova, N I

    2008-01-01

    The ratio of macro- and microevolutionary processes is considered with reference to the ecological scenario of the origin of the plague pathogen and its subsequent natural and anthropogenic global expansion. The macroevolutionary transformation of the ancestral pseudotuberculosis microbe clone into the initial plague microbe Yersinia pestis tarbagani occurred in Central Asia at the end of the Late Pleistocene by a "vertical" Darwinian way in an inadaptive heterothermal continual intermediate environment--the Mongolian marmot Marmota sibirica-flea Oropsylla silantiewi system--via a sequence of unstable and currently extinct intermediate forms. Its natural geographic expansion on the "oil spot" principle in the postglacial time led to the microevolutionary formation of 20-30 hostal subspecies circulating in populations of the background species of burrowing rodents and pikas in arid areas of Eurasia. The intercontinental spread of the "marmot" and "rat" pathogen subspecies in the past few centuries has been exclusively anthropogenic, with the involvement of synanthropic (ship) rats.

  15. The interactive potential of post-modern film narrative - Frequency, Order and Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sena Caires

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A considerable number of contemporary films are now using narrative models that allow several adaptations on digital and interactive operating systems. This trend is seen in films such as Memento by Christopher Nolan (2000, Irréversible by Gaspar Noé (2002 and Smoking / No Smoking by Alain Resnais (1993, concerning the chronological organization of their narrative parts – here it is a question of order. Or in films such as Elephant by Gus Van Sant (2003, Groundhog Day by Harold Ramis, 1993 and Rashômon by Akira Kurosawa (1950, for the diegetic repetition – a question of frequency. Or even, in films such as Magnolia by Paul Thomas Anderson (1999 and Short Cuts by Robert Altman, 1993 which use the idea of expansion or compression of the narrative – a question of simultaneity. To change the accessibility of the cinematographic experience and to constantly re-evaluate the way in which the narrative tool is used, is from now on considered the interactive potential of the contemporary film narrative.

  16. Remediation of the site of a former active handling building at UKAEA- Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, Jack; Brown, Nick; Cornell, Rowland; Jessop, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building, A59 at Winfrith, Dorset, United Kingdom (UK) under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, (UKAEA). The building contained two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements and other supporting facilities which have all been decontaminated ready to permit building demolition. The demolition of the building structure and the removal of one cave line was completed during 2006 and the second cave line was demolished by March 2007. The remaining operations to be completed concern removal of the building slab and remediation of underlying soils to the final end point, free for unrestricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory control. Within the building base slab there are a range of contaminated items including secondary drain pipes, filter pits, storage hole liners and ventilation ducts which all have to be recovered for disposal along with around 4,000 m 3 of surrounding concrete. In order to characterise the slab before its removal, supporting information has been obtained from site investigation work including a collimated low resolution, high sensitivity gamma survey using the GroundhogTM system of the foundation slab and the recovery and analysis of 27 cores obtained by drilling through the slab into the underlying soil. During removal of the slab it will be necessary to employ a variety of monitoring techniques to locate and remove the contaminated sections and then expose and monitor the underlying soil for evidence of any residual radioactivity. (authors)

  17. [Analysis on the results of etiology and serology of plague in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonghai; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Aiping; Wei, Rongjie; Wei, Baiqing; Wang, Zuyun

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the results of etiology and serology of plague among human and infected animals in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010. Thirty-seven cases of human infected with plague, 53 541 different animal samples, 5 685 sets of vector insects flea and 49 039 different animal serum samples were obtained between 2001 and 2010. A total of 7 811 samples of serum from healthy farmers and herdsmen in 14 counties in Qinghai from 2005 to 2007 were collected. Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) were detected in visceral and secretions from human, infected animals and vector insects, respectively. Plague antigen was detected by reverse indirect hemagglutination assay (RIHA) in those samples. Indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) was used to test plague FI antibody in serum of human and infected animals. 37 human plague cases were confirmed, 21 strains of plague Y. pestis were isolated from human cases and 14 positive were detected out. 133 of 7 811 samples of human serum were IHA positive, with the positive rate at 1.7%. A total of 146 strains of plague were isolated from infected animals and vector insects, 99 out of which were from infected animals, with a ratio of Marmota himalayan at 72.7% (72/99) and the other 47 were from vector insects, with a ratio of callopsylla solaris at 68.1% (32/47). The number of IHA and PIHA positive were 300 and 10, respectively. A total of 3 animals and 3 insects species were identified as new epidemic hosts for plague. The natural plague focus of Microtus fuscus was discovered and confirmed and coexisted with natural focus of Marmota himalayan in Chengduo county, Yushu prefecture. The epidemic situation of plague is distributed mainly in Haixi, Yushu and Hainan prefectures. From 2001 to 2010, animal infected with plague was detected in successive years and human plague was very common in Qinghai. New infected animals and vector insects species and new epidemic areas were confirmed, hence the trend of plague prevalence for humans and animals is very

  18. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  19. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun

    2014-07-10

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Older mothers follow conservative strategies under predator pressure: the adaptive role of maternal glucocorticoids in yellow-bellied marmots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclús, Raquel; Tiulim, Justin; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2011-11-01

    When the maternal environment is a good predictor of the offspring environment, maternal glucocorticoid (GC) levels might serve to pre-program offspring to express certain phenotypes or life-history characteristics that will increase their fitness. We conducted a field study to assess the effects of naturally occurring maternal GC levels on their offspring in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) subjected to different predator pressures. Maternal fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCM) were positively correlated with predator pressure. Predators had both direct and indirect effects on pups. We found that older mothers with higher FCM levels had smaller and female-biased litters. Moreover, sons from older mothers with high FCM levels dispersed significantly more than those from older mothers with low FCM levels, whereas the opposite pattern was found in pups from younger mothers. These age-related effects may permit females to make adaptive decisions that increase their pups' fitness according to their current situation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  2. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia: regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lyngdoh

    Full Text Available The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, argali (Ovis ammon and marmots (Marmota spp. The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  3. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  4. Predators as prey at a Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos eyrie in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Tsengeg, Pu; Whitlock, P.; Ellis, Merlin H.

    2000-01-01

    Although golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) have for decades been known to occasionally take large or dangerous quarry, the capturing of such was generally believed to be rare and/or the act of starved birds. This report provides details of an exceptional diet at a golden eagle eyrie in eastern Mongolia with unquantified notes on the occurrence of foxes at other eyries in Mongolia. Most of the prey we recorded were unusual, including 1 raven (Corvus corax), 3 demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), 1 upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), 3 owls, 27 foxes, and 11 Mongolian gazelles. Some numerical comparisons are of interest. Our value for gazelle calves (10 minimum count, 1997) represents 13% of 78 prey items and at least one adult was also present. Our total of only 15 hares (Lepus tolai) and 4 marmots (Marmota sibirica) compared to 27 foxes suggests not so much a preference for foxes, but rather that populations of more normal prey were probably depressed at this site. Unusual prey represented 65% of the diet at this eyrie.

  5. Strong social relationships are associated with decreased longevity in a facultatively social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Williams, Dana M; Lim, Alexandra N; Kroeger, Svenja; Martin, Julien G A

    2018-01-31

    Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together or have more affiliative associates emphasizes the potential importance of social relationships on health and longevity. Previous studies have focused on the impact of social metrics on longevity in obligately social species. However, if sociality indeed has a key role in longevity, we might expect that affiliative relationships should also influence longevity in less social species. We focused on socially flexible yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventer ) and asked whether female longevity covaries with the specific nature of social relationships. We quantified social relationships with social network statistics that were based on affiliative interactions, and then estimated the correlation between longevity and sociality using bivariate models. We found a significant negative phenotypic correlation between affiliative social relationship strength and longevity; marmots with greater degree, closeness and those with a greater negative average shortest path length died at younger ages. We conclude that sociality plays an important role in longevity, but how it does so may depend on whether a species is obligately or facultatively social. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Methodology of determining soil structure in important groundwater areas: case studies in Kauvonkangas, Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2016-04-01

    will also include the main flow directions of the groundwater. Structure models will be done with Groundhog -software. Kauvonkangas -project is funded by local water supply companies Meri-Lapin Vesi and Tervolan Vesi, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and Geological Survey of Finland.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression patterns of hedgehog-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie David

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes ten proteins that share sequence similarity with the Hedgehog signaling molecule through their C-terminal autoprocessing Hint/Hog domain. These proteins contain novel N-terminal domains, and C. elegans encodes dozens of additional proteins containing only these N-terminal domains. These gene families are called warthog, groundhog, ground-like and quahog, collectively called hedgehog (hh-related genes. Previously, the expression pattern of seventeen genes was examined, which showed that they are primarily expressed in the ectoderm. Results With the completion of the C. elegans genome sequence in November 2002, we reexamined and identified 61 hh-related ORFs. Further, we identified 49 hh-related ORFs in C. briggsae. ORF analysis revealed that 30% of the genes still had errors in their predictions and we improved these predictions here. We performed a comprehensive expression analysis using GFP fusions of the putative intergenic regulatory sequence with one or two transgenic lines for most genes. The hh-related genes are expressed in one or a few of the following tissues: hypodermis, seam cells, excretory duct and pore cells, vulval epithelial cells, rectal epithelial cells, pharyngeal muscle or marginal cells, arcade cells, support cells of sensory organs, and neuronal cells. Using time-lapse recordings, we discovered that some hh-related genes are expressed in a cyclical fashion in phase with molting during larval development. We also generated several translational GFP fusions, but they did not show any subcellular localization. In addition, we also studied the expression patterns of two genes with similarity to Drosophila frizzled, T23D8.1 and F27E11.3A, and the ortholog of the Drosophila gene dally-like, gpn-1, which is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The two frizzled homologs are expressed in a few neurons in the head, and gpn-1 is expressed in the pharynx. Finally, we compare the

  8. Detection, Prevalence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Demodex spp and further Skin Prostigmata Mites (Acari, Arachnida) in Wild and Domestic Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.

  9. Detection, Prevalence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Demodex spp and further Skin Prostigmata Mites (Acari, Arachnida in Wild and Domestic Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sastre

    Full Text Available This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13% and bats (17%. The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris, we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1 cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2 seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius. All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.

  10. News from Online: A Spectrum of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-06-01

    Thomas Chasteen's site ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html) shows how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator. This graphic comes from his monochromator animation ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). Science Media's site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) includes spectroscopy tutorials by Brian Tissue. This graphic can be found at http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif (©1998 B. M. Tissue, www.scimedia.com). All the colors in the rainbow! Now that is a good place to start. Go to About Rainbows ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/rnbw.html), a tutorial from astronomer Beverly Lynds, working with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The tutorial begins with a historical perspective, complete with a sketch by René Descartes in 1637. The bibliography makes this tutorial a good starting point for color exploration. About Rainbows brings you questions to explorefor example, "What happens when you look at a rainbow through dark glasses?" Try the links to these other sites. Project SkyMath: Making Mathematical Connections ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/Skymath.html) is especially for the middle school student. Reproducible masters of these teaching modules can be printed in English and Spanish. From Project SkyMath, you can go to Blue-Skies, a user-friendly graphical interface from The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan ( http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/BS.html). And speaking of blue skies, look at a great site, Why is the Sky Blue at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/sky/sky.shtml. This is a super site from the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers, by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University. If you go to Patterns in Nature: Light and Optics at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml, plan to spend some time, for it is wonderful. Another link from the About Rainbows tutorial goes to

  11. The influence of sulfur and hair growth on stable isotope diet estimates for grizzly bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Mowat

    Full Text Available Stable isotope ratios of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos guard hair collected from bears on the lower Stikine River, British Columbia (BC were analyzed to: 1 test whether measuring δ34S values improved the precision of the salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. diet fraction estimate relative to δ15N as is conventionally done, 2 investigate whether measuring δ34S values improves the separation of diet contributions of moose (Alces alces, marmot (Marmota caligata, and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus and, 3 examine the relationship between collection date and length of hair and stable isotope values. Variation in isotope signatures among hair samples from the same bear and year were not trivial. The addition of δ34S values to mixing models used to estimate diet fractions generated small improvement in the precision of salmon and terrestrial prey diet fractions. Although the δ34S value for salmon is precise and appears general among species and areas, sulfur ratios were strongly correlated with nitrogen ratios and therefore added little new information to the mixing model regarding the consumption of salmon. Mean δ34S values for the three terrestrial herbivores of interest were similar and imprecise, so these data also added little new information to the mixing model. The addition of sulfur data did confirm that at least some bears in this system ate marmots during summer and fall. We show that there are bears with short hair that assimilate >20% salmon in their diet and bears with longer hair that eat no salmon living within a few kilometers of one another in a coastal ecosystem. Grizzly bears are thought to re-grow hair between June and October however our analysis of sectioned hair suggested at least some hairs begin growing in July or August, not June and, that hair of wild bears may grow faster than observed in captive bears. Our hair samples may have been from the year of sampling or the previous year because samples were collected in summer when

  12. The influence of sulfur and hair growth on stable isotope diet estimates for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Garth; Curtis, P Jeff; Lafferty, Diana J R

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) guard hair collected from bears on the lower Stikine River, British Columbia (BC) were analyzed to: 1) test whether measuring δ34S values improved the precision of the salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) diet fraction estimate relative to δ15N as is conventionally done, 2) investigate whether measuring δ34S values improves the separation of diet contributions of moose (Alces alces), marmot (Marmota caligata), and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) and, 3) examine the relationship between collection date and length of hair and stable isotope values. Variation in isotope signatures among hair samples from the same bear and year were not trivial. The addition of δ34S values to mixing models used to estimate diet fractions generated small improvement in the precision of salmon and terrestrial prey diet fractions. Although the δ34S value for salmon is precise and appears general among species and areas, sulfur ratios were strongly correlated with nitrogen ratios and therefore added little new information to the mixing model regarding the consumption of salmon. Mean δ34S values for the three terrestrial herbivores of interest were similar and imprecise, so these data also added little new information to the mixing model. The addition of sulfur data did confirm that at least some bears in this system ate marmots during summer and fall. We show that there are bears with short hair that assimilate >20% salmon in their diet and bears with longer hair that eat no salmon living within a few kilometers of one another in a coastal ecosystem. Grizzly bears are thought to re-grow hair between June and October however our analysis of sectioned hair suggested at least some hairs begin growing in July or August, not June and, that hair of wild bears may grow faster than observed in captive bears. Our hair samples may have been from the year of sampling or the previous year because samples were collected in summer when bears were

  13. El yacimiento de Lezetxiki (Gipuzkoa, País Vasco. Los niveles musterienses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Baldeón

    1993-01-01

    pantera. El nivel III conoce oscilaciones climáticas que reflejan la sedimentología y los pólenes, presencia de fauna fría -rinoceronte lanudo, reno, marmota- y más templada -castor, ciervo, bisonte-. Hay restos de hogares y restos humanos atribuidos al hombre de Neanderthal. La industria no presenta ningún paralelismo con las facies clásicas y todos los datos apuntan a que bien los procesos tafonómicos o la complejidad en la identificación del depósito debido a los buzamientos cruzados del relleno (N-S y W-E impiden más precisiones. En este nivel se da un claro predominio del equipamiento musteriense -a nivel técnico y tipológico- con importante presencia de materiales netamente auriñacienses. Cierran la secuencia un nivel Gravetiense (el II y otro Magdaleniense Final (el I.

  14. Para um Programa de Estudo do Neolítico em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor dos Santos GONÇALVES

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El autor presenta, en líneas generales, los principales problemas de análisis del Neolítico en Portugal. Problemas que sólo en algunos casos son exclusivos del territorio portugués, ya que la mayor parte de ellos están ligados a la compleja evolución global del Neolítico en el Mediterráneo occidental. A continuación va a referirse a las propias dificultades intrínsecas para la definición de un concepto de Neolítico, e indica la escasez de información que todavía hoy existe a propósito del Neolítico portugués. Cita como ejemplo de las distorsiones provocadas por esta situación el caso de la cerámica cardial, escasa en el Neolítico antiguo portugués, donde abunda la cerámica incisa e impresa no cardial. En lo que se refiere al Neolítico antiguo, señala las principales estaciones encontradas hasta hoy en Portugal y alude más ampliamente a propósito de una, inédita el abrigo «das Bocas» (Rio Maior. A continuación, analiza las perspectivas con que se tendrá que abordar el fenómeno megalítico, planteando diversos problemas y enumerando las posibles acepciones para la palabra. Igualmente se refiere a la relación entre las inhumaciones en tres grutas localizadas en la región de Alcanena (la «Gruta dos Carrascos», la «Lapa da Galinha» y la «Gruta da Marmota» y una de las fases del megalitismo coincidente con el Neolítico medio. Sin embargo, como subraya el autor, únicamente un trabajo pluridisciplinar y de equipo podrá contribuir para obtener soluciones positivas a este problema.ABSTRACT: The Author presents an outline of the mam problems of the analysis of the Neolithic in Portugal. Problems that only in certain cases are exclusively found in Portuguese territory, since most of them are connected with the global evolution of the Neolithic in the Western Mediterranean. He refers the difficulties to found a definition for the concept of Neolithic and he points out the shortage of information that still