Full Text Available Sir Arthur CONAN DOYLE's stories featuring Sherlock Holmes are justly famous the world over. In The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (1993 one story entitled Silver Blaze contains an exchange between Holmes and a Scotland Yard detective as follows: Gregory (Scotland Yard detective: "Is there any other point to which you would wish to draw my attention?" Holmes: "To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time." Gregory: "The dog did nothing in the night-time." Holmes: "That was the curious incident." In similar fashion I wish to draw attention to the curious case of Anselm STRAUSS: There is already a good deal of work pointing to the continuities between the Grounded Theory Method (GTM and the Pragmatism of John DEWEY and Charles PEIRCE. This has usually focused on Anselm STRAUSS with his Chicago-influenced Pragmatist background, although STRAUSS himself never articulated the way in which Pragmatism informed or could be brought to bear on the method as it evolved from the 1960s onwards. This paper argues that many of the contentious issues surrounding GTM can be resolved if they are understood against the context of some of the core tenets of Pragmatism, particularly the ways in which some of the more recent Pragmatists such as Richard RORTY have brought them back as a focus of attention. In so doing is raises the question of why, given his intellectual background and formation, Anselm STRAUSS did so little to bring Pragmatist ideas into GTM in its later embodiments and extended statements. That is the "curious incident" to which specific attention is drawn at several points in what follows; it remains a perplexing one, with perhaps no convincing solution, unlike the Sherlock Holmes mystery alluded to above. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090325
This article reconstructs Leo Strauss's reading of Rousseau's Epicureanism to argue that his work is unified by an abiding concern with the problem of theory and practice. Strauss sought to clarify the distinction between theory and practice he considered a fundamental precondition of any properly philosophical reflection on political life, and he explained the pernicious obscuring of that distinction through a narrative tracing the modern modifications of classical Epicureanism. Strauss's critical history of modern political thought is thus part of his attempt to restore the classical distinction between theory and practice to the status of a philosophical problem in modernity.
ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar
This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...
Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy
Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.
This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.
Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC
Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.
Bennett, Elisabeth E.
Since the first publication by Glaser and Strauss in 1967, Grounded Theory has become a highly influential research approach in the social sciences. The approach provides techniques and coding strategies for building theory inductively from the "ground up" as concepts within the data earn relevance into an evolving substantive theory.…
Jane Mills; Ann Bonner; Karen Francis
Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. T...
Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.
Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.
In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our...
Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.
Welcome to this very special issue of the Grounded Theory Review. In this issue we celebrate 50 amazing years of grounded theory during which it has become one of the fastest growing methods in the global research world. Five decades after The Discovery of Grounded Theory was first published, the seminal work of founders Barney G. Glaser and Anselm Strauss is cited more than 94,000 times on Google Scholar alone. We celebrate that after 50 years of researching, teaching, defending, explic...
Full Text Available Variations in grounded theory (GT interpretation are the subject of ongoing debate. Divergences of opinion, genres, approaches, methodologies, and methods exist, resulting in disagreement on what GT methodology is and how it comes to be. From the postpositivism of Glaser and Strauss, to the symbolic interactionist roots of Strauss and Corbin, through to the constructivism of Charmaz, the field of GT methodology is distinctive in the sense that those using it offer new ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives at specific moments in time. We explore the unusual dynamism attached to GT’s underpinnings. Our view is that through a process of symbolic interactionism, in which generations of researchers interact with their context, moments are formed and philosophical perspectives are interpreted in a manner congruent with GT’s essential methods. We call this methodological dynamism, a process characterized by contextual awareness and moment formation, contemporaneous translation, generational methodology, and methodological consumerism.
Mark S. Rosenbaum, Ph.D.
Full Text Available All is data. Grounded theorists employ this sentence in their quest to create original theoretical frameworks. Yet researchers typically interpret the word gdatah to mean qualitative data or, more specifically, interview data collected from respondents. This is not to say that qualitative data is deficient; however, grounded theorists may be missing vast opportunities to create pioneering theories from quantitative data. Indeed, Glaser and Strauss (1967 argued that researchers would use qualitative and/or quantitative data to fashion original frameworks and related hypotheses, and Glaserfs (2008 recently published book, titledDoing Quantitative Grounded Theory, is an attempt to help researchers understand how to use quantitative data for grounded theory (GT.
Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD
Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.
Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.
Full Text Available These are two authors, in Foucauldian terms that certainly belong to the most influential individuals in socio-cultural anthropology, as well as in the social sciences and interdisciplinary research more broadly. Claude Levi- Strauss became some kind of an "intellectual hero" during the domination of structuralism in the mid-twentieth century and during the 1960s, while Clifford Geertz was an ‘icon and ambassador’ of anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century. They are both one of the founders of the discourse theory. They not only established a distinct theoretical approaches and methods – structural (Levi-Strauss and interpretative anthropology (Clifford Geertz, but through their intellectual authority they also inspired paradigms and intellectual movements making structuralism and "interpretation of culture" more than some passing episodes in the history of social though (in terms of "trendy ideas". My aim is to make some parallels between these two authors, who despite all the differences that are evident in their epistemological discourses, theoretical approaches and methods (as well as in their ethnographic and anthropological writings itself still have some similarities in their theorisation and interpretation of culture, which I would like to stress in this paper.
Maria João Fernandes
Full Text Available The development of nursing as a discipline results from a boom of investigations underway for nearly a century, and of the construction of theories that have arisen during the 1950’s, with greater relevance since the 1960’s. Giving continuation to the production of knowledge in nursing and seeking to contribute to the increase in the number of explanatory theories of the functional content of nurses, there is interest in answering the question: how can a middle-range theory in nursing be built that explains the nurse-elderly interaction in a successful aging process? As well, we address the goal of describing the process of building a middle-range theory in nursing. Middle-range theory refers to a qualitative paradigm study of inductive thinking, developed in the context of primary health care. The information was collected through participant observation and interviews. Method of analysis grounded theory by Corbin and Strauss(1 was followed, utilizing the triangulation of data and theoretical sampling. Grounded theory has become a method of analysis which facilitates the understanding and explanation of the phenomenon under study. By making clear the nature and process of the nurse-elderly interaction in the selected context and within the context of successful aging, a middle-range theory proposal emerged.
Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.
Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.
The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…
There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…
Bays, Debora Ann
The grounded theory presented in this study describes how the supervision of special education instruction occurs in public elementary schools in rural settings. Grounded theory methodology (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was employed in this study. Nine elementary schools in three rural districts in the state of Virginia participated in the study. Interview data were collected from 34 participants, including special and general education teachers, principals, and directors of special education. Obs...
Full Text Available Since the late 1960s Barney GLASER and Anselm STRAUSS, developers of the methodology of "Grounded Theory" have made several attempts to explicate, clarify and reconceptualise some of the basic tenets of their methodological approach. Diverging concepts and understandings of Grounded Theory have arisen from these attempts which have led to a split between its founders. Much of the explication and reworking of Grounded Theory surrounds the relation between data and theory and the role of previous theoretical assumptions. The book which initially established the popularity of GLASER's and STRAUSS' methodological ideas, "The Discovery of Grounded Theory", contains two conflicting understandings of the relation between data and theory—the concept of "emergence" on the one hand and the concept of "theoretical sensitivity" on the other hand. Much of the later developments of Grounded Theory can be seen as attempts to reconcile these prima facie diverging concepts. Thereby GLASER recommends to draw on a variety of "coding families" while STRAUSS proposes the use of a general theory of action to build an axis for an emerging theory. This paper first summarises the most important developments within "Grounded Theory" concerning the understanding of the relation between empirical data and theoretical statements. Thereby special emphasis will be laid on differences between GLASER's and STRAUSS' concepts and on GLASER's current critique that the concepts of "coding paradigm" and "axial coding" described by STRAUSS and Juliet CORBIN lead to the "forcing" of data. It will be argued that GLASER's critique points out some existing weaknesses of STRAUSS' concepts but vastly exaggerates the risks of the STRAUSSian approach. A main argument of this paper is that basic problems of empirically grounded theory construction can be treated much more effectively if one draws on certain results of contemporary philosophical and epistemological discussions and on widely
Ramezani, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Despite the growing importance of spiritual care, the delivery of spiritual care is still an area of disagreement among healthcare providers. To develop a grounded theory about spiritual care delivery based on Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences. A grounded theory approach: A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach. Participants and research context: Data were collected through holding 27 interviews with 25 participants (17 staff nurses, 3 physicians, 3 patients, 1 family member, and 1 nurse assistant). The study setting was the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex. Sampling was started purposively and continued theoretically. Data analysis was performed by the method proposed by Strauss and Corbin. Ethical consideration: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tarbiat Modares University and the agreement of the administrators of the study setting was got before starting the study. The core category of the study was "Trust building" which reflected the nature of spiritual care delivery by nurses. Trust building was the result of eight main categories or strategies including creating a positive mentality at hospital admission, understanding patients in care circumstances, having a caring presence, adhering to care ethics, developing meaningful relationships, promoting positive thinking and energy, establishing effective communication with patients, and attempting to create a safe therapeutic environment. Poor interprofessional coordination negatively affected this process while living toward developing greater cognizance of divinity and adhering to the principles of professional ethics facilitated it. The outcome of the process was to gain a sense of partial psychological security. The "Trust building" theory can be used as a guide for describing and expanding nurses' roles in spiritual care delivery, developing care documentation systems and clinical guidelines, and planning educational programs for nursing students and staff nurses.
Full Text Available Different genres of underground music are important issues in Iranian youth culture. The purpose of this research was to study masculinity in Iranian- Persian rap music. Therefore, Persian rap music as a part of Iranian popular culture, between 2001 and 2011 was analyzed. We used qualitative research approach. The main method used in this study, was "Constructive Grounded Theory ". So instead of using existing theories as a theoretical framework, the researcher sought to generate local theory from research field. Thus, using theoretical sampling, data compiled from various sources. The multiple data collection techniques such as interviews, observation, online observation, collecting documents and texts were used. Then all the data was coded with using open, axial and selective coding methods. Finally, 62 concepts and 16 categories derived from data and "plural form of masculinity in Iranian-Persian rap music" was defined as the core category. Then according to paradigmatic model, "Substantive Theory" emerged from the data, was presented as "story" and "visual model". Finally seven questions of Strauss and Corbin about the experience in research has been assessed to evaluating research.
Cheri Ann Hernandez, RN, Ph.D., CDE
Full Text Available Grounded theory is an inductive research method for the generation of substantive or formal theory, using qualitative or quantitative data generated from research interviews, observation, or written sources, or some combination thereof (Glaser & Strauss, 1967. In recent years there has been much controversy over the etiology of its discovery, as well as, the exact way in which grounded theory research is to be operationalized. Unfortunately, this situation has resulted in much confusion, particularly among novice researchers who wish to utilize this research method. In this article, the historical, methodological and philosophical roots of grounded theory are delineated in a beginning effort to demystify this methodological debate. Grounded theory variants such as feminist grounded theory (Wuest, 1995 or constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 1990 are beyond the scope of this discussion.
Mitev, Ariel Zoltán
A grounded theory olyan kutatási módszer, ahol az elmélet az empirikus adatokból fejlődik ki és abban gyökerezik (Glaser - Strauss, 1967). Annak ellenére, hogy a módszer nemzetközileg rendkívül népszerű, a grounded theory nem igazán vert gyökeret a hazai menedzsment- és marketingkutatás talajában. A cikk célja a grounded theory kulcsfontosságú mozzanatainak bemutatása és a módszer népszerűsítése. / === / Grounded theory is a research method in which theory emerges from the data and is grounde...
Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani
This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.
Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm
The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...
Udod, Sonia A; Racine, Louise
To draw on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organisational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship. Although grounded theory is a widely adopted nursing research methodology, it remains less used in nursing leadership because of the dominance of quantitative approaches to research. Grounded theory methodology provides the empirical and pragmatic relevance to inform nursing practice and policy. Grounded theory is a relevant qualitative approach to use in leadership research as it provides a fine and detailed analysis of the process underlying complexity and bureaucracy. Discursive paper. A critical examination of the empirical and pragmatic relevance of grounded theory by (Corbin & Strauss, , ) as a method for analysing and solving problems in nurses' practice is provided. This paper provides evidence to support the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory methodology. Although the application of the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of grounded theory is challenging, this methodology is useful to address real-life problems in nursing practice by developing theoretical explanations of nurse empowerment, or lack thereof, in the workplace. Grounded theory represents a relevant methodology to inform nursing leadership research. Grounded theory is anchored in the reality of practice. The strength of grounded theory is to provide results that can be readily applied to clinical practice and policy as they arise from problems that affect practice and that
Smith, David Geoffrey
This paper locates the work of Leo Strauss within the broader conservative assault on modernity and especially its roots in liberalism. Four themes from Strauss's work are identified, then hermeneutically engaged for their relevance to educational practice in global times. The four themes are: (1) the liberal/modern concept of an open society is…
Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.
Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese
Lopez Rengifo, Diana Milena; Contreras Zuniga, Eduardo; Osio, Luis Fernando
The Churg-Strauss syndrome, also called allergic granulomatosis and angiitis, is a multisystem disorder characterized by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and prominent peripheral blood eosinophilia. The most common organ involved is the lung, followed by the skin. The Churg-Strauss syndrome, however, can affect any organ system, including the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and central nervous systems.
Barney G. Glaser
Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist Inquiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170
Mark David Webster
Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to examine the philosophy of technology of K-12 technology leaders, and explore the influence of their thinking on technology decision making. The research design aligned with CORBIN and STRAUSS grounded theory methods, and I proceeded from a research paradigm of critical realism. The subjects were school technology directors and instructional technology specialists, and data collection consisted of interviews and a written questionnaire. Data analysis involved the use of grounded theory methods including memo writing, open and axial coding, constant comparison, the use of purposive and theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation of categories. Three broad philosophy of technology views were widely held by participants: an instrumental view of technology, technological optimism, and a technological determinist perspective that saw technological change as inevitable. Technology leaders were guided by two main approaches to technology decision making, represented by the categories Educational goals and curriculum should drive technology, and Keep up with technology (or be left behind. The core category and central phenomenon that emerged was that technology leaders approached technology leadership by placing greater emphasis on keeping up with technology, being influenced by an ideological orientation to technological change, and being concerned about preparing students for a technological future. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160252
Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.
Full Text Available The title of this paper was derived from an incident I observed some years ago while accompanying a highly talented musician-songwriter friend to a performance. During a break, an audience member approached him to compliment the last song he had performed. He had written both the music and the lyrics to the song, one of many he had written. The audience member queried, “Is that a real song, or did you just make it up?” A touch amused, and not knowing whether he should be flattered or insulted, he politely replied, “It is a real song and I made it up.”This episode puts in mind a similar attitude in the social sciences that Glaser and Strauss (1967 noted, in which a small number of ’theoretical capitalists’ originate what are considered to be “real” theories and others are relegated to the role of “proletariat” testers. The means by which these theorists derived their theories remained largely mysterious. Unleashing proletariat testers was one of the chief rationales behind Glaser and Strauss’ development of grounded theory. It brought a democratic option into the social sciences that enabled anyone who learned the methodology to generate theory. The democratic ethos of the methodology may also have inadvertently unleashed an abundance of aspiring remodelers of the methodology, who unfortunately have eroded its primary purpose—to generate theories that are fully grounded in data rather than speculation or ideology.
Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD
Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.
Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John
The decision to use grounded theory is not an easy one and this article aims to illustrate and explore the methodological complexity and decision-making process. It explores the decision making of one researcher in the first two years of a grounded theory PhD study looking at the psychosocial training needs of nurses and healthcare assistants working with people with dementia in residential care. It aims to map out three different approaches to grounded theory: classic, Straussian and constructivist. In nursing research, grounded theory is often referred to but it is not always well understood. This confusion is due in part to the history of grounded theory methodology, which is one of development and divergent approaches. Common elements across grounded theory approaches are briefly outlined, along with the key differences of the divergent approaches. Methodological literature pertaining to the three chosen grounded theory approaches is considered and presented to illustrate the options and support the choice made. The process of deciding on classical grounded theory as the version best suited to this research is presented. The methodological and personal factors that directed the decision are outlined. The relative strengths of Straussian and constructivist grounded theories are reviewed. All three grounded theory approaches considered offer the researcher a structured, rigorous methodology, but researchers need to understand their choices and make those choices based on a range of methodological and personal factors. In the second article, the final methodological decision will be outlined and its research application described.
Lopez Rengifo, Diana Milena; Contreras Zuniga, Eduardo; Osio, Luis Fernando
The Churg-Strauss syndrome, also called allergic granulomatosis and angiitis, is a multisystem disorder characterized by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and prominent peripheral blood eosinophilia. The most common organ involved is the lung, followed by the skin. The Churg-Strauss syndrome, however, can affect any organ system, including the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and central nervous systems
Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali
The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.
Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali
The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tena...
Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.
Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders
Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.
Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…
Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John
In this paper, the choice of classic grounded theory will be discussed and justified in the context of the first author's PhD research. The methodological discussion takes place within the context of PhD research entitled: Development of a stakeholder-led framework for a structured education programme that will prepare nurses and healthcare assistants to deliver a psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is a lack of research and limited understanding of the effect of psychosocial interventions on people with dementia. The first author thought classic grounded theory a suitable research methodology to investigate as it is held to be ideal for areas of research where there is little understanding of the social processes at work. The literature relating to the practical application of classic grounded theory is illustrated using examples relating to four key grounded theory components: Theory development: using constant comparison and memoing, Methodological rigour, Emergence of a core category, Inclusion of self and engagement with participants. Following discussion of the choice and application of classic grounded theory, this paper explores the need for researchers to visit and understand the various grounded theory options. This paper argues that researchers new to grounded theory must be familiar with and understand the various options. The researchers will then be able to apply the methodologies they choose consistently and critically. Doing so will allow them to develop theory rigorously and they will ultimately be able to better defend their final methodological destinations.
Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu
To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.
Ayala, Jose Javier; Velasquez, Juan Carlos
Churg-Strauss Syndrome was described in 1951 and it is characterized by asthma, fever, hypereosinophilia and vasculitis. In 1990, following the discussion of several proposals for its classification, the American College of Rheumatology established its diagnostic criteria. A 55 year-old female patient was seen recently at the Military Hospital in Bogota, Colombia, with leucocytoclastic vasculitis, wheezing, pulmonary infiltrates and hypereosinophilia, who met all the criteria to be classified as a Churg-Strauss patient
Sanchez Morales, Edgar Alberto; Saavedra Rodriguez, Alfredo; Henao Riveros, Sandra
The Churg-Strauss syndrome denominated allergic granulomatosis and angeitis is characterized by a systemic vasculitis of small glasses, extravascular granulomas and hypereosinophilia. Initially described by Jacob Churg and Lotte Strauss, two pathologists who in 1951 they published the description of 13 patient postmortem with tisular infiltration for eosinophils, necrotizant vasculitis and extravascular granulomas. The paper includes nomenclature, classification approaches, pathogenesis, pathology, and clinical aspects and diagnostic
Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256
Pere Soler Pujals
Full Text Available La Grounded Theory, desarrollada por Barney G. Glaser y Anselm L. Strauss, ha tenido en los últimos años una importante repercusión en el campo de la investigación cualitativa, aplicada principalmente en clínica y educación. Consideramos que su metodología es perfectamente aplicable en investigación comercial, con un rigor científico difícilmente asumible con las metodologías cualitativas que habitualmente se emplean.
McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline
This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.
Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate
Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.
Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A
Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology that aims to explain social phenomena, e.g. why particular motivations or patterns of behaviour occur, at a conceptual level. Developed in the 1960s by Glaser and Strauss, the methodology has been reinterpreted by Strauss and Corbin in more recent times, resulting in different schools of thought. Differences arise from different philosophical perspectives concerning knowledge (epistemology) and the nature of reality (ontology), demanding that researchers make clear theoretical choices at the commencement of their research when choosing this methodology. Compared to other qualitative methods it has ability to achieve understanding of, rather than simply describing, a social phenomenon. Achieving understanding however, requires theoretical sampling to choose interviewees that can contribute most to the research and understanding of the phenomenon, and constant comparison of interviews to evaluate the same event or process in different settings or situations. Sampling continues until conceptual saturation is reached, i.e. when no new concepts emerge from the data. Data analysis focusses on categorising data (finding the main elements of what is occurring and why), and describing those categories in terms of properties (conceptual characteristics that define the category and give meaning) and dimensions (the variations within properties which produce specificity and range). Ultimately a core category which theoretically explains how all other categories are linked together is developed from the data. While achieving theoretical abstraction in the core category, it should be logical and capture all of the variation within the data. Theory development requires understanding of the methodology not just working through a set of procedures. This article provides a basic overview, set in the literature surrounding grounded theory, for those wanting to increase their understanding and quality of research output.
Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.
This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…
Eliane Maria Pires Giavina Bianchi
Full Text Available This paper discusses the usage and application of grounded theory in the administration area.Grounded theory is a research tool under the qualitative paradigm that, since its beginning in 1967raised some debates in the academic arena. Its original authors, Barney Glaser & Anselm Strauss,developed, throughout their academic trajectories,distinct thoughts regarding the process of datacollection and data analysis, the researcher attitude and the way of attainment the researchresults: theory grounded on empirical data. In spite of that, the history on the evolution of theresearch method, the research method working process clarification and an analysis of someapplications in the administrative area are discussed in this paper to support reflections ongrounded theory applicability and potentiality in administration. The purpose of this paper is tocontribute with researchers by bringing relevant information to support the processes of choice ofthis research method and its proper execution in their research. The conclusion is that groundedtheory is complex, rich, and powerful being applicable in administration as part of the social science
Huang, Xuan-Yi; Yen, Wen-Jiuan; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Lin, Chouh-Jiuan
The aim was to develop a practice theory that can be used to guide the direction of community nursing practice to help clients with schizophrenia and those who care for them. Substantive grounded theory was developed through use of grounded theory method of Strauss and Corbin. Two groups of participants in Taiwan were selected using theoretical sampling: one group consisted of community mental health nurses and the other group was clients with schizophrenia and those who cared for them. The number of participants in each group was determined by theoretical saturation. Semi-structured one-to-one in-depth interviews and unstructured non-participant observation were utilized for data collection. Data analysis involved three stages: open, axial and selective coding. During the process of coding and analysis, both inductive and deductive thinking were utilized and the constant comparative analysis process continued until data saturation occurred. To establish trustworthiness, the four criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability were followed along with field trial, audit trial, member check and peer debriefing for reliability and validity. A substantive grounded theory, the role of community mental health nurses caring for people with schizophrenia in Taiwan, was developed through utilization of grounded theory method of Strauss and Corbin. In this paper, results and discussion focus on causal conditions, context, intervening conditions, consequences and phenomenon. The theory is the first to contribute knowledge about the field of mental health home visiting services in Taiwan to provide guidance for the delivery of quality care to assist people in the community with schizophrenia and their carers.
Graham John James Kenealy, BA (Hons, Ph.D. Candidate
Full Text Available This research explores how a large national UK government organisation copes with radical structural change over time and provides an insight into the temporal effects of ‘Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’ on behaviour and receptivity within an organisational context. The stages of ‘Acceptance’, ‘Reaction’ and‘Withdrawal’ capture the essence of the ‘Coping Reflex Actions relating to Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’, all sensitive to the effects of time. ‘Temporal Sensitivity’; the duration of the changes to work patterns played a large part in the behavioural responses. The underlying logic of this research is grounded theory building, a general method that works well with qualitative data collection approaches and involves inducting insights from field based, case data (Glaser, 1998. A methodology discovered and developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967, negating all others.
Full Text Available We report a case of 29-year-old man who presented with cutaneous vasculitis and was subsequently diagnosed as a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome. The patient fulfilled five out of the six criteria of the syndrome developed by American College of Rheumatology.
This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...
Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura
This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…
Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie
The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…
Tacy, Cheryl Melissa
The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to discover the impact on adolescent reading motivation as students were given an opportunity to select recreational reading material and read consistently during class time. This study also explored the motivational impact of student engagement from dialogue with peers about their reading…
Gligor, David; Esmark, Carol; Golgeci, Ismail
The field of international business (IB) is in need of more theory development (Morck & Yeung, 2007). As such, the main focus of our manuscript was to provide guidance on how to build IB specific theory using grounded theory (GT). Moreover, we contribute to future theory development by identifying areas within IB where GT can be applied and the type of research issues that can be addressed using this methodology. Finally, we make a noteworthy contribution by discussing some of GT’s caveats an...
Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Yazdani, Shahram
Governments and professional organizations have called for new partnerships between health care providers and academics to improve clinical education for the benefit of both students and patients. To develop a substantive grounded theory on the process of forming academic-service partnerships in implementing clinical education, from the perspective of academic and clinical nursing staff members and managers working in Iranian settings. The participants included 15 hospital nurses, nurse managers, nurse educators, and educational managers from two central universities and clinical settings from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected through 30 in-depth, semi-structure interviews with the individual participants and then analyzed using the methodology of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. Utilizing "balancing power" as the core variable enabled us to integrate the concepts concerning the partnership processes between clinical and educational institutes. Three distinct and significant categories emerged to explain the process of partnership: 1) divergence, 2) conflict between educational and caring functions, and 3) creation of balance between educational and caring functions. In implementing clinical education, partnerships have been formed within a challenging context in Iran. Conflict between clinical and educational functions was the main concern of both sides of the partnership in forming a collaborative relationship, with our findings emphasizing the importance of nursing educators' role in the establishment of partnership programs.
FATEMEH HESHMATI NABAVI
Full Text Available Introduction: Governments and professional organizations have called for new partnerships between health care providers and academics to improve clinical education for the benefit of both students and patients. To develop a substantive grounded theory on the process of forming academic-service partnerships in implementing clinical education, from the perspective of academic and clinical nursing staff members and managers working in Iranian settings. Methods: The participants included 15 hospital nurses, nurse managers, nurse educators, and educational managers from two central universities and clinical settings from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected through 30 in-depth, semi-structure interviews with the individual participants and then analyzed using the methodology of Strauss and Corbin’s grounded theory. Results: Utilizing “balancing power” as the core variable enabled us to integrate the concepts concerning the partnership processes between clinical and educational institutes. Three distinct and significant categories emerged to explain the process of partnership: 1 divergence, 2 conflict between educational and caring functions, and 3 creation of balance between educational and caring functions. Conclusions: In implementing clinical education, partnerships have been formed within a challenging context in Iran. Conflict between clinical and educational functions was the main concern of both sides of the partnership in forming a collaborative relationship, with our findings emphasizing the importance of nursing educators’ role in the establishment of partnership programs.
Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei
Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.
There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of grounded theory, and an examination of many studies claiming to follow grounded theory indicates a wide range of approaches. In 1967 Glaser and Strauss’s ‘‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory; Strategies for Qualitative Research’’ was published and represented a breakthrough in qualitative research; it offered methodological consensus and systematic strategies for qualitative research practice. The defining characteristics of grounded theory inc...
Not very much is written in the literature about decisions made by researchers and the justifications on method as a result of a particular clinical problem, together with an appropriate and congruent theoretical perspective, particularly for Glaserian grounded theory. I contend the utilisation of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective to inform and guide the evolving research process and analysis of data when using classic or Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method, is not always appropriate. Within this article I offer an analysis of the key issues to be addressed when contemplating the use of Glaserian GT and the utilisation of an appropriate theoretical perspective, rather than accepting convention of symbolic interactionism (SI). The analysis became imperative in a study I conducted that sought to explore the concerns, adaptive behaviours, psychosocial processes and relevant interactions over a 12-month period, among newly diagnosed persons with end stage renal disease, dependent on haemodialysis in the home environment for survival. The reality of perception was central to the end product in the study. Human ethics approval was granted by six committees within New South Wales Health Department and one from a university.
Full Text Available This paper discusses Levi-Strauss engagement in UNESCO activities. On the one hand, Levi-Strauss engagement in Pakistan had an important impact on his later work, as well as on his overall view about the world and culture( s; while on the other, Levi-Strauss’s definitions of the relationship between race/nation and culture had an important influence on the ways in which UNESCO dealt with the ideas about culture and on the ways these ideas were implemented in its global strategies of action in/towards culture. On the one hand, this engagement included a delivery of the European world view (as a superior one to everyone who does not have it; while on the other, it also meant a protection of material remains of different cultures world-wide and protection of non-material heritage and/as entire "Othern-ness", whenever it is located, and (at least in theory however it looks like. In that sense, Levi- Strauss public engagement had an important impact not only on anthropology, as a discipline that he dedicated his life to, but also to the formation of contemporary understanding of politically correct relationship towards the "Other".
Ayala, Jose Javier; Velasquez, Juan Carlos
Churg-Strauss Syndrome was described in 1951 and it is characterized by asthma, fever, hypereosinophilia and vasculitis. In 1990, following the discussion of several proposals for its classification, the American College of Rheumatology established its diagnostic criteria. A 55 year-old female patient was seen recently at the Military Hospital in Bogota, Colombia, with leucocytoclastic vasculitis, wheezing, pulmonary infiltrates and hypereosinophilia, who met all the criteria to be classified as a Churg-Strauss patient.
Sanchez Morales, Edgar Alberto; Saavedra Rodriguez, Alfredo; Henao Riveros, Sandra
The Churg-Strauss syndrome denominated allergic granulomatosis and angeitis is characterized by a systemic vasculitis of small glasses, extravascular granulomas and hypereosinophilia. Initially described by Jacob Churg and Lotte Strauss, two pathologists who in 1951 they published the description of 13 patient postmortem with tisular infiltration for eosinophils, necrotizant vasculitis and extravascular granulomas. The paper includes nomenclature, classification approaches, pathogenesis, pathology, and clinical aspects and diagnostic.
Muraraneza, Claudine; Mtshali, Gloria Ntombifikile
In health professional education, the competency-based curriculum concept has been an important driver of reform in the training of competent graduates for the 21st century. In African countries, although there has been implementing it in pre-service nursing and midwifery education and the literature reports a lack of understanding of what is it on the part of the implementers. This article explores the meaning of competency based curriculum in pre-service nursing and midwifery education in Rwanda. A grounded theory approach, following Corbin and Strauss, was used. Following ethical clearance by the university ethical committee, data was collected from 17 participants through in-depth individual interviews of staff. Four categories emerged: (a) transformation, (b) tool for primary health care philosophy, (c) technological approach to education, (d) and modular system. Competency-based curriculum is confirmed as an appropriate educational tool in producing competent graduates for today and the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare granulomatous necrotizing small vessel vasculitis characterized by the presence of asthma, sinusitis, and hypereosinophilia. The cause of this allergic angiitis and granulomatosis is unknown. Other common manifestations are pulmonary infiltrates, skin, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular involvement. No data have been reported regarding the role of immune complexes or cell mediated mechanisms in this disease, although autoimmunity is evident with the presence hypergammaglobulinemia, increased levels of IgE and Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (positive in 40%. We report the case of a 27-year-old lady presenting with painful swelling of predominantly lower limbs with extensive vesicles and ecchymotic patches and fever shortly after stopping systemic steroids taken for a prolonged duration (2002--2010. The aim of this case report is to point to the possibility of CSS in patients presenting with extensive skin lesions masquerading as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Syndrome (SJS/TENS.
Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is medium blood vessels vasculitis with predilection for lungs in patients with bronchial asthma, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and positive ANCA in the sera in 55-67%. This is a case report of a 60 years old female patient with bronchial asthma, peripheral pulmonary infiltrations, blood eosinophilia, xerophtalmia, tachycardia, chronic rhino sinusitis, polyneuropathia and negative immunological tests: CIC (PEG, CRYO, ANA (IIF, RF (agglutination and ANCA (IIF: pANCA and cANCA; ELISA: proteinase 3, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, elastase, cathepsin G. Eosinophilic infiltrates in the tissues tested by skin and salivary gland biopsies were not found. The patient had fulfilled five clinical diagnostic criteria and responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, so this case could be classified as the ANCA negative angiitis and granulomatous of CSS type.
Full Text Available Churg–Strauss syndrome is a condition with unknown etiology and asthma, allergic rhinitis, eosinophilic infiltration of blood and tissues, and transient infiltration of the lungs. It occurs mostly in the 3rd–4th decades of life with an incidence of 2.4/1000000. Presentation frequently involves nodular lung infiltrations, infiltrations with cavity, ground-glass appearance, and alveolar opacity. However, endobronchial mass is an unexpected presentation. In the current case report, we present a 45-year-old male patient who was receiving asthma therapy for 5 years. In the last follow-up visit, we identified a mass in the right hilum on X-ray radiography and performed fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Pathologic examination of biopsy material verified the diagnosis of Churg–Strauss syndrome. Bronchial mass is an unexpected presentation of Churg–Strauss syndrome and pathologic examination is essential to distinguish it from pulmonary malignancies
P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD; Rita Schreiber RN, DNS
Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interac...
Full Text Available Background and Objective: With regard to the multi-dimensional and complex nature of chronic pain management process in the elderly, the identifying of its various aspects is essential for proper management of this type of pain. The current study aimed to explain the chronic pain management process in the elderly. Materials and Method: This study was conducted based on grounded theory approach in health care centers of Ahwaz in 2013-2014. Participants including 62 persons consisted of 30 elderly people who were confirmed about the lack of cognitive disorders through using I.V.A.M.T.S , 3 persons of their relatives and 29 persons of health care providers. Data collection was done through using semi-structured interview, observation and field note. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin’s method of analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the “comprehensive support” is considered as an important and facilitating factor in the process of chronic pain management in the elderly which consists of four sub-categories as “being with family”, “team work”, “targeted treatment” and “social support”. Conclusion: Chronic pain Management in the elderly will not be achieved without helping of effective supportive resources. . Making appropriate decisions can be effective in order to identifying and gaining support from these sources for effective management of pain.
Rasool Eslami Akbar
Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the adverse effects of job stress on health of nurses and the importance of coping process of nurses in management of job stress, the present study was carried out with the aim of exploring the experiences of the nurses in order to reveal the original coping process of the nurses in the case of encountering occupational stress. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with grounded theory approach. Research participants were 15 clinical nurses and four directors of nursing. Sampling method of study were purposive and theoretical sampling. Data collection done with unstructured interviews and field notes and continued until data saturation. Data analysis was performed using the Strauss and Corbin 1998 constant comparative method. Results: The results of the analysis led to four axial concepts: "feeling stress at nursing work", "situational coping", "and the effect of personal and environmental factors in coping with job stress" and "Grey outcome of coping". The core variable in the nurse’s process of coping with job stress was "comprehensive effort to calm stressed condition". Conclusion: Explaining the basic and original psychosocial process of nurses to cope with job stress, revealed context-based nature of the coping processes that nurses adopt, which that can help in taking appropriate measures to lighten up the grey consequences of coping of nurses.
Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough
In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: With regard to the multi-dimensional and complex nature of chronic pain management process in the elderly, the identifying of its various aspects is essential for proper management of this type of pain. The current study aimed to explain the chronic pain management process in the elderly. Methods: This study was conducted based on grounded theory approach in health care centers of Ahwaz in 2013-2014. Participants including 62 persons consisted of 30 elderly people who were confirmed about the lack of cognitive disorders through using I.V.A.M.T.S , 3 persons of their relatives and 29 persons of health care providers. Data collection was done through using semi-structured interview, observation and field note. Data analysis was performed based on Strauss and Corbin’s method of analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the “comprehensive support” is considered as an important and facilitating factor in the process of chronic pain management in the elderly which consists of four sub-categories as “being with family”, “team work”, “targeted treatment” and “social support”. Conclusion: Chronic pain Management in the elderly will not be achieved without helping of effective supportive resources. . Making appropriate decisions can be effective in order to identifying and gaining support from these sources for effective management of pain.
Farahani, Mansoureh A; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Seyed Fatemi, Naiemeh
Background: There are widespread misconceptions about the positive effects of opium on coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, we performed a study to explore the opium addiction process contributing factors among CAD patients using a grounded theory approach. Methods: The sample comprised 30 addicted CAD patients and their family members, physicians, nurses and friends. Purposive and theoretical sampling was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted. Coding and constant comparative analysis techniques were as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: The core category was ‘Fighting for Survival’, comprising three main themes, namely, ‘the gateway’, ‘blowing into the fire’ and ‘getting stuck in the mud’. Conclusion: Increasing knowledge about the adverse effects of opium on the cardiovascular system would reinforce prevention and rehabilitation measures. Involving patients’ family-members in addiction prevention and rehabilitation programs and referring patients to specialized rehabilitation centres could help patients quit opium. Healthcare providers (HCPs) should notice to the effects of opium consumption among CAD patients; nursing care must be holistic in nature. Although opium is stigmatised in Iran, HCPs must treat addicted CAD patients similar to other patients. Nursing students’ must be aware of the negative effects of illegal drugs on CAD patients and the misconceptions regarding the positive effects thereof. Any misconceptions must be probed and clarified. Rehabilitation centres must be supervised by cardiologists and HCPs. PMID:26793658
Kang, Jiyeon; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ran
This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of incivility among nursing students. Sixteen nursing students who had experienced incivility during their clinical placement were invited for one-on-one interviews until the point of theoretical saturation. The grounded theory approach of Corbin and Strauss was adopted to analyze transcribed interview contents. Incivility occurred in the context of a hierarchical organizational culture, due to nursing students' position as outsiders, non-systematic clinical education, and poor nursing work environment. The experience of incivility was identified as "being mistreated as a marginal person," and nursing students responded to this phenomenon in the following three steps: reality shock, passive action, and submissive acceptance. This process caused students to lose self-esteem and undergo role conflict. Furthermore, nursing students' experience of incivility could eventually lead to workplace bullying in nurses. The results of this study suggest that nursing students' experience of incivility can be a process that threatens their identity. It is necessary to develop educational programs and provide appropriate counseling services so that nursing students can actively cope with the incivility. In addition, institutional plans are needed to ensure safe and supportive clinical learning environments. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.
Farahani, Mansoureh A; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Seyed Fatemi, Naiemeh
There are widespread misconceptions about the positive effects of opium on coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, we performed a study to explore the opium addiction process contributing factors among CAD patients using a grounded theory approach. The sample comprised 30 addicted CAD patients and their family members, physicians, nurses and friends. Purposive and theoretical sampling was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted. Coding and constant comparative analysis techniques were as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). The core category was 'Fighting for Survival', comprising three main themes, namely, 'the gateway', 'blowing into the fire' and 'getting stuck in the mud'. Increasing knowledge about the adverse effects of opium on the cardiovascular system would reinforce prevention and rehabilitation measures. Involving patients' family-members in addiction prevention and rehabilitation programs and referring patients to specialized rehabilitation centres could help patients quit opium. Healthcare providers (HCPs) should notice to the effects of opium consumption among CAD patients; nursing care must be holistic in nature. Although opium is stigmatised in Iran, HCPs must treat addicted CAD patients similar to other patients. Nursing students' must be aware of the negative effects of illegal drugs on CAD patients and the misconceptions regarding the positive effects thereof. Any misconceptions must be probed and clarified. Rehabilitation centres must be supervised by cardiologists and HCPs.
Lucas, Heizel Mae; Lozano, Carl James; Valdez, Les Paul; Manzarate, Rowena; Lumawag, Fortuna Angelli Jolyn
Across the literature, impairment and disability among the older people have been associated with a decline in meeting their special needs. Failure in meeting such needs may cause deterioration of function and threaten successful aging. Accordingly, successful aging studies were carried out among males, in health care institutions, and in communities. In spite of these, the process by which successful aging is experienced by incarcerated older women remains to be a blank spot in research. This study purports to describe the process by which incarcerated older Filipino women experience successful aging. Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 15 purposively selected incarcerated older Filipino from a Philippine penal institution exclusive for women. Further, data gathered was reduced to field text and was analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Finally, truthfulness and trustworthiness of the findings were established through member checking. The study generated "The Road to Success Model". Interestingly, five phases relative to successful aging emerged, namely: Struggling, Remotivating, Reforming, Reintegrating and Sustaining. These phases describe how select incarcerated older Filipino women undergo transformation towards successful aging. Similar to a road, each phase is considered a station where one must pass through in order to get to the destination. Findings of the study serve as an impetus for structural and procedural changes in prison, with a view to providing an environment conducive to successful aging and appropriate recognition to the older prisoner's efforts to achieve successful aging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD
Full Text Available Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interactionism to grounded theory research. In this article we discuss the symbolic interactionist concepts of mind, self, and society, and their applicability in grounded theorizing. Our purpose is to highlight foundational concepts of symbolic interactionism and their centrality in the processes of conducting grounded theory research.
A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about da...
This is a follow-up article of Strauss 2011. In order to transcend the shortcomings present in the dialectical legacy regarding normativity, this article further explores key elements within the dialectical tradition focused on the basic motive of nature and freedom and the effect it had on modern social contract theories which ...
Kamylla Santos da Cunha
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the meaning of the university management performed by nurses managers of the nursing undergraduate course of a public university. Method: this is a qualitative research, based on the grounded theory. Data collection took place between May and September 2016, with open interviews, in the scenario of a federal public university. The technique of constant comparative analysis of the data was followed, obtaining a theoretical sample with 19 nurses, in two sample groups. Results: there were three categories emerged that shaped the phenomenon: Articulating complex collectives through university management for the qualified training of new nurses. The categories included: a conditions, defined by perceiving the commitment to the collective, previous experiences, and training for health management, as motivations to be a teacher manager; b actions/interactions, delimited by Knowing and recognizing, in practice, the university management process, limits and possibilities in the coordination of complex collective subjects; and, c consequences, such as Improving teaching work and taking responsibility for university education. Conclusion: the nurses teaching managers to explain university management as a set of individual and collective actions that, articulated in a complex social environment, promote conditions for the training of critical and reflexive nurses with the demands of society.
Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.
This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…
Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío
This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…
Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously
Kennedy, Tara J T; Lingard, Lorelei A
Grounded theory is a research methodology designed to develop, through collection and analysis of data that is primarily (but not exclusively) qualitative, a well-integrated set of concepts that provide a theoretical explanation of a social phenomenon. This paper aims to provide an introduction to key features of grounded theory methodology within the context of medical education research. In this paper we include a discussion of the origins of grounded theory, a description of key methodological processes, a comment on pitfalls encountered commonly in the application of grounded theory research, and a summary of the strengths of grounded theory methodology with illustrations from the medical education domain. The significant strengths of grounded theory that have resulted in its enduring prominence in qualitative research include its clearly articulated analytical process and its emphasis on the generation of pragmatic theory that is grounded in the data of experience. When applied properly and thoughtfully, grounded theory can address research questions of significant relevance to the domain of medical education.
Rothgangel, Martin; Saup, Judith
Grounded theory is one of the most common qualitative research strategies in social sciences. Currently, many applications of this theory are being developed for religious education. In the article it is argued that grounded theory deserves special attention for classroom research in religious education. For this reason, the basic features (fundamental openness and concurrence of data collection and analysis; constant comparison and asking analytical questions) as well as the coding strategie...
Mikael Lind; Goran Goldkuhl
In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. Th...
Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.
This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...
This paper describes the methodological and theoretical context and underpinnings of a study that examined community psychiatric nurses' work with family caregivers of older people with depression. The study used grounded theory research methods, with its theoretical foundations drawn from symbolic interactionism. The aims of the study were to describe and conceptualize the processes involved when community nurses work and interact with family caregivers and to develop an explanatory theory of these processes. This paper begins with an explanation of the rationale for using grounded theory as the method of choice, followed by a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of the study, including a brief summary of the nature and origins of symbolic interactionism. Key premises of symbolic interactionism regarded as central to the study are outlined and an analytical overview of the grounded theory method is provided. The paper concludes with a commentary on some of the issues and debates in the use of grounded theory in nursing research. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodical and critical review of symbolic interactionism and grounded theory that can help readers, particularly those who are intending to use grounded theory, better understand the processes involved in applying this method to their research.
Shaw, Michele R; Oneal, Gail
Most asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for asthma are preventable. Our purpose was to develop a grounded theory to guide interventions to reduce unnecessary hospitalizations and ED visits. Grounded theory inquiry guided interviews of 20 participants, including 13 parents and 7 children. Living on the edge of asthma was the emergent theory. Categories included: balancing, losing control, seeking control, and transforming. The theory provides the means for nurses to understand the dynamic process that families undergo in trying to prevent and then deal with and learn from an acute asthma attack requiring hospitalization or an ED visit. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The grounded theory approach is implemented in analysing sermons on poverty and directed at ... poverty situation in South Africa, especially in the black community (Pieterse ..... The activity of open coding discovers gaps or holes of needed.
Hall, Helen; Griffiths, Debra; McKenna, Lisa
To explore the evolution of grounded theory and equip the reader with a greater understanding of the diverse conceptual positioning that is evident in the methodology. Grounded theory was developed during the modernist phase of research to develop theories that are derived from data and explain human interaction. Its philosophical foundations derive from symbolic interactionism and were influenced by a range of scholars including Charles Darwin and George Mead. Rather than a rigid set of rules and procedures, grounded theory is a way of conceptualising data. Researchers demonstrate a range of perspectives and there is significant variation in the way the methodology is interpreted and executed. Some grounded theorists continue to align closely with the original post-positivist view, while others take a more constructivist approach. Although the diverse interpretations accommodate flexibility, they may also result in confusion. The grounded theory approach enables researchers to align to their own particular world view and use methods that are flexible and practical. With an appreciation of the diverse philosophical approaches to grounded theory, researchers are enabled to use and appraise the methodology more effectively.
Full Text Available A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about data collection and analysis. Implications for future research directions and policy and practice in the field of special and alternative education are discussed.
... Strauss Syndrome (EGPA) Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg-Strauss Syndrome (EGPA) First Description Who gets EGPA (the “ ... granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGP), formerly known as the Churg-Strauss Syndrome , is a systemic vasculitis. This disease was ...
Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.
Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali
The performance of the community health nurse depends on a combination of scientific and practical competencies acquired by educational experiences during the nursing course. Curriculum planners of nursing education need to understand nursing education to train professional and community-oriented nurses. The aim of this article is to explore the experiences of nursing students during their community health nursing clinical clerkship courses. A grounded theory approach was used to conduct this study. Twelve nursing students, 13 health-care staff members, and 10 nursing instructors were interviewed individually in 2011-2012. The interviews were tape-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. The transcriptions were analyzed using the method of Strauss and Corbin. AMBIVALENCE OF MOTIVATION WAS THE MAIN CATEGORY AND INCLUDED FIVE SUBCATEGORIES: Professional identity, educational atmosphere, educational management, motivation-based approaches, and inadequate productivity. This paper presents the aspects of the community health nursing clerkship course from the viewpoint of students in areas such as the role of the community health nurse, attitude toward the course, medical orientation, prerequisite skills/knowledge, poor administrative planning, rotation of students, insufficient activity for students, passiveness, providing service to clients, responsibility, and inproductivity. These categories could explain the nature of the community health nursing clerkship of the Mashhad Faculty of Nursing and probably others in Iran. The findings revealed inadequate productivity of the community health nursing education; so, it is suggested to define a position for nurses in this setting and remove barriers and provide conditions for them to play more important roles in the promotion of community health.
Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John
This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…
Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…
Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.
All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…
Meadows, Jodi J.
Gifted students in transition to college may be at risk for underachievement, difficult transition, or even attrition. Giftedness by itself is not always sufficient for academic success in college. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to construct a theory regarding the process of transition to college for high-achieving gifted high…
Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly
A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.
Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton; Langfeld, Kurt; Lavelle, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; McMullan, David
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all ch...
dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam
This study presents a method of interpretative and systematic research with appliance to the development of studies in nursing called "the grounded theory", whose theoretical support is the symbolic interactionism. The purpose of the paper is to describe the grounded theory as an alternative methodology for the construction of knowledge in nursing. The study highlights four topics: the basic principle, the basic concepts, the trajectory of the method and the process of analysis of the data. We conclude that the systematization of data and its interpretation, based on social actors' experience, constitute strong subsidies to generate theories through this research tool.
Alilu, Leyla; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Habibzadeh, Hosein; Gillespie, Mark
this study explores the process of the development of an intention to leave bedside nursing. the process was studied from the perspective of 21 nurses using the grounded theory method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and the constant comparative method of Corbin and Strauss was used for data analysis. according to the participants, the two main categories, "social image of nursing", and "culture and structure of the bedside", were the contextual factors that influence why nurses are leaving bedside care provision. Disappointment with a perceived lack of progress or improvement in the clinical experience formed primary psychosocial concerns for the participants. Competence and a process of self-control were steps taken by the participants. These, associated with interventional conditions produced the outcomes of the loss of professional commitment and desire to leave bedside nursing. "Failure to integrate personal expectations with organizational expectations: in search of escape" was the central category of the study that linked the categories together. the findings of this study provide useful information about the needs of nurses for overcoming the intention to leave bedside care. The identification of this process can help in recognizing emerging problems and providing solutions for them. este estudo explora o processo de desenvolvimento da intenção de deixar a enfermagem de cabeceira. o processo foi estudado desde a perspectiva de 21 enfermeiras utilizando o método da Grounded Theory (Teoria Fundamentada). Os dados foram coletados utilizando entrevistas semi-estruturadas e o método comparativo constante de Corbin e Strauss se utilizou para analisar os dados. segundo os participantes, duas categorias principais, "imagem social da enfermagem" e "cultura e estrutura de cabeceira", foram os fatores contextuais que influenciam as razões para que as enfermeiras estejam deixando o cuidado de cabeceira. A decepção com a percepção de falta
Ward, Kim; Gott, Merryn; Hoare, Karen
To offer a unique contribution to the evolving debate around the use of the telephone during semistructured interview by drawing on interviewees' reflections on telephone interview during a grounded theory study. The accepted norm for qualitative interviews is to conduct them face-to-face. It is typical to consider collecting qualitative data via telephone only when face-to-face interview is not possible. During a grounded theory study, exploring users' experiences with overnight mask ventilation for sleep apnoea, the authors selected the telephone to conduct interviews. This article reports participants' views on semistructured interview by telephone. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on data pertaining to the use of the telephone interview in a grounded theory study. The data were collected during 4 months of 2011 and 6 months in 2014. The article presents an inductive thematic analysis of sixteen participants' opinions about telephone interviewing and discusses these in relation to existing literature reporting the use of telephone interviews in grounded theory studies. Overall, participants reported a positive experience of telephone interviewing. From each participants reports we identified four themes from the data: being 'phone savvy; concentrating on voice instead of your face; easy rapport; and not being judged or feeling inhibited. By drawing on these data, we argue that the telephone as a data collection tool in grounded theory research and other qualitative methodologies need not be relegated to second best status. Rather, researchers can consider telephone interview a valuable first choice option. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Thomson, D; Chamsi-Pasha, H; Hasleton, P
A patient with heart failure caused by Churg-Strauss syndrome was successfully treated with transplantation. The case was unusual because there was little evidence of Churg-Strauss syndrome in the lung. The patient remains well on standard transplant immunotherapy. Images Figure PMID:2590597
Yow, J.L. Jr.; Goodman, R.E.
Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; Lutz, W.; McMullan, D.
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.
Full Text Available In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. This evolution is based on empirical studies, theory-informed conceptual development and the creation of conceptual cohesion. The theoretical development has involved a dialectic approach aiming at a theoretical synthesis based on antagonistic theories. The result of this research process was a multi-grounded business process theory. Multi-grounded means that the theory is empirically, internally and theoretically founded. This business process theory can be used as an aid for business modellers to direct attention towards relevant aspects when business process determination is performed.
Doiron, Joseph A.
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore the futures that school of education leaders envision for their institutions. American higher education institutions broadly, and schools of education specifically, face a complex of challenges to their traditional structures, processes, practices, value, and values. These challenges create…
Fram, Sheila M.
This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…
Herring, James E.
This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…
Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a
Kennedy, Brianna L.
This article augments the author's grounded theory study of student and teacher interactions in alternative education classrooms by presenting poetic transcription as a way to portray the essences and experiences of the participants. The author builds on the experimental writing traditions of other researchers to embrace her own experiences as a…
Dauman, Nicolas; Erlandsson, Soly I.; Albarracin, Dolorès; Dauman, René
Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach. Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51–79) were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014), the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data (n = 36 interviews) were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: “Losing body ownership,” “Lacking perspectives,” and “Persevering through difficulties.” Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance). It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore, this model
Dauman, Nicolas; Erlandsson, Soly I; Albarracin, Dolorès; Dauman, René
Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach. Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51-79) were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014), the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data ( n = 36 interviews) were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: "Losing body ownership," "Lacking perspectives," and "Persevering through difficulties." Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance). It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore, this model identifies a
Full Text Available Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach.Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51–79 were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews. Each participant had three interviews lasting 1 h, the sessions being separated one from the other by 2 weeks. Following recommendations of Charmaz (2014, the second and third interviews were aimed at gathering rich data, by enhancing the participants' reflexivity in the circumstances of distress caused by tinnitus. After transcription, the data (n = 36 interviews were analyzed using the approach to Grounded Theory proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998.Results: Tinnitus as persistent frustration emerged as being the core category uniting all the other categories of the study. Hence, the core category accounted for the broader scope in participants' experience of chronic tinnitus. It is suggested that tinnitus-induced disablement varied according to the degree of frustration felt by the participants in not being able to achieve their goals. The implications of this were analyzed using the following categories: “Losing body ownership,” “Lacking perspectives,” and “Persevering through difficulties.” Based on these findings, we draw a substantive theory of tinnitus tolerance that promotes an active, disciplined and individualized approach to tinnitus-induced disablement. The model distinguishes pathways from sustained suffering to reduced annoyance (i.e., emerging tolerance. It accounts for difficulties that the participants experienced with a perceived unchanged annoyance over time. Furthermore
A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors
Full Text Available In social psychology, the attribution model of helping behavior suggests that beliefs of the helping target’s responsibility for the need for help evoke affective motivators such as feelings of pity, sympathy, or anger. The affective motivation leads to helping or not helping the target. The current emergent theory is an enhancement of this theory by incorporating other personal and situational variables.Through the use of classic grounded theory, I interviewed 80 participants from different De La Salle Schools in the Philippines. This yielded over 1300 individual incidents that were compared and contrasted to form codes, categories and subcategories. A theory on the decision making process of helping emerged that incorporates the helper’s personal conviction, and rational deliberations of the situation. The desire to help is based on the helper’s rationalemotive beliefs (philosophical ideals and values that nurture helping and the knowledge of the nature of risk/problem and relational-emotive ties (with the one who needs help and with a social group that nurtures helping. The desire to help undergoes a process of rationalpragmatic-deliberations on the appropriateness of the recipients need of help, the cost of helping, the helper’s capability of helping, and the logistics of helping before the actual helping occurs. The theory has implications for current social psychological theories of helping, and the use of classic grounded theory research.
This article provides a critical exposition of the epistemological underpinnings of a recent redevelopment of Grounded Theory (GT) methodology, "Constructivist" GT. Although proffered as freed from the "objectivist" tenets of the original version, critical examination exposes the essentialism threaded through its integral…
Before Lévi-Strauss, anthropology was merely empirical and mostly interested in identifying different cultures’ contextual framework. Lévi-Strauss is not just interested in understanding and explaining different cultures from within. He wants to figure out how humans think fundamentally and from...... there to understand cultural diversity. Lévi-Strauss is the first anthropologist to connect cultural diversity with the unity of humans, that is to say, with human nature. All humans do not think the same, neither do they unite in the same way, but they compose in the same way. They have the same propensity to create...
Full Text Available This paper draws on the experiences of two researchers and discusses how they conducted a secondary data analysis using classic grounded theory. The aim of the primary study was to explore first-time parents’ postnatal educational needs. A subset of the data from the primary study (eight transcripts from interviews with fathers was used for the secondary data analysis. The objectives of the secondary data analysis were to identify the challenges of using classic grounded theory with secondary data and to explore whether the re-analysis of primary data using a different methodology would yield a different outcome. Through the process of re-analysis a tentative theory emerged on ‘developing competency as a father’. Challenges encountered during this re-analysis included the small dataset, the pre-framed data, and limited ability for theoretical sampling. This re-analysis proved to be a very useful learning tool for author 1(LA, who was a novice with classic grounded theory.
Moosig, F; Hellmich, B
The Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is the rarest subtype of the so-called anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) and has the lowest frequency of ANCA-positivity (around 30%). In addition to asthma and blood eosinophilia, CSS is characterized by end-organ damage, which can be caused by either vasculitis and/or tissue infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes. The CSS shares many etiological and clinical features of other hypereosinophilic syndromes. Recently, a distinct genetic background could be demonstrated for both the ANCA-positive and ANCA-negative subtypes of CSS as compared to the other two forms of AAV. Among other cytokines, interleukin-5 (IL-5) could be identified as a key mediator of eosinophilia. Therefore, recent clinical trials in CSS aimed to target IL-5. Outside of clinical trials, treatment of CSS is adapted to disease stage and activity, as recommended for other types of AAV.
Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier - Suite, Salome-Dance of the seven veils, Capriccio-Prelude, Intermezzo, Morgen Mittag um elf! Felicity Lott, Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos ABRD 1397. ABTD 1397. CHAN 8758
Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon
Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this paper, the authors use free field techniques in D = 2 string theory t calculate the perturbation of the special state algebras when the cosmological constant is turned on. In particular, the authors find that the 'ground cone' preserved by the ring structure is promoted to a three-dimensional hyperboloid as conjectured by Witten. On the other hand, the perturbed (1,1) current algebra of moduli deformations is computed completely, and no simple geometrical interpretation is found. The authors also quote some facts concerning the Liouville matrix a model dictionary in this class of theories
Barbón, José L F
We use free field techniques in D=2 string theory to calculate the perturbation of the special state algebras when the cosmologi- cal constant is turned on. In particular, we find that the "ground cone" preserved by the ring structure is promoted to a three dimen- sional hyperboloid as conjectured by Witten. On the other hand, the perturbed (1,1) a three dimensional hyperboloid as conjectured by Witten. On the other hand, the perturbed (1,1) current algebra of moduli deformations is computed completely, and no simple geometrical inter- pretation is found. We also quote some facts concerning the Liouville/matrix model dictio- nary in this class of theories.
Radiotherapy practitioners may be best placed to undertake qualitative research within the context of cancer, due to specialist knowledge of radiation treatment and sensitivity to radiotherapy patient's needs. The grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis is a unique method of identifying a theory directly based on data collected within a clinical context. Research for radiotherapy practitioners is integral to role expansion within the government's directive for evidence-based practice. Due to the paucity of information on qualitative research undertaken by radiotherapy radiographers, this article aims to assess the potential impact of qualitative research on radiotherapy patient and service outcomes.
Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Neamsakul, Wanwadee; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
to gain a deeper understanding of Thai teenage parents' perspectives, experiences and reasoning about becoming and being a teenage parent from a gender perspective. an exploratory design using grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. An interview guide was developed, a pilot study was undertaken, and interviews were performed on two different occasions: once during the second trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 5-6 months old. a province in the western part of Thailand. the selection of a heterogeneous group of teenage parents-to-be continued until saturation was reached, as describe by Glaser and Strauss (1967), in all n=50. Inclusion criteria for participants were that they were heterosexual couples, under 20 years of age, cohabiting, and expecting their first child. the core category 'struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood' comprises descriptions of the process from when the teenagers first learned about the pregnancy until the child was six months old. The teenagers had failed to use contraceptives which led to an unintended parenthood. Their parenthood became a turning point as the teenagers started to change their behaviours and lifestyle during pregnancy, and adapted their relationships to partner and family. Family commitments was a facilitator, through support given by their families. Finally, becoming a parent describes ways of dealing with the parental role, by engaging in parental activities and reestablishing goals in life. Most of the teenage parents reproduced traditional gender roles by being a caring mother or a breadwinning father respectively. 'struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood' referred to the parents' stories about how they struggled and coped with life changes and their parental role when they became unintentionally pregnant, accepted their parenting, and finally became parents. After becoming parents, the main concerns of most of the teenage parents
The qualitative research paradigm, although occasionally applied, is not widely discussed in agribusiness and agricultural economics literature. The primary goals of this paper are (a) to present insights into qualitative research approaches and processes by outlining grounded theory as an example of a systematic and rigorous qualitative approach, and (b) to discuss criteria for scientific rigor applicable to qualitative research. In addition, assessing qualitative research is demonstrated by...
Ali, Nancy; May, Stephen; Grafton, Kate
This systematic review aimed at appraising the methodological rigor of grounded theory research published in the field of physiotherapy to assess how the methodology is understood and applied. A secondary aim was to provide research implications drawn from the findings to guide future grounded theory methodology (GTM) research. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINHAL, SPORT Discus, Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify studies in the field of physiotherapy that reported using GTM and/or methods in the study title and/or abstract. The descriptive characteristics and methodological quality of eligible studies were examined using grounded theory methodology assessment guidelines. The review included 68 studies conducted between 1998 and 2017. The findings showed that GTM is becoming increasingly used by physiotherapy researchers. Thirty-six studies (53%) demonstrated a good understanding and appropriate application of GTM. Thirty-two studies (47%) presented descriptive findings and were considered to be of poor methodological quality. There are several key tenets of GTM that are integral to the iterative process of qualitative theorizing and need to be applied throughout all research practices including sampling, data collection, and analysis.
Puolakka, Kristiina; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Kiikkala, Irma; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Paavilainen, Eija
To discuss the creation of a substantive theory using grounded theory. This article provides an example of generating theory from a study of mental health promotion at a high school in Finland. Grounded theory is a method for creating explanatory theory. It is a valuable tool for health professionals when studying phenomena that affect patients' health, offering a deeper understanding of nursing methods and knowledge. Interviews with school employees, students and parents, and verbal responses to the 'school wellbeing profile survey', as well as working group memos related to the development activities. Participating children were aged between 12 and 15. The analysis was conducted by applying the grounded theory method and involved open coding of the material, constant comparison, axial coding and selective coding after identifying the core category. The analysis produced concepts about mental health promotion in school and assumptions about relationships. Grounded theory proved to be an effective means of eliciting people's viewpoints on mental health promotion. The personal views of different parties make it easier to identify an action applicable to practice.
Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James
Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.
Full Text Available Planning is a critical, early step on the path to successful program writing and a skill that is often lacking in novice programmers. As practitioners we are continually searching for or creating interventions to help our students, particularly those who struggle in the early stages of their computer science education. In this paper we report on our ongoing research of novice programming skills that utilizes the qualitative research method of grounded theory to develop theories and inform the construction of these interventions. We describe how grounded theory, a popular research method in the social sciences since the 1960’s, can lend formality and structure to the common practice of simply asking students what they did and why they did it. Further, we aim to inform the reader not only about our emerging theories on interventions for planning but also how they might collect and analyze their own data in this and other areas that trouble novice programmers. In this way those who lecture and design CS1 interventions can do so from a more informed perspective.
Roland Nino L. Agoncillo
Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of commitment to service in the community of educational partners in the Philippines. Educational partners are lay people who assist religious organizations in the field of education, and in the Philippines, about 96 percent of educational partners are in Lasallian schools and organizations. Educational partners are young professionals, volunteers between the ages of 24-39 who strive to live the teachings of St. John Baptist De La Salle. The volunteers aim to generate a spirit of service, a sense of mission to the youth. By using a classic Grounded Theory approach, the theory of becoming selfless was generated. The theory explains the stages educational partners undergo when resolving their organizational commitment to service. Organizational commitment is the psychological attachment, involvement and identification of the individual to the organization. Becoming selfless provides a theoretical focal point to better understand the complexity of commitment.
Afdini Rihlatul Mahmudah
Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is to explore students’ understanding of information entrepreneurship. This is a qualitative study using grounded theory. Selection of the method is based on research conducted purpose, namely to build a theory based on the views of respondents. The steps taken to obtain the data are interviews, observation, and document review. The data is analyzed based on data analysis model constructivism form of transcription of data and interpretation of data through open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. Because that’s grounded theory meant to know in depth understanding of information entrepreneurship is mainly done by the students. The study also covers entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity information extracted information from the perspective of students. The conclusion of this study is an entrepreneur information definition. That defi nition is work in the fi eld of information that can be done independently or in groups, with flexibility in the time and place of the work, in the form of search activity information, creating web and library systems, consulting libraries, teachers, and librarians to make money, add experience and knowledge, as well as develop social activities.
Brunstad, Anne; Hjälmhult, Esther
The labor ward is an important and challenging learning area for midwifery students. It is there the students learn in authentic complex situations, in intimate situations, with potential risk for the life and health of mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern expressed by midwifery students in labor wards and how they handled this concern. A longitudinal study based on grounded theory methodology was used. The participants were 10 postgraduate midwifery students, from a University College in Norway. Data were gathered and analyzed throughout the 2-year postgraduate program, in the students first, third and fourth semesters. Every student was interviewed three times in a total of 15 single and three focus-group sessions. The grounded theory of "building relationships" explains how students dealt with their main concern: "how to gain access to learning experiences". This theory consisted of three strategies; a) controlling vulnerability, b) cultivating trust and c) obtaining acceptance. Clarifying discussions involving midwives and students may facilitate the process of building relationships and contribute to confident learning. Students appreciate it when the midwives initiate discussions about acute situations and state that a novice may perceive labor and childbirth as more frightening than an experienced midwife would. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. Aims To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. Method This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) ‘How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?’ and (b) ‘How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?’ The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. Results This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Conclusions Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of ’empathetic engagement’. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243463
This paper offers a critical reflection upon the use of a grounded theory approach within a doctoral study. As well as providing an outline of grounded theory, it begins by noting the existence of some powerful critiques of a grounded theory approach, in particular around the key concepts of ‘theory’, ‘discovery’ and ‘ground’. It is argued that, in some cases, grounded theory struggles to counter these challenges, especially in its ‘purist’ forms. However, with reference to research carried o...
Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun; Jane Mills; Kim Usher
This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meanin...
Mills, Jane; Chapman, Ysanne; Bonner, Ann; Francis, Karen
Our aim in this paper is to explain a methodological/methods package devised to incorporate situational and social world mapping with frame analysis, based on a grounded theory study of Australian rural nurses' experiences of mentoring. Situational analysis, as conceived by Adele Clarke, shifts the research methodology of grounded theory from being located within a postpositivist paradigm to a postmodern paradigm. Clarke uses three types of maps during this process: situational, social world and positional, in combination with discourse analysis. During our grounded theory study, the process of concurrent interview data generation and analysis incorporated situational and social world mapping techniques. An outcome of this was our increased awareness of how outside actors influenced participants in their constructions of mentoring. In our attempts to use Clarke's methodological package, however, it became apparent that our constructivist beliefs about human agency could not be reconciled with the postmodern project of discourse analysis. We then turned to the literature on symbolic interactionism and adopted frame analysis as a method to examine the literature on rural nursing and mentoring as secondary form of data. While we found situational and social world mapping very useful, we were less successful in using positional maps. In retrospect, we would argue that collective action framing provides an alternative to analysing such positions in the literature. This is particularly so for researchers who locate themselves within a constructivist paradigm, and who are therefore unwilling to reject the notion of human agency and the ability of individuals to shape their world in some way. Our example of using this package of situational and social worlds mapping with frame analysis is intended to assist other researchers to locate participants more transparently in the social worlds that they negotiate in their everyday practice.
Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom
The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Classic grounded theory (CGT was used to identify a main concern of online students in higher education. One of the main impediments to studying online is a sense of isolation and lack of access to support systems as students navigate through complex requirements of their online programs. Hypothetical probability statements illustrate the imbalance between heightened needs of virtual learners and perceived inadequate support provided by educational institutions. The core variable, marshaling resources, explains how peer supports sustain motivation toward successful program completion. Understanding the critical contribution virtual interpersonal networks make towards maximizing resources by group problem solving is a significant aspect of this theory. Keywords: Online learning, e-learning, personal learning networks, peer networks
Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim
The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.
Wong, Christina; Lucas, Beverley; Wood, Diana
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides nourishment and hydration as an intravenous infusion to patients with intestinal failure (IF). The aim of the study is to generate theory that explains the experiences of adult patients living with home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and complex medication regimens. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the experiences of twelve patients receiving HPN. A semi-structured interview was conducted and recorded in each participant's home setting. Each interview was transcribed verbatim. The simultaneous process of data collection and analysis was followed reflecting the principles of the constant comparative approach. A total of 15 patients gave written consent, with 12 of them agreeing to be interviewed. All the participants had previously undergone surgery as a result of chronic ill health or sudden illness. Analysis revealed two core categories: stoma and HPN, and these were supported by the subcategories: maintaining stoma output, access to toilets, managing dietary changes, maintaining the HPN infusion routine, access to technical help to set up an HPN infusion, mobility with HPN equipment and general health changes. The strategy of living with loss was demonstrated by all the participants, and this was supported by the action strategies of maintaining daily activities and social interactions. This study generates new understanding and insight into the views and experiences of patients receiving HPN in the UK. The findings from these participants have been shown to resonate with the Kubler-Ross Model  of the five stages of grief. The theory of living with loss was generated by the use of a grounded theory methodology. This small scale exploratory study reveals opportunities for improvements in practice to be considered by the nutrition support team (NST) and other healthcare professionals involved in the patient's hospital stay prior to discharge on HPN. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and
Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean
Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…
Boyd, Tom; Gumley, Andrew
Recently there has been a large volume of research on persecutory paranoia. Evidence has emerged for the role of social factors in the development of paranoia. There have, however, been no studies that have collaborated with users to develop an experiential perspective on paranoia. This study used a social constructionist version of grounded theory to develop an experiential perspective on persecutory paranoia. Ten individuals who had experience of persecutory paranoia were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the grounded theory method. A core process of fear and vulnerability was constructed. Subcategories of confusion and uncertainty, and self under attack contributed to the core process. These processes led to an engaging of the safety systems. Subthemes of these categories were identified. Many of these factors interacted to create the complex and dynamic experience of paranoia. Participants were often responding to genuinely frightening experiences but were also attacking themselves. Paranoia evolved as a mechanism of keeping oneself safe in dangerous situations. The need to negotiate a shared meaning of paranoia with users is emphasized. Direction for future research was discussed.
Dinmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Peyrovi, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda
Introduction: Professional socialization is a critical aspect of nursing students' development, which begins with entry into the nursing program and continues when their professional practice begins. The aim of this study was to explore the socialization of Iranian BSN students in the nursing profession. Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach utilizing Straussian version of the grounded theory (1998) method was used. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 participants chosen from two large nursing schools in an urban area through purposive and theoretical sampling. The data were analyzed, using the constant comparative method. Results: Five main categories and eleven subcategories emerged and integrated around one core category. Professional metamorphosis as the core variable was a complex and interrelated process (consisting of three stages: dependence, disintegration, and integration) with dynamic, ongoing, and personal features influenced by professional and extra-professional context. The students assumed a passive role in the initial of their studies. However, during the last year of the educational program, they gradually involved actively in dealing with own personal and professional issues. Conclusion: This study introduced "professional metamorphosis of BSN students" as a substantive grounded theory in the socio-cultural context of the health care system in Iran. During this process, students move from outsider personal position to insider professional position. The nurse educators and administrators may develop effective educational interventions to promote professional socialization of students with an understanding of the promoting and driving forces influencing socialization.
Seyedeh Narjes Mousavizadeh
Full Text Available Background: Poor adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to treatment is one of the most complex and important clinical concerns. It is the main issue of the present decade and acknowledged as a challenge to control and treat diabetes. This study was carried out to explore and understand how adherence to treatment process occurs among Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The present study is qualitative with grounded theory approach. The data were collected from December 2015 to July 2016 in Tehran (Iran through individual semi-structured in-depth interviews, field notes, and memos from 21 patients with type 2 diabetes; combined with two members of their families and a healthcare professional. The data were analyzed based on Corbin and Strauss constant comparative analysis (2008. Results: Adherence to treatment is a transitional, interactive, and continuous process. For patients with diabetes, this process includes unperceived threat in diagnosis time (poor knowledge and skills, bottleneck of dependencies, superficial understanding of the new situation, bitter belief (downhill quality of life, physical and emotional treatment feedbacks, and adaptation to treatment (self-care dominance, regimen integration in daily activities. The process of adherence to treatment was influenced by knowledge and skill, social support, beliefs and values, psychological characteristics of people, and the nature of diabetes. Conclusion: Adherence to treatment in Iranian people with diabetes depends on the family and social context, which is challenging for the patient and leads to the negligence of health behaviors. It is vital for healthcare providers to identify these factors to encourage patients to adhere and commit to treatment in order to prevent irreversible complications of diabetes.
Mousavizadeh, Seyedeh Narjes; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Zandi, Mitra
Poor adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to treatment is one of the most complex and important clinical concerns. It is the main issue of the present decade and acknowledged as a challenge to control and treat diabetes. This study was carried out to explore and understand how adherence to treatment process occurs among Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study is qualitative with grounded theory approach. The data were collected from December 2015 to July 2016 in Tehran (Iran) through individual semi-structured in-depth interviews, field notes, and memos from 21 patients with type 2 diabetes; combined with two members of their families and a healthcare professional. The data were analyzed based on Corbin and Strauss constant comparative analysis (2008). Adherence to treatment is a transitional, interactive, and continuous process. For patients with diabetes, this process includes unperceived threat in diagnosis time (poor knowledge and skills, bottleneck of dependencies, superficial understanding of the new situation), bitter belief (downhill quality of life, physical and emotional treatment feedbacks), and adaptation to treatment (self-care dominance, regimen integration in daily activities). The process of adherence to treatment was influenced by knowledge and skill, social support, beliefs and values, psychological characteristics of people, and the nature of diabetes. Adherence to treatment in Iranian people with diabetes depends on the family and social context, which is challenging for the patient and leads to the negligence of health behaviors. It is vital for healthcare providers to identify these factors to encourage patients to adhere and commit to treatment in order to prevent irreversible complications of diabetes.
Churg-Strauss syndrome is an uncommon disease of unknown cause described initially by Churg and Strauss in 1951. Even though it was initially thought to be a variant of polyarteritis nodosa, its pathological, clinical, and laboratory features show that it is related to the small vessel vasculitides, and it is now classified as an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. The presence of asthma, usually of adult onset, along with other allergic symptoms, peripheral and tissue eosinophilia, is specific to this disease. These features usually help clinicians distinguish it from other types of small vessel vasculitis and should alert clinicians about its presence. Two different clinical subtypes defined by the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies recently have been recognized. Recent advances in the treatment and pathophysiology of Churg-Strauss syndrome are reviewed in this article.
This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.
Édgar Alberto Sánchez Morales
Full Text Available El Síndrome de Churg-Strauss denominado Granulomatosis alérgica y angeitis está caracterizado por una vasculitis sistémica de pequeños vasos, granulo mas extravasculares e hipereosinofilia. Inicialmente descrito por Jacob Churg y Lotte Strauss, dos patólogos quienes en 1951 publicaron la descripción de 13 pacientes postmortem con infiltración tisular por eosinófilos, vasculitis necrotizante y granulomas extravasculares (3; los casos descritos tenían clínicamente asma severa, fiebre, hipereosinofilia y evidencia de anormalidades vasculares en varios órganos y sistemas.
Juliana Monteiro de Barros
Full Text Available A síndrome de Churg-Strauss caracteriza-se por asma, eosinofilia e graus variados de vasculite sistêmica. As formas mais graves com acometimento cardíaco, gastrintestinal, sistema nervoso central e renal requerem ciclofosfamida para seu tratamento.Churg-Strauss syndrome is characterized by asthma, eosinophilia and various degrees of systemic vasculitis. The most severe forms of the disease, presenting cardiac, gastrointestinal, central nervous system and renal involvement, require cyclophosphamide therapy.
Khaldoun M. Aldiabat
Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.
MacFarlane, Peter; Anderson, Timothy; McClintock, Andrew S
Although empathy is one of most robust predictors of client outcome, there is little consensus about how best to conceptualize this construct. The aim of the present research was to investigate clients' perceptions and in-session experiences of empathy. Semi-structured, video-assisted interpersonal process recall interviews were used to collect data from nine clients receiving individual psychotherapy at a university psychology clinic. Grounded theory analysis yielded a model consisting of three clusters: (1) relational context of empathy (i.e., personal relationship and professional relationship), (2) types of empathy (i.e., psychotherapists' cognitive empathy, psychotherapists' emotional empathy, and client attunement to psychotherapist), and (3) utility of empathy (i.e., process-related benefits and client-related benefits). These results suggest that empathy is a multi-dimensional, interactional process that affects-and is affected by-the broader relationship between client and psychotherapist.
Full Text Available The genesis and development of grounded theory method (GTM is evaluated with reference to sociology's attempt to demarcate exclusive referents of inquiry. The links of objectivist GTM to positivistic terminology and to the natural scientific distinction from "common sense" are explored. It is then considered how the biological sciences have prompted reorientation towards constructivist GTM, underpinned by the metaphysics of social constructionism. GTM has been shaped by the endeavor to attain the sense of exactitude associated with positivism, whilst also seeking exclusive referents of inquiry that are distinct from the empirical realm of the natural sciences. This has generated complex research techniques underpinned by tortuous methodological debate: eschewing the perceived requirement to define and defend an academic niche could help to facilitate the development of a more useful and pragmatic orientation to qualitative social research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203261
Janet Witucki Brown
Full Text Available This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers.
Witucki Brown, Janet; Chen, Shu-li; Mefford, Linda; Brown, Allie; Callen, Bonnie; McArthur, Polly
This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category) for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers. PMID:21994824
Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of business administration using the classic grounded theory method. Business administration is mostly driven by political games between top-level corporate managers. The main concern of the managers I met was that they wanted to be more politically successful. For them, success meant being able to change regularly the course of decisions and action within their firm. The study led to the emergence of a core variable called political intelligentizing. Political intelligentizing explains the recurrent main concern that these managers have to resolve, and it explains the competences managers have to combine to succeed regularly in organisational politics. They resolve their main problem through political intelligentizing which consists in acquiring, developing and combining six specific skills: time matching, rhetorical fitting, silence juggling, strategic forward-thinking, strategic interacting and relationing.
Sonya S. Lowe
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity has demonstrated benefits in cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients, however the role of physical activity at the end stage of cancer has not been established. To challenge positivist–empiricist assumptions, I am seeking to develop a new theoretical framework that is grounded in the advanced cancer patient’s experience of activity. Aim: To gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients. Objectives: (1 To explore the meaning of activity for advanced cancer patients in the context of their day-to-day life, (2 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ perceptions of activity with respect to their quality of life, and (3 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ views of barriers and facilitators to activity in the context of their day-to-day life. Study Design: A two-phase, cross-sectional, qualitative study will be conducted through the postpositivist lens of subtle realism and informed by the principles of grounded theory methods. Study Methods: Advanced cancer patients will be recruited through the outpatient department of a tertiary cancer center. For Phase one, participants will wear an activPAL™ activity monitor and fill out a daily record sheet for seven days duration. For Phase two, the activity monitor output and daily record sheets will be used as qualitative probes for face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Concurrent coding, constant comparative analysis, and theoretical sampling will continue with the aim of achieving as close as possible to theoretical saturation. Ethics and Discussion: Ethical and scientific approval will be obtained by all local institutional review boards prior to study commencement. The findings will generate new mid-level theory about the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients and aid in the development of a new theoretical framework for designing
Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are among major causes of death all over the world. In Iran, it has become a social problem, with lots of people involved in; and the youth include the most victims of traffic accidents. Objectives: The main objective of this research is to review the experience of the youth (18–24 years old in Tehran, Iran with traffic accidents, and to develop a model to specify the factors. Methods: This study is based on Grounded Theory, in which a sample group of 50 young people, 18–24 years old, in Tehran, Iran, were selected and interviewed, using stratified purposive and snowball sampling method. Data is mainly collected by interviewing the youth in 7 key topics. To analyze the data, Grounded Theory is used through production of themes, components and concepts. Results: There are 11 general components for traffic accidents according to the ideas of the youth which will come in 3 categories including: individual factors (emotions, sensory-motor skills, and physical-mental health; environmental factors (road and traffic problems, a companion, using cellphone, or front individual, including carless drivers or passersby; and underlying factors (gender, legal and cultural infrastructures. And finally, the core category of carelessness, which is the leading cause in traffic accidents. Conclusion: The findings indicate that a chain of various factors may cause traffic accidents with lots of devastating consequences. It is therefore necessary to modify driving culture, to internalize the attitude of caution, to use polyhedral strategies, and to apply them all correctly.
Full Text Available The importance of understanding park planning issues and implementing planning strategies for ageing adults was the driving force for this study. Literature reviews have identified a variety of scholarly work from fields such as gerontology, psychology, sociology and economics, all of which provide valuable information regarding the special needs of ageing adults. Very few researchers, however, have investigated the leisure behaviours of older adults in outdoor recreation (Croskeys, Tinsley and Tinsley, 2002 and the use of grounded theory methodology has essentially been unexplored in this area. Ageing adults are projected to live more than 20 percent of their life in retirement (MRP, 1998, cited in Croskeys, Tinsley and Tinsley, 2002, allowing for an increased amount of discretionary time. This offers opportunities for ageing adults to participate in outdoor recreational activities and will undoubtedly increase their leisure time. However, with limited research in recreational needs and inclusion for older adults, it is difficult for park planners and administrators to meet the growing needs of this population. Therefore, this research is necessary in order to determine whether ageing adults are being accounted for in park and outdoor recreational planning. The objective of this study was to use grounded theory research methodology to identify and examine ageing adult needs in relation to outdoor leisure activities in a regional park setting. Ten Midwestern regional park visitors (aged 65-75 years old and four park employees were interviewed. Our research attempts to fill in the gaps between the perceptions of ageing park users and those of park planners, using a methodology that relies primarily on direct contact with park visitors.
Zhdan, Vyacheslav М; Kitura, Yevdokiia М; Kitura, Oksana Ye; Babanina, Maryna Yu; Tkachenko, Maksym V; Lebid, Volodymyr G
A clinical case of Churg-Strauss syndrome has been reported on the 53-year-old female patient Ts. with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The main clinical signs and syndromes depending on the stage of the disease are presented, as well as therapeutic treatment of patients with this disease.
Fernandes, Gabriel Lacerda; Teixeira, Arivaldo Araújo; Antón, Ana Graziela Santana; Reis, Alan Timóteo Rodrigues; de Freitas, Ana Carolina Rezende; Basílio, Dunya Bachour
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic disease primarily characterized by hypereosinophilia, asthma and vasculitis. The lung is the organ most frequently involved. In the present report, the authors describe a relatively rare finding in this disease - the presence of a pulmonary nodule -, while recalling the main radiological findings and the most relevant differential diagnoses. PMID:25741095
Fernandes, Gabriel Lacerda; Reis, Alan Timoteo Rodrigues; Freitas, Ana Carolina Rezende de; Basilio, Dunya Bachour, E-mail: email@example.com [Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal (HBDF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Teixeira, Arivaldo Araujo [Diagnostico das Americas (DASA/Exame-Pasteur), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Anton, Ana Graziela Santana [Hospital Brasilia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic disease primarily characterized by hypereosinophilia, asthma and vasculitis. The lung is the organ most frequently involved. In the present report, the authors describe a relatively rare finding in this disease - the presence of a pulmonary nodule -, while recalling the main radiological findings and the most relevant differential diagnoses. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity.
Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Grimshaw-Aagaard, Søsserr Lone Smilla; Hansen, Carrinna
theory research studies. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1: A structured literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Libraries, PsycInfo and SCOPUS to identify recommendations for reporting and evaluating grounded theory. Phase 2: A selective review of the methodological grounded theory...
Babchuk, Wayne A.
This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…
Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi
To describe the challenges in combining two data sets during grounded theory analysis. The use of grounded theory in nursing research is common. It is a suitable method for studying human action and interaction. It is recommended that many alternative sources of data are collected to create as rich a dataset as possible. Data from interviews with people with diabetes (n=19) and their family members (n=19). Combining two data sets. When using grounded theory, there are numerous challenges in collecting and managing data, especially for the novice researcher. One challenge is to combine different data sets during the analysis. There are many methodological textbooks about grounded theory but there is little written in the literature about combining different data sets. Discussion is needed on the management of data and the challenges of grounded theory. This article provides a means for combining different data sets in the grounded theory analysis process.
Mohsen Tavokol; S Torabi; AA Zeialoo
This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided.
Full Text Available This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided.
Markey, Kathleen; Tilki, Mary; Taylor, Georgina
To explore three different approaches to grounded theory and consider some of the possible philosophical assumptions underpinning them. Grounded theory is a comprehensive yet complex methodology that offers a procedural structure that guides the researcher. However, divergent approaches to grounded theory present dilemmas for novice researchers seeking to choose a suitable research method. This is a methodology paper. This is a reflexive paper that explores some of the challenges experienced by a PhD student when choosing and operationalising a grounded theory approach. Before embarking on a study, novice grounded theory researchers should examine their research beliefs to assist them in selecting the most suitable approach. This requires an insight into the approaches' philosophical assumptions, such as those pertaining to ontology and epistemology. Researchers need to be clear about the philosophical assumptions underpinning their studies and the effects that different approaches will have on the research results. This paper presents a personal account of the journey of a novice grounded theory researcher who chose a grounded theory approach and worked within its theoretical parameters. Novice grounded theory researchers need to understand the different philosophical assumptions that influence the various grounded theory approaches, before choosing one particular approach.
Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia
To develop a theory that offered an evidence-based insight into the use of teleconsultation by nurses. Teleconsultation is the use of video to facilitate real-time, remote interaction between healthcare practitioners and patients. Although its popularity is growing, there is little understanding of how teleconsultation impacts on the role of nurses. The study adopted a constructivist grounded theory method, supplemented by the use of Straussian analytical approaches. Using selective and theoretical approaches, registered nurses with experience of using video in health care were sampled. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews exploring experiences, knowledge and feelings surrounding teleconsultation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and subjected to three-stage, nonlinear manual analysis (open, axial and selective coding). Theoretical saturation occurred after 17 interviews. The core category identified from the data was 'nursing presence' Four subcategories of nursing presence were identified: operational, clinical, therapeutic and social. The degree to which presence could be achieved was dependent upon three influencing factors - enablers, constraints and compensation. Nurses provide different types of presence during teleconsultation, with the degree of presence dependent on specific characteristics of video-mediated communication. Where the use of video constrains the delivery of presence, nurses use a range of compensatory mechanisms to enhance patient care. Teleconsultation provides an innovative approach to enhancing the delivery of health care. This study provides nurses with insight into the impact of teleconsultation on their professional role, and an understanding of how best to use video-mediated communication to support patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon
National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena.
Anderson, Sharon; Keating, Norah C; Wilson, Donna M
Marriages are one of the most powerful predictors of health and longevity, yet research in stroke has focused separately on survivors' experience of impairments and how spouses deal with caregiving. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to understand the key themes related to reconstruction or breakdown of marriages after stroke. In semi-structured interviews, 18 couples in long-term marriages discussed how their marriages were reconstructed or broke down after one member of the couple returned home after being hospitalized for a stroke. Constant comparison methods were used to compare the experiences of 12 couples in which both partners indicated their relationship was going well with 6 couples who either separated or remained in parallel marriages. Analysis revealed an overarching process of reconstructing compatible role-identities and three themes related to the reconstruction or breakdown of the marital identity: feeling overwhelmed, resolving conflict, and perceiving value in the marriage. Our findings highlight that marriages are contexts in which survivors and spouses can recalibrate their role-identities. Marriage relationships are not peripheral to survivors' and spouses' outcomes after stroke; rather, marriage is fundamental to the management of impairments and to the well-being of the couple.
Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry
Recovery is government mandated and a core facet of mental health reform. However, Recovery implementation in this country (Australia) has been inhibited by a lack of education of, and understanding from, clinicians. A grounded theory study was undertaken to explore the potential and existing role of lived experience practitioners in assisting meaningful implementations of Recovery within the Australian mental health sector. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 people employed to work from a lived experience perspective. The findings suggest participants have experienced and observed significant barriers to the implementation of Recovery-focused practice while operating in lived experience roles. Three main issues emerged: (1) Recovery co-opted, (2) Recovery uptake, and (3) Recovery denial. For a genuine Recovery-focused mental health system to be developed, lived experience practitioners must be enabled to take their role as Recovery experts and leaders. Lived experience practitioners are the logical leaders of Recovery implementation due to their own internal experience and understandings of Recovery and the wider lived experience movement's development and championing of the concepts.
Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Liamtrirat, Saowanee
The objective of this study was to explore the process of transition into fatherhood for Thai men from childbirth to the postpartum period. Forty-one first-time Thai fathers were voluntarily recruited from two hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from December 2012 to June 2013. In-depth interviews were used to collect the data, which were analyzed based on grounded theory methodology. The basic social process that emerged as the core category was termed: "the journey into fatherhood." This process was divided into three phases: labor, delivery, and family beginning. Within this process, there were various situations, challenges, and pressures, which caused many changes of mood and feelings for the first-time fathers. Throughout this process, they applied various strategies to manage their concerns and needs, in order to develop into masterly fathers. Identifying the process of the journey into fatherhood provides nurses and midwives insight into the new fathers' experiences, which will enable them to be more sensitive, respectful, and effective caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret; Pinder, Sarah; Ross, Lori E
Bisexual people constitute the largest sexual minority group in North America and experience significant mental health disparities in relation to heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians. In this article, we will examine the process and experience of help seeking among bisexuals. This was a community-based study that collected qualitative interview data from 41 diverse bisexual people from across Ontario, Canada. We analyzed the interview data using grounded theory and constructed an understanding of bisexuals' experiences of help seeking. We have conceptualized an overarching model that illustrates 4 interrelated stages: (a) the consideration of services, (b) the process of finding services, (c) barriers and facilitators to accessing services, and (d) experience of service utilization. This model is nonlinear, in that participants do not necessarily move through stages in sequence. Although many stages are experienced at the individual level, they are simultaneously informed by multiple factors at interpersonal and system levels. Our findings suggest a need for interventions at the policy, service and provider levels to improve accessibility of culturally competent services for this population. Understanding the mental health experiences of bisexual people will allow mental health professionals to build competencies working with this population and thereby contribute to a reduction in mental health disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon
National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523
Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim
The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohr, Lynn D; Hamilton, Rebekah J
This purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical account of how adolescents aged 13 to 18 years process the experience of having an ostomy. Qualitative study using grounded theory design. The sample comprised of 12 English-speaking adolescents aged 13-18 years: 10 with an ostomy and 2 with medical management of their disease. Respondents completed audio-recorded interviews that were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred. Dedoose, a Web-based qualitative methods management tool, was used to capture major themes arising from the data. Study results indicate that for adolescents between 13 and 18 years of age, processing the experience of having an ostomy includes concepts of the "physical self" and "social self" with the goal of "normalizing." Subcategories of physical self include (a) changing reality, (b) learning, and (c) adapting. Subcategories of social self include (a) reentering and (b) disclosing. This study sheds light on how adolescents process the experience of having an ostomy and how health care providers can assist adolescents to move through the process to get back to their desired "normal" state. Health care providers can facilitate the adolescent through the ostomy experience by being proactive in conversations not only about care issues but also about school and family concerns and spirituality. Further research is needed in understanding how parents process their adolescents' ostomy surgery experience and how spirituality assists adolescents in coping and adjustment with body-altering events.
Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul
Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.
The study aim was to identify the process underlying the performance of agency for urban-dwelling Aboriginal women in contemporary Australian society with a view to promoting social change for Aboriginal people. Grounded theory methods were used in the conduct of 20 life history narrative interviews with Aboriginal women from across fourteen different language groups. Analysis identified a specific ecological model of Aboriginal women's empowerment, defined as "becoming empowered". "Performing Aboriginality" was identified as the core category and encompassed the women's concern for carving out a fulfilling life and carrying out their perceived responsibilities as Aboriginal women. While confirming much of the extant literature on empowerment, the analysis also offered unique contributions--a spiritual sensibility, cultural competence and an ethics of care and morality. This sheds new light on the creative ways in which Aboriginal women "disrupt" discourses and create alternate modes of existence. The findings have implications for improving quality of life for Aboriginal people by informing the practical development and delivery of social and health policies and programs.
Alvita K. Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC
Full Text Available Moral distress is a pervasive problem in nursing, contributing to nurses’ emotional and physical health problems, loss of nurses’ ethical integrity,dissatisfaction with the work of nursing, and loss of nurses from the workforce. The purpose of this research was twofold: 1 to further elucidate the experiences and consequences of professional nurses’ moral distress and 2 to formulate a logical, systematic, and explanatory theory of moral distress and its consequences. METHOD: This Glaserian grounded theory study utilizedvolunteer and purposive sampling to recruit 21 registered nurses. Analysis of the data resulted in an original substantive theory of moral reckoning in nursing, which reaches further than the concept of moral distress, identifying a critical juncture in nurses’ lives and better explaining a process that affects nurses and the health care that they deliver. Results: Moral reckoning in nursing consists of a three-stage process. After a novice period, the nurse experiences a Stage of Ease in which there is comfort in the workplace and congruence of internal and external values. Unexpectedly, a situational bind occurs in which the nurse’s core beliefs come into irreconcilable conflict with social norms. This forces the nurse out of the Stage of Ease into the Stage of Resolution, in which the nurseeither gives up or makes a stand. The nurse then moves into the Stage of Reflection in which beliefs, values, and actions are iteratively examined. The nurse tries to make sense of experiences through remembering, telling the story, examining conflicts, and living with the consequences. Implications: In today’s complex health care system, nurses find themselves faced with morally troubling situations which if not resolved can lead to serious consequences for nurses, patients, and the health care system as a whole. This study sets the stage for further investigation on the human consequences of moral distress. Further, since moral
This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…
Jones, Laura Estella
The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…
Bonnet, R; Bertin, H; Delemazure, A S; Clairand, R; Mercier, J; Corre, P
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic vascularitis. This disease causes eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The most frequent manifestations are cortico-dependent asthma, mono- or polyneuropathy, paranasal sinus polyposis, and digestive and renal dysfunction. Salivary glands are very rarely involved. We describe a case of CSS in a patient presenting with bilateral parotid swelling. The morphological study of salivary glands revealed an unusual thickening of the salivary duct walls. Salivary gland involvement in Churg and Strauss syndrome can be difficult to demonstrate histologically; it does not usually present in the clinical foreground of the disease, and can be a source of misdiagnosis. The biopsy should be performed in the symptomatic gland, away from any previous corticoid treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to Claude Levi-Strauss and his structural reading of opera as metaphorical ‘composing’ of an anthropological grand opera, materialized in the four-volume study of Mythologiques, which refers to Wagner’s tetralogy of The Ring. He created a type of comparative view of the function and structure of myth schemes in Amerindian culture and the orchestral scores of Wagner’s operas, and implicitly signalled that European music, with its eminent representation – opera – has had the same value or similar symbolic position in the mind and life of a contemporary European that myth has had in ‘the savage mind’. Through this, he can lead us to the understanding of opera as myth and metaphor. However, the paper extends the discussion on Levi-Strauss to a broader historical picture of the relationship between opera and mythology as two symbolic systems of European culture.
Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L
Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sbaraini, Alexandra; Carter, Stacy M; Evans, R Wendell; Blinkhorn, Anthony
Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Grounded theory is the methodology most-often cited by authors of qualitative studies in medicine, but it has been suggested that many 'grounded theory' studies are not concordant with the methodology. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice. We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.
Stocker, Rachel; Close, Helen
In this article the authors present the recent discovery of a novel method of supplementing written grounded theory memos with voice recording, the combination of which may provide significant analytical advantages over solely the traditional written method. Memo writing is an essential component of a grounded theory study, however it is often…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Grounded theory is the methodology most-often cited by authors of qualitative studies in medicine, but it has been suggested that many 'grounded theory' studies are not concordant with the methodology. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Methods We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice. Results We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. Conclusions By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.
Uengwongsapat, C; Kantaruksa, K; Klunklin, A; Sansiriphun, N
Becoming an adolescent father is a significant and critical life event. Expectant fathers are faced with a concurrent dual developmental crisis: being an adolescent and becoming a father. This transition has a tremendous impact on these adolescents, their families and society. The impact on these individuals and society does not, at this point, seem to be clearly understood. To explore the process of Thai adolescents becoming first-time fathers with an unplanned pregnancy during their girlfriend's pregnancy. A grounded theory approach was used, drawing upon semi-structured interviews with 16 expectant fathers in Chiang Mai, Thailand. 'Growing into teen fatherhood' was the basic social process that emerged as the core category. These fathers used this process for developing themselves to fatherhood. This process was further divided into three phases: enduring the conflict of future role, accepting impending fatherhood and developing a sense of being teen expectant father. Throughout this process, the participants encountered many conflicts and challenges. They employed various strategies to manage the emotional, financial and interpersonal challenges they faced during the transition to fatherhood. This study provides data as well as anecdotal evidence for healthcare professionals to better understand adolescent fathers and their unique challenges during their girlfriend's pregnancy. A better understanding of these rich findings will enable healthcare professionals to assist young men and boys in their struggle to transition to fatherhood. Our data may guide policymakers in developing support groups, effective mentoring programs and national follow-up services as standard services in hospitals' care for first-time adolescent fathers in Thailand. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Rose, C; Howard, R
Coeliac disease can be controlled only through adherence to a gluten-free diet. This diet is highly restrictive and can be challenging to maintain. It has been linked with elevated levels of psychological distress, including depression, anxiety and social phobia. Narratives on living with coeliac disease were written by 130 adult members of Coeliac UK (mean age 52.7 years; mean time since diagnosis 10.2 years; 67% sample female; 28% male). Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods identified five key categories: living with widespread ignorance; social invisibility; creating a coeliac community; a changed identity; grief - and accepting the trade-off. A psychosocial model of living with coeliac disease was constructed from the findings, the central category of which was the changed identity of those diagnosed with the condition. Grief was experienced in relation to a loss of the former diet, changed personal and social identities, loss of social confidence and loss of social activities. Grief was generally mitigated over time as adjustments were made to changes in identity and lifestyle. Creating (or becoming part of) a coeliac community was a strategy enabling those with coeliac disease to re-establish their identities and increase social recognition and acceptance of the condition. Gluten-free living entails a substantial restriction of food choice. The losses and changes entailed impact on the personal and social identities of those living with coeliac disease, and on the behaviour of others towards them. Psychosocial interventions focussed on facilitating coping and adjustment may benefit those experiencing difficulties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Chambers, David W; Lyon, Lucinda J
To conduct an empirical investigation using qualitative techniques of the way dentists engage in the process of reading a technique-oriented journal article and what they pay attention to in the process. Grounded theory was used to identify how dentists read an article describing the fabrication of an interim prosthesis in the esthetic zone. Twenty-one experienced practitioners were videotaped, and their verbatim reflections were coded. The sequence of attending to various features of the paper was noted. Ninety-five percent of readers voiced specific, multiple attempts to identify or refine the main purpose of the article as they processed the material. All readers engaged in various activities to navigate through the article, including skipping and backtracking, and none "read" the article straight through. All readers also made repeated observations about the relevance of the technique to their personal practice situation. Eighty percent used some form of "distancing," whereby the content and value of the article were accepted, but the reader reserved the privilege of not being bound by the results because of technical, sponsorship, or methodological issues that "might be present." The quality of photographs was accepted as a proxy for the quality of technical work performed. Dentists actively customized the reading of a journal article that described a technical procedure. They imposed a non-linear structure for absorbing information and a standard of personal relevance, and, while accepting the results, created reasons for not necessarily having to accept them as applicable. The approach clinicians use in reading a procedural article may be different from the structure writers use in preparing a paper. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Full Text Available Kathy CHARMAZ is one of the most important thinkers in grounded theory methodology today. Her trailblazing work on constructivist grounded theory continues to inspire research across many disciplines and around the world. In this interview, she reflects on the aura surrounding qualitative inquiry that existed in California in the late 1960s to early 1970s and the lessons she learned from her first forays into empirical research. She comments on the trajectory that grounded theory research has followed since then and gives an account of her own perspective on constructivist grounded theory. In doing so, she underlines the importance of the Chicago School and symbolic interactionist tradition for grounded theory research work today and shows where the latter is positioned in the current field of qualitative fieldwork. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1601165
Klunklin, Areewan; Greenwood, Jennifer
Although it is generally acknowledged that symbolic interactionism and grounded theory are connected, the precise nature of their connection remains implicit and unexplained. As a result, many grounded theory studies are undertaken without an explanatory framework. This in turn results in the description rather than the explanation of data determined. In this report, the authors make explicit and explain the nature of the connections between symbolic interactionism and grounded theory research. Specifically, they make explicit the connection between Blumer's methodological principles and processes and grounded theory methodology. In addition, the authors illustrate the explanatory power of symbolic interactionism in grounded theory using data from a study of the HIV/AIDS experiences of married and widowed Thai women.
Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.
We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state ...
Odis E. Simmons, PhD
Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.
Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.
Highlights: → The ground state overlap for sets of meson potential trial states is measured. → Non-uniform gluonic distributions are probed via Wilson loop operator. → The locally UV-regulated flux-tube operators can optimize the ground state overlap. - Abstract: We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.
Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.
We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.
Albahri, Ziad; Minxová, Lenka; Lukeš, Antonín; Mawiri, Abdul Al; Štefáčková, Šárka
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare form of small-vessel vasculitis. In the current report, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Czech girl predominantly characterized by peripheral neuropathy, the presence of cardiac and pulmonary involvement, hypereosinophilia, asthma, and sinusitis that led to the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome. © The Author(s) 2013.
Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J
In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.
Soloni Afra Pires Levy
Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma mulher de 25 anos com síndrome de Churg-Strauss, cujos sintomas surgiram aos dezesseis anos, logo após o início do uso de contraceptivo oral. O quadro clínico evoluiu rapidamente com asma persistente grave, polipose nasal, rinite perene obstrutiva, eosinofilia periférica e tecidual, e mononeurite. A síndrome de Churg-Strauss é uma doença que exige suspeita precoce, diagnóstico preciso, tratamento agressivo e monitoramento periódico, devendo ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial de asma persistente moderada e grave. O caso relatado chama a atenção para possível participação hormonal e surgimento em idade precoce.We report the case of a 25-year-old woman with Churg-Strauss syndrome, the symptoms of which had first appeared soon after she began taking oral contraceptive at the age of sixteen. The clinical profile evolved rapidly to severe persistent asthma, nasal polyposis, perennial obstructive rhinitis, eosinophilia (peripheral/tissue and mononeuritis. Churg-Strauss syndrome is the type of disease that demands early detection, accurate diagnosis, aggressive treatment and periodic monitoring. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of moderate and severe persistent asthma. The case reported calls attention to possibility that there is a hormonal component and that the disease can present early onset.
Haggsträm, Fábio Maraschin
Conclusão: apesar de infreqüente, a síndrome de Churg-Strauss deve sempre fazer parte do diagnóstico diferencial da asma de difícil controle, em razão do seu prognóstico desfavorável e da boa resposta ao tratamento
Qualitative methods such as phenomenology and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. A description and comparison of these methods. Phenomenology emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of phenomenology include life world, consciousness, phenomenological reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. There are differences in the philosophical approach, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the phenomenological method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Crooks, D L
A variety of grounded theory studies are presented in this issue of Health Care for Women International that attend to different factors and situations impacting women's health. In this paper I will provide the basic principles of symbolic interactionism (SI) for the reader unfamiliar with the conceptual underpinnings of the grounded theory research method. I will discuss why SI is a fitting perspective for use in the study of women, women's perspectives, and women's health. I will conclude with a brief discussion of challenges to researchers maintaining the symbolic interaction perspective in grounded theory research.
Cheer, Karen; MacLaren, David; Tsey, Komla
Researchers are increasingly using grounded theory methodologies to study the professional experience of nurses and midwives. To review common grounded theory characteristics and research design quality as described in grounded theory studies of coping strategies used by nurses and midwives. A systematic database search for 2005-2015 identified and assessed grounded theory characteristics from 16 studies. Study quality was assessed using a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Grounded theory was considered a methodology or a set of methods, able to be used within different nursing and midwifery contexts. Specific research requirements determined the common grounded theory characteristics used in different studies. Most researchers did not clarify their epistemological and theoretical perspectives. To improve research design and trustworthiness of grounded theory studies in nursing and midwifery, researchers need to state their theoretical stance and clearly articulate their use of grounded theory methodology and characteristics in research reporting.
Tamulis, Bron Cohen
In taking up the topic of political leadership, I seek to analyze the legacy of social science in light of the sobering political events of the twentieth century. This dissertation is a composite study of the work of two philosophers, and, specifically, what they endeavored to accomplish by thinking and writing on the subject of politics. I concentrated on the post-War landscape, and the philosophers Louis Althusser and Leo Strauss, in order to analyze the way in which the figure of Machiav...
Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie
All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…
The objective of this research was to explore the co-creation of person-centred records, to support memory, identity and personhood, with the person diagnosed with early stage dementia. This thesis describes the design of a second generation grounded theory methodology and applied archival research. With its postmodern, continuum and social constructionist influences second generation grounded theory sees a shift in how we understand the researcher’s interaction with participants in a study...
Syed Jamil Abdal
Full Text Available A rare and a disease of unknown etiology, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a granulomatous necrotizing small vessel vasculitis characterized by the presence of asthma, sinusitis, and hypereosinophilia, which is initially described by Churg and Strauss in 1951. Because of its clinical and pathological features that overlap with those of the other anti-neutrophil antibody (ANCA-associated systemic vasculitides (AASVs and now the disease is classified as AASVs. The ANCA status may dictate the clinical phenotype. ANCA-positive patients are significantly more likely to have disease manifestations associated with small-vessel vasculitis, including oecrotising glomemlonephritis, mononeuritis and purpura, whereas ANCA-negative cases predominantly likely to have cardiac and lung involvement. The objective of this case report is to point out the possibility of vasculitic rash in ANCA-negative CSS in a 35-year-old man and the disease rarely occurs in Bangladeshi population. We analyze the history, clinical examinations and relevant investigations related to the patient to establish the diagnosis in our department. The clinical scenario and biopsy help us to attain the diagnosis. But due to unavailability of patients' cohort we have limitations of comparison of ANCA status in Bangladeshi populations. Though ANCA-positive and ANCA-negative CSS differ phenotypically, primary therapy for both the conditions is systemic glucocorticoids. Additional immunosuppressive agents like cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, rituxin1ab are occasionally added in patients with more advanced or refractory disease.
Full Text Available This article reviewed claims made by modern scholars Ford Lewis Battles, G.H. Williams, and Theodore Tappert concerning the views of Jacob Strauss (1480–1530, court preacher at Eisenach, particularly in regard to the imposition of Mosaic Law upon the civil realm. Most pointedly, Battles claims Strauss proposed to replace European civil law completely with the ‘entire Mosaic code’. This study examined Strauss’s relevant writings to determine his position on Mosaic Law and civil law and demonstrated that the claims of Battles, Williams, and Tappert were not supported by the primary source evidence. Selections from Strauss’ 51 theses on usury are translated into English for the first time. To a much lesser degree, this study addressed the issue in regard to the Weimar court preacher Wolfgang Stein, against whom the same claims were made. A paucity of evidence rendered those claims dubious in his case. In the end we were left only with unsubstantiated second-hand claims against these men.
Catalano, D. Chase J.
In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…
Ghoshal, D.; Jatkar, D.P.; Mukhi, S.
We investigate the nature of the ground ring of c=1 string theory at the special ADE points in the c=1 moduli space associated to discrete subgroups of SU(2). The chiral ground rings at these points are shown to define the ADE series of singular varieties introduced by Klein. The non-chiral ground rings relevant to closed-string theory are 3 real dimensional singular varieties obtained as U(1) quotients of the kleinian varieties. The unbroken symmetries of the theory at these points are the volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of these varieties. The theory of kleinian singularities has a close relation to that of complex hyperKaehler surfaces, or gravitational instantons. We speculate on the relevance of these instantons and of self-dual gravity in c=1 string theory. (orig.)
M.V. “COYOTE” SMITH (Date) __________________________________________ COLONEL TIMOTHY CULLEN (Date) iii...reader, Colonel Timothy Cullen , I would like to express my gratitude for the insightful suggestions to this work. To the ultimate sounding board... William L. Shelton, “Military Space: A Strategic Crossroad,” Air & Space Power Journal (September-October 2013): 5-6, War From the High Ground Down
Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.
Full Text Available The relationship between grounded theory researchers and the existing literature has become a red herring that even confuses some grounded theorists who have completed a study. Antoinette McCallin’s essay does a commendable job outlining the realities of the research terrain that make proceeding without some exposure to the literature unlikely and ill-advised in most situations. When embarking on my dissertation, I needed to know enough about the literature, both substantive and methodological, to argue for the use of classic grounded theory as opposed to many other choices within my field; yet my study benefited from the necessary tensions between the emerging grounded theory and the existing literature. In this brief essay I propose that the relationship between the existing literature and a developing grounded theory project goes through four discernible phases:noncommittal, comparative, integrative, and, if the analyst can push, a transcendent phase in which the theory is not simply one of a number of theories of a kind within the discipline’s literature. I explain the phases to make more explicit the under-recognized subversive potential of grounded theory to push pass disciplinary boundaries by broadening the ‘relevant’ literature. Barney Glaser has often admonished grounded theory researchers to put off the literature to avoid wasting time and energy with literature that may prove irrelevant. I have not found such literature to be irrelevant as much as limited, and in some cases restricted by what a particular discipline defines as the appropriate literature. Therefore, the question of what literature offers possibilities for literature review and comparisons that would allow for richer knowledge generation. I return to this matter toward the end of the essay.
Tuggey, J; Hosker, H
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare form of eosinophilic vasculitis associated with asthma. There have been several recent case reports of the condition in association with leukotriene antagonists and it has been speculated that the Churg-Strauss syndrome was unmasked when oral corticosteroids were withdrawn. We report a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with montelukast therapy in an asthmatic patient in whom there had been no recent oral corticosteroid use. We believe that this is the first such reported case and would suggest that clinicians need to be vigilant in all patients who develop systemic symptoms when starting treatment with leukotriene antagonists. PMID:10950903
Restrepo, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Vasquez, Gloria
Churg-Strauss syndrome, a necrotizing systemic vasculitis which involves the small and (more rarely) the medium-sized vessels, is a primary vasculitis strongly associated with anti neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA). It is characterized by the presence of asthma, eosinophilia and extravascular eosinophilic granulomas. Herein, we report a 36-year-old woman with a history of late onset asthma and allergic rhinitis who developed central nervous system involvement, peripheral neuropathy, leucocytoclastic vasculitis and eosinophilia. Interestingly, unusual clinical manifestations of Churg-Strauss syndrome such as mesenteric micro aneurysms and jaw claudication were present in this particular patient. A brief review of the literature of Churg-Strauss syndrome is presented.
Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Bahrami, Masoud
More than 30% of pregnancies in Iran are unintended and most of them happen among the women who use various contraceptive methods. Results of Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (IMES) showed that the rate of innovative contraceptive use in Mashhad has been 41.5%-57% in different urban areas. This study was conducted to explore the process of making decision toward using family planning methods in women of reproductive age in urban society of Mashhad, Iran. In this grounded theory study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 purposefully selected participants including 28 women and 17 key informants including family health providers and managers, and participants' mothers and husbands, who lived in urban society of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011-2012. Participants' recruitment continued until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's mode of analysis through constant comparative method, applying levels of open, axial, and selective coding with MAXqda software. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. The core category of "caring the comprehensive health of my family," which emerged from the data, described the process of couples' decision making toward using family planning methods in this study. Other developed categories which were presented into a theoretical scheme consisted of 1) shaping the ideas of fertility control, 2) developing cognition about the fertility control methods, 3) appraising available choices and choosing the most appropriate one, 4) managing the course of using methods, and 5) realizing the fertility intentions. It is important that family planning providers understand the motivations, perceptions, and knowledge of women about contraceptive methods in their contextual situation, which illustrates their mode of interaction in the arenas of family planning decision making.
Purpose: The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach. Design/methodology/approach: Presented is the definition of the concept of scenistic training along with the step-by-step details of the implementation of the approach. Scenistic methods,…
This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…
Kirkland, Travis P.
The rate of turnover among community college chief executive officers (CEO's) is high, but the effects of administrator succession on organizational effectiveness has received little scholarly attention. To address this, a theory of community college CEO succession was derived from an analysis of case study data gathered at four locally governed…
Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…
Baneck, Timothy M.
The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…
Bresciani, Marilee J.
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…
Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.
The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…
Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia
This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of reconciling…
Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.
In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of experienced individual online students at a community college in Texas in order to generate a substantive theory of community college student perceptions of online instructor presence. This qualitative study used Active Interviewing and followed a Straussian grounded-theory design to…
Working together toward a common goal is an empirically derived theory that can guide education and practice to improve patient outcomes while saving money and lives. Grounded theory was used to explore nurses' and physicians' experiences with collaboration in order to understand the process intrinsically.
Coskun, Kerem; Çikrikci, Özkan; Topkaya, Yavuz
This article seeks to develop a theory about the importance of peer relationship among the oldest of the youngest children who have finished preschool education and already started primary school. In the study, observation was employed to collect data from 22 children. The data were analysed through the grounded theory approach, in which data are…
Ullrich, C. A.; Kohn, W.
An electron density distribution n(r) which can be represented by that of a single-determinant ground state of noninteracting electrons in an external potential v(r) is called pure-state v -representable (P-VR). Most physical electronic systems are P-VR. Systems which require a weighted sum of several such determinants to represent their density are called ensemble v -representable (E-VR). This paper develops formal Kohn-Sham equations for E-VR physical systems, using the appropriate coupling constant integration. It also derives local density- and generalized gradient approximations, and conditions and corrections specific to ensembles
Yarwood-Ross, Lee; Jack, Kirsten
To provide a personal account of the factors in a doctoral study that led to the adoption of classic grounded theory principles relating to the use of literature. Novice researchers considering grounded theory methodology will become aware of the contentious issue of how and when extant literature should be incorporated into a study. The three main grounded theory approaches are classic, Straussian and constructivist, and the seminal texts provide conflicting beliefs surrounding the use of literature. A classic approach avoids a pre-study literature review to minimise preconceptions and emphasises the constant comparison method, while the Straussian and constructivist approaches focus more on the beneficial aspects of an initial literature review and researcher reflexivity. The debate also extends into the wider academic community, where no consensus exists. This is a methodological paper detailing the authors' engagement in the debate surrounding the role of the literature in a grounded theory study. In the authors' experience, researchers can best understand the use of literature in grounded theory through immersion in the seminal texts, engaging with wider academic literature, and examining their preconceptions of the substantive area. The authors concluded that classic grounded theory principles were appropriate in the context of their doctoral study. Novice researchers will have their own sets of circumstances when preparing their studies and should become aware of the different perspectives to make decisions that they can ultimately justify. This paper can be used by other novice researchers as an example of the decision-making process that led to delaying a pre-study literature review and identifies the resources used to write a research proposal when using a classic grounded theory approach.
Intensive efforts have been invested toward defining a microscopic approach, simple enough to render feasible systematic calculations of nuclear structure and of the some time sufficiently rich in information as to serve for updating traditional microscopic approaches to the collective excitations. Our starting point is the mean field approximation with density dependent effective forces. To describe the collective excitations we use the two well known extensions based on the H.F. theory namely the random phase approximation and the adiabatic approximation to the time dependent Hartree-Fock theory. The purpose of this paper is to show what sort of calculations can be effectively carried out in the frame of such fully self consistent approaches. (KBE) 891 KBE/KBE 892 ARA
Connolly , Lena; Lang , Michael; Tygar , J. ,
Part 5: Security Management and Human Aspects of Security; International audience; At a time of rapid business globalisation, it is necessary to understand employee security behaviour within diverse cultural settings. While general deterrence theory has been extensively used in Behavioural Information Security research with the aim to explain the effect of deterrent factors on employees’ security actions, these studies provide inconsistent and even contradictory findings. Therefore, a further...
R. A. M. Quax
Full Text Available Propylthiouracil (PTU is a frequently prescribed drug in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The use of PTU is, however, accompanied by numerous potentially serious side effects including vasculitis. PTU-related vasculitides can present as haematuria, pulmonary haemorrhage, or cutaneous lesion together with aspecific symptoms such as fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and fatigue. Cerebral involvement is seldom observed. We present a 49-year-old female with Graves' disease and asthma, who developed paresis of the proximal extremities, eosinophilia, pulmonary, and cutaneous lesions following treatment with PTU. A cerebral vasculitis consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS was suspected. Although cerebral involvement is seldom observed with PTU treatment, cerebral vasculitis should be considered in patients developing CNS symptoms.
Rui Moreira Marques
Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare syndrome characterized by sinusitis, asthma and peripheral eosinophilia. This vasculitic syndrome affects medium and small-sized vessels, the lung being the most commonly affected organ, followed by the skin. The authors report a case of a 59-year-old male with a past history of asthma and allergic rhinitis. He presented necrohemorragic lesions in the distal phalanx of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers of the lefthand and petechial lesions in the plant of both feet, accompanied by asthenia, anorexia and weight loss. The analytical study revealed leukocytosis with eosinophilia, elevated inflammatory parameters and p-ANCA positive antibodies. The diagnosis of CSS was established based on clinical and histopathological data. Cutaneous manifestations of hemorragic vasculitis are rare in CSS syndrome but can be the first manifestation of the disease. The recognition of this presentation is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome.
Marques, Rui Moreira; Cabral, Ana Rita; Monteiro, Antonio; Henriques, Pedro
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare syndrome characterized by sinusitis, asthma and peripheral eosinophilia. This vasculitic syndrome affects medium and small-sized vessels, the lung being the most commonly affected organ, followed by the skin. The authors report a case of a 59-year-old male with a past history of asthma and allergic rhinitis. He presented necrohemorragic lesions in the distal phalanx of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers of the left-hand and petechial lesions in the plant of both feet, accompanied by asthenia, anorexia and weight loss. The analytical study revealed leukocytosis with eosinophilia, elevated inflammatory parameters and p-ANCA positive antibodies. The diagnosis of CSS was established based on clinical and histopathological data. Cutaneous manifestations of hemorragic vasculitis are rare in CSS syndrome but can be the first manifestation of the disease. The recognition of this presentation is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. PMID:25386301
Uuest heliplaadist "R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53. National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain / Christopher Seaman. Pickwick IMP Classics CD PCD 1080; Selected comparisons: SNO, Järvi (3/88) Chandos CHAN 8572"
Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss: Metamorphosen for 23 solo strings, Tod und Verklärung, Op. 24, Drei Hymnen, Op.71. Felicity Lott (sop.), Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos ABRD 1374. ABTD 1374. CHAN 8734
Ratzinger, Gudrun; Zankl, Julia; Zelger, Bernhard
Wells syndrome has been described as an inflammatory disorder based on typical clinical appearance combined with the histopathological presence of eosinophilic infiltrates and flame figures in the absence of vasculitis. Churg-Strauss syndrome, on the other hand, is primarily a diffuse, necrotizing vasculitis but is also typically displaying eosinophils and flame figures. Despite several parallels, the present understanding of these two diseases excludes any pathogenetic relationship. We describe the clinical course and histopathological appearance of three patients who had initially been diagnosed with Wells syndrome that developed into Churg-Strauss syndrome during the course of their disease. The clinical presentation of all three patients led to the diagnosis of Wells syndrome by independent specialists. Histopathology showed an eosinophilic infiltrate and flame figures next to features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Detailed examination revealed asthma bronchiale and additional symptoms indicating Churg-Strauss syndrome. The initial diagnosis of Wells syndrome had to be revised to Churg-Strauss syndrome. We conclude that Wells syndrome could be the starting point of a pathogenetic process that might reach its maximum in Churg-Strauss syndrome. As a clinical consequence, patients with Wells syndrome should be evaluated and followed for Churg-Strauss syndrome. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.
Kasper, Jürgen; Légaré, France; Scheibler, Fülöp; Geiger, Friedemann
Shared decision-making (SDM) has the potential to overcome outdated social role models in the health care system. The concept, however, adheres to archaic epistemological assumptions as can be inferred from the rudimentary stage of the measurement methods used and from the information monopoly that the physician still holds in this concept. Advantages of an up-to-date model of knowledge for understanding and operationalising SDM are outlined. To this purpose, essential definitions of the concept are reflected in terms of epistemology. Accordingly, information emerges through a process of social construction. Likewise, interpersonal relations do not represent a static condition; rather, they develop anew with each interaction. Therefore, constructs suitable to focus on dyadic interaction processes can be used as indicators of sharing in SDM. Theories and methods of the interpersonal paradigm are advocated. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Full Text Available Connecting intercultural research with Grounded Theory was advocated in the early history of intercultural theorising and includes the development of researchers' intercultural competencies. Such competency comes to the fore where intercultural theory places an equal emphasis on home and host cultures in migration research. In this context we have found a Grounded Theory approach particularly suitable for disentangling complex interlinkings within migration experiences and their individual outcomes. Grounded Theory allows for the exploration of various theories in different fields and the emergence of new or deeper interpretations of intercultural experiences, including where research has not engaged deeply with or avoided intercultural contexts. The use of software, based on Grounded Theory, provides the resource for systematically exploring the inter-related nature of data. In addition, engaging in intercultural research, in particular, raises questions around our practice as social science researchers: adherence to ethics guidelines, for instance, can be in some conflict with the relations we build with members of communities whose cultural values, for instance around friendship or trust, impact on the norms of both our own and institutional expectations. This leads to reflection on the relationship with research participants in terms of our own intercultural experiences and position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901363
Full Text Available The volume was published to mark the 40th anniversary of the publication of "The Discovery of Grounded Theory." The first part describes the emergence and fundamental positions of grounded theory methodology (GTM in methodological and theoretical terms; the second part focuses on research practices. The "Grounded Theory Reader" is an excellent compilation that doesn’t claim to be a standard textbook for newcomers to GTM. Rather, it is a reflection of the state of the art in GTM and enables insights in complex research practices. A basic understanding of GTM is recommended in order to get the most from the book. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903286
Hartung, Paul J.
In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…
Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten
This paper presents a discussion of the differences in using participant observation as a data collection method by comparing the classic grounded theory methodology of Barney Glaser with the constructivist grounded theory methodology by Kathy Charmaz. Participant observations allow nursing researchers to experience activities and interactions directly in situ. However, using participant observations as a data collection method can be done in many ways, depending on the chosen grounded theory methodology, and may produce different results. This discussion shows that how the differences between using participant observations in classic and constructivist grounded theory can be considerable and that grounded theory researchers should adhere to the method descriptions of performing participant observations according to the selected grounded theory methodology to enhance the quality of research. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to discover the factors that contribute to the success or failure of college algebra for students taking college algebra by distance education Internet, and then generate a theory of success or failure of the group of College Algebra Internet students at one Utah college. Qualitative data were collected and analyzed on students’ perceptions and perspectives of a College Algebra Internet course that they took during the spring or summer 2006 semest...
Laitinen, Heleena; Kaunonen, Marja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi
To give clarity to the analysis of participant observation in nursing when implementing the grounded theory method. Participant observation (PO) is a method of collecting data that reveals the reality of daily life in a specific context. In grounded theory, interviews are the primary method of collecting data but PO gives a distinctive insight, revealing what people are really doing, instead of what they say they are doing. However, more focus is needed on the analysis of PO. An observational study carried out to gain awareness of nursing care and its electronic documentation in four acute care wards in hospitals in Finland. Discussion of using the grounded theory method and PO as a data collection tool. The following methodological tools are discussed: an observational protocol, jotting of notes, microanalysis, the use of questioning, constant comparison, and writing and illustrating. Each tool has specific significance in collecting and analysing data, working in constant interaction. Grounded theory and participant observation supplied rich data and revealed the complexity of the daily reality of acute care. In this study, the methodological tools provided a base for the study at the research sites and outside. The process as a whole was challenging. It was time-consuming and it required rigorous and simultaneous data collection and analysis, including reflective writing. Using these methodological tools helped the researcher stay focused from data collection and analysis to building theory. Using PO as a data collection method in qualitative nursing research provides insights. It is not commonly discussed in nursing research and therefore this study can provide insight, which cannot be seen or revealed by using other data collection methods. Therefore, this paper can produce a useful tool for those who intend to use PO and grounded theory in their nursing research.
Schraw, Gregory; Wadkins, Theresa; Olafson, Lori
The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages,…
McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley
Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…
In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…
Engward, Hilary; Davis, Geraldine
A discussion of the meaning of reflexivity in research with the presentation of examples of how a model of reflexivity was used in a grounded theory research project. Reflexivity requires the researcher to make transparent the decisions they make in the research process and is therefore important in developing quality in nursing research. The importance of being reflexive is highlighted in the literature in relation to nursing research, however, practical guidance as to how to go about doing research reflexively is not always clearly articulated. This is a discussion paper. The concept of reflexivity in research is explored using the Alvesson and Skoldberg model of reflexivity and practical examples of how a researcher developed reflexivity in a grounded theory project are presented. Nurse researchers are encouraged to explore and apply the concept of reflexivity in their research practices to develop transparency in the research process and to increase robustness in their research. The Alvesson and Skoldberg model is of value in applying reflexivity in qualitative nursing research, particularly in grounded theory research. Being reflexive requires the researcher to be completely open about decisions that are made in the research process. The Alvesson and Skolberg model of reflexivity is a useful model that can enhance reflexivity in the research process. It can be a useful practical tool to develop reflexivity in grounded theory research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hannon, Michael D.; Hannon, LaChan V.
Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental…
Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…
Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the collection and analysis of qualitative data that is derived by observation and that may be used to generate a grounded theory. Video recordings were made of the verbal and non-verbal interactions of people with severe and complex disabilities and the staff who work with them. Three dyads composed of a student/teacher or carer and a person with a severe or profound intellectual disability were observed in a variety of different activities that took place in a school. Two of these recordings yielded 25 minutes of video, which was transcribed into narrative format. The nature of the qualitative micro data that was captured is described and the fit between such data and classic grounded theory is discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the use of video as a tool to collect data that is amenable to analysis using grounded theory are considered. The paper concludes by suggesting that using classic grounded theory to analyze qualitative data that is collected using video offers a method that has the potential to uncover and explain patterns of non-verbal interactions that were not previously evident.
Townsend, Mary Beth
This qualitative grounded theory study investigated the value of iPads in K-12 schools when used in one-to-one ratios. The purpose of the study was to understand the perspectives of teachers using iPads in one-to-one ratios for teaching and learning in the classroom and administrators responsible for the implementation of these devices. The…
Hill, Lara Gillian C.
A systematic grounded theory qualitative study was conducted investigating the process of effectively leading educational technology in New Jersey public K-12 school districts. Data were collected from educational technology district leaders (whether formal or non-formal administrators) and central administrators through a semi-structured online…
Vaccaro, Annemarie; Kimball, Ezekiel W.; Moore, Adam; Newman, Barbara M.; Troiano, Peter F.
This article presents findings and a model from a constructivist grounded theory study about purpose development for college students with disabilities. The 59 participants, drawn from 4 different higher education institutions, self-identified as having 1 or more of a variety of disabilities. Students engaged in imagination, exploration, and…
Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth
This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…
Powell, Shameka N.
Numerous findings and theories have been used to make sense of African Americans students' educational successes and experiences. Along those lines, the purpose of this study is to generate a theoretical framework of sponsorship that is grounded in Black students' educational experiences. Sponsorship is taken to be the process through which agents…
Understanding how deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) international students transition to post-secondary institutions is important for ensuring their academic and personal success. In this grounded theory study, five Saudi Arabian students who are DHH and enrolled at Gallaudet University were interviewed about their transition experience. Participants…
Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.
This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…
Koybasi, Fatma; Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar
The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the interaction between bureaucracy and professionalism in schools and to develop a model of bureaucracy-professionalism interaction. This is a qualitative study carried out in grounded theory model. The study group consisted of 10 male and 10 female teachers who were working in Sivas…
Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.
This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…
The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…
This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…
Johnson, Matthew R.
This article presents the results of a study designed to understand the development of college students' civic identity--that is, an identity encompassing their knowledge, attitudes, values, and actions regarding civic engagement. Grounded theory was used to examine the experiences and attitudes of 19 college seniors who manifested strong civic…
Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.
This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…
Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy
This grounded theory study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The most emergent phenomenon to surface from the data was the influence of beliefs on participants' PCK. This central phenomenon became the cornerstone for the model of what was shaping experienced agriculture…
Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.
Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…
Kimball, Ezekiel; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Vargas, Nadia
In an action-based grounded theory project, the authors collected data from 31 student affairs professionals. During seven focus groups, practitioners described feeling unknowledgeable about disability law, accommodations, and diagnoses. However, they drew upon their core values and transferrable skills to support individual students. Participants…
Butland, Mark James
Colleges facing pressures to increase student outcomes while reducing costs have shown an increasing interest in competency-based education (CBE) models. Regional accreditors created a joint policy on CBE evaluation. Two years later, through this grounded theory study, I sought to understand from experts the nature of this policy, its impact, and…
Aldiabat, Khaldoun; Le Navenec, Carol-Lynne
There is confusion among graduate students about how to select the qualitative methodology that best fits their research question. Often this confusion arises in regard to making a choice between a grounded theory methodology and an ethnographic methodology. This difficulty may stem from the fact that these students do not have a clear…
Namaghi, Seyyed Ali Ostovar; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Saboor; Tajzad, Maryam
The purpose of this study is to explore language teachers' perspectives on Iranian third grade senior high school EFL textbook, which is prescribed by the Ministry of Education. In data collection and analysis, the researchers used theoretical sampling and the coding schemes presented in grounded theory. Final analysis yielded "Negative…
This study examined the revising processes used by 8 middle school students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing as they composed essays for their English classes. Using grounded theory, interviews with students and teachers in one middle school, observations of the students engaging in essay creation, and writing samples were collected for analysis.…
Studebaker, Eric J.
The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…
Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie
The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT...
Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Le Navenec, Carole-Lynne
Although many researchers have discussed the historical relationship between the Grounded Theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism, they have not clearly articulated the congruency of their salient concepts and assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion of this congruency. A hypothetical example about smoking…
Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…
Dinić Miroslav Ž.
Full Text Available Introduction. Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is an allergic granulomatous angiitis, a rare disease of small and medium arteries and veins, associated with the presence of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA. According to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR, there are four or more criteria out of six for the diagnosis: asthma, eosinophilia (> 10% in peripheral blood, paranasal sinusitis, pulmonary infiltrates, histological evidence of vasculitis with extravascular eosinophils, and mononeuritis multiplex or polyneuropathy. Case report. We reported a female patient, aged 80 years, with asthma for many decades and repeatedly verified eosinophilia in peripheral blood, in which CSS was suspected only after the occurrence of skin changes in the form of vesicles, vesiculopustule, purpuric macula, papule and petechiae. Further tests verified pulmonary infiltrates, paranasal sinusitis, extravascular eosinophils on histopathologic sample of skin tissue, and polyneuropathy. The treatment started with methylprednisolone (60 mg/d, with decreasing doses, and continued with pulse doses of cyclophosphamide (800 mg once monthly, also corticosteroid ointment for skin lesions. Conclusion. Despite long-standing pulmonary symptoms and laboratory findings of eosinophilia, the appearance of skin changes raised suspicion of possible CSS. Skin changes resolved and the patient was reffered to rheumatologist.
Dendramis, Gregory; Paleologo, Claudia; Piraino, Davide; Arrotti, Salvatore; Assennato, Pasquale
Systemic autoimmune diseases are themselves a relevant and independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary ectasia. We describe a case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man who was admitted to our department for unstable angina. History of asthma, paranasal sinus abnormality, and peripheral eosinophilia given a high suspicion of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). Diagnosis was performed with 5 of the 6 American College of Rheumatology criteria. The knowledge that CSS is often associated with significant coronary artery involvement and the persistence of chest pain led us to performing immediately a coronary angiography. Coronary angiography showed diffuse ectasic lesions, chronic occlusion of left anterior descending artery with homocoronary collateral circulation from left circumflex artery and subocclusive stenosis in the proximal tract of posterior descending artery. The early recognition of CSS, an aggressive invasive diagnostic approach, and an early appropriate therapy are important to prevent the progressive and permanent cardiac damage in these patients. In the setting of a multidisciplinary approach, careful cardiac assessment is an essential step in CSS, even in mildly symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura
The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.
Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare disorder, but in patients with asthma it may develop as an adverse effect of the administered drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate possible causal relationship between montelukast and the occurrence of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Medical literature was reviewed by searching the databases 'Medline' and 'Googlescholar', in order to detect published cases of Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with use of montelukast. In this article is included 13 publications which contain the following keywords: montelukast, Churg-Strauss syndrome and side effects. Relationship between use of montelukast and development of Churg-Strauss syndrome was not clearly causal, although montelukast was associated with development and relapse of the syndrome. This fact supports the hypothesis that leukotriene antagonists are involved in the pathogenesis of this serious disease. Special attention should be paid to appearance of new symptoms in an asthmatic patient, already treated with corticosteroids, who start receiving leukotriene antagonists, especially if the dose of corticosteroids is reduced. Definitive confirmation or rejection of the hypothesis that leukotriene antagonists are directly involved in the development of this syndrome require further investigations.
Soffer, A.; Weinstein, M.I.
A theory of time-dependent nonlinear dispersive equations of the Schroedinger or Gross-Pitaevskii and Hartree type is developed. The short, intermediate and large time behavior is found, by deriving nonlinear master equations (NLME), governing the evolution of the mode powers, and by a novel multitime scale analysis of these equations. The scattering theory is developed and coherent resonance phenomena and associated lifetimes are derived. Applications include Bose-Einstein condensate large time dynamics and nonlinear optical systems. The theory reveals a nonlinear transition phenomenon, 'selection of the ground state', and NLME predicts the decay of excited state, with half its energy transferred to the ground state and half to radiation modes. Our results predict the recent experimental observations of Mandelik et al. in nonlinear optical waveguides
Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz
and refine the emerging concepts and categories and to validate the developing theories, the TPR-DB has been extended with further translation studies in different languages and translation modes. In this respect, it shares many features with Grounded Theory Method. This method was discovered in 1967...... and used in qualitative research in social science ad many other research areas. We analyze the TPR-DB development as a Grounded Theory Method....... on quantitative assessment of well-defined research questions on cognitive processes in human translation production, the integration of the data into the TPR-DB allowed for broader qualitative and exploratory research which has led to new codes, categories and research themes. In a constant effort to develop...
Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra
Adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) principles in undergraduate education can facilitate nursing students' appreciation of EBP. Using grounded theory method, this study aimed to explore processes used by nurse academics while integrating EBP concepts in undergraduate nursing curricula across Australian universities. Twenty-three nurse academics were interviewed and nine were observed during teaching of undergraduate students. In addition, 20 unit/subject guides were analyzed using grounded theory approach of data analysis. The theory " On a path to success: Endeavoring to contextualize curricula within an EBP framework" reflects academics' endeavors toward linking EBP concepts to practice, aiming to contextualize curricula in a manner that engages students within an EBP framework. However, academics' journeys were influenced by several contextual factors which require strategies to accomplish their endeavors. In conclusion, initiatives to minimize barriers, faculty development, and provision of resources across educational and clinical settings are fundamental to achieving undergraduate curricula underpinned by EBP concepts.
Norton, Elizabeth; Holloway, Immy; Galvin, Kathleen
To generate a grounded theory about female adolescent behaviour in the sun. Nurses have key roles in health promotion and skin cancer prevention. Adolescents' resistance to sun safety messages and their vulnerability to sunburn are of concern internationally. Understanding why young women do as they do in the sun may enhance skin cancer prevention, but their behaviour has not been explained before in the UK. The study incorporated a qualitative grounded theory design using the approach of Glaser. Qualitative data were gleaned from group and one-to-one, semi-structured interviews with 20 female participants aged 14-17, research memos and literature. Sampling was purposive and theoretical. Data collection, analysis and theory generation occurred concurrently. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Data collection ended when a substantive theory had been generated. Data analysis revealed five categories of findings: fitting in, being myself, being physically comfortable, slipping up and being comfortable (the core category). The theory generated around the core explains how young women direct their sun-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychosocial comfort needs. A contribution of this research is the grounded theory explaining the behaviour of young women in the sun. Further, the theory challenges assumptions that female adolescents necessarily take risks; it explains their sun-related activities in terms of comfort. The theory extends findings from other researchers' descriptive qualitative studies and also appears to apply to young people in countries other than the UK. Understanding the sun-related activity of young women in terms of physical and psychosocial comfort may help nurses to develop new approaches to skin cancer prevention. These could complement existing messages and humanise health promotion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Christina Goulding Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Sage Publications No of pages: 186 £18.99 0761966838 0761966838 [Formula: see text].
Much has been written about the grounded theory approach to qualitative research, however the number of books devoted solely to this methodology remains relatively few. Therefore, any new book dedicated to the subject is always likely to attract attention - especially given the increasing popularity of grounded theory in healthcare research.
Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick; McBride, William J H
Male circumcision reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is being explored for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). PNG has a concentrated HIV epidemic which is largely heterosexually transmitted. There are a diverse range of male circumcision and penile modification practices across PNG. Exploring the implications of male circumcision for women in PNG is important to inform evidence-based health policy that will result in positive, intended consequences. The transformational grounded theory study incorporated participatory action research and decolonizing methodologies. In Phase One, an existing data set from a male circumcision study of 861 male and 519 female participants was theoretically sampled and analyzed for women's understanding and experience of male circumcision. In Phase Two of the study, primary data were co-generated with 64 women in seven interpretive focus group discussions and 11 semi-structured interviews to develop a theoretical model of the processes used by women to manage the outcomes of male circumcision. In Phase Three participants assisted to refine the developing transformational grounded theory and identify actions required to improve health. Many women know a lot about male circumcision and penile modification and the consequences for themselves, their families and communities. Their ability to act on this knowledge is determined by numerous social, cultural and economic factors. A transformational grounded theory was developed with connecting categories of: Women Know a Lot, Increasing Knowledge; Increasing Options; and Acting on Choices. Properties and dimensions of each category are represented in the model, along with the intervening condition of Safety. The condition of Safety contextualises the overarching lived realty for women in PNG, enables the inclusion of men in the transformational grounded theory model, and helps to explain relationships between men and women. The
Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.
A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…
In doing a grounded theory study, the researcher does not identify a hypothesis, formulate research questions, or state a specific problem at the beginning of the research. Grounded theory research begins with data collection, minimizing preconceptions about outcomes to the greatest extent possible. I began my research with this attitude of not…
Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Esmaeili, Maryam; Salsali, Mahvash
Patient-centered care is both a goal in itself and a tool for enhancing health outcomes. The application of patient-centered care in health care services globally however is diverse. This article reports on a study that sought to introduce patient-centered care. The aim of this study is to explore the process of providing patient-centered care in critical care units. The study used a grounded theory method. Data were collected on 5 critical care units in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Purposive and theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using 29 semistructured interviews with 27 participants (nurses, patients, and physician). Data obtained were analyzed according to the analysis stages of grounded theory and constant comparison to identify the concepts, context, and process of the study. The core category of this grounded theory is "humanizing care," which consisted of 4 interrelated phases, including patient acceptance, purposeful patient assessment and identification, understanding patients, and patient empowerment. A core category of humanizing care integrated the theory. Humanizing care was an outcome and process. Patient-centered care is a dynamic and multifaceted process provided according to the nurses' understanding of the concept. Patient-centered care does not involve repeating routine tasks; rather, it requires an all-embracing understanding of the patients and showing respect for their values, needs, and preferences.
Current-carrying plasmas in a strong dc magnetic field are subject to violent disruptions above certain thresholds. At present difficult to verify, explanations are typically sought in terms of tearing modes. An alternative explanation is in terms of inverse magnetic helicity cascades, generated from a variety of possible sources of small-scale MHD turbulence. Strongly anisotropic MHD plasmas may be described by the Strauss equations. Indications of turbulent inverse cascade behavior for the Strauss equations are sought, in parallel with earlier examples from MHD and fluid mechanics
Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (new name Eosinophilic granulomatosis and polyangiitis; asthma, fever, peripheral blood eosinophilia, eosinophilic tissue infiltration, small and medium sized arteries characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation is a multisystemic disorder. Classified in ANCA associated vasculitis. The drugs such as leukotriene receptor antagonists (montelukast, zafirlukast, pranlukast, inhaled glucocorticoids, omalizumab, cocaine and clarithromycin is thought to be associated with Churg-Strauss Syndrome cases have been reported. Herein we presented a rare three CSS cases associated with montelukast. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 347-352
The SAC and SAC CI theories are formulated for actual calculations of singlet ground states and their excited states of arbitrary spin multiplicity. Approximations are considered for the variational methods since time-consuming terms are involved. The results of test calculations for singlet states have shown, with much smaller numbers of variables (sizes of the matrices involved), excellent agreement with the full CI and close-to-full CI results. This shows the utility of the SAC theory for ground states and especially of the SAC CI theory for excited states, since the slow convergence of the CI theory is much more critical for excited states than for ground states. (Auth.)
Zahourek, Rothlyn P
Although intentionality has been implicated as a causal variable in healing research, its definition has been inconsistent and vague. The objective of this grounded theory study is to develop a substantive theory of intentionality in a naturalistic encounter between nurse-healers and their healee-clients, and to consider the implications for practice and research. Six expert nurse-healers and six healee-clients were interviewed as individuals and in dyads before and after treatments. Interviews and observational data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and synthesized analysis. Participants described their experience of intentionality in healing as an evolutionary process characterized by distinctive shifts. The theory of intentionality: the matrix for healing (IMH) includes definitions of intentionality and a conceptual framework of three developmental phases of intentionality (generic, healing, and transforming intentionalities). The predominant attribute, development, is described. The theory contributes to knowledge about healing and intentionality and has implications for practice and future research.
Jamieson, Lynn N; Williams, Leonie Mosel; Lauder, William; Dwyer, Trudy
To develop a theory that explains the 'realities' of part-time nursing. While little is known about the phenomenon of part-time nursing, increasing numbers of nurses work in part-time employment. Grounded theory. The problem that part-time nurses shared was an inability to achieve their personal optimal nursing potential. Motivators to work part-time, employment hours, specialty, individual and organizational factors formed contextual conditions that led to this problem. Part-time nurses responded to the challenges through a process of adaptation and adjustment. Harnessing the full productive potential of part-time nurses requires support to limit the difficulties that they encounter. The developed theory provides a valuable guide to managerial action. Nurse Managers need to consider the developed substantive theory when planning and managing nursing workforces.
Johnson, Shannon K; Zitzmann, Brooks
Grounded theory was used to generate a mid-range theory of the process of spiritual change in the lives of survivors of homicide victims. Theoretical sampling guided the selection of 30 participants from a larger study of spiritual change after homicide ( N = 112). Individual interviews were analyzed using a four-step sequence of line-by-line, focused, axial, and selective coding. Analysis generated a closed theory consisting of three fluids, consecutive but nonlinear stages. Each stage consisted of an overarching process and a state of being in the world: (a) Disintegrating: living in a state of shock; (b) Reckoning: living in a state of stagnation; (c) Recreating and reintegrating the self: living in a state of renewal. Movement through the stages was fueled by processes of spiritual connection that yielded changes that permeated the theory. Findings can be used to help practitioners address the processes that drive spiritual change in the lives of homicide survivors.
Moe, Cathrine; Brinchmann, Berit Støre
Reablement is an interprofessional, home-based rehabilitation service that aims to enable senior residents to cope with everyday life and to prevent functional impairments. Systematic accounts of what practitioners actually do when establishing reablement are lacking. This study aims to generate a grounded theory of practitioners' patterns of action when establishing reablement. The study is located in Norway, and grounded theory is the methodological approach. Data were collected from January 2014 to August 2016 through participant observations, focus group interviews and individual interviews. Informants are municipal healthcare employees in different organisational areas associated with the process of establishing reablement services (managers of conventional home care and representatives from the administration and service-provider offices). Altogether, 17 individuals are interviewed. The empirical data are analysed several times using open, selective and theoretical coding. The grounded theory, "tailoring reablement," includes three phases-replicating, adapting and establishing-and the strategies of collaborating, developing knowledge, habituating and filtering. The theory of tailoring reablement also includes the impact of the contextual factors. The study seeks to bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory of tailoring reablement emerges from an inductive approach and theorises participants' actions. The theory focuses on the phases from innovation to implementation. Establishing a new service model in a complex welfare setting requires a wide range of actors and agencies. Tailoring reablement also requires flexibility and professional autonomy. It is important to create terms and conditions for this within a stringent health and care service. The insights of this study have implications for practice development of reablement and can fit other public sector fields. © 2017 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John
Connors, P; Bednar, C; Klammer, S
This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children in North Texas. Ten focus groups with a total of 41 children aged 6 to 11 years were conducted using a grounded theory approach. Based on the principles of Social Learning Theory, milk preferences and health beliefs were identified as personal factors that influenced drinking. Cafeteria rules, milk flavor, product packaging, modeling by adults, and shared experiences were environmental factors. The data suggest that school cafeterias can capitalize on their unique position to offer milk-drinking opportunities that children can share to combine nutrition education with sensory experience.
Full Text Available Translation can be a problem area for researchers conducting qualitative studies in languages other than English who intend to publish the results in an English-language journal. Analyzing the data is also complex when the research team consists of people from different language backgrounds. Translation must be considered as an issue in its own right to maintain the integrity of the research, especially in a grounded theory study. In this article, we offer guidelines for the process of translation for data analysis in a grounded theory study in which the research was conducted in a language other than English (Indonesian. We make recommendations about procedures to choose when, who, and how to translate data. The translation procedure is divided into four steps which are as follows: translation in the process of coding, translation in the process of team discussion, translation in the process of advanced coding, and ensuring the accuracy of translation.
Saridan Abu Bakar
Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.Keywords: biotechnology, SMEs, Malaysia, success, qualitative study, grounded theory
Magaldi-Dopman, Danielle; Park-Taylor, Jennie; Ponterotto, Joseph G
In this present grounded theory study, 16 experienced psychologists, who practiced from varied theoretical orientations and came from diverse religious/spiritual/nonreligious backgrounds, explored their personal religious/spiritual/nonreligious identity development journeys, their experiences with clients' religious/spiritual content in psychotherapy sessions, and how their identity may have influenced the way they interacted with religious/spiritual material during sessions. Results revealed that psychologists' spiritual/religious/nonreligious identity is conflicted and complex and that their academic and clinical training did not provide sufficient opportunity to examine how this may affect their therapeutic work. A tentative grounded theory emerged suggesting that psychologists both identified with and were activated by clients' spiritual/religious conflicts and their internal experiences about the spiritual/religious content, both of which presented significant challenges to therapeutic work.
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems in telecommunication enterprises in Czech Republic. In the preparation of the methodology I have used the current needs of telecommunications companies, which are characterized mainly by high dependence on information systems. Besides that, this industry is characterized by high flexibility and competition and compressing of the corporate strategy timeline. The grounded theory of business analysis defines the specifics of the telecommunications industry, focusing on the very specific description of the procedure for collecting the business requirements and following the business strategy.
Sérgio Ribeiro dos Santos
Full Text Available O presente estudo apresenta um método de pesquisa interpretativo e sistemático para desenvolvimento de pesquisa em enfermagem chamado grounded theory, cujo suporte teórico é o interacionismo simbólico. O propósito é descrever a grounded theory como alternativa metodológica para construção do conhecimento em enfermagem. O estudo destaca: princípio fundamental, conceitos básicos, trajetória do método e processo de análise dos dados. Concluímos que a sistematização dos dados e sua interpretação, a partir da experiência vivenciada pelos atores sociais, constituem ricos subsídios para gerar teorias através desta ferramenta de pesquisa.
Hunter, Andrew; Keady, John; Casey, Dympna; Grealish, Annmarie; Murphy, Kathy
The objective of this study was to develop a substantive grounded theory of staff psychosocial intervention use with residents with dementia in long-stay care. "Becoming a person again" emerged as the core category accounting for staffs' psychosocial intervention use within long-stay care. Interview data were collected from participants in nine Irish long-stay settings: 14 residents with dementia, 19 staff nurses, one clinical facilitator, seven nurse managers, 21 nursing assistants, and five relatives. Constant comparative method guided the data collection and analysis. The researcher's theoretical memos, based on unstructured observation, and applicable extant literature were also included as data. By identifying the mutuality of the participants' experiences, this classic grounded theory explains staff motivation toward psychosocial intervention use within long-stay care. It also explains how institutional factors interact with those personal factors that incline individuals toward psychosocial intervention use. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available In this paper I convey a recurring problem and possible solution that arose during my doctoral research on the topic of cross-cultural Holocaust curriculum development for Latvian schools. Specifically, as I devised the methodology for my research, I experienced a number of frustrations concerning the issue of transferability and the limitations of both reader generalizability and grounded theory. Ultimately, I found a more appropriate goal for the external applicability of this and other highly contextual research studies in the form of "grounded understandings," which are tentative apprehensions of the importance or significance of phenomena and conceptualizations that hold meaning and explanatory power, but are only embryonic in their potential to generate theory.
Razenberg, Femke G E M; Heynens, Jan W C M; Jan de Vries, Geeuwke; Duijts, Liesbeth; de Jongste, Johan C; de Blic, Jacques; Rosias, Philippe P R
Churg-Strauss syndrome is an uncommon multisystem disorder characterized by asthma, eosinophilia and vasculitis. We report on a 12-year-old boy with asthma and deterioration of his general condition, who was eventually diagnosed with an ANCA-negative Churg-Strauss syndrome. The propositus included, 50 cases of childhood Churg-Strauss syndrome have been reported. The patient characteristics and clinical characteristics of these children are summarized. The respiratory tract is most frequently involved with pulmonary infiltrates, asthma and sinusitis. Early recognition of childhood Churg-Strauss syndrome is important as delayed diagnosis can lead to severe organ involvement, and possible fatal outcome.
Full Text Available Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women's empowerment for menopausal symptoms management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory between 2013 and 2015. The article's main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the process of women's empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008 using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the feminine identity has been noted as the women's most common concern to being empowered in menopause management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity included four main categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate supportive context, latent opportunity, two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this group of women's empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators affecting women's empowerment in menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of Iranian women
Seomun, GA; Lee, JA; Kim, EY; Im, MY; Kim, M; Park, SA; Lee, Y
This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "p...
The properties of the virtual cloud around the hydrogen atom in the ground state are studied with the use of quantum field theory methods. The relativistic expression for the electromagnetic energy density around the atom, with the electron spin taken into account, is obtained. The distribution of the angular momentum contained in the cloud and the self-interaction kernel for the electrons bound in atom are also investigated. (author)
Dilks, Sarah; Tasker, Fiona; Wren, Bernadette
This study set out to explore therapy processes in psychosis with an initial focus on reflexivity and how this might be expressed in therapy conversations. Leiman's (2000) definition of reflexivity was used as a starting-point for an exploratory investigation of the use of language as reflective activity. Grounded theory was chosen as an appropriate methodology to distil an explanatory account across the qualitative data collected. Six psychologist-client pairs supplied three tapes of therapy sessions spread out across the course of therapy. Each participant was separately interviewed on two occasions to ascertain their views of therapy and of the emerging grounded theory. A grounded theory was developed conceptualizing the processes and activities in psychological therapy in psychosis. Building bridges to observational perspectives summarizes the core process in psychological therapy in psychosis. Therapy in psychosis is understood as intimately linking the social and internal world in a dialogical process aimed at enhancing the client's functioning in the social world rather than at specifically developing the private mental experience of reflexivity or mentalizing.
Pryor, Julie; Walker, Annette; O'Connell, Beverly; Worrall-Carter, Linda
To develop a grounded theory of nursing's contribution to patient rehabilitation from the perspective of nurses working in inpatient rehabilitation. Grounded theory method, informed by the theoretical perspective of symbolic interactionism, was used to guide data collection and analysis, and the development of a grounded theory. Five inpatient rehabilitation units in Australia. Thirty-five registered and 18 enrolled nurses participated in audio-taped interviews and/or were observed during periods of their everyday practice. The analysis revealed a situation whereby nurses made decisions about when to 'opt in' and when to 'opt out' of inpatient rehabilitation. This occurred on two levels: with their interaction with patients and allied health professionals, and when faced with negative system issues that impacted on their ability to contribute to patient rehabilitation. The primary contribution nurses made to inpatient rehabilitation was working directly with patients, enabling them to self-care. Nurses coached patients when their decisions about 'opting in' and 'opting out' were based on assessment of the person in their particular context. In contrast, the nurses mostly distanced themselves from system-based problems, 'opting out' of addressing them. They did this not to make their working lives easier, but more manageable. System-based problems impacted negatively on the nurses' ability to deliver comprehensive rehabilitation care. As a consequence, some nurses felt unable to influence the care and they withdrew professionally to make their work lives more manageable.
Chen, Shuang-Qin; Liu, Jun-E; Li, Zhi; Su, Ya-Li
To describe the process by which Chinese women accept living with breast cancer. Individual interviews were conducted with 18 Chinese women who completed breast cancer treatment. Data were collected from September 2014 to January 2015 at a large tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing, China. In this grounded theory study, data were analyzed using constant comparative and coding analysis methods. In order to explain the process of accepting having breast cancer among women in China through the grounded theory study, a model that includes 5 axial categories was developed. Cognitive reconstruction emerged as the core category. The extent to which the women with breast cancer accepted having the disease was found to increase with the treatment stage and as their treatment stage progressed with time. The accepting process included five stages: non-acceptance, passive acceptance, willingness to accept, behavioral acceptance, and transcendence of acceptance. Our study using grounded theory study develops a model describing the process by which women accept having breast cancer. The model provides some intervention opportunities at every point of the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rezaie, Leeba; Shakeri, Jalal; Schwebel, David C
Self-immolation is a common method of suicide among Iranian women. There are several contributing motives for attempting self-immolation, and exploration of the process of self-immolation incidents will help interventionists and clinicians develop prevention programs. A grounded theory study using face-to-face, recorded interviews was conducted with surviving self-immolated patients (n=14), their close relatives (n=5), and medical staff (n=8) in Kermanshah, Iran. Data were analyzed using constant comparison in open, axial, and selective coding stages. A conceptual model was developed to explain the relationships among the main categories extracted through the grounded theory study. Family conflicts emerged as the core category. Cultural context of self-immolated patients offered a contextual condition. Other important categories linked to the core category were mental health problems, distinct characteristics of the suicidal method, and self-immolation as a threat. The role of mental health problems as a causal condition was detected in different levels of the self-immolation process. Finally, adverse consequences of self-immolation emerged as having important impact. The conceptual model, derived through grounded theory study, can guide design of prevention programs. The pivotal role of family conflicts should be emphasized in mental health interventions. The impact of adverse consequences of self-immolation on further suicidal processes necessitates post-suicide prevention programs. Further research to design specific interventions is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
ABSTRACT Purpose: Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods: A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls’ perspectives of how significant others’ influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Results: Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. Conclusion: The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls’ perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity. PMID:29405881
Laird, Yvonne; Fawkner, Samantha; Niven, Ailsa
Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls' perspectives of how significant others' influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls' perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity.
Brucato, Antonio; Maestroni, Silvia; Masciocco, Gabriella; Ammirati, Enrico; Bonacina, Edgardo; Pedrotti, Patrizia
Churg-Strauss syndrome, recently renamed eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), is a rare form of systemic vasculitis, characterized by disseminated necrotizing vasculitis with extravascular granulomas occurring among patients with asthma and tissue eosinophilia. EGPA is classified as a small and medium-sized vessel vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Typical clinical features include asthma, sinusitis, transient pulmonary infiltrates and neuropathy. Blood eosinophils are often >1500/µl or more than 10% on the differential leukocyte count. Blood eosinophils should always be tested in unexplained cardiac disorders, and may normalize even after low doses of corticosteroids. ANCA are positive in 40-60% of cases, mainly anti-myeloperoxidase. Heart involvement occurs in approximately 15-60% of EGPA patients, especially those who are ANCA negative. Any cardiac structure can be involved, and patients present with myocarditis, heart failure, pericarditis, arrhythmia, coronary arteritis, valvulopathy, intracavitary cardiac thrombosis. Although cardiovascular involvement is usually an early manifestation, it can also occur later in the course of the disease. A significant proportion of patients with cardiac involvement is asymptomatic. In the absence of symptoms and major ECG abnormalities, cardiac involvement may be detected in nearly 40% of the patients. All patients with EGPA should be studied not only with a detailed history of cardiac symptoms and ECG, but also with echocardiography; if abnormalities are detected, a cardiac magnetic resonance study should be performed. Coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy should be reserved to selected cases. Heart involvement carries a poor prognosis and causes 50% of the deaths of these patients. It is often insidious and underestimated. Optimal therapy is therefore important and based on high-dose corticosteroids plus immunosuppressive
Churg Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic and pulmonary vasculitis exceptionally associated with AA amyloidosis. We report the case of a 65-year old woman with past medical history of asthma. She developed polyarthralgia, headache and purpura. A laboratory workout found hypereosinophilia (1150/μL), positive ...
Churg Strauss syndrome is a medical condition of unknown aetiology characterized by asthma, eosinophilia and finally vasculitis involving small vessels in the limbs and nasal sinuses and the lungs. The purpose of this review is to highlight the natural history of this condition, the pathogenesis, clinical features and ...
Hartmann, M.; Hartmann, M.; Wajon, E.M.; van Houwelingen, G.K.; Stoel, M.G.; von Birgelen, Clemens
A 64-year-old male with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) presented with worsening dyspnoea without chest pain besides having long-standing asthma. There were no cardiovascular risk factors. The electrocardiogram showed signs of prior anterior infarction. Echocardiography demonstrated severely depressed
Baili, L; Aydi, Z; Soussi, G; Ben Dhaou B, B; Zidi, A; Berraies, A; Boussema, F; Kammoun, S; Hamzaoui, A; Kraiem, S; Ben Miled M'rad, K; Rokbani, L
The successive occurrence of pericardial tamponade and myocarditis during a Churg-Strauss syndrome is exceptionally described. We report a patient in whom pericardial tamponade and myocarditis were the presenting manifestation of a Churg-Strauss syndrome. A 58-year-old woman was admitted because of alteration of the clinical status with eosinophilia. One month ago, she was hospitalized for a pericardial tamponade treated by pericardial drainage. Acute myocarditis was diagnosed on chest pain during the second hospitalization. The etiologic inquiry ended in the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss complicated with a double cardiac involvement. A good response of clinical and biological anomalies was obtained after corticosteroid and immunosuppressive treatment. Isolated or multiple involvements of cardiac tunics should lead to make diagnosis of systemic vasculitis. A complete initial assessment and a close observation of the patients followed for Churg-Strauss syndrome is imperative to detect a cardiac achievement and set up an early treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aborda-se aqui a complexidade do status do par conceitual natureza e cultura no pensamento de Lévi-Strauss. Ao mesmo tempo ferramenta de análise, cena filosófica dos primórdios e antinomia a superar, revisita-se os diferentes usos e significados na obra de Lévi-Strauss do conceito de natureza e sua relação com o de cultura. Mostra-se como é possível reconhecer na obra de Lévi-Strauss dois conceitos de natureza: por um lado, uma natureza que se opõe à cultura num programa científico formulado em termos classicamente dualistas e, por outro, uma teoria do conhecimento decididamente monista que considera o espírito como parte e produto desse mesmo mundo. Argumenta-se que se o dualismo entre cultura e natureza fundou o pensamento estruturalista de Lévi-Strauss, é na própria obra deste que encontramos os argumentos e meios de superá-lo. A vocação do estruturalismo na antropologia de hoje, no entanto, é de ir mais longe neste caminho do que foi o próprio fundador.
A teacher's work is compared to Claude Levi-Strauss's concept of "bricolage." A "bricoleur" is a professional do-it-yourself person, falling somewhere between an odd-job person and a craftsperson. The concept helps to explain pedagogical inadequacy by linking inherent limiting features of teachers' work and some causal…
Full Text Available This article employs classical grounded theory methodology to explain the creative process of artists. Two integrally connected core variables are identified: emergence and wonder. Wonder represents the experience that motivates and sustains the creation of works of art, and emergence the process by which the sense of wonder is progressively embodied in the content and form of the work. The theory describes a number of distinct phases, including the experience of wonder, immersion in artistic practice, conceiving a specific work or project, composing the work, presenting the work for an actual or potential audience, and finally moving-on. These phases involve a dynamic stream of recursive processes—sketching, refining, connecting, channeling, and assessing—that ultimately facilitate the emergence of wonder in artistic works. The theory of the emergence of wonder also appears to apply to the research processes of both grounded theory methodology and phenomenology, suggesting that these two research methodologies are more similar and have more in common with the artistic creative process than is commonly acknowledged. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150256
Full Text Available This paper is a grounded theory study of how leaders (e.g., entrepreneurs, managers, etc. engage people in challenging undertakings (e.g., innovation that require everyone’s commitment to such a degree that they would have to go beyond what could be reasonably expected in order to succeed. Company leaders sometimes wonder why their employees no longer show the same responsibility towards their work, and why they are more concerned with internal politics than solving customer problems. It is because company leaders no longer apply collective inclusioning to the same extent as they did in the past. Collective inclusioning can be applied in four ways by convincing, afinitizing, goal congruencing, and engaging. It can lead to fostering strong units of people for taking on challenging undertakings. Collective inclusioning is a complementing theory to other strategic management and leading theories. It offers a new perspective on how to implement a bottom-up approach to innovation.
Pilar Jovanna Holguín
Full Text Available This article seeks to answer the influence of the coloniality of knowledge, the cleansing of blood and the hybris of the zero ground in the conception of the theory and musical analysis which is taught in our Latin American universities. The aim is to examine the survival of coloniality in the imaginary of musical theory and analysis in order to recognize the predominant hegemonic discourses and propose some options to decolonize these disciplines of professional music education. The rationale is based on the presentation of some concepts of decolonial studies, research on the conservatory model and the ideology of theory and analysis.The article is divided into three parts. In the first one, an approximation is made to the concept of coloniality and its categories. The second takes the categories to review the ideology of the chosen fields of musical knowledge and the third proposes some options to decolonize our conceptions in higher education.
Brunero, Scott; Ramjan, Lucie M; Salamonson, Yenna; Nicholls, Daniel
Generalist health professionals, often without formal mental health training, provide treatment and care to people with serious mental illness who present with physical health problems in general hospital settings. This article will present findings from a constructivist grounded theory study of the work delivered by generalist health staff to consumers with mental illness on the general medical/surgical wards of two metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The results analysed included three participant observations, two focus groups, and 21 interviews and hospital policy and protocol documents. A substantive theory of mental health work in general hospital settings is illustrated which conceptualizes the following categories: (i) the experience: conflicting realities and ideals; (ii) The Context: facilitating social distancing; and (iii) the social processes: invisibility affecting confidence. The categories are understood through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism with the theory providing insights into how the generalist health professionals understand their sense of self or identity. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Bøttcher Berthelsen, Connie; Damsgaard, Tove Lindhardt; Frederiksen, Kirsten
This paper presents a discussion of the differences in using participant observation as a data collection method by comparing the classic grounded theory methodology of Barney Glaser with the constructivist grounded theory methodology by Kathy Charmaz. Participant observations allow nursing...... researchers to experience activities and interactions directly in situ. However, using participant observations as a data collection method can be done in many ways, depending on the chosen grounded theory methodology, and may produce different results. This discussion shows that how the differences between...
Faija, Cintia L; Tierney, Stephanie; Gooding, Patricia A; Peters, Sarah; Fox, John R E
Theory and clinical literature suggest that pride may play an important role in the maintenance of restrictive eating disorders. A grounded theory study explored experiences of, and reflections on, pride among women with a current or past diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. This is a qualitative study using grounded theory. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 women recruited from an eating disorder unit in England, and from a UK self-help organization. Grounded theory from a constructivist lens was used. Analysis involved coding, constant comparison, and memo-writing. Pride evolves over the course of anorexia nervosa. Two overarching conceptual categories were identified: 'pride becoming intertwined with anorexia' and 'pride during the journey towards recovery'. These categories encompassed different forms of pride: 'alluring pride', 'toxic pride', 'pathological pride', 'anorexia pride', 'shameful pride', 'recovery pride', and 'resilient pride'. Initially, pride contributed to self-enhancement and buffered negative emotions. As the condition progressed, pride became a challenge to health and interfered with motivation to change. During recovery, perceptions of pride altered as a healthy approach to living ensued. The evolving nature of pride plays a central role in development, maintenance, and treatment of anorexia nervosa. Understanding of pride and its role in psychotherapeutic work with this client group may increase motivation to change and promote recovery. Future work should investigate whether tackling pride in eating disorders increases treatment efficacy and reduces the risk of relapsing. Pride associated with anorexia appeared to evolve in nature. During early stages of the eating disorder, it stopped people from seeking help. Later on, it prevented them from seeing pride in healthy domains of life (outside anorexia). Over time, pride in anorexia became an overwhelming emotion that interfered with motivation to change. It is important for
McCreaddie, May; Wiggins, Sally
Humour is a complex phenomenon, incorporating cognitive, emotional, behavioural, physiological and social aspects. Research to date has concentrated on reviewing (rehearsed) humour and 'healthy' individuals via correlation studies using personality-trait based measurements, principally on psychology students in laboratory conditions. Nurses are key participants in modern healthcare interactions however, little is known about their (spontaneous) humour use. A middle-range theory that accounted for humour use in CNS-patient interactions was the aim of the study. The study reviewed the antecedents of humour exploring the use of humour in relation to (motivational) humour theories. Twenty Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions and their respective peer groups in a country of the United Kingdom. An evolved constructivist grounded theory approach investigated a complex and dynamic phenomenon in situated contexts. Naturally occurring interactions provided the basis of the data corpus with follow-up interviews, focus groups, observation and field notes. A constant comparative approach to data collection and analysis was applied until theoretical sufficiency incorporating an innovative interpretative and illustrative framework. This paper reports the grounded theory and is principally based upon 20 CNS-patient interactions and follow-up data. The negative case analysis and peer group interactions will be reported in separate publications. The theory purports that patients' use humour to reconcile a good patient persona. The core category of the good patient persona, two of its constituent elements (compliance, sycophancy), conditions under which it emerges and how this relates to the use of humour are outlined and discussed. In seeking to establish and maintain a meaningful and therapeutic interaction with the CNS, patients enact a good patient persona to varying degrees depending upon the situated context. The good patient persona needs to be maintained within the
F.G.E.M. Razenberg (Femke); J.W.C.M. Heynens (Jan); G. Jan de Vries (Geeuwke); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J. de Blic (Jacques); P.P.R. Rosias (Philippe)
textabstractChurg-Strauss syndrome is an uncommon multisystem disorder characterized by asthma, eosinophilia and vasculitis. We report on a 12-year-old boy with asthma and deterioration of his general condition, who was eventually diagnosed with an ANCA-negative Churg-Strauss syndrome. The
Davenport, Lisa A
Though the United States has become a place of increasing resettlement for refugees, particularly Iraqi refugees who have been forced to flee their homeland due to violence, persecution and civil unrest, little is known about Iraqi refugee resettlement in the United States, or the way in which resettlement impacts health and adjustment. A grounded theory study was conducted to develop a substantive theory of Iraqi refugee resettlement. Participants in the qualitative study included 29 Iraqi refugees and 2 community partners who participated in face-to face interviews. Data analysis and interpretation revealed fundamental concepts related to Iraqi refugee resettlement. Results of analysis showed that for Iraqis choosing to resettle here, the outcome is dichotomous: satisfaction or regret. The outcome is influenced by contextual factors as well as facilitating and hindering intervening conditions during the basic social process of resettlement transition. Each refugee's story is unique, yet all share common threads. This study allowed Iraqi refugees the opportunity to voice their personal experiences of resettling in America, and revealed life stories that inspire and illuminate a process that can guide health care delivery as they cope with the stresses of their journey. As a result, an in-depth storyline was established to explain the process of resettlement for Iraqi refugees. The development of this resettlement theory, grounded in Iraqi refugee experience, has the potential to guide nursing education, enhance the efficacy of practice, inform policy development and form the basis for research.
Ashwood, Mark; Jerosch-Herold, Christina; Shepstone, Lee
Grounded theory. The broader perspective of health offered by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has had a significant bearing on how we view the measurement of health outcomes after surgical or therapy interventions for peripheral nerve disorders affecting the hand. The value of the patient's perspective is now recognized and outcomes which reflect this are being advocated in the clinical management and support of this population. This qualitative study sought to explore the lived experience of a hand nerve disorder and in particular the impact on body structure/function, activities, and participation. In depth, one-to-one interviews with 14 people with a range of hand nerve disorders were conducted. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used to collect and analyze the data. Patients were also given the option of taking photographs to visually represent what it is like to live with a nerve disorder, to bring with them for discussion during the interview. The impact of hand nerve disorders forms part of a wider narrative on adaptation. A process of "struggling" and then "overcoming" was experienced. This was followed by an interior aspect of adaptation described as "accepting." This gave rise to participants "transforming," being changed as a result of the journey that they had been on. This study provides an explanatory theory on the adaptive process following a hand nerve disorder which may inform future patient-therapist interactions. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Social accountability has been increasingly discussed over the past three decades in various fields providing service to the community and has been expressed as a goal for various areas. In medical education system, like other social accountability areas, it is considered as one of the main objectives globally. The aim of this study was to seek a social accountability theory in the medical education system that is capable of identifying all the standards, norms, and conditions within the country related to the study subject and recognize their relationship. In this study, a total of eight experts in the field of social accountability in medical education system with executive or study experience were interviewedpersonally. After analysis of interviews, 379 codes, 59 secondary categories, 16 subcategories, and 9 main categories were obtained. The resulting data was collected and analyzed at three levels of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding in the form of grounded theory study of “Accountability model of medical education in Iran”, which can be used in education system’s policies and planning for social accountability, given that almost all effective components of social accountability in highereducation health system with causal and facilitator associations were determined.Keywords: SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY, COMMUNITY–ORIENTED MEDICINE, COMMUNITY MEDICINE, EDUCATION SYSTEM, GROUNDED THEORY
Cheng, L; Broome, M E; Feng, S; Hu, Y
Evidence-based nursing is widely recognized as the critical foundation for quality care. To develop a middle-range theory on the process of evidence-based nursing implementation in Chinese context. A grounded theory study using unstructured in-depth individual interviews was conducted with 56 participants who were involved in 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects in Mainland China from September 2015 to September 2016. A middle-range grounded theory of 'Taking Root' was developed. The theory describes the evidence implementation process consisting of four components (driving forces, process, outcome, sustainment/regression), three approaches (top-down, bottom-up and outside-in), four implementation strategies (patient-centred, nurses at the heart of change, reaching agreement, collaboration) and two patterns (transformational and adaptive implementation). Certain perspectives may have not been captured, as the retrospective nature of the interviewing technique did not allow for 'real-time' assessment of the actual implementation process. The transferability of the findings requires further exploration as few participants with negative experiences were recruited. This is the first study that explored evidence-based implementation process, strategies, approaches and patterns in the Chinese nursing practice context to inform international nursing and health policymaking. The theory of Taking Root described various approaches to evidence implementation and how the implementation can be transformational for the nurses and the setting in which they work. Nursing educators, managers and researchers should work together to improve nurses' readiness for evidence implementation. Healthcare systems need to optimize internal mechanisms and external collaborations to promote nursing practice in line with evidence and achieve clinical outcomes and sustainability. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Whiting, Jason B
A common goal of couples' therapy is to help individuals modify their view of each other and the relationship. Distorted views and appraisals contribute to conflict, and these can be manifest by use of rationalization or denial. This study explored appraisal distortion as an evaluative and moral process that occurs during partner conflict, particularly when it becomes contemptuous and aggressive. Using a philosophical base that is grounded in the ethical relationship, a model of appraisal distortion and couple conflict was created using constructivist grounded theory methods. The theoretical concepts derived from the data show relationships between one's relational stance, appraisal distortion, and verbal and physical aggression. This model implies that helping individuals take responsibility for appraisals is important in treating conflict.
Clute, Mary Ann
This grounded theory study gathered descriptions the bereavement experience for adults with intellectual disabilities (IDD) through the eyes and voices of a small sample of grief counselors. The counselors described bereaved adults with IDD as individuals who faced potentially heightened effects of the broken attachment bonds, increased risk of coping obstacles, long histories of unrecognized losses, and disenfranchised grief. The participants described bereaved adults with IDD (who sought treatment) as getting pushed to the sidelines to deal with their losses in isolation and confusion. It became evident that though there are many similarities between how all people cope with loss and how people with IDD cope with loss, differences exist. Subtle variations in the experience of loss and grief appear to be driven by culture and beliefs about disability and protection for those with IDD. The participants in this dissertation study contributed foundation data for a theoretical explanation of grief for adults with IDD grounded in data from bereavement counselors.
Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
We demonstrate that ground-state energies approaching chemical accuracy can be obtained by combining the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with time-dependent densityfunctional theory. The key ingredient is a renormalization scheme, which eliminates the divergence...
Renolen, Åste; Hjälmhult, Esther
Guidelines recommend the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. Nurses are expected to give patients care and treatment based on the best knowledge available. They may have knowledge and positive attitudes, but this does not mean that they are basing their work on evidence-based practice. Knowledge is still lacking about what is needed to successfully implement evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about what nurses perceive as the most important challenge in implementing evidence-based practice and to explain how they act to face and overcome this challenge. We used classical grounded theory methodology and collected data through four focus groups and one individual interview in different geographical locations in one large hospital trust in Norway. Fourteen registered clinical practice nurses participated. We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using the constant comparative method. Contextual balancing of knowledge emerged as the core category and explains how the nurses dealt with their main concern, how to determine what types of knowledge they could trust. The nurses' main strategies were an inquiring approach, examining knowledge and maintaining control while taking care of patients. They combined their own experienced-based knowledge and the guidelines of evidence-based practice with a sense of control in the actual situation. The grounded theory contextual balancing of knowledge may help us to understand how nurses detect what types of knowledge they can trust in clinical practice. The nurses needed to rely on what they did, and they seemed to rely on their own experience rather than on research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Palmquist, Lucianne; Patterson, Sue; O'Donovan, Analise; Bradley, Graham
Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people's views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant. To inform development of policy and youth services, the study described in this protocol aims to develop a comprehensive account of the experiences and expectations of 12-17 year olds as they encounter mental disorders and transition through specialist mental health services. Data will be analysed to model recovery from the adolescents' perspective. This grounded theory study will use quantitative and qualitative data collected in interviews with 12-17 year olds engaged with specialist Child/Youth Mental Health Service in Queensland, Australia. Interviews will explore adolescents' expectations and experiences of mental disorder, and of services, as they transition through specialist mental health services, including the meaning of their experiences and ideas of 'recovery' and how their experiences and expectations are shaped. Data collection and analysis will use grounded theory methods. Adolescents' experiences will be presented as a mid-range theory. The research will provide tangible recommendations for youth-focused mental health policy and practice. Findings will be disseminated within academic literature and beyond to participants, health professionals, mental health advocacy groups and policy and decision makers via publications, research summaries, conferences and workshops targeting different audiences. Ethical and research governance approvals have been obtained from relevant Human Research Ethics committees and all
Bateman, James; Allen, Maggie; Samani, Dipti; Kidd, Jane; Davies, David
Virtual patients (VPs) are online representations of clinical cases used in medical education. Widely adopted, they are well placed to teach clinical reasoning skills. International technology standards mean VPs can be created, shared and repurposed between institutions. A systematic review has highlighted the lack of evidence to support which of the numerous VP designs may be effective, and why. We set out to research the influence of VP design on medical undergraduates. This is a grounded theory study into the influence of VP design on undergraduate medical students. Following a review of the literature and publicly available VP cases, we identified important design properties. We integrated them into two substantial VPs produced for this research. Using purposeful iterative sampling, 46 medical undergraduates were recruited to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed both VPs, an evaluation and a 1-hour focus group discussion. These were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory, supported by computer-assisted analysis. Following open, axial and selective coding, we produced a theoretical model describing how students learn from VPs. We identified a central core phenomenon designated 'learning from the VP'. This had four categories: VP Construction; External Preconditions; Student-VP Interaction, and Consequences. From these, we constructed a three-layer model describing the interactions of students with VPs. The inner layer consists of the student's cognitive and behavioural preconditions prior to sitting a case. The middle layer considers the VP as an 'encoded object', an e-learning artefact and as a 'constructed activity', with associated pedagogic and organisational elements. The outer layer describes cognitive and behavioural change. This is the first grounded theory study to explore VP design. This original research has produced a model which enhances understanding of how and why the delivery and design of VPs
Cranley, Lisa A; Doran, Diane M; Tourangeau, Ann E; Kushniruk, Andre; Nagle, Lynn
There has been little research to date exploring nurses' uncertainty in their practice. Understanding nurses' uncertainty is important because it has potential implications for how care is delivered. The purpose of this study is to develop a substantive theory to explain how staff nurses experience and respond to uncertainty in their practice. Between 2006 and 2008, a grounded theory study was conducted that included in-depth semi-structured interviews. Fourteen staff nurses working in adult medical-surgical intensive care units at two teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The theory recognizing and responding to uncertainty characterizes the processes through which nurses' uncertainty manifested and how it was managed. Recognizing uncertainty involved the processes of assessing, reflecting, questioning, and/or being unable to predict aspects of the patient situation. Nurses' responses to uncertainty highlighted the cognitive-affective strategies used to manage uncertainty. Study findings highlight the importance of acknowledging uncertainty and having collegial support to manage uncertainty. The theory adds to our understanding the processes involved in recognizing uncertainty, strategies and outcomes of managing uncertainty, and influencing factors. Tailored nursing education programs should be developed to assist nurses in developing skills in articulating and managing their uncertainty. Further research is needed to extend, test and refine the theory of recognizing and responding to uncertainty to develop strategies for managing uncertainty. This theory advances the nursing perspective of uncertainty in clinical practice. The theory is relevant to nurses who are faced with uncertainty and complex clinical decisions, to managers who support nurses in their clinical decision-making, and to researchers who investigate ways to improve decision-making and care delivery. ©2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Brinkmann, Troels Vammen; Tandrup, Peter René; Brandt, Charlotte J.
The problem of technology acquisition in SMEs represents an under-investigated area in IS research. Most IS literature focuses on either the internal development of systems, which SMEs rarely do, or on issues of usage after the acquisition has taken place. This gap is problematic since acquisition...... grounded theory method for this research. We carried out and analyzed 28 interviews with milk producers and 5 with technology vendors. Our results show that motivations for technology acquisition for milk producers include the economic situation of the farmer, the perceived value of the technology...
Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F; Keefe, Robert H; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T; Mullick, Rosemary
Cell phone mobile application ("app") use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps' effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes.
Childress, Saltanat; Gioia, Deborah; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
This paper provides an account of the adverse impacts of domestic violence on women in Kyrgyzstan and develops a grounded theory of coping among survivors of abuse. The results indicate that women adopt a range of strategies to prevent, avert, and minimize anticipated violence. Two key aspects of coping appeared in the narratives: 1) maintaining the status quo and 2) developing agency to resist the abuse. The results suggest that Government and nongovernmental organizations must take additional action to draw women to formal violence prevention services. Providing professional help at several levels (e.g., clinical, community, and societal) and promoting problem-focused strategies as part of therapeutic intervention are essential.
Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F.; Keefe, Robert H.; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T.; Mullick, Rosemary
Cell phone mobile application (“app”) use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps’ effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes. PMID:29056878
Hannon, Michael D; Hannon, LaChan V
Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental differences, engaging in research and education activities, having their children formally evaluated; inquiring about their children's prognosis, and having curiosities about autism's etiology. The orienting others phase entailed orientating family members and orienting members of their broader communities. Recommendations for responsive service provision, support for fathers, and future research are offered.
Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo
To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is part of the science of visual communication design/graphic design through theaddition of images on the real world with virtual information to enhance one’s senses with the help of “smart glasses”with three general characteristics: 1. The combination of real environment with virtual objects, 2. Interactivedisplay, 3. Display in 3D. Qualitative research methods and grounded theory approach in the real environmentin the area of Jakarta Fatahillah museum, discovered a new theory as a basis the idea that Visual PrototypingAugmented Reality technique with image manipulation-image nuanced Kota Tua as Jakarta Icon. The idea ofexploiting foreign tourists enriching way to learn more about Indonesia through social networking in a virtual worldstrategies to increase tourism.
Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi
Full Text Available In many EFL contexts, including language education milieu in Iran, reading fluency is usually taken for granted since language education in public high schools mainly focuses on reading comprehension. Taking the detrimental effect of fluency deficiency into account, some practitioners foreground reading fluency and try to develop it early on. To give voice to their theories of practice, this qualitative study interviewed teachers who were willing to share their experience with the researchers. In line with grounded theory, the iterative process of data collection and analysis continued until the conceptualization of fluency development techniques was saturated. The techniques emerged are conducive to fluency development and as such the findings have clear implications for practitioners and policy makers nation-wide.
de Almeida Araújo, Iliana Maria; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Bonfim, Isabela Melo; Fernandes, Ana Fátima Carvalho
The goal was to understand the nurse/patient communication process, emphasizing nursing care to mastectomized women. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory were used to interview eight nurses from a referral institution in cancer treatment, using the guiding question: how do nurses perceive their communication process with mastectomized women? Data analysis allowed for the creation of a central theory: the meaning of communication in nursing care to women, constituted by three distinct but inter-related phenomena: perceiving communication, the relationship nurse/mastectomized woman and rethinking the communication nurse/mastectomized woman. With a view to satisfactory communication, professionals need to get involved and believe that their presence is as important as the performance of technical procedures that relieve situations of stress.
Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich
COPD predominantly cope with breathlessness during daily living. We chose a multimodal grounded theory design that holds the opportunity to combine qualitative and quantitative data to capture and explain the multidimensional coping behaviour among poeple with COPD. The participants' main concern...... in coping with breathlessness appeared to be an endless striving to economise on resources in an effort to preserve their integrity. In this integrity-preserving process, four predominant coping types emerged and were labelled: `Overrater´, `Challenger´, `Underrater´, and `Leveller´. Each coping type...... comprised distrinctive physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial features constituting coping-type-specific indicators. In theory, four predominant coping types with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial properties are observed among people with COPD. The four coping types...
Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A
The purpose of this research was to study the way faculty establish course social presence in an online course. The community of inquiry model by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer distinguished the area of social presence as an important component of online learning, and this study sought to understand how faculty perceive and create social presence in their online classroom. By employing a grounded theory approach, a substantive theory was developed to explain the way in which faculty create and maintain an online course climate. The sample consisted of 10 nursing faculty teaching various master's in nursing courses. Through a rigorous qualitative process using nursing faculty interviews and online course analysis, humanization was found to be the core category in setting online course climate. Faculty's efforts to humanize the climate lead each member of the community to view the other members as real, thereby enabling the establishment of online social presence.
Thomas, Juliet; Jinks, Annette; Jack, Barbara
Clinical practice is where student nurses are socialised into a professional role and acquire the distinct behaviour, attitudes and values of the nursing profession. Getting it right at the outset can maximise the development of a professional identity and the transmission of robust value systems. To explore the impact of the first clinical placement on the professional socialisation of adult undergraduate student nurses in the United Kingdom. Data of a longitudinal qualitative nature were collected and analysed using grounded theory. First year student nurses in hospital ward placements comprising a rural District General Hospital and a large inner city Hospital kept daily unstructured diaries for six weeks. A total of 26 undergraduate adult student nurses were purposefully sampled between 2008 and 2010 before undertaking their initial clinical placement. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory and the key question asked of the diarists 'tell me what it is like to be a first year nurse on a first placement' was theoretically adjusted during constant comparison and as the theory emerged. Ethical approval and consent was obtained. The theory of finessing incivility comprises a conceptual framework depicting how student nurses deal with professional incivility during their initial clinical placement and sustain a student identity. Being disillusioned with their role as worker rather than learner yields a sense of 'status dislocation'. Despite needing professional benevolence, they remain altruistic and seek recompense from significant others to negotiate for learning opportunities and relocate their student status. Despite the stressful transition into clinical practice rather than 'fit in', the student nurses want to belong as learners. His or her own resilience to learn nursing and be a professional student maintains their resolve, their altruism and strengthens their existing values to be benevolent towards an indifferent profession. This behaviour
Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten
To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recovery improvements. The support of relatives during older patients' trajectory is important. However, knowledge is needed on the relatives' pattern of behaviour to strengthen their involvement in fast-track treatment programmes. We used a Glaserian grounded theory approach based on a systematic generation of theory from data to explain the latent pattern of behaviour of relatives. Data were collected from 2010-2011 in orthopaedic wards at two Danish university hospitals and consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 postobservational interviews and five interviews. Seven relatives of patients over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved their main concern: preventing the patients from feeling alone. The relatives resolved their main concern through three interchangeable behavioural modes: Protecting Mode, by providing loving and respectful support; Substituting Mode, with practical and cognitive support; and an Adapting Mode, by trying to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Richard Ekins, Ph.D., FRSA
Full Text Available This paper was written in the beginning phase of my transitioning from grounded theory sociologist (Ekins, 19971 to grounded theory musicologist (Ekins, 20102. In particular, it provides preliminary data for a grounded theory of ‘managing authenticity’, the core category/basic social process (Glaser, 1978 that has emerged from my ongoing grounded theory work in jazz historiography. It was written whilst I was ‘credentialising’ (Glaser, 2010 my transition to popular music studies and popular musicology. In consequence, it incorporates many aspects that are inimical to classic grounded theory. As with so much of Straussian and so-called constructivist grounded theory (Bryant and Charmaz, 2007, it roots itself in G.H. Mead and a social constructivist symbolic interactionism – inter alia, a legitimising (authenticating strategy. Moreover, as is typical of this mode of conceptualising, the paper fills the void of inadequate classic grounded theorising with less conceptual theorising and more conceptual description. Nevertheless, the article does introduce a number of categories that ‘fit and work’, and have ‘conceptual grab’ (Glaser, 1978; Glaser, 1992. In particular, in terms of my own continuing credentialising as a classic grounded theorist, it sets forth important categories to be integrated into my ongoing work on managing authenticity in New Orleans revivalist jazz, namely, ‘trailblazing’, ‘mythologizing’, ‘debunking’, and ‘marginalising’, in the context of the ‘rediscovering’ and ‘resurrecting’ of a jazz pioneer. More specifically, the paper is offered to classic grounded theorists as a contribution to preliminary generic social process analysis in the substantive area of jazz historiography.
Beye, Birane; Lesur, Gilles; Claude, Pierre; Martzolf, Lionel; Kieffer, Pierre; Sondag, Daniel
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a small and medium vessel vasculitis and is also known as allergic granulomatous angiitis. Gastrointestinal involvement is common in patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome (20-50%). The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhoea and occasionally gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation. We present a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome with small bowel lesions documented by video capsule endoscopy.
Annette Doris Wagner
Full Text Available Annette Doris Wagner1, Gerd Peter Meyer2, Markus Rihl3, Anke Rathmann2, Ulrike Wittkop1, Henning Zeidler4, Hermann Haller1, Joachim Lotz51Department Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology; 2Division of Cardiology; 3Division of Rheumatology; 4Rheumatologikum Hannover; 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology; Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, GermanyAbstract: A 41-year old female patient was admitted with acute onset of dyspnea and chest pain. Previous history revealed asthma, chronic sinusitis and eosinophilic proctitis. Electrocardiogram showed anterior ST-segment elevations and inferior ST-segment depression. Immediate heart catheterization revealed a distally occluded left anterior descending coronary artery, the occlusion being reversible after nitroglycerine. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with perimyocarditis. Hypereosinophilia and IgE elevation were present and Churg-strauss syndrome was diagnosed.Keywords: Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS, carditis, cardiac MRI
Kung, K L; Yee, P K
Churg-Strauss syndrome, which has been frequently described by physicians in the literature, is a small and medium-sized vessel systemic vasculitis typically associated with asthma, lung infiltrates, and hypereosinophilia. We report a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome with presenting symptoms of bilateral lower limb weakness and numbness only. The patient was admitted to an orthopaedic ward for management and a final diagnosis was reached following sural nerve biopsy. The patient's symptoms responded promptly to steroid treatment and she was able to walk with a stick 3 weeks following admission. This report emphasises the need to be aware of this syndrome when managing patients with neurological deficit in order to achieve prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Rees, J. R. E.; Burgess, P.
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a small and medium vessel vasculitis that is also known as allergic granulomatous angiitis. It most commonly presents with an asthma like symptoms. It was first described in Mount Siani Hospital, New York in 1951 by Jacob Churg and Lotte Stauss and was recognised after the study of a series of 13 patients who had asthma, eosinophilia, granulomatous inflammation necrotising systemic vasculitis and necrotising glomerulonephritis. We describe a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome presenting with abdominal pain and later during the hospital admission a mono-neuritis multiplex syndrome affecting the lower limbs. The patient presented in such an atypical fashion with abdominal signs and symptoms that they required laparotomy and the diagnosis was made after histological examination of tissue taken at the time of surgery. Treatment with immunosuppression and aggressive rehabilitation achieved a progressive recovery which continued on discharge from hospital. PMID:20814555
Tallab, Hussam F; Doty, Richard L
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare disorder that is often misdiagnosed. In this report we describe a 57-year-old man with Churg-Strauss syndrome who presented with symptoms of lessened smell and taste function that occurred approximately 3 months before the onset of his neurological symptoms. Psychophysical testing using a battery of well-validated smell and taste tests revealed that the patient had total anosmia and marked hypogeusia. While one anecdotal report exists in the Spanish literature that alludes to the presence of anosmia in a single case of this syndrome, no further confirmation of such dysfunction has appeared in the literature. These findings support the concept that smell and taste loss may be an early sign of this disorder. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Armitage, Samantha; Swallow, Veronica; Kolehmainen, Niina
There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for participation outcomes in children with coordination difficulties. Developing theory about the interventions, i.e. their ingredients and change processes, is the first step to advance the evidence base. To develop theory about the key ingredients of occupational therapy interventions for children with coordination difficulties and the processes through which change in participation might happen. Grounded theory methodology, as described by Kathy Charmaz, was used to develop the theory. Children and parents participated in semi-structured interviews to share their experiences of occupational therapy and processes of change. Data collection and analysis were completed concurrently using constant comparison methods. Five key ingredients of interventions were described: performing activities and tasks; achieving; carer support; helping and supporting the child; and labelling. Ingredients related to participation by changing children's mastery experience, increasing capability beliefs and sense of control. Parents' knowledge, skills, positive emotions, sense of empowerment and capability beliefs also related to children's participation. The results identify intervention ingredients and change pathways within occupational therapy to increase participation. It is unclear how explicitly and often therapists consider and make use of these ingredients and pathway.
Irfa'ina Rohana Salma
Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada saat ini sebagaian besar pengembangan motif batik mengacu pada ragam hias tradisional, sehingga hasilnya cenderung monoton. Perlu penyegaran visual dan diversifikasi gagasan untuk menghasilkan motif batik modern yang baru, unik, kreatif, dan inovatif. Tujuan kajian ini adalah menginspirasi para seniman, perajin, desainer untuk menciptakan motif kreatif sebagai diversifikasi produk yang semakin memperkaya khasanah batik Indonesia, dengan mengkaji batik kreatif karya Amri Yahya. Batik kreatif Amri Yahya telah mendapat pengakuan internasional sebagai batik modern. Metode yang digunakan yaitu deskriptif analitis untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis objek seni yaitu batik karya Amri Yahya dengan perspektif Strukturalisme Levi-Strauss. Dari kajian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa batik kreatif karya Amri Yahya dihasilkan dari keberanian dan kebebasan berekspresi serta konsistensi dalam berkarya seni.Kata kunci: batik, kreatif, Amri Yahya, strukturalisme Levi-StraussABSTRACTAt this time almost all of the batik motive bulk development refers to the traditional decoration, so the results tend to be monotonous. It needs a visual refreshment and diversity idea to produce a modern motive that is new, unique, creative, and innovative. The purpose of this study was to inspire the artists, craft men, designers to create the creative motifs as the diversified products to enrichIndonesian batik, reviewing creative batik of Amri Yahya. These Amri Yahya creative batik hasreceived international recognition as a modern batik. The method used is descriptive analysis todescribe artwork object that is Amri Yahya batik with Levi -Strauss's Structuralism perspective. From this study it can be concluded that the creative work of Amri Yahya batik produced from the encouragement and independecy of expression, as well as consistency in the artwork.Keywords: batik, creative, Amri Yahya, levi - strauss structuralis
Marques, Camila Carneiro; Fernandes, Elizabeth Leocadia; Miquelin, Gabriela Momente; Colferai, Mariana Morais Tavares
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic vasculitis characterized by asthma and other allergy symptoms as well as eosinophilia and necrotizing vasculitis involving small and medium-sized vessels. Its prevalence in the general population ranges from 1-3 cases per million a year, varying according to the population studied. The authors describe a case of a female patient affected by the disease with important systemic manifestations and not very florid skin lesions.
Triantafyllis, Andreas S; Sakadakis, Eleftherios A; Papafilippaki, Argyro; Katsimbri, Pelagia; Panou, Fotios; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria; Lekakis, Ioannis
Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) is a rare vasculitis with multiorgan involvement. Cardiac manifestations are common causing serious complications. We report a case of CSS masquerading as a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with heart failure. CSS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome(ACS)with normal coronary arteries when history of asthma, peripheral eosinophilia and multisystemic involvement is present.
Marques, Camila Carneiro; Fernandes, Elizabeth Leocadia; Miquelin, Gabriela Momente; Colferai, Mariana Morais Tavares
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic vasculitis characterized by asthma and other allergy symptoms as well as eosinophilia and necrotizing vasculitis involving small and medium-sized vessels. Its prevalence in the general population ranges from 1-3 cases per million a year, varying according to the population studied. The authors describe a case of a female patient affected by the disease with important systemic manifestations and not very florid skin lesions. PMID:29267447
Nadeau, Pierre L; Kumar, Andreas; O'Connor, Kim; Couture, Christian Y; Bourgault, Christine; Dubois, Michelle; Sénéchal, Mario
: Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare entity that is characterized by widespread vasculitis, which affects both small and medium-sized blood vessels of nearly all organs. More than 50% of these cases have cardiac involvement, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a patient with cardiac biopsy proven CSS, and we discuss the usefulness of cardiovascular MRI for its diagnosis.
G K Manu
Full Text Available The Churg-strauss syndrome (CSS, also referred to as allergic angiitis and granulomatosis is characterized by asthma, peripheral and tissue eosinophilia, extravascular granuloma formation, and vasculitis of multiple organ systems. It is an uncommon disease with an estimated annual incidence of 1-3 per million. Here, we report a case of CSS with glomerulocentric granulomatous reaction with interstitial eosinophils and involvement of retinal vessels.
Jones, Brian Kirby
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.
de Guzman, Allan B; Jimenez, Benito Christian B; Jocson, Kathlyn P; Junio, Aileen R; Junio, Drazen E; Jurado, Jasper Benjamin N; Justiniano, Angela Bianca F
Considering the paucity of studies dealing with the holistic aspect of the cancer experience, this grounded theory study seeks to conceptualize the process of cancer survivorship among Filipinos. Twenty-seven Filipino cancer survivors were purposively selected, and a two-part instrument, specifically robotfoto and focus group interviews, was used to gather data. The Glaserian method of grounded theory analysis was used, and extended texts were analyzed inductively via a dendrogram. Member checking and correspondence were observed to validate the surfacing stages, leading to the conceptualization of a theoretical model termed as the Ribbon of Cancer Survivorship. The said model describes the trifling (living before), transfusing (accepting the reality), transforming (being strong), and transcending (living beyond) phases of cancer survivorship. Ten interesting substages were also identified, namely: tainting, desolating, disrupting, and embracing for the transfusing phase; tormenting, distressing, awakening, and transfiguring for the transforming phase, and trembling and enlivening for the transcending phase. The resulting theoretical model has clearly and successfully described the entire process of cancer survivorship among Filipinos. It is hoped that the model be used as a reference for future studies about cancer survivorship and as a guide for nurses in providing a more empathetic care among cancer patients.
Ameli, F; Phang, K S; Masir, N
Churg-Strauss syndrome, a small and medium vessel vasculitis, was first described by Churg and Strauss in 1951. It is characterised by the presence of asthma, prominent tissue and blood eosinophilia, systemic vasculitis, and pulmonary and systemic necrotising allergic granulomas. Involvement of the skin, heart and gastrointestinal tract is well documented, but ocular presentation is unusual. We describe a 40-year-old lady who presented with recurrent upper eyelid swelling due to conjunctival lesions. Although she has chronic asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome was never suspected. The diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome was only made following histological examination of the conjunctival lesions.
Kisch, Annika M; Forsberg, Anna
Background: There is a lack of theoretical framework supporting stem cell transplant nurses in their assessment, judgment and caring interventions of sibling stem cell donors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore sibling stem cell donors’ main concerns and how they deal with them before and after donation. Method: Ten healthy sibling donors, 5 men and 5 women, with a median age of 54 years were included in this study when they were due to donate stem cells to a brother or sister. Data were collected prospectively on three occasions (before the donation and three and twelve months after it) through in-depth interviews, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by the Grounded Theory method according to Charmaz. Results: This study describes the efforts of the ten donors to fulfil their duty as a sibling by doing what they considered necessary in order to help. Their efforts were summarised in a process wherein the grounded theory generated three main categories; Prepare, Promote and Preserve. A clear path of transition leading to fulfilment is evident, starting before the donation and continuing for one year afterwards. Conclusions: Being a sibling stem cell donor means doing what you have to do to fulfil your duty and if possible, saving the life of a seriously ill brother or sister. The relationship between the siblings is strengthened by the donation process. Sibling stem cell donation appears to be about fulfilment and the theoretical framework may support clinicians in their evaluation and support of donors. PMID:28839511
Matheson, Lauren; Boulton, Mary; Lavender, Verna; Collins, Graham; Mitchell-Floyd, Tracy; Watson, Eila
To explore the experiences of young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma during the first year following the end of initial treatment. . A qualitative grounded theory study. . Interviews with patients recruited from three cancer centers in England. . 10 Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (four men and six women aged 21-39 years) recruited as part of a larger study of 28 young adult cancer survivors. . Semistructured interviews were conducted about two months after treatment completion, and follow-up interviews were conducted seven months later. The authors' grounded theory of positive psychosocial adjustment to cancer provided the conceptual framework. . Positive reframing, informal peer support, acceptance, and normalization helped young adults dismantle the threats of Hodgkin lymphoma during the course of treatment. However, they described losing a sense of security following treatment completion. Greater age-specific information to enable better preparation for the future was desired regarding body image, fertility, sexual relationships, work, and socializing. . Informal support mechanisms, like peer support and patient navigator interventions, may be useful ways to further support young adults after treatment completion. . Positive psychosocial adjustment to cancer survivorship in young adults is facilitated by having informal peer support; being able to positively reframe, accept, and normalize their experience; and being prepared for the future.
Martinez-Marcos, Mercedes; De la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen
Uncover how women self-manage their own chronic illness while taking care of a dependent relative. International policies place special emphasis in promoting interventions addressed to control, prevent and care for people with chronic health conditions. Self-management is a crucial part of this care. Caregivers are more prone to have chronic illness than non-caregivers. They are confronted with dilemmas about taking care of themselves while taking care of their dependent relative and the rest of their families. Caregivers articulate strategies to enable them to focus their energy on caring. Qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory. Thirty-nine women caregivers with a chronic illness participated in the study. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were carried out between April 2010-December 2011. Data were analysed using grounded theory procedures. Self-management helps women caregivers with a chronic illness to balance the demands of their own illness and those of the dependent relative. They self-manage their illness by self-regulating the treatment, by regulating their strength and by controlling their emotions. Women caregivers integrate effectively and creatively the management of their chronic illnesses within the complexities of family care. This renders their health needs invisible and reaffirms them as capable caregivers. Identifying self-management strategies of women caregivers allow health professionals to acknowledge and reinforce effective self-care measures and to deter those that are ineffective and lessen their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kisch, Annika M; Forsberg, Anna
There is a lack of theoretical framework supporting stem cell transplant nurses in their assessment, judgment and caring interventions of sibling stem cell donors. The purpose of this study was to explore sibling stem cell donors' main concerns and how they deal with them before and after donation. Ten healthy sibling donors, 5 men and 5 women, with a median age of 54 years were included in this study when they were due to donate stem cells to a brother or sister. Data were collected prospectively on three occasions (before the donation and three and twelve months after it) through in-depth interviews, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by the Grounded Theory method according to Charmaz. This study describes the efforts of the ten donors to fulfil their duty as a sibling by doing what they considered necessary in order to help. Their efforts were summarised in a process wherein the grounded theory generated three main categories; Prepare, Promote and Preserve. A clear path of transition leading to fulfilment is evident, starting before the donation and continuing for one year afterwards. Being a sibling stem cell donor means doing what you have to do to fulfil your duty and if possible, saving the life of a seriously ill brother or sister. The relationship between the siblings is strengthened by the donation process. Sibling stem cell donation appears to be about fulfilment and the theoretical framework may support clinicians in their evaluation and support of donors.
Cunningham, David E; Ferguson, Julie; Wakeling, Judy; Zlotos, Leon; Power, Ailsa
Practice Based Small Group Learning (PBSGL) is an established learning resource for primary care clinicians in Scotland and is used by one-third of general practitioners (GPs). Scottish Government and UK professional bodies have called for GPs and pharmacists to work more closely together to improve care. To gain GPs' and pharmacists' perceptions and experiences of learning together in an inter-professional PBSGL pilot. Qualitative research methods involving established GP PBSGL groups in NHS Scotland recruiting one or two pharmacists to join them. A grounded theory method was used. GPs were interviewed in focus groups by a fellow GP, and pharmacists were interviewed individually by two researchers, neither being a GP or a pharmacist. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory methods. Data saturation was achieved and confirmed. Three themes were identified: GPs' and pharmacists' perceptions and experiences of inter-professional learning; Inter-professional relationships and team-working; Group identity and purpose of existing GP groups. Pharmacists were welcomed into GP groups and both professions valued inter-professional PBSGL learning. Participants learned from each other and both professions gained a wider perspective of the NHS and of each others' roles in the organisation. Inter-professional relationships, communication and team-working were strengthened and professionals regarded each other as peers and friends.
Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.
Flenady, Tracy; Dwyer, Trudy; Applegarth, Judith
Abnormal respiratory rates are one of the first indicators of clinical deterioration in emergency department(ED) patients. Despite the importance of respiratory rate observations, this vital sign is often inaccurately recorded on ED observation charts, compromising patient safety. Concurrently, there is a paucity of research reporting why this phenomenon occurs. To develop a substantive theory explaining ED registered nurses' reasoning when they miss or misreport respiratory rate observations. This research project employed a classic grounded theory analysis of qualitative data. Seventy-nine registered nurses currently working in EDs within Australia. Data collected included detailed responses from individual interviews and open-ended responses from an online questionnaire. Classic grounded theory (CGT) research methods were utilised, therefore coding was central to the abstraction of data and its reintegration as theory. Constant comparison synonymous with CGT methods were employed to code data. This approach facilitated the identification of the main concern of the participants and aided in the generation of theory explaining how the participants processed this issue. The main concern identified is that ED registered nurses do not believe that collecting an accurate respiratory rate for ALL patients at EVERY round of observations is a requirement, and yet organizational requirements often dictate that a value for the respiratory rate be included each time vital signs are collected. The theory 'Rationalising Transgression', explains how participants continually resolve this problem. The study found that despite feeling professionally conflicted, nurses often erroneously record respiratory rate observations, and then rationalise this behaviour by employing strategies that adjust the significance of the organisational requirement. These strategies include; Compensating, when nurses believe they are compensating for errant behaviour by enhancing the patient's outcome
Wiseman, Boris Nicholas Daniel
The aim of this article is to explore some convergences between aesthetics and the anthropology of art, two disciplines often thought of as incompatible or mutually exclusive. Its impetus is the conviction that we have much to gain by a more systematic and concerted attempt at constituting an eth...... that is implicit in Lévi-Strauss's works but not articulated as such, is a boundary marking processes, one that is central to the way in which we create an order of the world around us.......-aesthetics, i.e. a decentred aesthetics enriched by the dynamic of cross-cultural comparison. I will take as my starting point Lévi-Strauss's classic studies of Caduveo body painting and try to show how, beyond the clichés often repeated about structuralism, they provide valuable insights for an understanding...... will argue here that Lévi-Strauss's own theorisation of the relations between nature, culture and art enables us to see them, in at least one of their dimensions, as prime examples of the fulfilling of the mytho-poetic function. What I will place, here, at the core of mytho-poetic function, following a view...
Wilkin, La Vena
This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…
Schiefen, Kathleen M.
This research focused on how organizational structure of community colleges influenced the entrepreneurial orientation of deans, directors, vice presidents, and vice chancellors of workforce units. Using grounded theory methodology, the researcher identified three emergent theories applicable to both integrated and separate workforce units. These…
Scientific reasoning is crucial in both scientific inquiry and everyday life. While the majority of researchers have studied "how people reason" by focusing on their cognitive processes, factors related to the underpinnings of scientific reasoning are still under-researched. The present study aimed to develop a grounded theory that captures not only the cognitive processes during reasoning but also their underpinnings. In particular, the grounded theory and phenomenographic methodologies were integrated to explore how undergraduate students reason about competing theories and evidence on global climate change. Twenty-six undergraduate students were recruited through theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis of responses from interviews and written assessments revealed that participants were mostly drawn to the surface features when reasoning about evidence. While prior knowledge might not directly contribute to participants' performance on evidence evaluation, it affected their level of engagement when reading and evaluating competing arguments on climate issues. More importantly, even though all participants acknowledged the relative correctness of multiple perspectives, they predominantly favored arguments that supported their own beliefs with weak scientific reasoning about the opposing arguments. Additionally, factors such as personal interests, religious beliefs, and reading capacity were also found to have bearings on the way participants evaluated evidence and arguments. In all, this work contributes to the current endeavors in exploring the nature of scientific reasoning. Taking a holistic perspective, it provides an in-depth discussion of factors that may affect or relate to scientific reasoning processes. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional methods used in the literature, the methodological approach employed in this work brought an innovative insight into the investigation of scientific reasoning. Last but not least, this research may
Rannikko, Sunna; Stolt, Minna; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
Dignity is seen as an important but complex concept in the healthcare context. In this context, the discussion of dignity includes concepts of other ethical principles such as autonomy and privacy. Patients consider dignity to cover individuality, patient's feelings, communication, and the behavior of healthcare personnel. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the realization of patients' dignity in hospital care and the focus of the study is therefore on the realization of dignity of the vulnerable group of patients with stroke. The aim of the study was to create a theoretical construct to describe the dignity realization of patients with stroke in hospital care. Research design and participants: Patients with stroke (n = 16) were interviewed in 2015 using a semi-structured interview containing open questions concerning dignity. The data were analyzed using constant comparison of Grounded Theory. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval for the research was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the University. The permission for the research was given by the hospital. Informed consent was obtained from participants. The "Theory of Dignity Realization of Patients with Stroke in Hospital Care" consists of a core category including generic elements of the new situation and dignity realization types. The core category was identified as "Dignity in a new situation" and the generic elements as health history, life history, individuality and stroke. Dignity of patients with stroke is realized through specific types of realization: person-related dignity type, control-related dignity type, independence-related dignity type, social-related dignity type, and care-related dignity type. The theory has similar elements with the previous literature but the whole construct is new. The theory reveals possible special characteristics in dignity realization of patients with stroke. For healthcare personnel, the theory provides a frame for a better understanding and
Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer M.
This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to investigate the anatomy of educational apps that contain virtual manipulatives. For this study 100 virtual manipulatives within educational apps designed for the iPad were observed by the researcher in order to expand the explanations of and build theory about virtual manipulatives within apps. Affordance theory was used to frame all six phases of the study in which the researcher identified virtual manipulatives situated within educa...
Full Text Available Background: To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods: Using classic grounded theory (Glaser, we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results: The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions: The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development.
Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans
The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning. PMID:27172511
Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans
The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.
Zahourek, Rothlyn P
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and potentially modify or expand a previously developed theory: Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH) using a sample of men in nursing. A modified grounded theory approach described by Chen and Boore (2009) and by Amsteus (2014). Twelve men in nursing were recruited. Each was interviewed at least once and their feedback solicited to determine accuracy of interpretation. Results were compared and contrasted to those obtained from the earlier research with six female nurses and their patients. Both groups viewed intentionality as different from, and greater than, intention. Intentionality reflects the whole person's values, goals, and experiences. The men emphasized the importance of reflective spiritual practices, developing self-awareness, being aware of the stress experienced by males in a female profession, and the role of action in manifesting intentionality in healing. The theory is substantiated with minor changes in emphases. Further study is warranted to expand the understanding of this basic concept in nursing and healing. © The Author(s) 2015.
Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P
There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The open abdomen (OA) surgical technique has become an option for treating complex abdominal injuries; however, complications leading to late closure conditions might arise. In these cases the wound must be left open, which greatly impacts the patient's life. The author aims to describe the experiences of individuals with a chronic OA wound. Qualitative design using grounded theory was utilized. This study was carried out with a group of 28 adults who were treated with OA technique and whose wound had remained open for more than a month in duration and only received outpatient wound care. Data were collected through open interviews and examined under continuous comparison. The average age of the respondents was 45 years, and their wound, treated with OA due to severe abdominal infection, remained open between 2 months and 8 years. An emergent theory was developed to describe how people facing this experience undergo a process of 4 stages: 1) finding an OA wound upon waking, 2) feeling desperate about the healing process and the limitations involved, 3) regaining control of their life, and 4) taking advantage of their second chance at life with an OA wound. This study provides insight for nurses and other health care professionals into the experiences of patients with a chronic OA wound and proposes an emerging theory based on the conceptualization of these experiences.
Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the process of conflicts in agile software projects. The purpose was to investigate the causes and consequences of these conflicts. For this purpose, we conducted a qualitative study involving agile software projects in Norway. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data and the interview findings are presented using Glaser´s Six C model (context, condition, causes, consequences, contingencies, and covariance. The research findings suggest that there are several causes of conflicts. These include: the role of the product owner, an inexperienced project manager, the customer’s lack of knowledge about methodology organizational hierarchy in public companies, contracting, personal egos, financial issues, not getting the right team. Consequences of conflicts include: decreased productivity, wastage of time and resources, diverted attention from project objectives loss of motivation, poor decision making, loss of communication. Based on interview data, different conflict strategies are suggested and these include appropriately skilled project manager, communication and negotiation, defining clear roles, stakeholder analysis, managing stakeholder´s expectations, discussion, finding the root cause of conflict. Project managers are using these strategies to avoid or resolve conflicts. The competencies required to handle these kind of conflicts are also discussed in the paper, while the implications of theory and practice of conflict management theory are also presented.
Jeanette Källstrand Eriksson
Full Text Available The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling. Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving, adapting (by finding new ways, and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.
In this book, brain-grounded theory of temporal and spatial design in architecture and the environment is discussed. The author believes that it is a key to solving such global problems as environmental disorders and severe climate change as well as conflicts that are caused by the ill-conceived notion of “time is money”. There are three phases or aspects of a person’s life: the physical life, the spiritual or mental life, and the third stage of life, when a person moves from middle age into old age and can choose what he or she wishes to do instead of simply what must be done. This book describes the temporal design of the environment based on the theory of subjective preference, which could make it possible for an individual to realize a healthy life in all three phases. In his previously published work, the present author wrote that the theory of subjective preference has been established for the sound and visual fields based on neural evidence, and that subjective preference is an overall response o...
Waxegård, Gustaf; Thulesius, Hans
Background To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development. PMID:27609793
Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt
The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. The study design used classical grounded theory. The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients' main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.
Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L
Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Brien, Brid; Andrews, Tom; Savage, Eileen
To explore and explain how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Perioperative nurses care for patients who are having surgery or other invasive explorative procedures. Perioperative care is increasingly focused on how to improve patient safety. Safety and risk management is a global priority for health services in reducing risk. Many studies have explored safety within the healthcare settings. However, little is known about how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Classic grounded theory. Ethical approval was granted for all aspects of the study. Thirty-seven nurses working in 11 different perioperative settings in Ireland were interviewed and 33 hr of nonparticipant observation was undertaken. Concurrent data collection and analysis was undertaken using theoretical sampling. Constant comparative method, coding and memoing and were used to analyse the data. Participants' main concern was how to minimise risk. Participants resolved this through engaging in anticipatory vigilance (core category). This strategy consisted of orchestrating, routinising and momentary adapting. Understanding the strategies of anticipatory vigilance extends and provides an in-depth explanation of how nurses' behaviour ensures that risk is minimised in a complex high-risk perioperative setting. This is the first theory situated in the perioperative area for nurses. This theory provides a guide and understanding for nurses working in the perioperative setting on how to minimise risk. It makes perioperative nursing visible enabling positive patient outcomes. This research suggests the need for training and education in maintaining safety and minimising risk in the perioperative setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Anselmo Ferreira Vasconcelos
Full Text Available This paper suggests that there exist many theoretical linkages between the societal marketing concept (SMC and spirituality in the workplace (SWP theory. Thus, it is reviewed the literature of both SMC and the emerging field of SWP theory in order to find unexplored commonalities between them. As a result, it acknowledges that SMC broached a new perspective in marketing discipline regarding that it added sizeable social and ethical responsibility to the marketer's role. Most importantly, it posits that the common ground between SMC and SWP theory is, in large measure, the moral reasoning. Overall, this study expands McKee's work (2003 on theoretical intersections between marketing and the spirituality philosophy or paradigm. Rather, it proposes that there is a clear evidence of theoretical overlapping in some constructs, namely, employees, work, workplace, quality of life, ethics, corporate citizenship, and social responsibility. In addition, it is also proposed that SMC-driven organizations are poised to embrace an overall spiritual orientation - whether they have not already done it.
Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm
The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced young women's career decisions and the program's effect on engineering, physics, and computer science career interests. To test this, a study was mounted to explore how the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition (FRC) program influenced young women's college major and career choices. Career theories suggested that experiential programs coupled with supportive relationships strongly influence career decisions, especially for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. The study explored how and when young women made career decisions and how the experiential program and! its mentors and role models influenced career choice. Online focus groups and interviews (online and face-to-face) with 10 female FRC alumnae and GT processes (inductive analysis, open coding, categorizations using mind maps and content clouds) were used to generate a general systems theory style model of the career decision process for these young women. The study identified gender stereotypes and other career obstacles for women. The study's conclusions include recommendations to foster connections to real-world challenges, to develop training programs for mentors, and to nurture social cohesion, a mostly untapped area. Implementing these recommendations could help grow a critical mass of women in engineering, physics, and computer science careers, a social change worth pursuing.
Restrepo, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Vasquez, Gloria
Churg-Strauss syndrome, a necrotizing systemic vasculitis which involves the small and (more rarely) the medium-sized vessels, is a primary vasculitis strongly associated with anti neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA). It is characterized by the presence of asthma, eosinophilia and extravascular eosinophilic granulomas. Herein, we report a 36-year-old woman with a history of late onset asthma and allergic rhinitis who developed central nervous system involvement, peripheral neuropathy, leucocytoclastic vasculitis and eosinophilia. Interestingly, unusual clinical manifestations of Churg-Strauss syndrome such as mesenteric micro aneurysms and jaw claudication were present in this particular patient. A brief review of the literature of Churg-Strauss syndrome is presented.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains
Reyes, A T; Kearney, C A; Isla, K; Bryant, R
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Resilience is an ability and a process that allows an individual to develop positive adaptation despite challenges and adversities. Many military veterans returning to college after their military service have difficulty transitioning to civilian life. Although some research exists that explores factors related to the resilience of college student veterans, limited theoretical descriptions exist that explain how student veterans construct resilience, and how resilience is enacted and enhanced in their academic and personal (non-academic) lives. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The resilience of student veterans involves a complex process of transitioning from military to civilian life and an iterative journey between positive adaptation and transient perturbations. Student veterans' resilience is a result of integrating and resolving various aspects of their academic and personal challenges. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses can apply this grounded theory as a practical framework for equipping student veterans with effective strategies to develop and enhance resilience. Nurses can employ a holistic approach of care in their interactions with military veterans and student veterans that includes fostering psychological resilience, helping to manage their multiple non-academic responsibilities and supporting their academic success. Introduction Adjusting to college life is one of the most difficult experiences in a military veteran's transition to civilian life. Many military veterans returning to college not only encounter academic challenges, but also deal with physical and psychiatric disabilities, loss of military camaraderie and social disconnect. These often negatively affect their personal and academic lives. Hence, it is important to explore resilience to best support student veterans as they transition from military to civilian life. Aim The aim of this study was to explore how student veterans
Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao
To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.
Poteat, Tonia; German, Danielle; Kerrigan, Deanna
A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was taken to this study of stigma in health care interactions. Between January and July 2011, fifty-five transgender people and twelve medical providers participated in one-time in-depth interviews about stigma, discrimination, and health care interactions between providers and transgender patients. Due to the social and institutional stigma against transgender people, their care is excluded from medical training. Therefore, providers approach medical encounters with transgender patients with ambivalence and uncertainty. Transgender people anticipate that providers will not know how to meet their needs. This uncertainty and ambivalence in the medical encounter upsets the normal balance of power in provider-patient relationships. Interpersonal stigma functions to reinforce the power and authority of the medical provider during these interactions. Functional theories of stigma posit that we hold stigmatizing attitudes because they serve specific psychological functions. However, these theories ignore how hierarchies of power in social relationships serve to maintain and reinforce inequalities. The findings of this study suggest that interpersonal stigma also functions to reinforce medical power and authority in the face of provider uncertainty. Within functional theories of stigma, it is important to acknowledge the role of power and to understand how stigmatizing attitudes function to maintain
Smith, Zaneta; Leslie, Gavin; Wynaden, Dianne
Multi-organ procurement surgical procedures through the generosity of deceased organ donors, have made an enormous impact on extending the lives of recipients. There is a dearth of in-depth knowledge relating to the experiences of perioperative nurses working closely with organ donors undergoing multi-organ procurement surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to address this gap by describing the perioperative nurses experiences of participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures and interpreting these findings as a substantive theory. This qualitative study used grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory of the experiences of perioperative nurses participating in multi-organ procurement surgery. Recruitment of participants took place after the study was advertised via a professional newsletter and journal. The study was conducted with participants from metropolitan, rural and regional areas of two Australian states; New South Wales and Western Australia. Thirty five perioperative nurse participants with three to 39 years of professional nursing experience informed the study. Semi structured in-depth interviews were undertaken from July 2009 to April 2010 with a mean interview time of 60 min. Interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study results draw attention to the complexities that exist for perioperative nurses when participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures reporting a basic social psychological problem articulated as hiding behind a mask and how they resolved this problem by the basic social psychological process of finding meaning. This study provides a greater understanding of how these surgical procedures impact on perioperative nurses by providing a substantive theory of this experience. The findings have the potential to guide further research into this challenging area of nursing practice with implications for clinical initiatives, management
Zahourek, Rothlyn P
The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.
Lillemor R.-M. Hallberg
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992. Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category. This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the “pain gaps” are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to “pain gaps”. This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of
Full Text Available Students’ use of time and effort during their studies has been discussed exhaustively in mass media and educational research. In most cases, researchers try to give advice to teachers on how to get their students to become more active and engaged. The grounded theory presented in this article, however, challenges this approach by focusing on the students’ point of view. When interviewing students for this study, I soon realized that students only have a limited amount of time and effort at their disposal. Optimizing these personal resources emerged as their main concern. For the students, investing resources into one study activity always means having to reduce the amount of time and effort they can spend on other activities. They resolve their main concern by oscillating between conservation and investment strategies. Their decision regarding which type of strategy to use depends strongly on the students’ evaluation of their current situation.
Jones, Sharon M
Interpersonal trust between patient and nurse is important in patient-centered care. Trust development may be more difficult if the patient and nurse do not speak the same language. In this grounded theory study, Spanish-speaking Mexican American adults ( n = 20) hospitalized on a medical-surgical or obstetric unit in the Midwestern United States were interviewed. Through data analysis, a model of how trust develops between nurse and patient revealed eight categories and the core category Caring for Me Well Even When Not Understanding Me. The beginning phase had four categories: Asking for Help, Bothering, Communicating, and Understanding. The middle phase had two categories: Platicando (chatting) and Being Available. The end point category was Having Trust, and outcomes were Feeling Comfortable and Feeling Supported. The language barrier was a hindrance to trust development but the nurse's way of being (personality) was more important. Therefore, the patient did develop trust with nurses who did not speak Spanish.
Full Text Available Qualitative methods present a wide spectrum of application possibilities as well as opportunities for combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the social sciences fruitful theoretical discussions and a great deal of empirical research have taken place. This article introduces an empirical investigation which demonstrates the logic of combining methodologies as well as the collection and interpretation, both sequential as simultaneous, of qualitative and quantitative data. Specifically, the investigation process will be described, beginning with a grounded theory methodology and its combination with the techniques of structural semiotics discourse analysis to generate—in a first phase—an instrument for quantitative measuring and to understand—in a second phase—clusters obtained by quantitative analysis. This work illustrates how qualitative methods allow for the comprehension of the discursive and behavioral elements under study, and how they function as support making sense of and giving meaning to quantitative data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701219
Sobel, Linda L; Metzler Sawin, Erika
To explore nursing care actions that lead to culturally competent care for Hispanic patients. Nurses report apprehension when delivering nursing care because of language barriers and a lack of Hispanic cultural understanding. Research is needed to inform culturally aware nursing practice actions for Hispanic patients. The study used a qualitative, grounded theory design to address the questions: (a) What cultural knowledge should nurses have when caring for Hispanic patients and families and (b) What nursing actions should nurses take to provide culturally competent care? Hispanic lay health promoters and Hispanic community members were interviewed to make recommendations for care. A model was identified that informs culturally competent nursing care. "Connectedness," the central phenomenon, describes nursing actions and contains subthemes explaining influences on nursing care. "Up to You" and "At the Mercy of the System" are descriptive themes influencing connectedness. Connectedness is central to culturally well-informed nurse-patient interactions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa
Terminology around the use of complementary medicines (CM) within medical discourse is ambiguous. Clear collective discourse within the medical context is required. This study reports the findings of a Constructivist Grounded Theory Method study used to explore medical students' conceptualisation of terminology and associated value components around CMs as evidenced within their discourse community. The results show that terminology surrounding CMs within medicine is politically charged and fraught with value judgements. Terms used to describe CMs were considered, many of which were deemed problematic. Categorisation of specific medicines was also deemed inappropriate in certain contexts. Conceptualisation of CM terminology, categorisation and value implications, discriminated between levels of evidence for CMs and provided insights into the social change of medicine towards emergence of an evidence-based integrative approach. The results show that terminology surrounding CM is a social construct consistent with fluid conceptualisation and operationalisation in different social contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten
The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world underlying patients' health and illness behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hanifi, Nasrin; Parvizy, Soroor; Joolaee, Soodabeh
This study explored how nursing students can be kept motivated throughout their clinical education. Motivation is a key issue in nursing clinical education for student retention. The study was conducted using grounded theory methods, which are appropriate when studying process in a social context. Sixteen students and four instructors, who were purposefully selected, participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Students' motivational journey occurred in three steps: (i) social condition; (ii) encountering the clinical education challenges; and (iii) looking for an escape from nursing, or simply tolerating nursing. Struggling with professional identity emerged as the core variable. Iran's social context and many other conditions in the clinical education setting affect students' motivation. Identifying motivational process might assist educational authorities in offering solutions to promote motivation among students. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose: summarized and sorted career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees Design/methodology/approach: Based on Grounded Theory, through interviews and questionnaires to railway skilled employees Findings and Originality/value: the study shows that “subjective career success”, including work-family balance, life satisfaction, career satisfaction, perception of career success, “objective career success”, including level of total revenue venue, growth rate of wage and times of promotion, “knowledge and skills career success” including upgrade of knowledge and skills, classification of skills, external competitiveness and job autonomy, are three important career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees. Originality/value: The results show that different age groups, different titles and different positions of skilled employees, there is a significant difference in the choice of career success evaluation indicators. It provides a useful reference to establish a career development system for the skilled employees.
Drysdale, Daren G; Shem, Kazuko; Walbom, Agnes; Miner, Maureen D; Maclachlan, Malcolm
Phantom sensations are somatic phenomena arising from denervated parts of the body. There is very little research, and much diagnostic confusion, regarding such experiences in people with spinal cord injuries. In the case of 'complete' spinal cord lesions, phantom experiences may challenge, and indeed, contradict, the understanding that both clinicians and patients have of such injuries. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of such 'phantom' sensations in spinal cord injury. We used grounded theory methods to explore 'phantom' sensations as experienced by individuals with complete (ASIA A) spinal lesions. Eight people with complete lesions, who were selected through theoretical sampling, participated in a semi-structured interview. Emergent themes included injury context, sensations experienced, the meaning of sensations, body connectivity, attitude and communication about sensations. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of the embodied experience of phantom sensations, and important insights regarding self-construction and rehabilitative processes in people with spinal cord injury who experience such anomalous sensations.
Women in recovery from addiction experience significant sociostructural barriers to reestablishing self, family, and home after having a baby. The aim of this grounded theory study was to describe pathways that women and their families followed and how transitions were experienced in the early years after receiving services through an integrated community-based maternity program. Eighteen women completed questionnaires and participated in a series of semistructured interviews over 2 years. The overall process women experienced was that of holding it together, which women did by restoring their sense of self during recovery, becoming a strong center for their family, and creating a sense of home no matter what the circumstances. Key elements supporting women in their transition to recovery and parenthood included longer term health, social, and recovery programs and services that addressed determinants of health (in particular, gender, housing, and income), and receiving support provided from strengths-based perspectives.
Hagen, Whitney B; Hoover, Stephanie M; Morrow, Susan L
Psychosocial benefits of activism include increased empowerment, social connectedness, and resilience. Yet sexual minority women (SMW) and transgender individuals with multiple oppressed statuses and identities are especially prone to oppression-based experiences, even within minority activist communities. This study sought to develop an empirical model to explain the diverse meanings of social justice activism situated in SMW and transgender individuals' social identities, values, and experiences of oppression and privilege. Using a grounded theory design, 20 SMW and transgender individuals participated in initial, follow-up, and feedback interviews. The most frequent demographic identities were queer or bisexual, White, middle-class women with advanced degrees. The results indicated that social justice activism was intensely relational, replete with multiple benefits, yet rife with experiences of oppression from within and outside of activist communities. The empirically derived model shows the complexity of SMW and transgender individuals' experiences, meanings, and benefits of social justice activism.
Madden, Connie; Clayton, Margaret; Canary, Heather E; Towsley, Gail; Cloyes, Kristin; Lund, Dale
This study offers an initial theoretical understanding of nurse-CNA communication processes from the perspectives of nurses and CNAs who are providing direct care to residents in nursing homes. A grounded theory approach provided an understanding of nurse-CNA communication process within the complexities of the nursing home setting. Four themes (maintaining information flow, following procedure, fostering collegiality, and showing respect) describe the "rules of performance" that intertwine in nuanced relationships to guide nurse-CNA communication processes. Understanding how these rules of performance guide nurse-CNA communication processes, and how they are positively and negatively influenced, suggests that nurse-CNA communication during direct care of nursing home residents could be improved through policy and education that is specifically designed to be relevant and applicable to direct care providers in the nursing home environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Jake; Piercy, Fred P
In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks. We also found that intimacy is not a fixed point at which couples one day arrive, but is an iterative process taking place over time and requiring work to develop and maintain. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin
This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner.
Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue
Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.
Saridan Abu Bakar
Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.
Johansson, Ann-Caroline B; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva
After colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, people reorganize life in ways that are consistent with their understanding of the illness and their expectations for recovery. Incapacities and abilities that have been lost can initiate a need to reorient the self. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explicitly focused on the concept of self-reorientation after CRC treatment. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore self-reorientation in the early recovery phase after CRC surgery. Grounded theory analysis was undertaken, using the method presented by Charmaz. The present results explained self-reorientation as the individual attempting to achieve congruence in self-perception. A congruent self-perception meant bringing together the perceived self and the self that was mirrored in the near environs. The results showed that societal beliefs and personal explanations are essential elements of self-reorientation, and that it is therefore important to make them visible.
Foli, Karen J
A limited number of studies have explored parental depression in the postadoption time periods and these studies frequently lack a social context of the adoptive parent experience. The objective of this study is to form a midrange theoretical interpretation of parental postadoption depression as shared by adoptive parents and experts through a grounded theory approach. Semistructured interviews of adoptive parents, who acknowledge being depressed after the child is placed in the home, and adoption experts are audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to reveal themes. In total, 30 interviews are conducted. Researchers are also participant-observers during an adoptive parent support group meeting. Data reveal recurrent themes in relation to postadoption depression. These themes take into account the various contexts of adoption (international and domestic, public and private, etc.). Parents express unfulfilled and unrealistic expectations in the domains of self, child, family or friends, and society or others. A theoretical model is presented to facilitate the understanding of depression reported by adoptive parents.
Siemon, Jennifer S; Blenkhorn, Lisa; Wilkins, Seanne; O'Brien, Kelly K; Solomon, Patricia E
As adults age with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the role for rehabilitation continues to emerge. Understanding how social participation is affected among women aging with HIV can inform occupational therapy assessment and treatment. Our purpose was to develop a theoretical model that describes the experiences of social participation from the perspective of older women living with HIV. A grounded theory methodological approach was utilized. We conducted interviews with 20 women living with HIV, age 50 or older, to explore various aspects of social participation, including self-care, relationships with others, and access to health and social services. Emergent themes informed the theoretical model. The theoretical model comprises four concepts related to social participation: social engagement, social isolation, contrasting perceptions about factors variably influencing participation, and contextual influences that may enhance or hinder social participation. Women aging with HIV experience social participation as a dynamic process involving social engagement and isolation. Contextual influences may promote and impede social participation.
O'Callaghan, Clare; Magill, Lucanne
Oncologic work can be satisfying but also stressful, as staff support patients and families through harsh treatment effects, uncertain illness trajectories, and occasional death. Although formal support programs are available, no research on the effects of staff witnessing patients' supportive therapies exists. This research examines staff responses to witnessing patient-focused music therapy (MT) programs in two comprehensive cancer centers. In Study 1, staff were invited to anonymously complete an open-ended questionnaire asking about the relevance of a music therapy program for patients and visitors (what it does; whether it helps). In Study 2, staff were theoretically sampled and interviewed regarding the personal effects of witnessing patient-centered music therapy. Data from each study were comparatively analyzed according to grounded theory procedures. Positive and negative cases were evident and data saturation arguably achieved. In Study 1, 38 staff unexpectedly described personally helpful emotional, cognitive, and team effects and consequent improved patient care. In Study 2, 62 staff described 197 multiple personal benefits and elicited patient care improvements. Respondents were mostly nursing (57) and medical (13) staff. Only three intrusive effects were reported: audibility, initial suspicion, and relaxation causing slowing of work pace. A substantive grounded theory emerged applicable to the two cancer centers: Staff witnessing MT can experience personally helpful emotions, moods, self-awarenesses, and teamwork and thus perceive improved patient care. Intrusive effects are uncommon. Music therapy's benefits for staff are attributed to the presence of live music, the human presence of the music therapist, and the observed positive effects in patients and families. Patient-centered oncologic music therapy in two cancer centers is an incidental supportive care modality for staff, which can reduce their stress and improve work environments and perceived
Su, Shu-Fen; Jenkins, Mary; Liu, Po-Erh
This paper explores the leadership style of hospital managers. Leadership has been widely studied in nursing from the perspective of nurses' psychological strain caused by nursing leadership. There is, however, little contained in the Western and Eastern literatures on the leadership style of hospital managers and certainly no study has explored managers' leadership style in Taiwanese hospitals from the nurses' stance. Grounded theory. A sample of 28 nurses from seven teaching hospitals in Taiwan, Republic of China was selected through theoretical sampling. A multi-step analytic procedure based on the grounded theory approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. The Chinese culture was found to affect the leadership style of Taiwanese hospital managers. They had extreme power and led nurses in a hierarchical manner. Nurse managers followed the autocratic leadership style of their hospital managers. The main category found in this study was thus hierarchical leadership. The Confucian principles of authoritarianism and obedience were found to be part of the Taiwanese hospitals' organisational cultures and strongly impacted on the managers' leadership style. Hospital managers' treatment of doctors and nurses was dependent on their social rankings. Nurses' lowly ranking fed into these enculturated managerial tendencies of using power and obedience thus increasing psychological strain on nurses. Managers of the hospitals demonstrate power and misuse obedience through their leadership style, resulting in deterioration of nurses' work environment. Nurses' managers are not given enough power by the hospitals in Taiwan. Subsequently, nurses feel themselves the lowest and most powerless subordinates. This study reveals that the Chinese cultural burdens are embedded in the leadership of Taiwanese hospitals. These findings enhance the knowledge of leadership and add to the understanding of managerial attitudes in Chinese hospitals located worldwide. © 2011 Blackwell
Full Text Available Orientation: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations. Research purpose: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in maledominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths. Motivation for the study: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more female-dominated or gender-balanced career paths. An understanding of women’s experiences may facilitate strategies geared towards their motivation and retention in male-dominated occupations. Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. They used a purposive sample of five women and conducted in-depth unstructured interviews. They analysed data using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. Main findings: The authors found that formal and covert organisational practices, which upheld gender discrimination and bias, were the main challenges that women face. These practices included the inadequate accommodation of women’s unique physical, identity and work-life balance needs. Elements of women’s resilience included the use of femininity, adopting male characteristics, mentorship and intrinsic motivational factors. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide organisations to develop and implement policies, strategies and initiatives geared towards attracting, integrating, retaining, supporting and motivating women who are, or wish to be, employed in historically maledominated occupations. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to an evolving body of knowledge aimed at understanding how to integrate and retain women in male-dominated occupations better.
Jakimowicz, Samantha; Perry, Lin; Lewis, Joanne
To explore patient-centred nursing, compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue from intensive care nurses' perspectives. Compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue can influence critical care nurses' decisions to either continue or leave the profession, and could impact the compassionate patient-centred nursing care patients receive during their ICU admission. This qualitative research design was informed by Charmaz's Grounded Theory Constructivist methodology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 critical care nurses of two ICUs in Australia during 2016. Interview data were analysed using grounded theory processes. Findings reflected positive and negative impacts on critical care nurses' ability to deal compassionately with their patients. Effects on patient-centred nursing and critical care nurses' own well-being were revealed. A core category of "Expectations" emerged, explaining the tension between critical care nurses' biomedical, clinical skills and knowledge versus compassionate, patient-centred nursing care. This tension was clarified and expanded in subcategories of "Life in the Balance," "Passion and Pressure," "Understanding and Advocacy" and "Tenacity and Fragility". Providing patient-centred nursing may enhance critical care nurses' experience of compassion satisfaction, in turn impacting delivery of compassionate patient-centred nursing to generate a virtuous circle. Critical care nurses who feel respected and supported by their management team and colleagues experience feelings of compassion satisfaction, leading to greater engagement and care towards their patient. Systematically addressing critical care nurses' needs to successfully balance biomedical with compassionate nursing care may lead to greater well-being in the critical care nursing workforce and improve patient experience of intensive care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with
Bayliss, Paul; Holttum, Sue
To develop a preliminary model of the experiences of people undergoing combined treatment with antidepressant medication and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression. The study used a qualitative methodology informed by grounded theory. Participants were 12 adults who had received treatment with antidepressant medication and CBT for depression. Participants engaged in a semistructured interview about their experiences. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using components of grounded theory methodology. Medication was often seen as an initial aid to surviving a crisis. Staying on medication longer term resulted in some participants feeling caught in a 'drug loop'. Feeling that medication was unhelpful or actively harmful could contribute to participants seeking CBT. Medics also offered information on CBT and acted as gatekeepers, meaning that negotiation was sometimes necessary. CBT was described as a process of being guided towards skilled self-management. Occasionally, participants felt that medication had facilitated CBT at one or more stages. Conversely, developing skilled self-management through CBT could reduce feelings of dependency on medication and affect several of the other elements maintaining the 'drug loop'. Antidepressant medication and CBT are perceived and experienced differently, with CBT often being seen as an alternative to medication, or even as a means to discontinue medication. Service users' experiences and beliefs about medication may thus affect their engagement and goals in CBT, and it may be important for therapists to consider this. Practitioners who prescribe medication should ensure that they also provide information on the availability and appropriateness of CBT, and engage in an open dialogue about treatment options. CBT practitioners should explore aspects of clients' experiences and beliefs about medication. This would particularly include clients' experiences of the effects of medication, their beliefs about
Kean, Susanne; Salisbury, Lisa G; Rattray, Janice; Walsh, Timothy S; Huby, Guro; Ramsay, Pamela
To theorise intensive care unit survivorship after a critical illness based on longitudinal qualitative data. Increasingly, patients survive episodes of critical illness. However, the short- and long-term impact of critical illness includes physical, psychological, social and economic challenges long after hospital discharge. An appreciation is emerging that care needs to extend beyond critical illness to enable patients to reclaim their lives postdischarge with the term 'survivorship' being increasingly used in this context. What constitutes critical illness survivorship has, to date, not been theoretically explored. Longitudinal qualitative and constructivist grounded theory. Interviews (n = 46) with 17 participants were conducted at four time points: (1) before discharge from hospital, (2) four to six weeks postdischarge, (3) six months and (4) 12 months postdischarge across two adult intensive care unit setting. Individual face-to-face interviews. Data analysis followed the principles of Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' emerged as the core category and was theorised using concepts such as status passages, liminality and temporality to understand the various transitions participants made postcritical illness. Intensive care unit survivorship describes the unscheduled status passage of falling critically ill and being taken to the threshold of life and the journey to a life postcritical illness. Surviving critical illness goes beyond recovery; surviving means 'moving on' to life postcritical illness. 'Moving on' incorporates a redefinition of self that incorporates any lingering intensive care unit legacies and being in control of one's life again. For healthcare professionals and policymakers, it is important to realise that recovery and transitioning through to survivorship happen within an individual's time frame, not a schedule imposed by the healthcare system. Currently, there are no care pathways or policies in
Apramian, Tavis; Watling, Christopher; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra
Surgical research struggles to describe the relationship between procedural variations in daily practice and traditional conceptualizations of evidence. The problem has resisted simple solutions, in part, because we lack a solid understanding of how surgeons conceptualize and interact around variation, adaptation, innovation, and evidence in daily practice. This grounded theory study aims to describe the social processes that influence how procedural variation is conceptualized in the surgical workplace. Using the constructivist grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with surgeons (n = 19) from four North American academic centres were collected and analysed. Purposive sampling targeted surgeons with experiential knowledge of the role of variations in the workplace. Theoretical sampling was conducted until a theoretical framework representing key processes was conceptually saturated. Surgical procedural variation was influenced by three key processes. Seeking improvement was shaped by having unsolved procedural problems, adapting in the moment, and pursuing personal opportunities. Orienting self and others to variations consisted of sharing stories of variations with others, taking stock of how a variation promoted personal interests, and placing trust in peers. Acting under cultural and material conditions was characterized by being wary, positioning personal image, showing the logic of a variation, and making use of academic resources to do so. Our findings include social processes that influence how adaptations are incubated in surgical practice and mature into innovations. This study offers a language for conceptualizing the sociocultural influences on procedural variations in surgery. Interventions to change how surgeons interact with variations on a day-to-day basis should consider these social processes in their design. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree–Fock solution for the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to the divergent MBPT series obtained with a harmonic oscillator basis. For larger model spaces and heavier nuclei, where a direct high-order MBPT calculation is not feasible, we perform third-order calculations and compare to advanced ab initio coupled-cluster results for the same interactions and model spaces. We demonstrate that third-order MBPT provides ground-state energies for nuclei up into the tin isotopic chain in excellent agreement with the best available coupled-cluster calculations at a fraction of the computational cost.
Tichai, Alexander, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Langhammer, Joachim [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Binder, Sven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Roth, Robert, E-mail: email@example.com [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree–Fock solution for the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to the divergent MBPT series obtained with a harmonic oscillator basis. For larger model spaces and heavier nuclei, where a direct high-order MBPT calculation is not feasible, we perform third-order calculations and compare to advanced ab initio coupled-cluster results for the same interactions and model spaces. We demonstrate that third-order MBPT provides ground-state energies for nuclei up into the tin isotopic chain in excellent agreement with the best available coupled-cluster calculations at a fraction of the computational cost.
Yurdakul, Levent; Holttum, Sue; Bowden, Ann
Autogenic training (AT) is a behaviourally orientated intervention usually taught in eight or nine sessions in the United Kingdom: clients are taught six simple mental formulae designed to induce a calm state of mind and body, five additional emotional expression exercises, and individually tailored 'personal formulae' for supporting positive change. In the absence of existing psychological (as opposed to neuro-physiological) models of AT's mechanisms, this study aimed to produce the first such model, drawing on the perceptions of recent AT clients. An abbreviated form of grounded theory was used to explore retrospectively and in detail the experiences of a small sample of people of the process of change. Forty people were approached and 12 women participated who had completed AT in group form after referral for anxiety. Each was interviewed individually. A preliminary model of change was produced, grounded in the interview data. Factors reported to be salient were learning in a group, the core AT experience (the six standard exercises), difficulties with practice, the importance of regular practice integrated into daily life, and enhanced well-being and coping, which incorporated reduced worrying and clearer thinking. Limitations of the study are discussed, as are areas for further research and implications for anxiety treatment. This was a small study with a self-selected sample. However, theoretical generalizations can be made about the process of change. Since AT does not specifically focus on challenging negative cognitions, the cognitive changes reported have implications for anxiety treatments.
Riksen, Niels P; Gehlmann, Helmut; Brouwer, Annemarie E; van Deuren, Marcel
The heart is involved in up to 50% of all patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome, but vasculitis of the coronary arteries has only been rarely documented. We present a young patient with severe coronary aneurysms and stenotic lesions due to a Churg-Strauss vasculitis. Prompt therapy with prednisone and cyclophosphamide resulted in the complete resolution of all lesions.
Villalba-Nuno, Virtudes [Department of Radiology, C.A.P. II Sant Feliu, Marquesa de Castellbell, Sant Feliu de Llobregat (Spain); Sabate, Josep M; Gomez, Antonio; Torrubia, Sofia [Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Vidaller, Antonio [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Catala, Isabel [Department of Pathology, Hospital de Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Escobedo, Agustin [Department of Oncology, Hospital Duran i Reynals, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain)
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare immunoallergic disorder that usually affects lungs, skin and nervous system. The clinical and radiological findings of Churg-Strauss disease involving the breast are reported and attention is drawn to the fact that, although uncommonly, the breast can be involved by immunological diseases. (orig.)
Villalba-Nuno, Virtudes; Sabate, Josep M.; Gomez, Antonio; Torrubia, Sofia; Vidaller, Antonio; Catala, Isabel; Escobedo, Agustin
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare immunoallergic disorder that usually affects lungs, skin and nervous system. The clinical and radiological findings of Churg-Strauss disease involving the breast are reported and attention is drawn to the fact that, although uncommonly, the breast can be involved by immunological diseases. (orig.)
Riksen, N.P.; Gehlmann, H.R.; Brouwer, A.E.; Deuren, M. van
The heart is involved in up to 50% of all patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome, but vasculitis of the coronary arteries has only been rarely documented. We present a young patient with severe coronary aneurysms and stenotic lesions due to a Churg-Strauss vasculitis. Prompt therapy with prednisone
Arash Hassan pour
Full Text Available Religiosity has been pluralized and diversified at present era. This study, accepted this presupposition that religiosity as a varied, diverse and instable issue is out of duality of being religiousness or not. By accepting this presupposition we study and interpret one type of religiosity among youth in Isfahan. To achieve the given purpose, by review the previous studies, in interpretive approach, qualitative method framework, Grounded Theory tradition, interview and Simmel theory about religiosity, data is collected. Based on the findings of the study, and with criteria of “self-recognition” we discovered and identified Self referential religiosity. Also, the results of the qualitative data reveal that religiosity of Youth change to: individual, non-compulsory, private, dispositional, and selective, based on self- Intellection, non-accepting heteronomy of religious institution and tend to contingency, hedonistic Phenomena. Finally In this study we also tried to offer, describe and illustrate paradigmatic model of qualitative data in frame of casual, contextual, consequential circumstances about advent and influence this type of religiosity.
Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed
For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were conducted with 100 ethnically diverse youth (ages 14–21) in 10 urban and rural arts and leadership programs. Qualitative analysis focused on narrative accounts from the 44 youth who reported experiencing a positive turning point in their motivation or engagement. For 38 of these youth, this change process involved forming a personal connection. Similar to processes suggested by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), forming a personal connection involved youth's progressive integration of personal goals with the goals of program activities. Youth reported developing a connection to 3 personal goals that linked the self with the activity: learning for the future, developing competence, and pursuing a purpose. The role of purpose for many youth suggests that motivational change can be driven by goals that transcend self-needs. These findings suggest that youth need not enter programs intrinsically engaged--motivation can be fostered--and that programs should be creative in helping youth explore ways to form authentic connections to program activities.
Foley, Geraldine; Timonen, Virpi
Objective Grounded theory (GT) is an established qualitative research method, but few papers have encapsulated the benefits, limits, and basic tenets of doing GT research on user and provider experiences of health care services. GT can be used to guide the entire study method, or it can be applied at the data analysis stage only. Methods We summarize key components of GT and common GT procedures used by qualitative researchers in health care research. We draw on our experience of conducting a GT study on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients’ experiences of health care services. Findings We discuss why some approaches in GT research may work better than others, particularly when the focus of study is hard-to-reach population groups. We highlight the flexibility of procedures in GT to build theory about how people engage with health care services. Conclusion GT enables researchers to capture and understand health care experiences. GT methods are particularly valuable when the topic of interest has not previously been studied. GT can be applied to bring structure and rigor to the analysis of qualitative data. PMID:25523315
Reay, Gudrun; Rankin, James A; Then, Karen L
Triage nurses control access to the Emergency Department (ED) and make decisions about patient acuity, patient priority, and placement of the patient in the ED. Understanding the processes and strategies that triage nurses use to make decisions is therefore vital for patient safety and the operation of the ED. The aim of the current study was to generate a substantive grounded theory (GT) of decision making by emergency triage Registered Nurses (RNs). Data collection consisted of seven observations of the triage environment at three tertiary care hospitals where RNs conducted triage and twelve interviews with triage RNs. The data were analyzed by constant comparison in accordance with the classical GT method. In the resultant theory, Momentary Fitting in a Fluid Environment, triage is conceptualized as a process consisting of four categories, determining acuity, anticipating needs, managing space, and creating space. The findings indicate that triage RNs continually strive to achieve fit, while simultaneously considering the individual patient and the ED as a whole entity. Triage RNs require appropriately designed triage environments and computer technology that enable them to secure real time knowledge of the ED to maintain situation awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kearney, M H
Using a grounded formal theory approach, 13 qualitative research reports were analyzed with the goal of synthesizing a middle-range theory of women's responses to violent relationships. The combined sample numbered 282 ethnically and geographically diverse women ages 16-67. Within cultural contexts that normalized relationship violence while promoting idealized romance, these women dealt with the incongruity of violence in their relationships as a basic process of enduring love. In response to shifting definitions of their relationship situations, many women moved through four phases, which began with discounting early violence for the sake of their romantic commitment ("This is what I wanted"), progressed to immobilization and demoralization in the face of increasingly unpredictable violence that was endured by the careful monitoring of partner behavior and the stifling of self ("The more I do, the worse I am"), shifted to a perspective that redefined the situation as unacceptable ("I had enough"), and finally moved out of the relationship and toward a new life ("I was finding me"). Variations in the manifestation and duration of these phases were found to be linked to personal, sociopolitical, and cultural contexts. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Anne Rindell, PhD.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss challenges and lessons learnt when conducting a classic grounded theory study in a marketing context. The paper focuses on two specific challenges that were met during a specific research process. The first challenge related to positioning the study, namely, specifying“what the study is a study of”. The second challenge concerned the choice between formal or substantive theory. Both challenges were accentuated as the emerged core category concerned a phenomenon that has caught less attention in marketing, that is, the temporal dimension in corporate images. By the temporal dimension in corporate images we mean that corporate images often have roots in earlier times through consumer memories. In other words, consumers are not tabula rasa, that is, blank sheets of paper on which communication messages can be printed. Rather, consumers have a pre-understanding of the company that works as an interpretation framework for company actions in the present. The lessons learnt from this research process can be summarized as “stay faithful to the data”, “write memos on issues you reflect upon although they might be in another substantial field” as they might become useful later, and, “look into thinking in other disciplines” as disciplines do not develop equally.
VanderKaay, Sandra; Letts, Lori; Jung, Bonny; Moll, Sandra E
Ethical decision-making is an important aspect of reasoning in occupational therapy practice. However, the process of ethical decision-making within the broader context of reasoning is yet to be clearly explicated. The purpose of this study was to advance a theoretical understanding of the process by which occupational therapists make ethical decisions in day-to-day practice. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted, incorporating in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18 occupational therapists from a range of practice settings and years of experience. Initially, participants nominated as key informants who were able to reflect on their decision-making processes were recruited. Theoretical sampling informed subsequent stages of data collection. Participants were asked to describe their process of ethical decision-making using scenarios from clinical practice. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a systematic process of initial then focused coding, and theoretical categorization to construct a theory regarding the process of ethical decision-making. An ethical decision-making prism was developed to capture three main processes: Considering the Fundamental Checklist, Consulting Others, and Doing What's Right. Ethical decision-making appeared to be an inductive and dialectical process with the occupational therapist at its core. Study findings advance our understanding of ethical decision-making in day-to-day clinical practice.
Gaffney, Donna A.; DeMarco, Rosanna F.; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A.; Budin, Wendy C.
While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace. PMID:22567223
Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Dejman, Masoumeh; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Mirabzadeh, Arash
Background: Psychosocial factor is considered as intermediate social determinant of health, because it has powerful effects on health especially in women. Hence deeper understanding of the mental-health process needed for its promotion. The aim of this study was to explore women's experience of the mental-health problem and related action-interactions activities to design the appropriate interventions. Methods: In-depth interviews with women 18-65 years were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The selection of Participants was based on purposeful and theoretical sampling. Results: In this study, a substantive theory was generated; explaining how female with the mental-health problem handled their main concern, which was identified as their effort to achieve comfort (core variable). The other six categories are elements in this process. Daily stress as a trigger, satisfaction is the end point, marriage is the key point and action - interaction activities in this process are strengthening human essence, Developing life skills and help seeking. Conclusions: Better understanding the mental-health process might be useful to design the interventional program among women with mental-health problems. PMID:24627750
Caty, Marie-Ève; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Doyle, Philip C
This study systematically examined how experienced Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) use the processes of reflection to develop knowledge relevant for practice in the context of head and neck cancer (HNC) rehabilitation. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 SLPs working in HNC rehabilitation in North America. Grounded theory methodology was adopted for data collection and analysis. The findings inform a preliminary reflective practice model that depicts the processes of reflection used by practitioners interviewed. Nine categories of reflective processes were identified by participant SLPs in terms of the processes of reflection: ongoing questioning, experimenting through trial and error, integrating knowledge from past cases, embracing surprise, thinking out of the box, being in the moment, consulting with colleagues, putting oneself in the patients' shoes, and discerning ethical issues. These findings provide empirical evidence that supports Schön's theory of reflective practice and contribute to knowledge about the ways in which SLPs use processes of reflection in the context of HNC rehabilitation. The findings of this study have implications for how SLPs perceive and consider their role as knowledge-users and knowledge producers in their day-to-day clinical work, as well as for building capacity for reflective practice.
Rindflesch, Aaron B
Patient education is a critical component of physical therapy and is used frequently in practice. Research describing the practice of patient education in physical therapy is scarce, however. Qualitative research methods can be used to describe the practice of patient education in physical therapy and to identify supportive theory. This study describes the practice of patient education grounded in data obtained from nine physical therapists in three settings: outpatient, acute care, and inpatient rehabilitation. From the data common themes are reported. From the themes, supportive theory can be identified. Results show four primary themes regarding patient education in physical therapy. First, the physical therapists in this study were not able to easily differentiate patient education from primary interventions. Second, the purpose of patient education was to empower patients toward self-management and prevention. Third, therapists used a patient-centered approach to decide upon content. Finally, each therapist used function or demonstration to assess the outcome of patient education interventions. The results of this study can be used to inform current practitioners, for future research and to identify theoretical underpinnings to support the practice of patient education in physical therapy.
Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn
The aim of this study is to explain the process of adopting and incorporating simulation as a teaching strategy in undergraduate nursing programs, define uptake, and discuss potential outcomes. In many countries, simulation is increasingly adopted as a common teaching strategy. However, there is a dearth of knowledge related to the process of adoption and incorporation. We used an interpretive, constructivist approach to grounded theory to guide this research study. We conducted the study was in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-2012. Using multiple data sources, we informed the development of this theory including in-depth interviews (n = 43) and a review of key organizational documents, such as mission and vision statements (n = 67) from multiple nursing programs (n = 13). The adoption and uptake of mid- to high-fidelity simulation equipment is a multistep iterative process involving various organizational levels within the institution that entails a seven-phase process: (a) securing resources, (b) nursing leaders working in tandem, (c) getting it out of the box, (d) learning about simulation and its potential for teaching, (e) finding a fit, (f) trialing the equipment, and (g) integrating into the curriculum. These findings could assist nursing programs in Canada and internationally that wish to adopt or further incorporate simulation into their curricula and highlight potential organizational and program level outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gregor, Alexander; Taylor, David
The morbidity and mortality conference (MMC) remains a central activity within the departments of our academic healthcare institutions. It is deeply rooted in the premise that we can learn from our mistakes, thereby improving the care we provide. Recent advances in our understanding of medical error and quality improvement have challenged the value of traditional models of MMC. As a result the purpose of MMC has become clouded and ill-defined: Is it an educational conference that promotes mastery of clinical acumen, or is it a venue to drive quality improvement by addressing systems-based issues in delivering care? Or can it serve both purposes? Review of the history of MMC, the literature, and critical application of education theory demonstrates the source of the confusion and the challenges in viewing it through the exclusive lens of either education or quality improvement. Application of experiential learning theory helps resolve this discord showing how the conference facilitates the development of clinical mastery while informing quality improvement programs about important and relevant systems-based issues. Building on this, we present a model for MMC involving five essential elements: case-based involving an adverse patient event, anonymity for participants, expert guided critical analysis, reframing understanding of the case presentation and related systems-based factors, and projection to practice change. This model builds on previously described models, is grounded in the literature, and helps clarify its role from both the educational and the quality improvement perspectives.
Desborough, Jane; Banfield, Michelle; Phillips, Christine; Mills, Jane
The aim of this study was to gain insight into the process of patient enablement in general practice nursing consultations. Enhanced roles for general practice nurses may benefit patients through a range of mechanisms, one of which may be increasing patient enablement. In studies with general practitioners enhanced patient enablement has been associated with increases in self-efficacy and skill development. This study used a constructivist grounded theory design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 general practice nurses and 23 patients from 21 general practices between September 2013 - March 2014. Data generation and analysis were conducted concurrently using constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling focussing on the process and outcomes of patient enablement. Use of the storyline technique supported theoretical coding and integration of the data into a theoretical model. A clearly defined social process that fostered and optimised patient enablement was constructed. The theory of 'developing enabling healthcare partnerships between nurses and patients in general practice' incorporates three stages: triggering enabling healthcare partnerships, tailoring care and the manifestation of patient enablement. Patient enablement was evidenced through: 1. Patients' understanding of their unique healthcare requirements informing their health seeking behaviours and choices; 2. Patients taking an increased lead in their partnership with a nurse and seeking choices in their care and 3. Patients getting health care that reflected their needs, preferences and goals. This theoretical model is in line with a patient-centred model of health care and is particularly suited to patients with chronic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Donna A. Gaffney
Full Text Available While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: ‘What is the journey o f recovery that is undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault?’ Another question that developed during data collection and data analysis was ‘What is the meaning that women attach to recovery?’ The findings are discussed under the eight concepts or categories and the context and the intervening conditions that influence the journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma. Refer to part 1 article. These are complemented with abstracts of data from the participants’ voices and the related discussions. The developed theory highlights the process and the interconnectedness of the different stages of what the women experience in their journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma.
Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn
Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for.
Yoder, Ruth; MacNeela, Padraig; Conway, Ronan; Heary, Caroline
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. However, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, a small minority of patients develop new-onset alcohol use disorder (AUD), the aetiology of which is poorly understood. The aim is to construct a theory to explain the development of AUD among a sample of individuals who reported problematic drinking following RYGB. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight RYGB patients diagnosed with AUD attending a multi-disciplinary outpatient weight management service at a public hospital in the Republic of Ireland. A constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to analyse interview transcripts. Participants' main concern was identified as 'unresolved psychological issues' which were managed by 'external coping mechanisms', namely, 'eating to cope'. After RYGB, comfort eating was no longer possible to the same extent. Following a 'honeymoon period', participants' need for an external coping mechanism resurfaced. 'Filling the void' provides a framework to explain how participants managed the symptoms of their unresolved psychological issues through 'behavioural substitution', that is, drinking alcohol instead of eating. The theoretical framework of 'filling the void' adds to contemporary research that conceptualises AUD behavioural substitution as 'addiction transfer' by describing the process by which the phenomenon occurs as well as the characteristics of participants. The clinical implication of this research is to advocate for a reshaping of treatment of RYGB patients, with increased psychological input following surgery.
Villamor, Neil Jupiter E; de Guzman, Allan B; Matienzo, Evangeline T
Fatherhood, as a developmental process, is both a human experience and a text that needs to be read. For developing nations like the Philippines, little is known about the process undergone by first-time fathers on their transition to fatherhood, and how nurses can play a significant role in assisting them. This grounded theory study purported to conceptualize the multifaceted process of transition from the lens of Filipino first-time fathers' lived experiences. A total of 20 first-time fathers from Metro Manila, Philippines, were purposively selected to take part in an individual, semistructured, and in-depth interview. The Glaserian (classical) method of analysis was specifically used, and field texts were inductively analyzed using a repertory grid. Member checking and correspondence were done to validate the findings of the study. Six surfacing stages emerged relative to the process of transition. Interestingly, The B.R.I.D.G.E. Theory of First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space describes how these fathers progress from the beholding, reorganizing, inhibiting, delivering, grasping, and embracing phases toward successful transition. This emerged theoretical model can be used in framing health care programs where the needs of fathers during this period are met and addressed. Finally, it can also be used in guiding nurses in their provision of a more empathetic care for first-time fathers. © The Author(s) 2015.
Houchins, Gregory; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian
Density functional theory (DFT) simulations, at the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level, are being routinely used for material discovery based on high-throughput descriptor-based searches. The success of descriptor-based material design relies on eliminating bad candidates and keeping good candidates for further investigation. While DFT has been widely successfully for the former, oftentimes good candidates are lost due to the uncertainty associated with the DFT-predicted material properties. Uncertainty associated with DFT predictions has gained prominence and has led to the development of exchange correlation functionals that have built-in error estimation capability. In this work, we demonstrate the use of built-in error estimation capabilities within the BEEF-vdW exchange correlation functional for quantifying the uncertainty associated with the magnetic ground state of solids. We demonstrate this approach by calculating the uncertainty estimate for the energy difference between the different magnetic states of solids and compare them against a range of GGA exchange correlation functionals as is done in many first-principles calculations of materials. We show that this estimate reasonably bounds the range of values obtained with the different GGA functionals. The estimate is determined as a postprocessing step and thus provides a computationally robust and systematic approach to estimating uncertainty associated with predictions of magnetic ground states. We define a confidence value (c-value) that incorporates all calculated magnetic states in order to quantify the concurrence of the prediction at the GGA level and argue that predictions of magnetic ground states from GGA level DFT is incomplete without an accompanying c-value. We demonstrate the utility of this method using a case study of Li-ion and Na-ion cathode materials and the c-value metric correctly identifies that GGA-level DFT will have low predictability for NaFePO4F . Further, there
Men and women have reached relative parity in most sectors of the United States workforce. Yet women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (AAUW, 2010). Underrepresentation persists despite several decades of research, legislation, and intervention focused on gender equality in STEM fields (Clewell, 2002). The underrepresentation or shortage of women in STEM fields is identifiable primarily in degree attainment, in workforce demographics, and in a gender wage gap. Situated in constructivist grounded theory, this study asks how do women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, particularly those in established career positions, persist when encountering personal and institutional barriers, resistance, and hostility? I use an interpretive-constructivist lens to conduct a grounded theory study exploring the experiences of women who persist in STEM fields, their relation to extant literature on this topic, and the connections to K-12 education practices, specifically curriculum. To understand the connections to curriculum I employ Pinar's (2012) method of currere. Pinar (2012) contends currere "provides a strategy for students of curriculum to study the relations between academic knowledge and life history in the interests of self-understanding and social reconstruction" (p.44). This qualitative study explored nine female STEM workers stories of persistence as each respondent works in STEM fields were gender parity has yet to be established. This study presents a substantive theory: As women persist in STEM fields they reframe themselves to be situated in the overlapping intersection of the social processes that correspond to "engagement" and "persistence." This reframing is possible by interpreting one's present day circumstances by independently removing oneself from current circumstances to understand the cumulative effect of both past and present. The findings highlight the importance
Facchin, Federica; Saita, Emanuela; Barbara, Giussy; Dridi, Dhouha; Vercellini, Paolo
This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how endometriosis affects psychological health. Open interviews were conducted with 74 patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to all women, who were divided into distressed versus non-distressed. At the core of our grounded theory was the notion of disruption due to the common features of living with endometriosis. Experiencing disruption (vs restoring continuity) involved higher distress and was associated with a long pathway to diagnosis, bad doctor-patient relationships, poor physical health, lack of support, negative sense of female identity, and identification of life with endometriosis.
Lene Bastrup Jørgensen
Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background: Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design: The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods: The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results: Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion: In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.
Adams, E; Goyder, C; Heneghan, C; Brand, L; Ajjawi, R
Emergency medicine (EM) has a high case turnover and acuity making it a demanding clinical reasoning domain especially for junior doctors who lack experience. We aimed to better understand their clinical reasoning using dual cognition as a guiding theory. EM junior doctors were recruited from six hospitals in the south of England to participate in semi-structured interviews (n=20) and focus groups (n=17) based on recall of two recent cases. Transcripts were analysed using a grounded theory approach to identify themes and to develop a model of junior doctors' clinical reasoning in EM. Within cases, clinical reasoning occurred in three phases. In phase 1 (case framing), initial case cues and first impressions were predominantly intuitive, but checked by analytical thought and determined the urgency of clinical assessment. In phase 2 (evolving reasoning), non-analytical single cue and pattern recognitions were common which were subsequently validated by specific analytical strategies such as use of red flags. In phase 3 (ongoing uncertainty) analytical self-monitoring and reassurance strategies were used to precipitate a decision regarding discharge. We found a constant dialectic between intuitive and analytical cognition throughout the reasoning process. Our model of clinical reasoning by EM junior doctors illustrates the specific contextual manifestations of the dual cognition theory. Distinct diagnostic strategies are identified and together these give EM learners and educators a framework and vocabulary for discussion and learning about clinical reasoning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Tong, Seng Fah; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Lee, Ping Yein; Ismail, Irmi Zarina; Khoo, Ee Ming; Tahir, Noor Azizah; Idris, Iliza; Ismail, Mastura; Abdullah, Adina
The participation of general practitioners (GPs) in primary care research is variable and often poor. We aimed to develop a substantive and empirical theoretical framework to explain GPs' decision-making process to participate in research. We used the grounded theory approach to construct a substantive theory to explain the decision-making process of GPs to participate in research activities. Five in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted among 21 GPs. Purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling were used to attempt saturation of the core category. Data were collected using semi-structured open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked prior to analysis. Open line-by-line coding followed by focus coding were used to arrive at a substantive theory. Memoing was used to help bring concepts to higher abstract levels. The GPs' decision to participate in research was attributed to their inner drive and appreciation for primary care research and their confidence in managing their social and research environments. The drive and appreciation for research motivated the GPs to undergo research training to enhance their research knowledge, skills and confidence. However, the critical step in the GPs' decision to participate in research was their ability to align their research agenda with priorities in their social environment, which included personal life goals, clinical practice and organisational culture. Perceived support for research, such as funding and technical expertise, facilitated the GPs' participation in research. In addition, prior experiences participating in research also influenced the GPs' confidence in taking part in future research. The key to GPs deciding to participate in research is whether the research agenda aligns with the priorities in their social environment. Therefore, research training is important, but should be included in further measures and should comply with GPs' social
Cummings, Jorden A
Child interpersonal trauma is associated with a host of negative outcomes, both concurrently and in adulthood. Parental responses following trauma can play an important role in modulating child responses, symptoms, and post-trauma functioning. However, parents themselves are also impacted after their child experiences trauma, reporting distress, psychopathology, concerns about the child's safety, changes in discipline and protectiveness, and feelings of blame. Most of this previous research, however, suffers from methodological limitations such as focusing on description and correlations, providing static "one shot" assessments of parenting after trauma, and relying mainly on results related to child sexual abuse. This project developed a comprehensive, explanatory theory of the dynamic process by which parenting changes in response to a range of child trauma, using a sample of parents whose children had experienced a range of interpersonal trauma types. Grounded theory analyses revealed a three-phase dynamic model of discontinuous transformation, in which parents experienced destabilization, recalibration, and re-stabilization of parenting practices in response to child trauma. Parents were focused on Protecting and Healing the child victim, often at the expense of their own needs. Most parents reached a phase of posttraumatic growth, labelled Thriving Recovery, but processes that hindered this recovery are also discussed. This study provides the first evidence that dynamic systems of change as well as vicarious posttraumatic growth can apply to parents of child trauma victims. Generating an explanatory theory provides important avenues for future research as well as interventions and services aimed at families who have experienced child trauma. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt
Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme. PMID:26751199
Harkin, Lydia Jo; Beaver, Kinta; Dey, Paola; Choong, Kartina
People affected by cancer often have unmet emotional and social support needs. Online cancer communities are a convenient channel for connecting cancer survivors, allowing them to support one another. However, it is unclear whether online community use makes a meaningful contribution to cancer survivorship, as little previous research has examined the experience of using contemporary cancer communities. We aimed to explore the experiences of visitors to online cancer communities. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with online cancer community visitors, including cancer survivors (n = 18), family members (n = 2), and individuals who were both a survivor and family member (n = 3). Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A theory developed explaining how individuals 'navigated' the experience of cancer using online cancer communities. Online advice and information led participants on a 'journey to become informed'. Online friendships normalised survivorship and cast participants on a 'journey to recreate identity'. Participants navigated a 'journey through different worlds' as they discovered relevant and hidden communities. This theory highlights virtual paths people affected by cancer can take to self-manage their experience of the disease. Online community experiences can be improved by promoting online evaluation skills and signposting visitors to bereavement support. Cancer survivors can benefit through both lurking and posting in online communities. However, individuals risk becoming distressed when they befriend individuals who may soon die. Additionally, people affected by rarer cancers can struggle to find shared experiences online and may need to look elsewhere for support.
Full Text Available ChurgâStrauss syndrome (CSS is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of the small and medium vessels, associated with extravascular eosinophilic granulomas, peripheral eosinophilia and asthma.This is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology, affecting both genders and all age groups.CSS patients usually respond well to steroid treatment, although relapses are common after it ends. Timely diagnosis and treatment generally lead to a good prognosis with a 90% survival rate at one year.A brief review of CSS is presented, with particular attention to diagnosis, therapy and recent developments in this area.The authors then report and discuss the clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics of four patients admitted to an Internal Medicine Department with this diagnosis. The treatment, response and follow-up of the cases are also described. Resumo: A sÃndrome de Churg-Strauss (SCS Ã© uma vasculite sistÃ©mica necrotizante, que afeta os vasos de pequeno e mÃ©dio calibre e se associa a granulomas eosinofÃlicos extravasculares, eosinofilia perifÃ©rica e asma.Ã uma sÃndrome rara, de etiologia desconhecida e que afeta ambos os gÃ©neros e todos os grupos etÃ¡rios.Os doentes com SCS geralmente apresentam boa resposta Ã terapÃªutica com glucocorticoides, embora as recidivas sejam frequentes apÃ³s a sua suspensÃ£o. O diagnÃ³stico e terapÃªutica atempada levam geralmente a um bom prognÃ³stico, com uma sobrevivÃªncia de 90% um ano apÃ³s o diagnÃ³stico.Neste artigo Ã© apresentada uma breve revisÃ£o da SCS, com particular atenÃ§Ã£o ao diagnÃ³stico, terapÃªutica e progressos recentes nesta Ã¡rea.De seguida, os autores apresentam e discutem as caracterÃsticas clÃnicas, laboratoriais e imagiolÃ³gicas de quatro doentes internados num ServiÃ§o de Medicina Interna com este diagnÃ³stico. O tratamento instituÃdo, as respostas observadas e o seguimento dos casos sÃ£o tambÃ©m descritos. Keywords
Alyasin, Soheyla; Khoshkhui, Maryam; Amin, Reza
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a granulomatous small vessel vasculitis. It is characterized by asthma, allergic granulomatosis and vasculitis. This syndrome is rare in children. A 5 years old boy was admitted with cough, fever and dyspnea for 2 weeks. On the basis of laboratory data (peripheral eosinophilia), associated with skin biopsy, and history of CSS in his sister, this disease was eventually diagnosed. The patient had good response to corticosteroid. In every asthmatic patient with prolonged fever, eosinophilia and multisystemic involvment, CSS should be considered.
AlAmmar, Ahmed Y; Yasin, Subhan S; AlMuhsen, Saleh Zaid; AlSaadi Muslim M; AlSohaibanic, Mohammad O
A 10- year-old female, known to have bronchial asthma, presented with an unusual laryngeal lesion, eventually diagnosed as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). She was referred to our hospital with history of recurrent stridor. On endoscopyhe, the larynx showed signs similar to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). CSS is a systemic disorder and is now defined as one of the ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) - associated vasculitides. CSS is a systemic disease that may involve unusual sites like the laryynx. Such an unusual presenatation of CSS should be kept in mind, especially in patients with history of asthma. (author)
Govind Singh Rajawat
Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare, small-vessel vasculitis associated with a prominent allergic component, asthma, and blood or tissue eosinophilia. Granulomas, eosinophils, and palisading histiocytes in extravascular tissues are hallmarks of this disorder. The presence of asthma or allergy as well as more than 10% of eosinophils in blood is 95% sensitive and 99% specific, respectively, in distinguishing CSS among a subgroup of patients with well-documented systemic vasculitis. We present a case of pleural effusion which was finally diagnosed as CSS. Considering its rarity, this case is reported.
J. R. E. Rees
inflammation necrotising systemic vasculitis and necrotising glomerulonephritis. We describe a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome presenting with abdominal pain and later during the hospital admission a mono-neuritis multiplex syndrome affecting the lower limbs. The patient presented in such an atypical fashion with abdominal signs and symptoms that they required laparotomy and the diagnosis was made after histological examination of tissue taken at the time of surgery. Treatment with immunosuppression and aggressive rehabilitation achieved a progressive recovery which continued on discharge from hospital.
AlAmmar, Ahmed Y; Yasin, Subhan S; AlMuhsen, Saleh Zaid [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); M, AlSaadi Muslim [Dept. of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); AlSohaibanic, Mohammad O [Dept. of Pathology, King Abdulaziz Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
A 10- year-old female, known to have bronchial asthma, presented with an unusual laryngeal lesion, eventually diagnosed as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). She was referred to our hospital with history of recurrent stridor. On endoscopyhe, the larynx showed signs similar to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). CSS is a systemic disorder and is now defined as one of the ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) - associated vasculitides. CSS is a systemic disease that may involve unusual sites like the laryynx. Such an unusual presenatation of CSS should be kept in mind, especially in patients with history of asthma. (author)
Kvaal, Simen; Helgaker, Trygve
The relationship between the densities of ground-state wave functions (i.e., the minimizers of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle) and the ground-state densities in density-functional theory (i.e., the minimizers of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle) is studied within the framework of convex conjugation, in a generic setting covering molecular systems, solid-state systems, and more. Having introduced admissible density functionals as functionals that produce the exact ground-state energy for a given external potential by minimizing over densities in the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle, necessary and sufficient conditions on such functionals are established to ensure that the Rayleigh-Ritz ground-state densities and the Hohenberg-Kohn ground-state densities are identical. We apply the results to molecular systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For any given potential v ∈ L(3/2)(ℝ(3)) + L(∞)(ℝ(3)), we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the mixed ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the mixed ground-state densities of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle when the Lieb density-matrix constrained-search universal density functional is taken as the admissible functional. A similar one-to-one correspondence is established between the pure ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the pure ground-state densities obtained using the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle with the Levy-Lieb pure-state constrained-search functional. In other words, all physical ground-state densities (pure or mixed) are recovered with these functionals and no false densities (i.e., minimizing densities that are not physical) exist. The importance of topology (i.e., choice of Banach space of densities and potentials) is emphasized and illustrated. The relevance of these results for current-density-functional theory is examined.
Marcelo de Rezende Pinto
Full Text Available Uma vez que já é possível encontrar no Brasil alguns artigos que contemplam questões atinentes ao histórico, tipologias e principais características da grounded theory, este trabalho tem por ﬁnalidade contribuir para uma maior discussão dessa abordagem metodológica enquanto estilo de fazer pesquisa. De maneira especíﬁ ca, o trabalho tenta descrever uma experiência de campo e, principalmente, contar a saga de um pesquisador envolvido com o desaﬁo de colocar a grounded theory em prática. Para isso, buscou-se dividir o trabalho em três partes distintas. Na primeira parte, apresentamos a grounded theory de uma maneira ampla, introduzindo alguns dos seus princípios fundamentais. Na segunda parte, descreve-se o trabalho de campo que foi realizado - nos moldes da grounded theory - com o objetivo de investigar a forma como os consumidores brasileiros oriundos das classes mais populares vivenciam suas experiências de consumo de produtos eletrônicos. Na terceira e última parte, são apresentadas algumas reﬂexões sobre as exigências práticas para a “operacionalização” de pesquisas comprometidas com o “espírito” da grounded theory, bem como as dúvidas, os dilemas, as diﬁ culdades e as angústias vivenciadas ao longo de todo o processo de pesquisa contadas por quem passou por elas. ----- The Grounded Theory as Methodological Approach: reports of a field experience ----- ABSTRACT ----- As there are few articles that address issues relating to the history, types and main characteristics of grounded theory in Brazil, this paper aims to further the discussion of this methodological approach as a way of doing research. More speciﬁcally, the paper describes a ﬁeld experience, and in particular the history of a researcher involved with the challenge of putting grounded theory into practice. The work is divided into three distinct parts. First we present grounded theory broadly, introducing some of its fundamental
The study of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has exhausted its primary analytic framework based on corporate social performance, stakeholder theory and business ethics, and needs to re-orient its centre from business to society. Given this direction, a formal grounded theory is adopted to embrace a pluralistic perspective in the research. Instead of trying to fix the definition responsibility and irresponsibility, this paper captures the dynamics of the ir/responsible continuum and trie...
Slatyer, Susan; Williams, Anne M; Michael, Rene
Hospital patients experience significant pain, which can delay healing and increase the risk of developing chronic pain. Nurses are affected by patients' ongoing pain and may cope with consequent anxiety and helplessness by distancing themselves from such patients. Understanding nurses' responses to patients in severe pain will inform strategies to support their coping, their patients and, ultimately, their retention in the nursing workforce. The aim of the study was to develop a substantive theory explaining the hospital nurse's perspective of caring for patients in severe pain. The study used grounded theory method. Data were collected on four acute care wards in a 610 bed Australian hospital. The sample included 33 nurse participants and 11 patient participants. Selection criteria for nurse participants were those who worked in the four study wards, cared for patients who experienced severe pain, and consented to be included. Selection criteria for patient participants were those who self-reported pain at intensity of seven or more on a scale of 0-10, were aged 18 years or older, could speak and read English, and consented to be included. Theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using semi-structured interviews with nurses and participant observation, including structured observations of nurses who cared for patients in pain. Data were analysed using constant comparison method. Nurse participants encountered a basic psychosocial problem of feelings of disempowerment when their patients experienced persisting severe pain. In response, they used a basic psychosocial process of seeking empowerment to provide comfort in order to resolve distress and exhaustion associated with disempowerment. This coping process comprised three stages: building connections; finding alternative ways to comfort; and quelling emotional turmoil. The substantive theory proposed a link between the stress of nurses' disempowerment and a coping response that provides direction to
Liu, Zhenmi; Beaver, Kinta; Speed, Shaun
The Chinese ethnic population are among the UK's largest visible minority but there is limited evidence about this population, their views about their interactions with General Practitioners (GPs) and how this impacts on their health. This study aimed to explore Chinese Elders' experiences of and attitudes towards the provision of health services in primary care. The method of investigation was a Grounded Theory study using open-ended in-depth interviews. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit thirty-three Chinese Elders from Chinese communities in the North West of England. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and audio-recorded; transcripts were translated, back translated, analysed and coded by all members of the research team to identify concepts following the Grounded Theory approach. Themes were generated from the data and were used to guide the study into the theoretical sampling phase of the investigation. Chinese Elders were inclined to present to GPs only when health concerns were perceived as serious. This was defined as being beyond their ability to self-manage. Elders tended to adopt self-management strategies rather than follow professional advice. This was mainly due to communication difficulties, poor understanding of the advice doctors gave, and the way that Chinese patients interpreted and used the advice they were given. Chinese Elders reported that the purpose of contacting doctors was to obtain medicines. They presumed that once medication had been prescribed their symptoms would be cured, and then they believed that they could self-manage their health, usually without further GP or other medical follow up. These data suggest that significant misunderstandings between Chinese Elders and GPs exist. The findings highlight the dissatisfaction expressed by Elders regarding their interactions with UK health professionals. Chinese Elders' perceptions are influenced by the way Chinese people think about health and illness, and also
Serafin, Marsha Jean
The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to explore the value and effectiveness of key aspects of the accreditation process. The aspects explored were the procedures and structures that school leadership establishes in response both to the schoolwide Action Plans that a school develops as part of the self-study process and to the…
Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine
Objectives: To explore and explain the challenges, concerns and coping modalities in ICU-survivors living with a partner or spouse during the first 12 months post ICU discharge. Design: Qualitative, longitudinal grounded theory study. Settings: Five ICUs in Denmark, four general, one neurosurgical...
Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to discover the process of social identity development for adolescent high school women's choir participants. Purposive maximum variation sampling was used to identify three public high school women's choirs where 54 interviews were conducted with 40 different public school singers. Three waves of data…
The author employs grounded theory to investigate the teaching process of an interdisciplinary general education course at A University as a case. The author finds that under the condition of rather concrete relations between the subject of a major-based course and that of an elected general education course, if the major course is taught with a…
Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel
The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…
Smart, Julie B.; Igo, L. Brent
In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior. When confronting mild student…