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Sample records for grounded theory principles

  1. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  2. Ground-state densities from the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and from density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaal, Simen; Helgaker, Trygve

    2015-11-14

    The relationship between the densities of ground-state wave functions (i.e., the minimizers of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle) and the ground-state densities in density-functional theory (i.e., the minimizers of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle) is studied within the framework of convex conjugation, in a generic setting covering molecular systems, solid-state systems, and more. Having introduced admissible density functionals as functionals that produce the exact ground-state energy for a given external potential by minimizing over densities in the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle, necessary and sufficient conditions on such functionals are established to ensure that the Rayleigh-Ritz ground-state densities and the Hohenberg-Kohn ground-state densities are identical. We apply the results to molecular systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For any given potential v ∈ L(3/2)(ℝ(3)) + L(∞)(ℝ(3)), we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the mixed ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the mixed ground-state densities of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle when the Lieb density-matrix constrained-search universal density functional is taken as the admissible functional. A similar one-to-one correspondence is established between the pure ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the pure ground-state densities obtained using the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle with the Levy-Lieb pure-state constrained-search functional. In other words, all physical ground-state densities (pure or mixed) are recovered with these functionals and no false densities (i.e., minimizing densities that are not physical) exist. The importance of topology (i.e., choice of Banach space of densities and potentials) is emphasized and illustrated. The relevance of these results for current-density-functional theory is examined.

  3. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  4. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  5. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  6. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  7. Ethical principles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  8. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  9. Fundamental Principle for Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We propose the principle, the law of statistical balance for basic physical observables, which specifies quantum statistical theory among all other statistical theories of measurements. It seems that this principle might play in quantum theory the role that is similar to the role of Einstein's relativity principle.

  10. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  11. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  12. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  13. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  14. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  15. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  16. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  17. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor

  18. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  19. Principles of the theory of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ziman, J M

    1972-01-01

    Professor Ziman's classic textbook on the theory of solids was first pulished in 1964. This paperback edition is a reprint of the second edition, which was substantially revised and enlarged in 1972. The value and popularity of this textbook is well attested by reviewers' opinions and by the existence of several foreign language editions, including German, Italian, Spanish, Japanese, Polish and Russian. The book gives a clear exposition of the elements of the physics of perfect crystalline solids. In discussing the principles, the author aims to give students an appreciation of the conditions which are necessary for the appearance of the various phenomena. A self-contained mathematical account is given of the simplest model that will demonstrate each principle. A grounding in quantum mechanics and knowledge of elementary facts about solids is assumed. This is therefore a textbook for advanced undergraduates and is also appropriate for graduate courses.

  20. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies-of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass--if the measurement is made to the level of η≅10 -13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the 'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation-in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)-can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus

  1. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  2. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist In­quiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170

  3. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Mills; Ann Bonner; Karen Francis

    2006-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. T...

  4. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  5. The grounded theory of "trust building".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of spiritual care, the delivery of spiritual care is still an area of disagreement among healthcare providers. To develop a grounded theory about spiritual care delivery based on Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences. A grounded theory approach: A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach. Participants and research context: Data were collected through holding 27 interviews with 25 participants (17 staff nurses, 3 physicians, 3 patients, 1 family member, and 1 nurse assistant). The study setting was the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex. Sampling was started purposively and continued theoretically. Data analysis was performed by the method proposed by Strauss and Corbin. Ethical consideration: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tarbiat Modares University and the agreement of the administrators of the study setting was got before starting the study. The core category of the study was "Trust building" which reflected the nature of spiritual care delivery by nurses. Trust building was the result of eight main categories or strategies including creating a positive mentality at hospital admission, understanding patients in care circumstances, having a caring presence, adhering to care ethics, developing meaningful relationships, promoting positive thinking and energy, establishing effective communication with patients, and attempting to create a safe therapeutic environment. Poor interprofessional coordination negatively affected this process while living toward developing greater cognizance of divinity and adhering to the principles of professional ethics facilitated it. The outcome of the process was to gain a sense of partial psychological security. The "Trust building" theory can be used as a guide for describing and expanding nurses' roles in spiritual care delivery, developing care documentation systems and clinical guidelines, and planning educational programs for nursing students and staff nurses.

  6. A new principle of figure-ground segregation : The accentuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-01-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also

  7. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    The decision to use grounded theory is not an easy one and this article aims to illustrate and explore the methodological complexity and decision-making process. It explores the decision making of one researcher in the first two years of a grounded theory PhD study looking at the psychosocial training needs of nurses and healthcare assistants working with people with dementia in residential care. It aims to map out three different approaches to grounded theory: classic, Straussian and constructivist. In nursing research, grounded theory is often referred to but it is not always well understood. This confusion is due in part to the history of grounded theory methodology, which is one of development and divergent approaches. Common elements across grounded theory approaches are briefly outlined, along with the key differences of the divergent approaches. Methodological literature pertaining to the three chosen grounded theory approaches is considered and presented to illustrate the options and support the choice made. The process of deciding on classical grounded theory as the version best suited to this research is presented. The methodological and personal factors that directed the decision are outlined. The relative strengths of Straussian and constructivist grounded theories are reviewed. All three grounded theory approaches considered offer the researcher a structured, rigorous methodology, but researchers need to understand their choices and make those choices based on a range of methodological and personal factors. In the second article, the final methodological decision will be outlined and its research application described.

  8. Puzzling the Picture Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Since the first publication by Glaser and Strauss in 1967, Grounded Theory has become a highly influential research approach in the social sciences. The approach provides techniques and coding strategies for building theory inductively from the "ground up" as concepts within the data earn relevance into an evolving substantive theory.…

  9. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.

  10. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar expe­rience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of pub­lished research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tena...

  11. Principles of chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    1995-01-01

    An elementary discussion of the main concepts used in chiral perturbation theory is given in textbooks and a more detailed picture of the applications may be obtained from the reviews. Concerning the foundations of the method, the literature is comparatively scarce. So, I will concentrate on the basic concepts and explain why the method works. (author)

  12. Gauge theory and variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bleecker, David

    2005-01-01

    This text provides a framework for describing and organizing the basic forces of nature and the interactions of subatomic particles. A detailed and self-contained mathematical account of gauge theory, it is geared toward beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduates in mathematics and physics. This well-organized treatment supplements its rigor with intuitive ideas.Starting with an examination of principal fiber bundles and connections, the text explores curvature; particle fields, Lagrangians, and gauge invariance; Lagrange's equation for particle fields; and the inhomogeneous field

  13. [The grounded theory as a methodological alternative for nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a method of interpretative and systematic research with appliance to the development of studies in nursing called "the grounded theory", whose theoretical support is the symbolic interactionism. The purpose of the paper is to describe the grounded theory as an alternative methodology for the construction of knowledge in nursing. The study highlights four topics: the basic principle, the basic concepts, the trajectory of the method and the process of analysis of the data. We conclude that the systematization of data and its interpretation, based on social actors' experience, constitute strong subsidies to generate theories through this research tool.

  14. Intervention principles: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.H.; Crick, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became clear that some clarification of the basic principles for intervention was necessary as well as more internationally recognised numerical guidance on intervention levels. There was in the former USSR and in Europe much confusion over, and lack of recognition of, the very different origins and purposes of dose limits for controlling deliberate increases in radiation exposure for practices and dose levels at which intervention is prompted to decrease existing radiation exposure. In the latest recommendations from ICRP in its Publication 60, a clear distinction is made between the radiation protection systems for a practice and for intervention. According to ICRP, the protective measures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantages, should each be justified on their own merit in the sense that they should do more good than harm, and their form, scale, and duration should be optimised so as to do the most good. Intervention levels for protective actions can be established for many possible accident scenarios. For planning and preparedness purposes, a generic optimisation based on generic accident scenario calculations, should result in optimised generic intervention levels for each protective measure. The factors entering such an optimisation will on the benefit side include avertable doses and avertable risks as well as reassurance. On the harm side the factors include monetary costs, collective and individual risk for the action itself, social disruption and anxiety. More precise optimisation analyses based on real site and accident specific data can be carried out and result in specific intervention levels. It is desirable that values for easily measurable quantities such as dose rate and surface contamination density be developed as surrogates for intervention levels of avertable dose. However, it is important that these quantities should be used carefully and applied taking account of local

  15. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  16. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the choice of classic grounded theory will be discussed and justified in the context of the first author's PhD research. The methodological discussion takes place within the context of PhD research entitled: Development of a stakeholder-led framework for a structured education programme that will prepare nurses and healthcare assistants to deliver a psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is a lack of research and limited understanding of the effect of psychosocial interventions on people with dementia. The first author thought classic grounded theory a suitable research methodology to investigate as it is held to be ideal for areas of research where there is little understanding of the social processes at work. The literature relating to the practical application of classic grounded theory is illustrated using examples relating to four key grounded theory components: Theory development: using constant comparison and memoing, Methodological rigour, Emergence of a core category, Inclusion of self and engagement with participants. Following discussion of the choice and application of classic grounded theory, this paper explores the need for researchers to visit and understand the various grounded theory options. This paper argues that researchers new to grounded theory must be familiar with and understand the various options. The researchers will then be able to apply the methodologies they choose consistently and critically. Doing so will allow them to develop theory rigorously and they will ultimately be able to better defend their final methodological destinations.

  17. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our...

  18. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  19. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  20. Drying principles and theory: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1995-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the fundamental principles and theories governing the drying process is presented. Basic definitions are given. The development of contemporary models of drying of agricultural products are traced from the earliest reported sorption and moisture equilibrium models, through the single kernel of product models to the thin layer and deep bed drying analysis. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  1. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  2. Grounded theory research: literature reviewing and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.

  3. Stochastic control theory dynamic programming principle

    CERN Document Server

    Nisio, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the optimal stochastic control theory via the dynamic programming principle, which is a powerful tool to analyze control problems. First we consider completely observable control problems with finite horizons. Using a time discretization we construct a nonlinear semigroup related to the dynamic programming principle (DPP), whose generator provides the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, and we characterize the value function via the nonlinear semigroup, besides the viscosity solution theory. When we control not only the dynamics of a system but also the terminal time of its evolution, control-stopping problems arise. This problem is treated in the same frameworks, via the nonlinear semigroup. Its results are applicable to the American option price problem. Zero-sum two-player time-homogeneous stochastic differential games and viscosity solutions of the Isaacs equations arising from such games are studied via a nonlinear semigroup related to DPP (the min-ma...

  4. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  5. How moral disagreement may ground principled moral compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens

    2018-01-01

    In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability, there a......In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability......, there are properly speaking no principled reasons to compromise. My aim in the article is to show how principled moral compromise in the context of moral disagreements over policy options is possible. I argue that when we disagree, principled reasons favoring compromises or compromising can assume a more significant...... part of what makes a position all things considered best, and in this way disagreement can ground moral compromise....

  6. Doing Quantitative Grounded Theory: A theory of trapped travel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Rosenbaum, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available All is data. Grounded theorists employ this sentence in their quest to create original theoretical frameworks. Yet researchers typically interpret the word gdatah to mean qualitative data or, more specifically, interview data collected from respondents. This is not to say that qualitative data is deficient; however, grounded theorists may be missing vast opportunities to create pioneering theories from quantitative data. Indeed, Glaser and Strauss (1967 argued that researchers would use qualitative and/or quantitative data to fashion original frameworks and related hypotheses, and Glaserfs (2008 recently published book, titledDoing Quantitative Grounded Theory, is an attempt to help researchers understand how to use quantitative data for grounded theory (GT.

  7. Introducing Grounded Theory into translation studies | Wehrmeyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...

  8. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…

  9. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  10. Grounded Theory for Creating Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacy, Cheryl Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to discover the impact on adolescent reading motivation as students were given an opportunity to select recreational reading material and read consistently during class time. This study also explored the motivational impact of student engagement from dialogue with peers about their reading…

  11. Building International Business Theory: A Grounded Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gligor, David; Esmark, Carol; Golgeci, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    The field of international business (IB) is in need of more theory development (Morck & Yeung, 2007). As such, the main focus of our manuscript was to provide guidance on how to build IB specific theory using grounded theory (GT). Moreover, we contribute to future theory development by identifying areas within IB where GT can be applied and the type of research issues that can be addressed using this methodology. Finally, we make a noteworthy contribution by discussing some of GT’s caveats an...

  12. Grounded theory: building a middle-range theory in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of nursing as a discipline results from a boom of investigations underway for nearly a century, and of the construction of theories that have arisen during the 1950’s, with greater relevance since the 1960’s. Giving continuation to the production of knowledge in nursing and seeking to contribute to the increase in the number of explanatory theories of the functional content of nurses, there is interest in answering the question: how can a middle-range theory in nursing be built that explains the nurse-elderly interaction in a successful aging process? As well, we address the goal of describing the process of building a middle-range theory in nursing. Middle-range theory refers to a qualitative paradigm study of inductive thinking, developed in the context of primary health care. The information was collected through participant observation and interviews. Method of analysis grounded theory by Corbin and Strauss(1 was followed, utilizing the triangulation of data and theoretical sampling. Grounded theory has become a method of analysis which facilitates the understanding and explanation of the phenomenon under study. By making clear the nature and process of the nurse-elderly interaction in the selected context and within the context of successful aging, a middle-range theory proposal emerged.

  13. A new principle of figure-ground segregation: The accentuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-02-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also consider it autonomous as it can agree with or oppose them. We consider three dynamic aspects of the principle, namely: attraction, accentuation and assignment. Each creature needs to attract, fascinate, seduce, draw attention (e.g., a mate or a prey animal) or distract, refuse, dissuade, discourage, repulse (e.g., a predator). Similarly, each organism needs to accentuate, highlight, stress, underline, emphasize or distract from another. Thus, accentuation assigns meaning to a visual pattern such as a coat, a plumage or a flower. False eyes (ocelli) and dots (diematic patterns) demonstrate "deceiving camouflage by accentuation" that confuses predators/preys and hides or highlights vital body parts (butterflies/flowers). They also display the deceiving appearance and exhibition of biological fitness. The same accents may serve different or even opposite goals. We conclude that accentuation improves the adaptive fitness of organisms in multifarious ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conceptual Models and Theory-Embedded Principles on Effective Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerens, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    Reviews models and theories on effective schooling. Discusses four rationality-based organization theories and a fifth perspective, chaos theory, as applied to organizational functioning. Discusses theory-embedded principles flowing from these theories: proactive structuring, fit, market mechanisms, cybernetics, and self-organization. The…

  15. The underlying principles of relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the main statements of relativistic theory of gravitation, constructed in result of critical analysis of the general theory of relativity. The principle of geometrization is formulated

  16. Grounded theory methodology - has it become a movement?

    OpenAIRE

    Berterö, Carina

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of grounded theory, and an examination of many studies claiming to follow grounded theory indicates a wide range of approaches. In 1967 Glaser and Strauss’s ‘‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory; Strategies for Qualitative Research’’ was published and represented a breakthrough in qualitative research; it offered methodological consensus and systematic strategies for qualitative research practice. The defining characteristics of grounded theory inc...

  17. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  18. Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To what extent have the principles and theories of international relations (as formulated) accommodated the specific needs and circumstances of Africa? In other words, how can the circumstances and peculiarities of Africa be made to shape and influence the established principles and theories of international relations as ...

  19. Symbolic interactionism in grounded theory studies: women surviving with HIV/AIDS in rural northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Areewan; Greenwood, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Although it is generally acknowledged that symbolic interactionism and grounded theory are connected, the precise nature of their connection remains implicit and unexplained. As a result, many grounded theory studies are undertaken without an explanatory framework. This in turn results in the description rather than the explanation of data determined. In this report, the authors make explicit and explain the nature of the connections between symbolic interactionism and grounded theory research. Specifically, they make explicit the connection between Blumer's methodological principles and processes and grounded theory methodology. In addition, the authors illustrate the explanatory power of symbolic interactionism in grounded theory using data from a study of the HIV/AIDS experiences of married and widowed Thai women.

  20. Challenging convention: symbolic interactionism and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Not very much is written in the literature about decisions made by researchers and the justifications on method as a result of a particular clinical problem, together with an appropriate and congruent theoretical perspective, particularly for Glaserian grounded theory. I contend the utilisation of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective to inform and guide the evolving research process and analysis of data when using classic or Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method, is not always appropriate. Within this article I offer an analysis of the key issues to be addressed when contemplating the use of Glaserian GT and the utilisation of an appropriate theoretical perspective, rather than accepting convention of symbolic interactionism (SI). The analysis became imperative in a study I conducted that sought to explore the concerns, adaptive behaviours, psychosocial processes and relevant interactions over a 12-month period, among newly diagnosed persons with end stage renal disease, dependent on haemodialysis in the home environment for survival. The reality of perception was central to the end product in the study. Human ethics approval was granted by six committees within New South Wales Health Department and one from a university.

  1. The importance of symbolic interaction in grounded theory research on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, D L

    2001-01-01

    A variety of grounded theory studies are presented in this issue of Health Care for Women International that attend to different factors and situations impacting women's health. In this paper I will provide the basic principles of symbolic interactionism (SI) for the reader unfamiliar with the conceptual underpinnings of the grounded theory research method. I will discuss why SI is a fitting perspective for use in the study of women, women's perspectives, and women's health. I will conclude with a brief discussion of challenges to researchers maintaining the symbolic interaction perspective in grounded theory research.

  2. Relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvili, G.

    1981-01-01

    Roles of relativity (RP) and equivalence principles (EP) in the gauge theory of gravity are shown. RP in the gravitational theory in formalism of laminations can be formulated as requirement of covariance of equations relative to the GL + (4, R)(X) gauge group. In such case RP turns out to be identical to the gauge principle in the gauge theory of a group of outer symmetries, and the gravitational theory can be directly constructed as the gauge theory. In general relativity theory the equivalence theory adds RP and is intended for description of transition to a special relativity theory in some system of reference. The approach described takes into account that in the gauge theory, besides gauge fields under conditions of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone and Higgs fields can also arise, to which the gravitational metric field is related, what is the sequence of taking account of RP in the gauge theory of gravitation [ru

  3. Effective medium theory principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, Tuck C

    2015-01-01

    Effective medium theory dates back to the early days of the theory of electricity. Faraday in 1837 proposed one of the earliest models for a composite metal-insulator dielectric and around 1870 Maxwell and later Garnett (1904) developed models to describe a composite or mixed material medium. The subject has been developed considerably since and while the results are useful for predicting materials performance, the theory can also be used in a wide range of problems in physics and materials engineering. This book develops the topic of effective medium theory by bringing together the essentials of both the static and the dynamical theory. Electromagnetic systems are thoroughly dealt with, as well as related areas such as the CPA theory of alloys, liquids, the density functional theory etc., with applications to ultrasonics, hydrodynamics, superconductors, porous media and others, where the unifying aspects of the effective medium concept are emphasized. In this new second edition two further chapters have been...

  4. The Independence of Markov's Principle in Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel

    2017-01-01

    for the generic point of this model. Instead we design an extension of type theory, which intuitively extends type theory by the addition of a generic point of Cantor space. We then show the consistency of this extension by a normalization argument. Markov's principle does not hold in this extension......In this paper, we show that Markov's principle is not derivable in dependent type theory with natural numbers and one universe. One way to prove this would be to remark that Markov's principle does not hold in a sheaf model of type theory over Cantor space, since Markov's principle does not hold......, and it follows that it cannot be proved in type theory....

  5. The Methodological Dynamism of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Variations in grounded theory (GT interpretation are the subject of ongoing debate. Divergences of opinion, genres, approaches, methodologies, and methods exist, resulting in disagreement on what GT methodology is and how it comes to be. From the postpositivism of Glaser and Strauss, to the symbolic interactionist roots of Strauss and Corbin, through to the constructivism of Charmaz, the field of GT methodology is distinctive in the sense that those using it offer new ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives at specific moments in time. We explore the unusual dynamism attached to GT’s underpinnings. Our view is that through a process of symbolic interactionism, in which generations of researchers interact with their context, moments are formed and philosophical perspectives are interpreted in a manner congruent with GT’s essential methods. We call this methodological dynamism, a process characterized by contextual awareness and moment formation, contemporaneous translation, generational methodology, and methodological consumerism.

  6. Theory- Building for Iranian Underground Music Using Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kowsari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Different genres of underground music are important issues in Iranian youth culture. The purpose of this research was to study masculinity in Iranian- Persian rap music. Therefore, Persian rap music as a part of Iranian popular culture, between 2001 and 2011 was analyzed. We used qualitative research approach. The main method used in this study, was "Constructive Grounded Theory ". So instead of using existing theories as a theoretical framework, the researcher sought to generate local theory from research field. Thus, using theoretical sampling, data compiled from various sources. The multiple data collection techniques such as interviews, observation, online observation, collecting documents and texts were used. Then all the data was coded with using open, axial and selective coding methods. Finally, 62 concepts and 16 categories derived from data and "plural form of masculinity in Iranian-Persian rap music" was defined as the core category. Then according to paradigmatic model, "Substantive Theory" emerged from the data, was presented as "story" and "visual model". Finally seven questions of Strauss and Corbin about the experience in research has been assessed to evaluating research.

  7. Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory

  8. Celebrating 50 Years of Grounded Theory: Onward and Forward Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Gynnild

    2017-01-01

    Welcome to this very special issue of the Grounded Theory Review. In this issue we celebrate 50 amazing years of grounded theory during which it has become one of the fastest growing methods in the global research world. Five decades after The Discovery of Grounded Theory was first published, the seminal work of founders Barney G. Glaser and Anselm Strauss is cited more than 94,000 times on Google Scholar alone. We celebrate that after 50 years of researching, teaching, defending, explic...

  9. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD; Rita Schreiber RN, DNS

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interac...

  10. Justifying Design Decisions with Theory-based Design Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael;Gehlert, Andreas;Pohl, Klaus;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of theories in design research is recognized, we show that little attention has been paid on how to use theories when designing new artifacts. We introduce design principles as a new methodological approach to address this problem. Design principles extend the notion of design rationales that document how a design decision emerged. We extend the concept of design rationales by using theoretical hypotheses to support or object to design decisions. At the example of developing...

  11. Patients' experiences with home parenteral nutrition: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina; Lucas, Beverley; Wood, Diana

    2018-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides nourishment and hydration as an intravenous infusion to patients with intestinal failure (IF). The aim of the study is to generate theory that explains the experiences of adult patients living with home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and complex medication regimens. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the experiences of twelve patients receiving HPN. A semi-structured interview was conducted and recorded in each participant's home setting. Each interview was transcribed verbatim. The simultaneous process of data collection and analysis was followed reflecting the principles of the constant comparative approach. A total of 15 patients gave written consent, with 12 of them agreeing to be interviewed. All the participants had previously undergone surgery as a result of chronic ill health or sudden illness. Analysis revealed two core categories: stoma and HPN, and these were supported by the subcategories: maintaining stoma output, access to toilets, managing dietary changes, maintaining the HPN infusion routine, access to technical help to set up an HPN infusion, mobility with HPN equipment and general health changes. The strategy of living with loss was demonstrated by all the participants, and this was supported by the action strategies of maintaining daily activities and social interactions. This study generates new understanding and insight into the views and experiences of patients receiving HPN in the UK. The findings from these participants have been shown to resonate with the Kubler-Ross Model [1] of the five stages of grief. The theory of living with loss was generated by the use of a grounded theory methodology. This small scale exploratory study reveals opportunities for improvements in practice to be considered by the nutrition support team (NST) and other healthcare professionals involved in the patient's hospital stay prior to discharge on HPN. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  12. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interactionism to grounded theory research. In this article we discuss the symbolic interactionist concepts of mind, self, and society, and their applicability in grounded theorizing. Our purpose is to highlight foundational concepts of symbolic interactionism and their centrality in the processes of conducting grounded theory research.

  13. Constructing New Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Constructivist Approach to Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dori Barnett

    2012-01-01

    A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about da...

  14. Yet Another Puzzle of Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korbmacher, J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that any predicational theory of partial ground that extends a standard theory of syntax and that proves some commonly accepted principles for partial ground is inconsistent. We suggest a way to obtain a consistent predicational theory of ground.

  15. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  16. Descent principle in modular Galois theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    with Drinfeld module theory see Remark 5.2 at the end of the paper. To describe the ... where the elements X1,...,Xm need not be algebraically independent over kq. When ..... In §5 we shall make some motivational and philosophical remarks.

  17. Principles and theory of resonance power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, A.; Karady, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The resonance power supply is widely used and proved to be an efficient method to supply accelerator magnets. The literature describes several power supply circuits but no comprehensive theory of operation is presented. This paper presents a mathematical method which describes the operation of the resonance power supply and it can be used for accurate design of components

  18. University management nurse: a grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamylla Santos da Cunha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the meaning of the university management performed by nurses managers of the nursing undergraduate course of a public university. Method: this is a qualitative research, based on the grounded theory. Data collection took place between May and September 2016, with open interviews, in the scenario of a federal public university. The technique of constant comparative analysis of the data was followed, obtaining a theoretical sample with 19 nurses, in two sample groups. Results: there were three categories emerged that shaped the phenomenon: Articulating complex collectives through university management for the qualified training of new nurses. The categories included: a conditions, defined by perceiving the commitment to the collective, previous experiences, and training for health management, as motivations to be a teacher manager; b actions/interactions, delimited by Knowing and recognizing, in practice, the university management process, limits and possibilities in the coordination of complex collective subjects; and, c consequences, such as Improving teaching work and taking responsibility for university education. Conclusion: the nurses teaching managers to explain university management as a set of individual and collective actions that, articulated in a complex social environment, promote conditions for the training of critical and reflexive nurses with the demands of society.

  19. Energy aspect of the correspondence principle in gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitskevich, N.V.; Nesterov, A.I.

    1976-01-01

    The correspondence of different definitions of invariant values in the general relativity theory with the Newton theory is considered. The analysis is carried out in the system of reference of a single Fermi-observer. It turns out that of the values considered the Papapetru pseudotensor only satisfies the correspondence principle

  20. Chern-Simons theory from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    A review is made of the main properties of the Chern-Simons field theory. These include the dynamical mass generation to the photon without a Higgs field, the statistical transmutation of charged particles coupled to it and the natural appearance of a transverse conductivity. A review of standard theories proposed for the Quantum Hall Effect which use the Chern-Simons term is also made, emphasizing the fact that this terms is put in an artificial manner. A physical origin for the Chern-Simons term is proposed, starting from QED in 3+1 D with the topological term and imposing that the motion of charged matter is restricted to an infinite plane. (author). 12 refs

  1. Quantum theory from first principles an informational approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Quantum theory is the soul of theoretical physics. It is not just a theory of specific physical systems, but rather a new framework with universal applicability. This book shows how we can reconstruct the theory from six information-theoretical principles, by rebuilding the quantum rules from the bottom up. Step by step, the reader will learn how to master the counterintuitive aspects of the quantum world, and how to efficiently reconstruct quantum information protocols from first principles. Using intuitive graphical notation to represent equations, and with shorter and more efficient derivations, the theory can be understood and assimilated with exceptional ease. Offering a radically new perspective on the field, the book contains an efficient course of quantum theory and quantum information for undergraduates. The book is aimed at researchers, professionals, and students in physics, computer science and philosophy, as well as the curious outsider seeking a deeper understanding of the theory.

  2. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-01-01

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  3. Variational principle for a prototype Rastall theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype of Rastall's theory of gravity, in which the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor is proportional to the gradient of the scalar curvature, is shown to be derivable from a variational principle. Both the proportionality factor and the unrenormalized gravitational constant are found to be covariantly constant, but not necessarily constant. The prototype theory is, therefore, a gravitational theory with variable gravitational constant

  4. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  5. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  6. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously

  7. Making sense of grounded theory in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Lingard, Lorelei A

    2006-02-01

    Grounded theory is a research methodology designed to develop, through collection and analysis of data that is primarily (but not exclusively) qualitative, a well-integrated set of concepts that provide a theoretical explanation of a social phenomenon. This paper aims to provide an introduction to key features of grounded theory methodology within the context of medical education research. In this paper we include a discussion of the origins of grounded theory, a description of key methodological processes, a comment on pitfalls encountered commonly in the application of grounded theory research, and a summary of the strengths of grounded theory methodology with illustrations from the medical education domain. The significant strengths of grounded theory that have resulted in its enduring prominence in qualitative research include its clearly articulated analytical process and its emphasis on the generation of pragmatic theory that is grounded in the data of experience. When applied properly and thoughtfully, grounded theory can address research questions of significant relevance to the domain of medical education.

  8. The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl

    2010-02-01

    A free-energy principle has been proposed recently that accounts for action, perception and learning. This Review looks at some key brain theories in the biological (for example, neural Darwinism) and physical (for example, information theory and optimal control theory) sciences from the free-energy perspective. Crucially, one key theme runs through each of these theories - optimization. Furthermore, if we look closely at what is optimized, the same quantity keeps emerging, namely value (expected reward, expected utility) or its complement, surprise (prediction error, expected cost). This is the quantity that is optimized under the free-energy principle, which suggests that several global brain theories might be unified within a free-energy framework.

  9. Classroom research in religious education: The potential of grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rothgangel, Martin; Saup, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common qualitative research strategies in social sciences. Currently, many applications of this theory are being developed for religious education. In the article it is argued that grounded theory deserves special attention for classroom research in religious education. For this reason, the basic features (fundamental openness and concurrence of data collection and analysis; constant comparison and asking analytical questions) as well as the coding strategie...

  10. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mikael Lind; Goran Goldkuhl

    2006-01-01

    In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. Th...

  11. The Maximum Entropy Principle and the Modern Portfolio Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cassetari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a capital allocation methodology base don the Principle of Maximum Entropy was developed. The Shannons entropy is used as a measure, concerning the Modern Portfolio Theory, are also discuted. Particularly, the methodology is tested making a systematic comparison to: 1 the mean-variance (Markovitz approach and 2 the mean VaR approach (capital allocations based on the Value at Risk concept. In principle, such confrontations show the plausibility and effectiveness of the developed method.

  12. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  13. Using extant literature in a grounded theory study: a personal account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarwood-Ross, Lee; Jack, Kirsten

    2015-03-01

    To provide a personal account of the factors in a doctoral study that led to the adoption of classic grounded theory principles relating to the use of literature. Novice researchers considering grounded theory methodology will become aware of the contentious issue of how and when extant literature should be incorporated into a study. The three main grounded theory approaches are classic, Straussian and constructivist, and the seminal texts provide conflicting beliefs surrounding the use of literature. A classic approach avoids a pre-study literature review to minimise preconceptions and emphasises the constant comparison method, while the Straussian and constructivist approaches focus more on the beneficial aspects of an initial literature review and researcher reflexivity. The debate also extends into the wider academic community, where no consensus exists. This is a methodological paper detailing the authors' engagement in the debate surrounding the role of the literature in a grounded theory study. In the authors' experience, researchers can best understand the use of literature in grounded theory through immersion in the seminal texts, engaging with wider academic literature, and examining their preconceptions of the substantive area. The authors concluded that classic grounded theory principles were appropriate in the context of their doctoral study. Novice researchers will have their own sets of circumstances when preparing their studies and should become aware of the different perspectives to make decisions that they can ultimately justify. This paper can be used by other novice researchers as an example of the decision-making process that led to delaying a pre-study literature review and identifies the resources used to write a research proposal when using a classic grounded theory approach.

  14. A Grounded Theory Approach to Physical Activity and Advanced Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya S. Lowe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity has demonstrated benefits in cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients, however the role of physical activity at the end stage of cancer has not been established. To challenge positivist–empiricist assumptions, I am seeking to develop a new theoretical framework that is grounded in the advanced cancer patient’s experience of activity. Aim: To gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients. Objectives: (1 To explore the meaning of activity for advanced cancer patients in the context of their day-to-day life, (2 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ perceptions of activity with respect to their quality of life, and (3 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ views of barriers and facilitators to activity in the context of their day-to-day life. Study Design: A two-phase, cross-sectional, qualitative study will be conducted through the postpositivist lens of subtle realism and informed by the principles of grounded theory methods. Study Methods: Advanced cancer patients will be recruited through the outpatient department of a tertiary cancer center. For Phase one, participants will wear an activPAL™ activity monitor and fill out a daily record sheet for seven days duration. For Phase two, the activity monitor output and daily record sheets will be used as qualitative probes for face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Concurrent coding, constant comparative analysis, and theoretical sampling will continue with the aim of achieving as close as possible to theoretical saturation. Ethics and Discussion: Ethical and scientific approval will be obtained by all local institutional review boards prior to study commencement. The findings will generate new mid-level theory about the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients and aid in the development of a new theoretical framework for designing

  15. On the fundamental principles of the relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper expounds consistently within the frames of the Special Relativity Theory the fundamental postulates of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which make it possible to obtain the unique complete system of the equations for gravitational field. Major attention has been paid to the analysis of the gauge group and of the causality principle. Some results related to the evolution of the Friedmann Universe, to gravitational collapse, etc. being the consequences of the RTG equations are also presented. 7 refs

  16. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  17. The application of grounded theory and symbolic interactionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the methodological and theoretical context and underpinnings of a study that examined community psychiatric nurses' work with family caregivers of older people with depression. The study used grounded theory research methods, with its theoretical foundations drawn from symbolic interactionism. The aims of the study were to describe and conceptualize the processes involved when community nurses work and interact with family caregivers and to develop an explanatory theory of these processes. This paper begins with an explanation of the rationale for using grounded theory as the method of choice, followed by a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of the study, including a brief summary of the nature and origins of symbolic interactionism. Key premises of symbolic interactionism regarded as central to the study are outlined and an analytical overview of the grounded theory method is provided. The paper concludes with a commentary on some of the issues and debates in the use of grounded theory in nursing research. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodical and critical review of symbolic interactionism and grounded theory that can help readers, particularly those who are intending to use grounded theory, better understand the processes involved in applying this method to their research.

  18. Living on the edge of asthma: A grounded theory exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michele R; Oneal, Gail

    2014-10-01

    Most asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for asthma are preventable. Our purpose was to develop a grounded theory to guide interventions to reduce unnecessary hospitalizations and ED visits. Grounded theory inquiry guided interviews of 20 participants, including 13 parents and 7 children. Living on the edge of asthma was the emergent theory. Categories included: balancing, losing control, seeking control, and transforming. The theory provides the means for nurses to understand the dynamic process that families undergo in trying to prevent and then deal with and learn from an acute asthma attack requiring hospitalization or an ED visit. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. grounded theory approach in sermon analysis of sermons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The grounded theory approach is implemented in analysing sermons on poverty and directed at ... poverty situation in South Africa, especially in the black community (Pieterse ..... The activity of open coding discovers gaps or holes of needed.

  20. From Darwin to constructivism: the evolution of grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Helen; Griffiths, Debra; McKenna, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    To explore the evolution of grounded theory and equip the reader with a greater understanding of the diverse conceptual positioning that is evident in the methodology. Grounded theory was developed during the modernist phase of research to develop theories that are derived from data and explain human interaction. Its philosophical foundations derive from symbolic interactionism and were influenced by a range of scholars including Charles Darwin and George Mead. Rather than a rigid set of rules and procedures, grounded theory is a way of conceptualising data. Researchers demonstrate a range of perspectives and there is significant variation in the way the methodology is interpreted and executed. Some grounded theorists continue to align closely with the original post-positivist view, while others take a more constructivist approach. Although the diverse interpretations accommodate flexibility, they may also result in confusion. The grounded theory approach enables researchers to align to their own particular world view and use methods that are flexible and practical. With an appreciation of the diverse philosophical approaches to grounded theory, researchers are enabled to use and appraise the methodology more effectively.

  1. Constructing New Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Constructivist Approach to Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dori Barnett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about data collection and analysis. Implications for future research directions and policy and practice in the field of special and alternative education are discussed.

  2. The deadlock principle as a ground for the just and equitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deadlock principle as a ground for the just and equitable winding up of a solvent company: Thunder Cats Investments 92 (Pty) Ltd v Nkonjane Economic Prospecting Investment (Pty) Ltd 2014 5 SA 1 (SCA)

  3. The renormalized action principle in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasin, H.

    1990-03-01

    The renormalized action principle holds a central position in field theory, since it offers a variety of applications. The main concern of this work is the proof of the action principle within the so-called BPHZ-scheme of renormalization. Following the classical proof given by Lam and Lowenstein, some loopholes are detected and closed. The second part of the work deals with the application of the action principle to pure Yang-Mills-theories within the axial gauge (n 2 ≠ 0). With the help of the action principle we investigate the decoupling of the Faddeev-Popov-ghost-fields from the gauge field. The consistency of this procedure, suggested by three-graph approximation, is proven to survive quantization. Finally we deal with the breaking of Lorentz-symmetry caused by the presence of the gauge-direction n. Using BRST-like techniques and the semi-simplicity of the Lorentz-group, it is shown that no new breakings arise from quantization. Again the main step of the proof is provided by the action principle. (Author, shortened by G.Q.)

  4. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  5. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  6. A Grounded Theory of Counseling Students Who Report Problematic Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.

    2014-01-01

    All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…

  7. Gifted Students in Transition: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jodi J.

    2017-01-01

    Gifted students in transition to college may be at risk for underachievement, difficult transition, or even attrition. Giftedness by itself is not always sufficient for academic success in college. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to construct a theory regarding the process of transition to college for high-achieving gifted high…

  8. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  9. Empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory: Advancing nurse empowerment theory for nurses' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, Sonia A; Racine, Louise

    2017-12-01

    To draw on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organisational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship. Although grounded theory is a widely adopted nursing research methodology, it remains less used in nursing leadership because of the dominance of quantitative approaches to research. Grounded theory methodology provides the empirical and pragmatic relevance to inform nursing practice and policy. Grounded theory is a relevant qualitative approach to use in leadership research as it provides a fine and detailed analysis of the process underlying complexity and bureaucracy. Discursive paper. A critical examination of the empirical and pragmatic relevance of grounded theory by (Corbin & Strauss, , ) as a method for analysing and solving problems in nurses' practice is provided. This paper provides evidence to support the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory methodology. Although the application of the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of grounded theory is challenging, this methodology is useful to address real-life problems in nursing practice by developing theoretical explanations of nurse empowerment, or lack thereof, in the workplace. Grounded theory represents a relevant methodology to inform nursing leadership research. Grounded theory is anchored in the reality of practice. The strength of grounded theory is to provide results that can be readily applied to clinical practice and policy as they arise from problems that affect practice and that

  10. Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?

    OpenAIRE

    Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton; Langfeld, Kurt; Lavelle, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; McMullan, David

    2008-01-01

    We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all ch...

  11. Principle and Control Design of Active Ground-Fault Arc Suppression Device for Full Compensation of Ground Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Zeng, Xiangjun; Yan, Lingjie

    2017-01-01

    current into the neutral without any large-capacity reactors, and thus avoids the aforementioned overvoltage. It compensates all the active, reactive and harmonic components of the ground current to reliably extinguish the ground-fault arcs. A dual-loop voltage control method is proposed to realize arc...... suppression without capacitive current detection. Its time-based feature also brings the benefit of fast response on ground-fault arc suppression. The principle of full current compensation is analyzed, together with the controller design method of the proposed device. Experiment on a prototype was carried...

  12. Noncommutative Common Cause Principles in algebraic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor; Vecsernyés, Péter

    2013-01-01

    States in algebraic quantum field theory “typically” establish correlation between spacelike separated events. Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle, generalized to the quantum field theoretical setting, offers an apt tool to causally account for these superluminal correlations. In the paper we motivate first why commutativity between the common cause and the correlating events should be abandoned in the definition of the common cause. Then we show that the Noncommutative Weak Common Cause Principle holds in algebraic quantum field theory with locally finite degrees of freedom. Namely, for any pair of projections A, B supported in spacelike separated regions V A and V B , respectively, there is a local projection C not necessarily commuting with A and B such that C is supported within the union of the backward light cones of V A and V B and the set {C, C ⊥ } screens off the correlation between A and B.

  13. A variational principle for Newton-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenner, H.F.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the framework of a space-time theory of gravitation a variational principle is set up for the gravitational field equations and the equations of motion of matter. The general framework leads to Newton's equations of motion with an unspecified force term and, for irrotational motion, to a restriction on the propagation of the shear tensor along the streamlines of matter. The field equations obtained from the variation are weaker than the standard field equations of Newton-Cartan theory. An application to fluids with shear and bulk viscosity is given. (author)

  14. Participants' views of telephone interviews within a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kim; Gott, Merryn; Hoare, Karen

    2015-12-01

    To offer a unique contribution to the evolving debate around the use of the telephone during semistructured interview by drawing on interviewees' reflections on telephone interview during a grounded theory study. The accepted norm for qualitative interviews is to conduct them face-to-face. It is typical to consider collecting qualitative data via telephone only when face-to-face interview is not possible. During a grounded theory study, exploring users' experiences with overnight mask ventilation for sleep apnoea, the authors selected the telephone to conduct interviews. This article reports participants' views on semistructured interview by telephone. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on data pertaining to the use of the telephone interview in a grounded theory study. The data were collected during 4 months of 2011 and 6 months in 2014. The article presents an inductive thematic analysis of sixteen participants' opinions about telephone interviewing and discusses these in relation to existing literature reporting the use of telephone interviews in grounded theory studies. Overall, participants reported a positive experience of telephone interviewing. From each participants reports we identified four themes from the data: being 'phone savvy; concentrating on voice instead of your face; easy rapport; and not being judged or feeling inhibited. By drawing on these data, we argue that the telephone as a data collection tool in grounded theory research and other qualitative methodologies need not be relegated to second best status. Rather, researchers can consider telephone interview a valuable first choice option. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  16. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Goodman, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  17. Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; Lutz, W.; McMullan, D.

    2008-08-01

    We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.

  18. Endeavoring to Contextualize Curricula Within an EBP Framework: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra

    2018-01-01

    Adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) principles in undergraduate education can facilitate nursing students' appreciation of EBP. Using grounded theory method, this study aimed to explore processes used by nurse academics while integrating EBP concepts in undergraduate nursing curricula across Australian universities. Twenty-three nurse academics were interviewed and nine were observed during teaching of undergraduate students. In addition, 20 unit/subject guides were analyzed using grounded theory approach of data analysis. The theory " On a path to success: Endeavoring to contextualize curricula within an EBP framework" reflects academics' endeavors toward linking EBP concepts to practice, aiming to contextualize curricula in a manner that engages students within an EBP framework. However, academics' journeys were influenced by several contextual factors which require strategies to accomplish their endeavors. In conclusion, initiatives to minimize barriers, faculty development, and provision of resources across educational and clinical settings are fundamental to achieving undergraduate curricula underpinned by EBP concepts.

  19. Principle-based concept analysis: intentionality in holistic nursing theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghebati, Nahid; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Noaparast, Khosrow Bagheri

    2015-03-01

    This is a report of a principle-based concept analysis of intentionality in holistic nursing theories. A principle-based concept analysis method was used to analyze seven holistic theories. The data included eight books and 31 articles (1998-2011), which were retrieved through MEDLINE and CINAHL. Erickson, Kriger, Parse, Watson, and Zahourek define intentionality as a capacity, a focused consciousness, and a pattern of human being. Rogers and Newman do not explicitly mention intentionality; however, they do explain pattern and consciousness (epistemology). Intentionality has been operationalized as a core concept of nurse-client relationships (pragmatic). The theories are consistent on intentionality as a noun and as an attribute of the person-intentionality is different from intent and intention (linguistic). There is ambiguity concerning the boundaries between intentionality and consciousness (logic). Theoretically, intentionality is an evolutionary capacity to integrate human awareness and experience. Because intentionality is an individualized concept, we introduced it as "a matrix of continuous known changes" that emerges in two forms: as a capacity of human being and as a capacity of transpersonal caring. This study has produced a theoretical definition of intentionality and provides a foundation for future research to further investigate intentionality to better delineate its boundaries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo C. Y.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO's design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein's theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein's equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne's formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein's equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.

  1. Cafeteria factors that influence milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children: grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, P; Bednar, C; Klammer, S

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children in North Texas. Ten focus groups with a total of 41 children aged 6 to 11 years were conducted using a grounded theory approach. Based on the principles of Social Learning Theory, milk preferences and health beliefs were identified as personal factors that influenced drinking. Cafeteria rules, milk flavor, product packaging, modeling by adults, and shared experiences were environmental factors. The data suggest that school cafeterias can capitalize on their unique position to offer milk-drinking opportunities that children can share to combine nutrition education with sensory experience.

  2. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Lind

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. This evolution is based on empirical studies, theory-informed conceptual development and the creation of conceptual cohesion. The theoretical development has involved a dialectic approach aiming at a theoretical synthesis based on antagonistic theories. The result of this research process was a multi-grounded business process theory. Multi-grounded means that the theory is empirically, internally and theoretically founded. This business process theory can be used as an aid for business modellers to direct attention towards relevant aspects when business process determination is performed.

  3. Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...

  4. A Grounded Theory of School of Education Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore the futures that school of education leaders envision for their institutions. American higher education institutions broadly, and schools of education specifically, face a complex of challenges to their traditional structures, processes, practices, value, and values. These challenges create…

  5. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  6. Year 7 Students, Information Literacy, and Transfer: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…

  7. Reflecting on e-Recruiting Research Using Grounded Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a

  8. Infusing Participants' Voices into Grounded Theory Research: A Poetic Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article augments the author's grounded theory study of student and teacher interactions in alternative education classrooms by presenting poetic transcription as a way to portray the essences and experiences of the participants. The author builds on the experimental writing traditions of other researchers to embrace her own experiences as a…

  9. Directionality Theory and the Entropic Principle of Natural Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd A. Demetrius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Darwinian fitness describes the capacity of an organism to appropriate resources from the environment and to convert these resources into net-offspring production. Studies of competition between related types indicate that fitness is analytically described by entropy, a statistical measure which is positively correlated with population stability, and describes the number of accessible pathways of energy flow between the individuals in the population. Directionality theory is a mathematical model of the evolutionary process based on the concept evolutionary entropy as the measure of fitness. The theory predicts that the changes which occur as a population evolves from one non-equilibrium steady state to another are described by the following directionality principle–fundamental theorem of evolution: (a an increase in evolutionary entropy when resource composition is diverse, and resource abundance constant; (b a decrease in evolutionary entropy when resource composition is singular, and resource abundance variable. Evolutionary entropy characterizes the dynamics of energy flow between the individual elements in various classes of biological networks: (a where the units are individuals parameterized by age, and their age-specific fecundity and mortality; where the units are metabolites, and the transitions are the biochemical reactions that convert substrates to products; (c where the units are social groups, and the forces are the cooperative and competitive interactions between the individual groups. % This article reviews the analytical basis of the evolutionary entropic principle, and describes applications of directionality theory to the study of evolutionary dynamics in two biological systems; (i social networks–the evolution of cooperation; (ii metabolic networks–the evolution of body size. Statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical model of macroscopic behavior in inanimate matter based on entropy, a statistical measure which

  10. Ab initio optimization principle for the ground states of translationally invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Shi-Ju

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and fundamental numeric scheme dubbed as ab initio optimization principle (AOP) is proposed for the ground states of translational invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models. The idea is to transform a nondeterministic-polynomial-hard ground-state simulation with infinite degrees of freedom into a single optimization problem of a local function with finite number of physical and ancillary degrees of freedom. This work contributes mainly in the following aspects: (1) AOP provides a simple and efficient scheme to simulate the ground state by solving a local optimization problem. Its solution contains two kinds of boundary states, one of which play the role of the entanglement bath that mimics the interactions between a supercell and the infinite environment, and the other gives the ground state in a tensor network (TN) form. (2) In the sense of TN, a novel decomposition named as tensor ring decomposition (TRD) is proposed to implement AOP. Instead of following the contraction-truncation scheme used by many existing TN-based algorithms, TRD solves the contraction of a uniform TN in an opposite way by encoding the contraction in a set of self-consistent equations that automatically reconstruct the whole TN, making the simulation simple and unified; (3) AOP inherits and develops the ideas of different well-established methods, including the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD), network contractor dynamics, density matrix embedding theory, etc., providing a unified perspective that is previously missing in this fields. (4) AOP as well as TRD give novel implications to existing TN-based algorithms: A modified iTEBD is suggested and the two-dimensional (2D) AOP is argued to be an intrinsic 2D extension of DMRG that is based on infinite projected entangled pair state. This paper is focused on one-dimensional quantum models to present AOP. The benchmark is given on a transverse Ising

  11. Two-dimensional models as testing ground for principles and concepts of local quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2005-04-01

    In the past two-dimensional models of QFT have served as theoretical laboratories for testing new concepts under mathematically controllable condition. In more recent times low-dimensional models (e.g. chiral models, factoring models) often have been treated by special recipes in a way which sometimes led to a loss of unity of QFT. In the present work I try to counteract this apartheid tendency by reviewing past results within the setting of the general principles of QFT. To this I add two new ideas: (1) a modular interpretation of the chiral model Diff(S)-covariance with a close connection to the recently formulated local covariance principle for QFT in curved spacetime and (2) a derivation of the chiral model temperature duality from a suitable operator formulation of the angular Wick rotation (in analogy to the Nelson-Symanzik duality in the Ostertwalder-Schrader setting) for rational chiral theories. The SL(2,Z) modular Verlinde relation is a special case of this thermal duality and (within the family of rational models) the matrix S appearing in the thermal duality relation becomes identified with the statistics character matrix S. The relevant angular 'Euclideanization' is done in the setting of the Tomita-Takesaki modular formalism of operator algebras. I find it appropriate to dedicate this work to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I shared the interest in two-dimensional models as a testing ground for QFT for more than one decade. This is a significantly extended version of an 'Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics' contribution hep-th/0502125. (author)

  12. Two-dimensional models as testing ground for principles and concepts of local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [FU Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2005-04-15

    In the past two-dimensional models of QFT have served as theoretical laboratories for testing new concepts under mathematically controllable condition. In more recent times low-dimensional models (e.g. chiral models, factoring models) often have been treated by special recipes in a way which sometimes led to a loss of unity of QFT. In the present work I try to counteract this apartheid tendency by reviewing past results within the setting of the general principles of QFT. To this I add two new ideas: (1) a modular interpretation of the chiral model Diff(S)-covariance with a close connection to the recently formulated local covariance principle for QFT in curved spacetime and (2) a derivation of the chiral model temperature duality from a suitable operator formulation of the angular Wick rotation (in analogy to the Nelson-Symanzik duality in the Ostertwalder-Schrader setting) for rational chiral theories. The SL(2,Z) modular Verlinde relation is a special case of this thermal duality and (within the family of rational models) the matrix S appearing in the thermal duality relation becomes identified with the statistics character matrix S. The relevant angular 'Euclideanization' is done in the setting of the Tomita-Takesaki modular formalism of operator algebras. I find it appropriate to dedicate this work to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I shared the interest in two-dimensional models as a testing ground for QFT for more than one decade. This is a significantly extended version of an 'Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics' contribution hep-th/0502125. (author)

  13. A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In social psychology, the attribution model of helping behavior suggests that beliefs of the helping target’s responsibility for the need for help evoke affective motivators such as feelings of pity, sympathy, or anger. The affective motivation leads to helping or not helping the target. The current emergent theory is an enhancement of this theory by incorporating other personal and situational variables.Through the use of classic grounded theory, I interviewed 80 participants from different De La Salle Schools in the Philippines. This yielded over 1300 individual incidents that were compared and contrasted to form codes, categories and subcategories. A theory on the decision making process of helping emerged that incorporates the helper’s personal conviction, and rational deliberations of the situation. The desire to help is based on the helper’s rationalemotive beliefs (philosophical ideals and values that nurture helping and the knowledge of the nature of risk/problem and relational-emotive ties (with the one who needs help and with a social group that nurtures helping. The desire to help undergoes a process of rationalpragmatic-deliberations on the appropriateness of the recipients need of help, the cost of helping, the helper’s capability of helping, and the logistics of helping before the actual helping occurs. The theory has implications for current social psychological theories of helping, and the use of classic grounded theory research.

  14. Variational principle for the Bloch unified reaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.; Rapheal, R.

    1975-01-01

    The unified reaction theory formulated by Claude Bloch uses a boundary value operator to write the Schroedinger equation for a scattering state as an inhomogeneous equation over the interaction region. As suggested by Lane and Robson, this equation can be solved by using a matrix representation on any set which is complete over the interaction volume. Lane and Robson have proposed, however, that a variational form of the Bloch equation can be used to obtain a ''best'' value for the S-matrix when a finite subset of this basis is used. The variational principle suggested by Lane and Robson, which gives a many-channel S-matrix different from the matrix solution on a finite basis, is considered first, and it is shown that the difference results from the fact that their variational principle is not, in fact, equivalent to the Bloch equation. Then a variational principle is presented which is fully equivalent to the Bloch form of the Schroedinger equation, and it is shown that the resulting S-matrix is the same as that obtained from the matrix solution of this equation. (U.S.)

  15. Where Are the Grounds for Grounded Theory? A Troubled Empirical Methodology Meets Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a critical exposition of the epistemological underpinnings of a recent redevelopment of Grounded Theory (GT) methodology, "Constructivist" GT. Although proffered as freed from the "objectivist" tenets of the original version, critical examination exposes the essentialism threaded through its integral…

  16. Classic Grounded Theory to Analyse Secondary Data: Reality and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Andrews

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on the experiences of two researchers and discusses how they conducted a secondary data analysis using classic grounded theory. The aim of the primary study was to explore first-time parents’ postnatal educational needs. A subset of the data from the primary study (eight transcripts from interviews with fathers was used for the secondary data analysis. The objectives of the secondary data analysis were to identify the challenges of using classic grounded theory with secondary data and to explore whether the re-analysis of primary data using a different methodology would yield a different outcome. Through the process of re-analysis a tentative theory emerged on ‘developing competency as a father’. Challenges encountered during this re-analysis included the small dataset, the pre-framed data, and limited ability for theoretical sampling. This re-analysis proved to be a very useful learning tool for author 1(LA, who was a novice with classic grounded theory.

  17. Dispersion correction derived from first principles for density functional theory and Hartree-Fock theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidez, Emilie B; Gordon, Mark S

    2015-03-12

    The modeling of dispersion interactions in density functional theory (DFT) is commonly performed using an energy correction that involves empirically fitted parameters for all atom pairs of the system investigated. In this study, the first-principles-derived dispersion energy from the effective fragment potential (EFP) method is implemented for the density functional theory (DFT-D(EFP)) and Hartree-Fock (HF-D(EFP)) energies. Overall, DFT-D(EFP) performs similarly to the semiempirical DFT-D corrections for the test cases investigated in this work. HF-D(EFP) tends to underestimate binding energies and overestimate intermolecular equilibrium distances, relative to coupled cluster theory, most likely due to incomplete accounting for electron correlation. Overall, this first-principles dispersion correction yields results that are in good agreement with coupled-cluster calculations at a low computational cost.

  18. The accentuation principle of figure-ground segregation and the downbeat illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Sirigu, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Pinna and Sirigu (2011) demonstrated a new principle of grouping, called the accentuation principle, stating that, all else being equal, elements tend to group in the same oriented direction of the discontinuous element placed within a whole set of continuous/homogeneous components. The discontinuous element behaves like an accent, i.e. a visual emphasis within the wholeness of components as shown in the next section. In this work, the accentuation principle has been extended to new visual domains. In particular, it is shown how this principle affects shape perception. Moreover several visual object attributes are also highlighted, among which orientation, spatial position, inner dynamics and apparent motion that determine the so-called organic segmentation and furthermore tend to induce figure-ground segregation. On the basis of the results of experimental phenomenology, the accentuation can be considered as a complex principle ruling grouping, figure-ground segregation, shape and meaning formation. Through a new musical illusion of downbeat, it is also demonstrated that this principle influences perceptual organization not only in space but also in time and, thus, in both visual and musical domains. This illusion can be heard in eight measures of Pagodes, a solo piano music by Claude Debussy (1862-1918), where a strong physical-perceptual discrepancy in terms of upbeats and downbeats inversion is strongly perceived in both staves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Newly-graduated midwives transcending barriers: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perturbing the ground ring of 2D string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbon, J.L.F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors use free field techniques in D = 2 string theory t calculate the perturbation of the special state algebras when the cosmological constant is turned on. In particular, the authors find that the 'ground cone' preserved by the ring structure is promoted to a three-dimensional hyperboloid as conjectured by Witten. On the other hand, the perturbed (1,1) current algebra of moduli deformations is computed completely, and no simple geometrical interpretation is found. The authors also quote some facts concerning the Liouville matrix a model dictionary in this class of theories

  1. Perturbing the ground ring of 2D string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Barbón, José L F

    1992-01-01

    We use free field techniques in D=2 string theory to calculate the perturbation of the special state algebras when the cosmologi- cal constant is turned on. In particular, we find that the "ground cone" preserved by the ring structure is promoted to a three dimen- sional hyperboloid as conjectured by Witten. On the other hand, the perturbed (1,1) a three dimensional hyperboloid as conjectured by Witten. On the other hand, the perturbed (1,1) current algebra of moduli deformations is computed completely, and no simple geometrical inter- pretation is found. We also quote some facts concerning the Liouville/matrix model dictio- nary in this class of theories.

  2. Grounded theory for radiotherapy practitioners: Informing clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy practitioners may be best placed to undertake qualitative research within the context of cancer, due to specialist knowledge of radiation treatment and sensitivity to radiotherapy patient's needs. The grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis is a unique method of identifying a theory directly based on data collected within a clinical context. Research for radiotherapy practitioners is integral to role expansion within the government's directive for evidence-based practice. Due to the paucity of information on qualitative research undertaken by radiotherapy radiographers, this article aims to assess the potential impact of qualitative research on radiotherapy patient and service outcomes.

  3. Vaccination learning experiences of nursing students: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.

  4. Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ni

    2014-01-01

    This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...

  5. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  6. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  7. Qualitative Research: A Grounded Theory Example and Evaluation Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative research paradigm, although occasionally applied, is not widely discussed in agribusiness and agricultural economics literature. The primary goals of this paper are (a) to present insights into qualitative research approaches and processes by outlining grounded theory as an example of a systematic and rigorous qualitative approach, and (b) to discuss criteria for scientific rigor applicable to qualitative research. In addition, assessing qualitative research is demonstrated by...

  8. A systematic review of grounded theory studies in physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nancy; May, Stephen; Grafton, Kate

    2018-05-23

    This systematic review aimed at appraising the methodological rigor of grounded theory research published in the field of physiotherapy to assess how the methodology is understood and applied. A secondary aim was to provide research implications drawn from the findings to guide future grounded theory methodology (GTM) research. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINHAL, SPORT Discus, Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify studies in the field of physiotherapy that reported using GTM and/or methods in the study title and/or abstract. The descriptive characteristics and methodological quality of eligible studies were examined using grounded theory methodology assessment guidelines. The review included 68 studies conducted between 1998 and 2017. The findings showed that GTM is becoming increasingly used by physiotherapy researchers. Thirty-six studies (53%) demonstrated a good understanding and appropriate application of GTM. Thirty-two studies (47%) presented descriptive findings and were considered to be of poor methodological quality. There are several key tenets of GTM that are integral to the iterative process of qualitative theorizing and need to be applied throughout all research practices including sampling, data collection, and analysis.

  9. Using grounded theory to create a substantive theory of promoting schoolchildren's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakka, Kristiina; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Kiikkala, Irma; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Paavilainen, Eija

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the creation of a substantive theory using grounded theory. This article provides an example of generating theory from a study of mental health promotion at a high school in Finland. Grounded theory is a method for creating explanatory theory. It is a valuable tool for health professionals when studying phenomena that affect patients' health, offering a deeper understanding of nursing methods and knowledge. Interviews with school employees, students and parents, and verbal responses to the 'school wellbeing profile survey', as well as working group memos related to the development activities. Participating children were aged between 12 and 15. The analysis was conducted by applying the grounded theory method and involved open coding of the material, constant comparison, axial coding and selective coding after identifying the core category. The analysis produced concepts about mental health promotion in school and assumptions about relationships. Grounded theory proved to be an effective means of eliciting people's viewpoints on mental health promotion. The personal views of different parties make it easier to identify an action applicable to practice.

  10. Principle-theoretic approach of kondo and construction-theoretic formalism of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Einstein classified various theories in physics as principle-theories and constructive-theories. In this lecture Kondo's approach to microscopic and macroscopic phenomena is analysed for its principle theoretic pursuit as followed by construction. The fundamentals of his theory may be recalled as Tristimulus principle, Observation principle, Kawaguchi spaces, empirical information, epistemological point of view, unitarity, intrinsicality, and dimensional analysis subject to logical and geometrical achievement. On the other hand, various physicists have evolved constructive gauge theories through the phenomenological point of view, often a collective one. Their synthetic method involves fibre bundles and connections, path integrals as well as other hypothetical structures. They lead towards clarity, completeness and adaptability

  11. A Grounded Theory Analysis of Introductory Computer Science Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wellons

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning is a critical, early step on the path to successful program writing and a skill that is often lacking in novice programmers. As practitioners we are continually searching for or creating interventions to help our students, particularly those who struggle in the early stages of their computer science education. In this paper we report on our ongoing research of novice programming skills that utilizes the qualitative research method of grounded theory to develop theories and inform the construction of these interventions. We describe how grounded theory, a popular research method in the social sciences since the 1960’s, can lend formality and structure to the common practice of simply asking students what they did and why they did it. Further, we aim to inform the reader not only about our emerging theories on interventions for planning but also how they might collect and analyze their own data in this and other areas that trouble novice programmers. In this way those who lecture and design CS1 interventions can do so from a more informed perspective.

  12. Becoming Selfless: A Grounded Theory of Commitment to Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Nino L. Agoncillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of commitment to service in the community of educational partners in the Philippines. Educational partners are lay people who assist religious organizations in the field of education, and in the Philippines, about 96 percent of educational partners are in Lasallian schools and organizations. Educational partners are young professionals, volunteers between the ages of 24-39 who strive to live the teachings of St. John Baptist De La Salle. The volunteers aim to generate a spirit of service, a sense of mission to the youth. By using a classic Grounded Theory approach, the theory of becoming selfless was generated. The theory explains the stages educational partners undergo when resolving their organizational commitment to service. Organizational commitment is the psychological attachment, involvement and identification of the individual to the organization. Becoming selfless provides a theoretical focal point to better understand the complexity of commitment.

  13. Principle and Design of a Single-phase Inverter-Based Grounding System for Neutral-to-ground Voltage Compensation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, Lingjie; Zeng, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Neutral-to-ground overvoltage may occur in non-effectively grounded power systems because of the distributed parameters asymmetry and resonance between Petersen coil and distributed capacitances. Thus, the constraint of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks....... In this paper, an active grounding system based on single-phase inverter and its control parameter design method is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between its output current and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral-to-ground voltage compensation. Then...

  14. PENGALAMAN MAHASISWA DALAM MELAKUKAN WIRAUSAHA INFORMASI: SEBUAH PENELITIAN GROUNDED THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdini Rihlatul Mahmudah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is to explore students’ understanding of information entrepreneurship. This is a qualitative study using grounded theory. Selection of the method is based on research conducted purpose, namely to build a theory based on the views of respondents. The steps taken to obtain the data are interviews, observation, and document review. The data is analyzed based on data analysis model constructivism form of transcription of data and interpretation of data through open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. Because that’s grounded theory meant to know in depth understanding of information entrepreneurship is mainly done by the students. The study also covers entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity information extracted information from the perspective of students. The conclusion of this study is an entrepreneur information definition. That defi nition is work in the fi eld of information that can be done independently or in groups, with flexibility in the time and place of the work, in the form of search activity information, creating web and library systems, consulting libraries, teachers, and librarians to make money, add experience and knowledge, as well as develop social activities.

  15. Midwifery students learning experiences in labor wards: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstad, Anne; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2014-12-01

    The labor ward is an important and challenging learning area for midwifery students. It is there the students learn in authentic complex situations, in intimate situations, with potential risk for the life and health of mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern expressed by midwifery students in labor wards and how they handled this concern. A longitudinal study based on grounded theory methodology was used. The participants were 10 postgraduate midwifery students, from a University College in Norway. Data were gathered and analyzed throughout the 2-year postgraduate program, in the students first, third and fourth semesters. Every student was interviewed three times in a total of 15 single and three focus-group sessions. The grounded theory of "building relationships" explains how students dealt with their main concern: "how to gain access to learning experiences". This theory consisted of three strategies; a) controlling vulnerability, b) cultivating trust and c) obtaining acceptance. Clarifying discussions involving midwives and students may facilitate the process of building relationships and contribute to confident learning. Students appreciate it when the midwives initiate discussions about acute situations and state that a novice may perceive labor and childbirth as more frightening than an experienced midwife would. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of empathy in psychiatric practice: constructivist grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. Aims To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. Method This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) ‘How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?’ and (b) ‘How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?’ The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. Results This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Conclusions Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of ’empathetic engagement’. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243463

  17. Navigating Grounded Theory:A critical and reflective response to the challenges of using grounded theory in an education PhD

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical reflection upon the use of a grounded theory approach within a doctoral study. As well as providing an outline of grounded theory, it begins by noting the existence of some powerful critiques of a grounded theory approach, in particular around the key concepts of ‘theory’, ‘discovery’ and ‘ground’. It is argued that, in some cases, grounded theory struggles to counter these challenges, especially in its ‘purist’ forms. However, with reference to research carried o...

  18. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun; Jane Mills; Kim Usher

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meanin...

  19. Grounded theory: a methodological spiral from positivism to postmodernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Chapman, Ysanne; Bonner, Ann; Francis, Karen

    2007-04-01

    Our aim in this paper is to explain a methodological/methods package devised to incorporate situational and social world mapping with frame analysis, based on a grounded theory study of Australian rural nurses' experiences of mentoring. Situational analysis, as conceived by Adele Clarke, shifts the research methodology of grounded theory from being located within a postpositivist paradigm to a postmodern paradigm. Clarke uses three types of maps during this process: situational, social world and positional, in combination with discourse analysis. During our grounded theory study, the process of concurrent interview data generation and analysis incorporated situational and social world mapping techniques. An outcome of this was our increased awareness of how outside actors influenced participants in their constructions of mentoring. In our attempts to use Clarke's methodological package, however, it became apparent that our constructivist beliefs about human agency could not be reconciled with the postmodern project of discourse analysis. We then turned to the literature on symbolic interactionism and adopted frame analysis as a method to examine the literature on rural nursing and mentoring as secondary form of data. While we found situational and social world mapping very useful, we were less successful in using positional maps. In retrospect, we would argue that collective action framing provides an alternative to analysing such positions in the literature. This is particularly so for researchers who locate themselves within a constructivist paradigm, and who are therefore unwilling to reject the notion of human agency and the ability of individuals to shape their world in some way. Our example of using this package of situational and social worlds mapping with frame analysis is intended to assist other researchers to locate participants more transparently in the social worlds that they negotiate in their everyday practice.

  20. Accommodating interruptions: A grounded theory of young people with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Toward a Principled Sampling Theory for Quasi-Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Ali; Schrepp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-orders, that is, reflexive and transitive binary relations, have numerous applications. In educational theories, the dependencies of mastery among the problems of a test can be modeled by quasi-orders. Methods such as item tree or Boolean analysis that mine for quasi-orders in empirical data are sensitive to the underlying quasi-order structure. These data mining techniques have to be compared based on extensive simulation studies, with unbiased samples of randomly generated quasi-orders at their basis. In this paper, we develop techniques that can provide the required quasi-order samples. We introduce a discrete doubly inductive procedure for incrementally constructing the set of all quasi-orders on a finite item set. A randomization of this deterministic procedure allows us to generate representative samples of random quasi-orders. With an outer level inductive algorithm, we consider the uniform random extensions of the trace quasi-orders to higher dimension. This is combined with an inner level inductive algorithm to correct the extensions that violate the transitivity property. The inner level correction step entails sampling biases. We propose three algorithms for bias correction and investigate them in simulation. It is evident that, on even up to 50 items, the new algorithms create close to representative quasi-order samples within acceptable computing time. Hence, the principled approach is a significant improvement to existing methods that are used to draw quasi-orders uniformly at random but cannot cope with reasonably large item sets.

  2. Toward a Principled Sampling Theory for Quasi-Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Ali; Schrepp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-orders, that is, reflexive and transitive binary relations, have numerous applications. In educational theories, the dependencies of mastery among the problems of a test can be modeled by quasi-orders. Methods such as item tree or Boolean analysis that mine for quasi-orders in empirical data are sensitive to the underlying quasi-order structure. These data mining techniques have to be compared based on extensive simulation studies, with unbiased samples of randomly generated quasi-orders at their basis. In this paper, we develop techniques that can provide the required quasi-order samples. We introduce a discrete doubly inductive procedure for incrementally constructing the set of all quasi-orders on a finite item set. A randomization of this deterministic procedure allows us to generate representative samples of random quasi-orders. With an outer level inductive algorithm, we consider the uniform random extensions of the trace quasi-orders to higher dimension. This is combined with an inner level inductive algorithm to correct the extensions that violate the transitivity property. The inner level correction step entails sampling biases. We propose three algorithms for bias correction and investigate them in simulation. It is evident that, on even up to 50 items, the new algorithms create close to representative quasi-order samples within acceptable computing time. Hence, the principled approach is a significant improvement to existing methods that are used to draw quasi-orders uniformly at random but cannot cope with reasonably large item sets. PMID:27965601

  3. Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Yalof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory (CGT was used to identify a main concern of online students in higher education. One of the main impediments to studying online is a sense of isolation and lack of access to support systems as students navigate through complex requirements of their online programs. Hypothetical probability statements illustrate the imbalance between heightened needs of virtual learners and perceived inadequate support provided by educational institutions. The core variable, marshaling resources, explains how peer supports sustain motivation toward successful program completion. Understanding the critical contribution virtual interpersonal networks make towards maximizing resources by group problem solving is a significant aspect of this theory. Keywords: Online learning, e-learning, personal learning networks, peer networks

  4. Assertiveness process of Iranian nurse leaders: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.

  5. Principles of general relativity theory in terms of the present day physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    A hystory of gradual unification of general relativity theory and quantum field theory on the basis of unified geometrical principles is detected. The gauge invariance principles became universal for construction of all physical theories. Quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation theory were used to form geometrical principles. Identity of inertial and gravitational masses is an experimental basis of the general relativity theory (GRT). It is shown that correct understanding of GRT bases is a developing process related to the development of the present physics and stimulating this development

  6. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  7. An experiential perspective on persecutory paranoia: a grounded theory construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Tom; Gumley, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Recently there has been a large volume of research on persecutory paranoia. Evidence has emerged for the role of social factors in the development of paranoia. There have, however, been no studies that have collaborated with users to develop an experiential perspective on paranoia. This study used a social constructionist version of grounded theory to develop an experiential perspective on persecutory paranoia. Ten individuals who had experience of persecutory paranoia were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the grounded theory method. A core process of fear and vulnerability was constructed. Subcategories of confusion and uncertainty, and self under attack contributed to the core process. These processes led to an engaging of the safety systems. Subthemes of these categories were identified. Many of these factors interacted to create the complex and dynamic experience of paranoia. Participants were often responding to genuinely frightening experiences but were also attacking themselves. Paranoia evolved as a mechanism of keeping oneself safe in dangerous situations. The need to negotiate a shared meaning of paranoia with users is emphasized. Direction for future research was discussed.

  8. Examining Philosophy of Technology Using Grounded Theory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark David Webster

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to examine the philosophy of technology of K-12 technology leaders, and explore the influence of their thinking on technology decision making. The research design aligned with CORBIN and STRAUSS grounded theory methods, and I proceeded from a research paradigm of critical realism. The subjects were school technology directors and instructional technology specialists, and data collection consisted of interviews and a written questionnaire. Data analysis involved the use of grounded theory methods including memo writing, open and axial coding, constant comparison, the use of purposive and theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation of categories. Three broad philosophy of technology views were widely held by participants: an instrumental view of technology, technological optimism, and a technological determinist perspective that saw technological change as inevitable. Technology leaders were guided by two main approaches to technology decision making, represented by the categories Educational goals and curriculum should drive technology, and Keep up with technology (or be left behind. The core category and central phenomenon that emerged was that technology leaders approached technology leadership by placing greater emphasis on keeping up with technology, being influenced by an ideological orientation to technological change, and being concerned about preparing students for a technological future. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160252

  9. Professional Socialization of Iranian BSN Students: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Peyrovi, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2017-12-01

    Introduction: Professional socialization is a critical aspect of nursing students' development, which begins with entry into the nursing program and continues when their professional practice begins. The aim of this study was to explore the socialization of Iranian BSN students in the nursing profession. Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach utilizing Straussian version of the grounded theory (1998) method was used. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 participants chosen from two large nursing schools in an urban area through purposive and theoretical sampling. The data were analyzed, using the constant comparative method. Results: Five main categories and eleven subcategories emerged and integrated around one core category. Professional metamorphosis as the core variable was a complex and interrelated process (consisting of three stages: dependence, disintegration, and integration) with dynamic, ongoing, and personal features influenced by professional and extra-professional context. The students assumed a passive role in the initial of their studies. However, during the last year of the educational program, they gradually involved actively in dealing with own personal and professional issues. Conclusion: This study introduced "professional metamorphosis of BSN students" as a substantive grounded theory in the socio-cultural context of the health care system in Iran. During this process, students move from outsider personal position to insider professional position. The nurse educators and administrators may develop effective educational interventions to promote professional socialization of students with an understanding of the promoting and driving forces influencing socialization.

  10. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.

  12. Generalized uncertainty principle as a consequence of the effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, Korte Spinhuissteeg 3, 1012 CG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nassar, Ali, E-mail: anassar@zewailcity.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, 12588, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-02-10

    We will demonstrate that the generalized uncertainty principle exists because of the derivative expansion in the effective field theories. This is because in the framework of the effective field theories, the minimum measurable length scale has to be integrated away to obtain the low energy effective action. We will analyze the deformation of a massive free scalar field theory by the generalized uncertainty principle, and demonstrate that the minimum measurable length scale corresponds to a second more massive scale in the theory, which has been integrated away. We will also analyze CFT operators dual to this deformed scalar field theory, and observe that scaling of the new CFT operators indicates that they are dual to this more massive scale in the theory. We will use holographic renormalization to explicitly calculate the renormalized boundary action with counter terms for this scalar field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle, and show that the generalized uncertainty principle contributes to the matter conformal anomaly.

  13. Generalized uncertainty principle as a consequence of the effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Faizal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We will demonstrate that the generalized uncertainty principle exists because of the derivative expansion in the effective field theories. This is because in the framework of the effective field theories, the minimum measurable length scale has to be integrated away to obtain the low energy effective action. We will analyze the deformation of a massive free scalar field theory by the generalized uncertainty principle, and demonstrate that the minimum measurable length scale corresponds to a second more massive scale in the theory, which has been integrated away. We will also analyze CFT operators dual to this deformed scalar field theory, and observe that scaling of the new CFT operators indicates that they are dual to this more massive scale in the theory. We will use holographic renormalization to explicitly calculate the renormalized boundary action with counter terms for this scalar field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle, and show that the generalized uncertainty principle contributes to the matter conformal anomaly.

  14. Principles of Economic Union. An Extension of John Rawls's Theory of Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article I uncover the principles of justice by which an economic union is to be constituted. For this purpose I extend John Rawls’s constructivist theory of justice to economically integrated societies. With regard to the principles I defend a twofold claim. First, the principles of economic

  15. Principles of General Systems Theory: Some Implications for Higher Education Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Martha W.; Gilliland, J. Richard

    1978-01-01

    Three principles of general systems theory are presented and systems theory is distinguished from systems analysis. The principles state that all systems tend to become more disorderly, that they must be diverse in order to be stable, and that only those maximizing their resource utilization for doing useful work will survive. (Author/LBH)

  16. Grounded theory, a kvalitatív kutatás klasszikus mérföldköve (Grounded theory, the classic milestone of qualitative research)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitev, Ariel Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    A grounded theory olyan kutatási módszer, ahol az elmélet az empirikus adatokból fejlődik ki és abban gyökerezik (Glaser - Strauss, 1967). Annak ellenére, hogy a módszer nemzetközileg rendkívül népszerű, a grounded theory nem igazán vert gyökeret a hazai menedzsment- és marketingkutatás talajában. A cikk célja a grounded theory kulcsfontosságú mozzanatainak bemutatása és a módszer népszerűsítése. / === / Grounded theory is a research method in which theory emerges from the data and is grounde...

  17. A critique of the principle of 'respect for autonomy', grounded in African thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kevin G

    2017-05-03

    I give an account how the principle of 'respect for autonomy' dominates the field of bioethics, and how it came to triumph over its competitors, 'respect for persons' and 'respect for free power of choice'. I argue that 'respect for autonomy' is unsatisfactory as a basic principle of bioethics because it is grounded in too individualistic a worldview, citing concerns of African theorists and other communitarians who claim that the principle fails to acknowledge the fundamental importance of understanding persons within the nexus of their communal relationships. I defend the claim that 'respect for persons' is a more appropriate principle, as it is able to acknowledge both individual decision making and the essential relationality of persons. I acknowledge that my preference for 'respect for persons' is problematic because of the important debate around the definition of 'personhood' in bioethics discourse. Relying on Thaddeus Metz's conception of moral status, I propose a relational definition of personhood that distinguishes between persons with agency and persons without agency, arguing that we have different moral obligations to these distinct categories of persons. I claim that this conception of personhood is better able to accommodate our moral intuitions than conventional approaches, and that it is able to do so without being speciesist or question-begging. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. First-Principles Propagation of Geoelectric Fields from Ionosphere to Ground using LANLGeoRad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C. A.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Henderson, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    A notable deficiency in the current SW forecasting chain is the propagation of geoelectric fields from ionosphere to ground using Biot-Savart integrals, which ignore the localized complexity of lithospheric electrical conductivity and the relatively high conductivity of ocean water compared to the lithosphere. Three-dimensional models of Earth conductivity with mesoscale spatial resolution are being developed, but a new approach is needed to incorporate this information into the SW forecast chain. We present initial results from a first-principles geoelectric propagation model call LANLGeoRad, which solves Maxwell's equations on an unstructured geodesic grid. Challenges associated with the disparate response times of millisecond electromagnetic propagation and 10-second geomagnetic fluctuations are highlighted, and a novel rescaling of the ionosphere/ground system is presented that renders this geoelectric system computationally tractable.

  19. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses’ Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun M. Aldiabat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.

  20. Empathy from the client's perspective: A grounded theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Peter; Anderson, Timothy; McClintock, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    Although empathy is one of most robust predictors of client outcome, there is little consensus about how best to conceptualize this construct. The aim of the present research was to investigate clients' perceptions and in-session experiences of empathy. Semi-structured, video-assisted interpersonal process recall interviews were used to collect data from nine clients receiving individual psychotherapy at a university psychology clinic. Grounded theory analysis yielded a model consisting of three clusters: (1) relational context of empathy (i.e., personal relationship and professional relationship), (2) types of empathy (i.e., psychotherapists' cognitive empathy, psychotherapists' emotional empathy, and client attunement to psychotherapist), and (3) utility of empathy (i.e., process-related benefits and client-related benefits). These results suggest that empathy is a multi-dimensional, interactional process that affects-and is affected by-the broader relationship between client and psychotherapist.

  1. Grounded Theory Method: Sociology's Quest for Exclusive Items of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Tolhurst

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The genesis and development of grounded theory method (GTM is evaluated with reference to sociology's attempt to demarcate exclusive referents of inquiry. The links of objectivist GTM to positivistic terminology and to the natural scientific distinction from "common sense" are explored. It is then considered how the biological sciences have prompted reorientation towards constructivist GTM, underpinned by the metaphysics of social constructionism. GTM has been shaped by the endeavor to attain the sense of exactitude associated with positivism, whilst also seeking exclusive referents of inquiry that are distinct from the empirical realm of the natural sciences. This has generated complex research techniques underpinned by tortuous methodological debate: eschewing the perceived requirement to define and defend an academic niche could help to facilitate the development of a more useful and pragmatic orientation to qualitative social research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203261

  2. Becoming an Older Volunteer: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Witucki Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers.

  3. Becoming an Older Volunteer: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witucki Brown, Janet; Chen, Shu-li; Mefford, Linda; Brown, Allie; Callen, Bonnie; McArthur, Polly

    2011-01-01

    This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category) for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers. PMID:21994824

  4. A Grounded Theory of Political Intelligentizing in Business Administration

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    Annabel-Mauve Adjognon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of business administration using the classic grounded theory method. Business administration is mostly driven by political games between top-level corporate managers. The main concern of the managers I met was that they wanted to be more politically successful. For them, success meant being able to change regularly the course of decisions and action within their firm. The study led to the emergence of a core variable called political intelligentizing. Political intelligentizing explains the recurrent main concern that these managers have to resolve, and it explains the competences managers have to combine to succeed regularly in organisational politics. They resolve their main problem through political intelligentizing which consists in acquiring, developing and combining six specific skills: time matching, rhetorical fitting, silence juggling, strategic forward-thinking, strategic interacting and relationing.

  5. Are There Two Methods of Grounded Theory? Demystifying the Methodological Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheri Ann Hernandez, RN, Ph.D., CDE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is an inductive research method for the generation of substantive or formal theory, using qualitative or quantitative data generated from research interviews, observation, or written sources, or some combination thereof (Glaser & Strauss, 1967. In recent years there has been much controversy over the etiology of its discovery, as well as, the exact way in which grounded theory research is to be operationalized. Unfortunately, this situation has resulted in much confusion, particularly among novice researchers who wish to utilize this research method. In this article, the historical, methodological and philosophical roots of grounded theory are delineated in a beginning effort to demystify this methodological debate. Grounded theory variants such as feminist grounded theory (Wuest, 1995 or constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 1990 are beyond the scope of this discussion.

  6. The Youth and Experience of Traffic Accidents (Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed-Muhammad-Hossein Javadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are among major causes of death all over the world. In Iran, it has become a social problem, with lots of people involved in; and the youth include the most victims of traffic accidents. Objectives: The main objective of this research is to review the experience of the youth (18–24 years old in Tehran, Iran with traffic accidents, and to develop a model to specify the factors. Methods: This study is based on Grounded Theory, in which a sample group of 50 young people, 18–24 years old, in Tehran, Iran, were selected and interviewed, using stratified purposive and snowball sampling method. Data is mainly collected by interviewing the youth in 7 key topics. To analyze the data, Grounded Theory is used through production of themes, components and concepts. Results: There are 11 general components for traffic accidents according to the ideas of the youth which will come in 3 categories including: individual factors (emotions, sensory-motor skills, and physical-mental health; environmental factors (road and traffic problems, a companion, using cellphone, or front individual, including carless drivers or passersby; and underlying factors (gender, legal and cultural infrastructures. And finally, the core category of carelessness, which is the leading cause in traffic accidents.    Conclusion: The findings indicate that a chain of various factors may cause traffic accidents with lots of devastating consequences. It is therefore necessary to modify driving culture, to internalize the attitude of caution, to use polyhedral strategies, and to apply them all correctly.

  7. Park Planning for Ageing Adults Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Dahl

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of understanding park planning issues and implementing planning strategies for ageing adults was the driving force for this study. Literature reviews have identified a variety of scholarly work from fields such as gerontology, psychology, sociology and economics, all of which provide valuable information regarding the special needs of ageing adults. Very few researchers, however, have investigated the leisure behaviours of older adults in outdoor recreation (Croskeys, Tinsley and Tinsley, 2002 and the use of grounded theory methodology has essentially been unexplored in this area. Ageing adults are projected to live more than 20 percent of their life in retirement (MRP, 1998, cited in Croskeys, Tinsley and Tinsley, 2002, allowing for an increased amount of discretionary time. This offers opportunities for ageing adults to participate in outdoor recreational activities and will undoubtedly increase their leisure time. However, with limited research in recreational needs and inclusion for older adults, it is difficult for park planners and administrators to meet the growing needs of this population. Therefore, this research is necessary in order to determine whether ageing adults are being accounted for in park and outdoor recreational planning. The objective of this study was to use grounded theory research methodology to identify and examine ageing adult needs in relation to outdoor leisure activities in a regional park setting. Ten Midwestern regional park visitors (aged 65-75 years old and four park employees were interviewed. Our research attempts to fill in the gaps between the perceptions of ageing park users and those of park planners, using a methodology that relies primarily on direct contact with park visitors.

  8. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  9. Is That a Real Theory or Did You Just Make It Up? Teaching Classic Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of this paper was derived from an incident I observed some years ago while accompanying a highly talented musician-songwriter friend to a performance. During a break, an audience member approached him to compliment the last song he had performed. He had written both the music and the lyrics to the song, one of many he had written. The audience member queried, “Is that a real song, or did you just make it up?” A touch amused, and not knowing whether he should be flattered or insulted, he politely replied, “It is a real song and I made it up.”This episode puts in mind a similar attitude in the social sciences that Glaser and Strauss (1967 noted, in which a small number of ’theoretical capitalists’ originate what are considered to be “real” theories and others are relegated to the role of “proletariat” testers. The means by which these theorists derived their theories remained largely mysterious. Unleashing proletariat testers was one of the chief rationales behind Glaser and Strauss’ development of grounded theory. It brought a democratic option into the social sciences that enabled anyone who learned the methodology to generate theory. The democratic ethos of the methodology may also have inadvertently unleashed an abundance of aspiring remodelers of the methodology, who unfortunately have eroded its primary purpose—to generate theories that are fully grounded in data rather than speculation or ideology.

  10. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  11. A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Nora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity.

  12. Developing a Guideline for Reporting and Evaluating Grounded Theory Research Studies (GUREGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Grimshaw-Aagaard, Søsserr Lone Smilla; Hansen, Carrinna

    2018-01-01

    theory research studies. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1: A structured literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Libraries, PsycInfo and SCOPUS to identify recommendations for reporting and evaluating grounded theory. Phase 2: A selective review of the methodological grounded theory...

  13. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  14. Convex integration theory solutions to the h-principle in geometry and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Spring, David

    1998-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive study of convex integration theory in immersion-theoretic topology. Convex integration theory, developed originally by M. Gromov, provides general topological methods for solving the h-principle for a wide variety of problems in differential geometry and topology, with applications also to PDE theory and to optimal control theory. Though topological in nature, the theory is based on a precise analytical approximation result for higher order derivatives of functions, proved by M. Gromov. This book is the first to present an exacting record and exposition of all of the basic concepts and technical results of convex integration theory in higher order jet spaces, including the theory of iterated convex hull extensions and the theory of relative h-principles. A second feature of the book is its detailed presentation of applications of the general theory to topics in symplectic topology, divergence free vector fields on 3-manifolds, isometric immersions, totally real embeddings, u...

  15. Challenges in combining different data sets during analysis when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-05-01

    To describe the challenges in combining two data sets during grounded theory analysis. The use of grounded theory in nursing research is common. It is a suitable method for studying human action and interaction. It is recommended that many alternative sources of data are collected to create as rich a dataset as possible. Data from interviews with people with diabetes (n=19) and their family members (n=19). Combining two data sets. When using grounded theory, there are numerous challenges in collecting and managing data, especially for the novice researcher. One challenge is to combine different data sets during the analysis. There are many methodological textbooks about grounded theory but there is little written in the literature about combining different data sets. Discussion is needed on the management of data and the challenges of grounded theory. This article provides a means for combining different data sets in the grounded theory analysis process.

  16. The argument of the principles in contemporary theory of law: An antipositivist plea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julián Suárez-Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of legal principles knows today a resonance unknown in other times of legal science and several authors have dedicated themselves to its formation, each of them giving important elements in its configuration. This article presents the characteristics of the contemporary theory of the principles and the contributions that the most important authors in the field gave to it. Furthermore, it shows how the theory of principles has been developed as an argument against the main thesis of legal positivism, the dominant legal culture until the second half of the twentieth century.

  17. Making Sense of Grounded Theory Approach: Implications for Medial Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Tavokol; S Torabi; AA Zeialoo

    2009-01-01

    This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided. 

  18. Making Sense of Grounded Theory Approach: Implications for Medial Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tavokol

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided. 

  19. Application of the principles of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociocultural theory by Vygotsky (1896-1934) is a theory that has become popular in educational practice in recent years. It is especially important in the instruction of children in the preschool level as it is most suitable for their development and learning, which is more of social interaction. This paper discussed the ...

  20. Reflecting on the challenges of choosing and using a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Kathleen; Tilki, Mary; Taylor, Georgina

    2014-11-01

    To explore three different approaches to grounded theory and consider some of the possible philosophical assumptions underpinning them. Grounded theory is a comprehensive yet complex methodology that offers a procedural structure that guides the researcher. However, divergent approaches to grounded theory present dilemmas for novice researchers seeking to choose a suitable research method. This is a methodology paper. This is a reflexive paper that explores some of the challenges experienced by a PhD student when choosing and operationalising a grounded theory approach. Before embarking on a study, novice grounded theory researchers should examine their research beliefs to assist them in selecting the most suitable approach. This requires an insight into the approaches' philosophical assumptions, such as those pertaining to ontology and epistemology. Researchers need to be clear about the philosophical assumptions underpinning their studies and the effects that different approaches will have on the research results. This paper presents a personal account of the journey of a novice grounded theory researcher who chose a grounded theory approach and worked within its theoretical parameters. Novice grounded theory researchers need to understand the different philosophical assumptions that influence the various grounded theory approaches, before choosing one particular approach.

  1. Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents, a non-technical introduction to the economic principles relevant for transport pricing design and analysis. We provide the basic rationale behind pricing of externalities, discuss why simple Pigouvian tax rules that equate charges to marginal external costs are not optimal in

  2. MBA theory and application of business and management principles

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the relevant subjects in the curriculum of an MBA program. Covering many different fields within business, this book is ideal for readers who want to prepare for a Master of Business Administration degree. It provides discussions and exchanges of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications in the business area.

  3. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  4. Maintaining Unity - relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes. A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recovery improvements. The support of relatives during older patients' trajectory is important. However, knowledge is needed on the relatives' pattern of behaviour to strengthen their involvement in fast-track treatment programmes. We used a Glaserian grounded theory approach based on a systematic generation of theory from data to explain the latent pattern of behaviour of relatives. Data were collected from 2010-2011 in orthopaedic wards at two Danish university hospitals and consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 postobservational interviews and five interviews. Seven relatives of patients over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved their main concern: preventing the patients from feeling alone. The relatives resolved their main concern through three interchangeable behavioural modes: Protecting Mode, by providing loving and respectful support; Substituting Mode, with practical and cognitive support; and an Adapting Mode, by trying to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rethinking presence: a grounded theory of nurses and teleconsultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David

    2017-10-01

    To develop a theory that offered an evidence-based insight into the use of teleconsultation by nurses. Teleconsultation is the use of video to facilitate real-time, remote interaction between healthcare practitioners and patients. Although its popularity is growing, there is little understanding of how teleconsultation impacts on the role of nurses. The study adopted a constructivist grounded theory method, supplemented by the use of Straussian analytical approaches. Using selective and theoretical approaches, registered nurses with experience of using video in health care were sampled. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews exploring experiences, knowledge and feelings surrounding teleconsultation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and subjected to three-stage, nonlinear manual analysis (open, axial and selective coding). Theoretical saturation occurred after 17 interviews. The core category identified from the data was 'nursing presence' Four subcategories of nursing presence were identified: operational, clinical, therapeutic and social. The degree to which presence could be achieved was dependent upon three influencing factors - enablers, constraints and compensation. Nurses provide different types of presence during teleconsultation, with the degree of presence dependent on specific characteristics of video-mediated communication. Where the use of video constrains the delivery of presence, nurses use a range of compensatory mechanisms to enhance patient care. Teleconsultation provides an innovative approach to enhancing the delivery of health care. This study provides nurses with insight into the impact of teleconsultation on their professional role, and an understanding of how best to use video-mediated communication to support patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  7. General fluid theories, variational principles and self-organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports two distinct but related advances: (1) The development and application of fluid theories that transcend conventional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), in particular, theories that are valid in the long-mean-free-path limit and in which pressure anisotropy, heat flow, and arbitrarily strong sheared flows are treated consistently. (2) The discovery of new pressure-confining plasma configurations that are self-organized relaxed states. (author)

  8. Scattering theory in quantum mechanics. Physical principles and mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrein, W.O.; Jauch, J.M.; Sinha, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    A contemporary approach is given to the classical topics of physics. The purpose is to explain the basic physical concepts of quantum scattering theory, to develop the necessary mathematical tools for their description, to display the interrelation between the three methods (the Schroedinger equation solutions, stationary scattering theory, and time dependence) to derive the properties of various quantities of physical interest with mathematically rigorous methods

  9. Reconceptualization of the Diffusion Process: An Application of Selected Principles from Modern Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Wayne

    A description of the communication behaviors in high innovation societies depends on the application of selected principles from modern systems theory. The first is the principle of equifinality which explains the activities of open systems. If the researcher views society as an open system, he frees himself from the client approach since society…

  10. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-04-28

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena.

  11. Staying married after stroke: a constructivist grounded theory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sharon; Keating, Norah C; Wilson, Donna M

    2017-10-01

    Marriages are one of the most powerful predictors of health and longevity, yet research in stroke has focused separately on survivors' experience of impairments and how spouses deal with caregiving. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to understand the key themes related to reconstruction or breakdown of marriages after stroke. In semi-structured interviews, 18 couples in long-term marriages discussed how their marriages were reconstructed or broke down after one member of the couple returned home after being hospitalized for a stroke. Constant comparison methods were used to compare the experiences of 12 couples in which both partners indicated their relationship was going well with 6 couples who either separated or remained in parallel marriages. Analysis revealed an overarching process of reconstructing compatible role-identities and three themes related to the reconstruction or breakdown of the marital identity: feeling overwhelmed, resolving conflict, and perceiving value in the marriage. Our findings highlight that marriages are contexts in which survivors and spouses can recalibrate their role-identities. Marriage relationships are not peripheral to survivors' and spouses' outcomes after stroke; rather, marriage is fundamental to the management of impairments and to the well-being of the couple.

  12. Recovery as a Lived Experience Discipline: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Recovery is government mandated and a core facet of mental health reform. However, Recovery implementation in this country (Australia) has been inhibited by a lack of education of, and understanding from, clinicians. A grounded theory study was undertaken to explore the potential and existing role of lived experience practitioners in assisting meaningful implementations of Recovery within the Australian mental health sector. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 people employed to work from a lived experience perspective. The findings suggest participants have experienced and observed significant barriers to the implementation of Recovery-focused practice while operating in lived experience roles. Three main issues emerged: (1) Recovery co-opted, (2) Recovery uptake, and (3) Recovery denial. For a genuine Recovery-focused mental health system to be developed, lived experience practitioners must be enabled to take their role as Recovery experts and leaders. Lived experience practitioners are the logical leaders of Recovery implementation due to their own internal experience and understandings of Recovery and the wider lived experience movement's development and championing of the concepts.

  13. The journey into fatherhood: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Liamtrirat, Saowanee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the process of transition into fatherhood for Thai men from childbirth to the postpartum period. Forty-one first-time Thai fathers were voluntarily recruited from two hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from December 2012 to June 2013. In-depth interviews were used to collect the data, which were analyzed based on grounded theory methodology. The basic social process that emerged as the core category was termed: "the journey into fatherhood." This process was divided into three phases: labor, delivery, and family beginning. Within this process, there were various situations, challenges, and pressures, which caused many changes of mood and feelings for the first-time fathers. Throughout this process, they applied various strategies to manage their concerns and needs, in order to develop into masterly fathers. Identifying the process of the journey into fatherhood provides nurses and midwives insight into the new fathers' experiences, which will enable them to be more sensitive, respectful, and effective caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. A grounded theory of bisexual individuals' experiences of help seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret; Pinder, Sarah; Ross, Lori E

    2017-01-01

    Bisexual people constitute the largest sexual minority group in North America and experience significant mental health disparities in relation to heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians. In this article, we will examine the process and experience of help seeking among bisexuals. This was a community-based study that collected qualitative interview data from 41 diverse bisexual people from across Ontario, Canada. We analyzed the interview data using grounded theory and constructed an understanding of bisexuals' experiences of help seeking. We have conceptualized an overarching model that illustrates 4 interrelated stages: (a) the consideration of services, (b) the process of finding services, (c) barriers and facilitators to accessing services, and (d) experience of service utilization. This model is nonlinear, in that participants do not necessarily move through stages in sequence. Although many stages are experienced at the individual level, they are simultaneously informed by multiple factors at interpersonal and system levels. Our findings suggest a need for interventions at the policy, service and provider levels to improve accessibility of culturally competent services for this population. Understanding the mental health experiences of bisexual people will allow mental health professionals to build competencies working with this population and thereby contribute to a reduction in mental health disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  16. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent Perspectives Following Ostomy Surgery: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lynn D; Hamilton, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical account of how adolescents aged 13 to 18 years process the experience of having an ostomy. Qualitative study using grounded theory design. The sample comprised of 12 English-speaking adolescents aged 13-18 years: 10 with an ostomy and 2 with medical management of their disease. Respondents completed audio-recorded interviews that were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred. Dedoose, a Web-based qualitative methods management tool, was used to capture major themes arising from the data. Study results indicate that for adolescents between 13 and 18 years of age, processing the experience of having an ostomy includes concepts of the "physical self" and "social self" with the goal of "normalizing." Subcategories of physical self include (a) changing reality, (b) learning, and (c) adapting. Subcategories of social self include (a) reentering and (b) disclosing. This study sheds light on how adolescents process the experience of having an ostomy and how health care providers can assist adolescents to move through the process to get back to their desired "normal" state. Health care providers can facilitate the adolescent through the ostomy experience by being proactive in conversations not only about care issues but also about school and family concerns and spirituality. Further research is needed in understanding how parents process their adolescents' ostomy surgery experience and how spirituality assists adolescents in coping and adjustment with body-altering events.

  18. [A Grounded Theory Approach on Nurses' Experience with Workplace Bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.

  19. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.

  20. Becoming empowered: a grounded theory study of Aboriginal women's agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Roxanne

    2011-07-01

    The study aim was to identify the process underlying the performance of agency for urban-dwelling Aboriginal women in contemporary Australian society with a view to promoting social change for Aboriginal people. Grounded theory methods were used in the conduct of 20 life history narrative interviews with Aboriginal women from across fourteen different language groups. Analysis identified a specific ecological model of Aboriginal women's empowerment, defined as "becoming empowered". "Performing Aboriginality" was identified as the core category and encompassed the women's concern for carving out a fulfilling life and carrying out their perceived responsibilities as Aboriginal women. While confirming much of the extant literature on empowerment, the analysis also offered unique contributions--a spiritual sensibility, cultural competence and an ethics of care and morality. This sheds new light on the creative ways in which Aboriginal women "disrupt" discourses and create alternate modes of existence. The findings have implications for improving quality of life for Aboriginal people by informing the practical development and delivery of social and health policies and programs.

  1. Quantum theory and statistical thermodynamics principles and worked examples

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents a concise yet detailed introduction to quantum physics. Concise, because it condenses the essentials to a few principles. Detailed, because these few principles –  necessarily rather abstract – are illustrated by several telling examples. A fairly complete overview of the conventional quantum mechanics curriculum is the primary focus, but the huge field of statistical thermodynamics is covered as well. The text explains why a few key discoveries shattered the prevailing broadly accepted classical view of physics. First, matter appears to consist of particles which, when propagating, resemble waves. Consequently, some observable properties cannot be measured simultaneously with arbitrary precision. Second, events with single particles are not determined, but are more or less probable. The essence of this is that the observable properties of a physical system are to be represented by non-commuting mathematical objects instead of real numbers.  Chapters on exceptionally simple, but h...

  2. A Grounded Theory of Moral Reckoning in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita K. Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Moral distress is a pervasive problem in nursing, contributing to nurses’ emotional and physical health problems, loss of nurses’ ethical integrity,dissatisfaction with the work of nursing, and loss of nurses from the workforce. The purpose of this research was twofold: 1 to further elucidate the experiences and consequences of professional nurses’ moral distress and 2 to formulate a logical, systematic, and explanatory theory of moral distress and its consequences. METHOD: This Glaserian grounded theory study utilizedvolunteer and purposive sampling to recruit 21 registered nurses. Analysis of the data resulted in an original substantive theory of moral reckoning in nursing, which reaches further than the concept of moral distress, identifying a critical juncture in nurses’ lives and better explaining a process that affects nurses and the health care that they deliver. Results: Moral reckoning in nursing consists of a three-stage process. After a novice period, the nurse experiences a Stage of Ease in which there is comfort in the workplace and congruence of internal and external values. Unexpectedly, a situational bind occurs in which the nurse’s core beliefs come into irreconcilable conflict with social norms. This forces the nurse out of the Stage of Ease into the Stage of Resolution, in which the nurseeither gives up or makes a stand. The nurse then moves into the Stage of Reflection in which beliefs, values, and actions are iteratively examined. The nurse tries to make sense of experiences through remembering, telling the story, examining conflicts, and living with the consequences. Implications: In today’s complex health care system, nurses find themselves faced with morally troubling situations which if not resolved can lead to serious consequences for nurses, patients, and the health care system as a whole. This study sets the stage for further investigation on the human consequences of moral distress. Further, since moral

  3. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  4. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  5. Dissemination of an innovative mastery learning curriculum grounded in implementation science principles: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Kristopaitis, Theresa; Wayne, Diane B

    2015-11-01

    Dissemination of a medical education innovation, such as mastery learning, from a setting where it has been used successfully to a new and different medical education environment is not easy. This article describes the uneven yet successful dissemination of a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum on central venous catheter (CVC) insertion for internal medicine and emergency medicine residents across medical education settings. The dissemination program was grounded in implementation science principles. The article begins by describing implementation science which addresses the mechanisms of medical education and health care delivery. The authors then present a mastery learning case study in two phases: (1) the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SBML CVC curriculum at a tertiary care academic medical center; and (2) the dissemination of the SBML CVC curriculum to an academic community hospital setting. Contextual information about the drivers and barriers that affected the SBML CVC curriculum dissemination is presented. This work demonstrates that dissemination of mastery learning curricula, like all other medical education innovations, will fail without active educational leadership, personal contacts, dedication, hard work, rigorous measurement, and attention to implementation science principles. The article concludes by presenting a set of lessons learned about disseminating an SBML CVC curriculum across different medical education settings.

  6. Measurement Invariance: A Foundational Principle for Quantitative Theory Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes why measurement invariance is a critical issue to quantitative theory building within the field of human resource development. Readers will learn what measurement invariance is and how to test for its presence using techniques that are accessible to applied researchers. Using data from a LibQUAL+[TM] study of user…

  7. Applying Cognitive Load Theory Principles to Library Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Kathleen E.

    2017-01-01

    If the goal of library instructional guidance is to provide students with the knowledge needed to acquire new skills in order to accomplish their learning objectives, then it is prudent to consider factors that impact learning. Cognitive load theory addresses several of these factors and is applicable to a wide-range of instructional devices used…

  8. How to do a grounded theory study: a worked example of a study of dental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbaraini, Alexandra; Carter, Stacy M; Evans, R Wendell; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2011-09-09

    Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Grounded theory is the methodology most-often cited by authors of qualitative studies in medicine, but it has been suggested that many 'grounded theory' studies are not concordant with the methodology. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice. We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.

  9. A Novel Method of Enhancing Grounded Theory Memos with Voice Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Rachel; Close, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the recent discovery of a novel method of supplementing written grounded theory memos with voice recording, the combination of which may provide significant analytical advantages over solely the traditional written method. Memo writing is an essential component of a grounded theory study, however it is often…

  10. How to do a grounded theory study: a worked example of a study of dental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Grounded theory is the methodology most-often cited by authors of qualitative studies in medicine, but it has been suggested that many 'grounded theory' studies are not concordant with the methodology. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Methods We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice. Results We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. Conclusions By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.

  11. Two new proofs of the test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1975-12-01

    The test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory is discussed in relation to the recent theory of two-time fluctuations in plasma given by Williams and Oberman. Both a new deductive and a new inductive proof of the principle are presented. The fundamental observation is that two-time expectations of one-body operators are determined completely in terms of the (x,v) phase space density autocorrelation, which to lowest order in the discreteness parameter obeys the linearized Vlasov equation with singular initial condition. For the deductive proof, this equation is solved formally using time-ordered operators, and the solution then rearranged into the superposition principle. The inductive proof is simpler than Rostoker's, although similar in some ways; it differs in that first order equations for pair correlation functions need not be invoked. It is pointed out that the superposition principle is also applicable to the short-time theory of neutral fluids

  12. Growing into teen fatherhood: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uengwongsapat, C; Kantaruksa, K; Klunklin, A; Sansiriphun, N

    2018-06-01

    Becoming an adolescent father is a significant and critical life event. Expectant fathers are faced with a concurrent dual developmental crisis: being an adolescent and becoming a father. This transition has a tremendous impact on these adolescents, their families and society. The impact on these individuals and society does not, at this point, seem to be clearly understood. To explore the process of Thai adolescents becoming first-time fathers with an unplanned pregnancy during their girlfriend's pregnancy. A grounded theory approach was used, drawing upon semi-structured interviews with 16 expectant fathers in Chiang Mai, Thailand. 'Growing into teen fatherhood' was the basic social process that emerged as the core category. These fathers used this process for developing themselves to fatherhood. This process was further divided into three phases: enduring the conflict of future role, accepting impending fatherhood and developing a sense of being teen expectant father. Throughout this process, the participants encountered many conflicts and challenges. They employed various strategies to manage the emotional, financial and interpersonal challenges they faced during the transition to fatherhood. This study provides data as well as anecdotal evidence for healthcare professionals to better understand adolescent fathers and their unique challenges during their girlfriend's pregnancy. A better understanding of these rich findings will enable healthcare professionals to assist young men and boys in their struggle to transition to fatherhood. Our data may guide policymakers in developing support groups, effective mentoring programs and national follow-up services as standard services in hospitals' care for first-time adolescent fathers in Thailand. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Grounded Theory and Pragmatism: The Curious Case of Anselm Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Bryant

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sir Arthur CONAN DOYLE's stories featuring Sherlock Holmes are justly famous the world over. In The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (1993 one story entitled Silver Blaze contains an exchange between Holmes and a Scotland Yard detective as follows: Gregory (Scotland Yard detective: "Is there any other point to which you would wish to draw my attention?" Holmes: "To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time." Gregory: "The dog did nothing in the night-time." Holmes: "That was the curious incident." In similar fashion I wish to draw attention to the curious case of Anselm STRAUSS: There is already a good deal of work pointing to the continuities between the Grounded Theory Method (GTM and the Pragmatism of John DEWEY and Charles PEIRCE. This has usually focused on Anselm STRAUSS with his Chicago-influenced Pragmatist background, although STRAUSS himself never articulated the way in which Pragmatism informed or could be brought to bear on the method as it evolved from the 1960s onwards. This paper argues that many of the contentious issues surrounding GTM can be resolved if they are understood against the context of some of the core tenets of Pragmatism, particularly the ways in which some of the more recent Pragmatists such as Richard RORTY have brought them back as a focus of attention. In so doing is raises the question of why, given his intellectual background and formation, Anselm STRAUSS did so little to bring Pragmatist ideas into GTM in its later embodiments and extended statements. That is the "curious incident" to which specific attention is drawn at several points in what follows; it remains a perplexing one, with perhaps no convincing solution, unlike the Sherlock Holmes mystery alluded to above. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090325

  14. Living with coeliac disease: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C; Howard, R

    2014-02-01

    Coeliac disease can be controlled only through adherence to a gluten-free diet. This diet is highly restrictive and can be challenging to maintain. It has been linked with elevated levels of psychological distress, including depression, anxiety and social phobia. Narratives on living with coeliac disease were written by 130 adult members of Coeliac UK (mean age 52.7 years; mean time since diagnosis 10.2 years; 67% sample female; 28% male). Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods identified five key categories: living with widespread ignorance; social invisibility; creating a coeliac community; a changed identity; grief - and accepting the trade-off. A psychosocial model of living with coeliac disease was constructed from the findings, the central category of which was the changed identity of those diagnosed with the condition. Grief was experienced in relation to a loss of the former diet, changed personal and social identities, loss of social confidence and loss of social activities. Grief was generally mitigated over time as adjustments were made to changes in identity and lifestyle. Creating (or becoming part of) a coeliac community was a strategy enabling those with coeliac disease to re-establish their identities and increase social recognition and acceptance of the condition. Gluten-free living entails a substantial restriction of food choice. The losses and changes entailed impact on the personal and social identities of those living with coeliac disease, and on the behaviour of others towards them. Psychosocial interventions focussed on facilitating coping and adjustment may benefit those experiencing difficulties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. How Dentists Read a Technique Article: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W; Lyon, Lucinda J

    2017-12-01

    To conduct an empirical investigation using qualitative techniques of the way dentists engage in the process of reading a technique-oriented journal article and what they pay attention to in the process. Grounded theory was used to identify how dentists read an article describing the fabrication of an interim prosthesis in the esthetic zone. Twenty-one experienced practitioners were videotaped, and their verbatim reflections were coded. The sequence of attending to various features of the paper was noted. Ninety-five percent of readers voiced specific, multiple attempts to identify or refine the main purpose of the article as they processed the material. All readers engaged in various activities to navigate through the article, including skipping and backtracking, and none "read" the article straight through. All readers also made repeated observations about the relevance of the technique to their personal practice situation. Eighty percent used some form of "distancing," whereby the content and value of the article were accepted, but the reader reserved the privilege of not being bound by the results because of technical, sponsorship, or methodological issues that "might be present." The quality of photographs was accepted as a proxy for the quality of technical work performed. Dentists actively customized the reading of a journal article that described a technical procedure. They imposed a non-linear structure for absorbing information and a standard of personal relevance, and, while accepting the results, created reasons for not necessarily having to accept them as applicable. The approach clinicians use in reading a procedural article may be different from the structure writers use in preparing a paper. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Detailed balance principle and finite-difference stochastic equation in a field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhamkulov, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    A finite-difference equation, which is a generalization of the Langevin equation in field theory, has been obtained basing upon the principle of detailed balance for the Markov chain. Advantages of the present approach as compared with the conventional Parisi-Wu method are shown for examples of an exactly solvable problem of zero-dimensional quantum theory and a simple numerical simulation

  17. Principle of detailed balance and the finite-difference stochastic equation in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhamkulov, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principle of detailed balance for the Markov chain is used to obtain a finite-difference equation which generalizes the Langevin equation in field theory. The advantages of using this approach compared to the conventional Parisi-Wu method are demonstrated for the examples of an exactly solvable problem in zero-dimensional quantum theory and a simple numerical simulation

  18. Dignity realization of patients with stroke in hospital care: A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannikko, Sunna; Stolt, Minna; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Dignity is seen as an important but complex concept in the healthcare context. In this context, the discussion of dignity includes concepts of other ethical principles such as autonomy and privacy. Patients consider dignity to cover individuality, patient's feelings, communication, and the behavior of healthcare personnel. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the realization of patients' dignity in hospital care and the focus of the study is therefore on the realization of dignity of the vulnerable group of patients with stroke. The aim of the study was to create a theoretical construct to describe the dignity realization of patients with stroke in hospital care. Research design and participants: Patients with stroke (n = 16) were interviewed in 2015 using a semi-structured interview containing open questions concerning dignity. The data were analyzed using constant comparison of Grounded Theory. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval for the research was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the University. The permission for the research was given by the hospital. Informed consent was obtained from participants. The "Theory of Dignity Realization of Patients with Stroke in Hospital Care" consists of a core category including generic elements of the new situation and dignity realization types. The core category was identified as "Dignity in a new situation" and the generic elements as health history, life history, individuality and stroke. Dignity of patients with stroke is realized through specific types of realization: person-related dignity type, control-related dignity type, independence-related dignity type, social-related dignity type, and care-related dignity type. The theory has similar elements with the previous literature but the whole construct is new. The theory reveals possible special characteristics in dignity realization of patients with stroke. For healthcare personnel, the theory provides a frame for a better understanding and

  19. A Personal Journey with Grounded Theory Methodology. Kathy Charmaz in Conversation With Reiner Keller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Charmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kathy CHARMAZ is one of the most important thinkers in grounded theory methodology today. Her trailblazing work on constructivist grounded theory continues to inspire research across many disciplines and around the world. In this interview, she reflects on the aura surrounding qualitative inquiry that existed in California in the late 1960s to early 1970s and the lessons she learned from her first forays into empirical research. She comments on the trajectory that grounded theory research has followed since then and gives an account of her own perspective on constructivist grounded theory. In doing so, she underlines the importance of the Chicago School and symbolic interactionist tradition for grounded theory research work today and shows where the latter is positioned in the current field of qualitative fieldwork. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1601165

  20. Directionality Theory and the Entropic Principle of Natural Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Gundlach, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Darwinian fitness describes the capacity of an organism to appropriate resources from the environment and to convert these resources into net-offspring production. Studies of competition between related types indicate that fitness is analytically described by entropy, a statistical measure which is positively correlated with population stability, and describes the number of accessible pathways of energy flow between the individuals in the population. Directionality theory is a mathematical mo...

  1. On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state ...

  2. Novice to expert practice via postprofessional athletic training education: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neibert, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    To discover the theoretic constructs that confirm, disconfirm, or extend the principles and their applications appropriate for National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA)-accredited postprofessional athletic training education programs. Interviews at the 2003 NATA Annual Meeting & Clinical Symposia. Qualitative study using grounded theory procedures. Thirteen interviews were conducted with postprofessional graduates. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open coding, axial coding, and selective coding procedures. Member checks, reflective journaling, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. The participants' comments confirmed and extended the current principles of postprofessional athletic training education programs and offered additional suggestions for more effective practical applications. The emergence of this central category of novice to expert practice is a paramount finding. The tightly woven fabric of the 10 processes, when interlaced with one another, provides a strong tapestry supporting novice to expert practice via postprofessional athletic training education. The emergence of this theoretic position pushes postprofessional graduate athletic training education forward to the future for further investigation into the theoretic constructs of novice to expert practice.

  3. Approach to the nonrelatiVistic scattering theory based on the causality superposition and unitarity principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajnutdinov, R.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    Possibility is studied to build the nonrelativistic scattering theory on the base of the general physical principles: causality, superposition, and unitarity, making no use of the Schroedinger formalism. The suggested approach is shown to be more general than the nonrelativistic scattering theory based on the Schroedinger equation. The approach is applied to build a model ofthe scattering theory for a system which consists of heavy nonrelativistic particles and a light relativistic particle

  4. Weak principle of equivalence and gauge theory of tetrad aravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunyak, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that, unlike the tetrade formulation of the general relativity theory derived from the requirement on the Poincare group localization, the tetrade gravitation theory corresponding to the Trader formulation of the weak equivalence principle, where the nongravitational-matter Lagrangian is the direct covariant generalization of the partial relativistic expression on the Riemann space-time is incompatible with the known method for deriving the calibration theory of the tetrade gravitation field

  5. Principles of hyperplasticity an approach to plasticity theory based on thermodynamic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Houlsby, Guy T

    2007-01-01

    A new approach to plasticity theory firmly routed in and compatible with the laws of thermodynamicsProvides a common basis for the formulation and comparison of many existing plasticity modelsIncorporates and introduction to elasticity, plasticity, thermodynamics and their interactionsShows the reader how to formulate constitutive models completely specified by two scalar potential functions from which the incremental responses of any hyperplastic model can be derived.

  6. Principle of equivalence and a theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelupsky, D.

    1985-01-01

    We examine a well-known thought experiment often used to explain why we should expect a ray of light to be bent by gravity; according to this the light bends downward in the gravitational field because this is just what an observer would see if there were no field and he were accelerating upward instead. We show that this description of the action of Newtonian gravity in a flat space-time corresponds to an old two-index symmetric tensor field theory of gravitation

  7. On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ground state overlap for sets of meson potential trial states is measured. → Non-uniform gluonic distributions are probed via Wilson loop operator. → The locally UV-regulated flux-tube operators can optimize the ground state overlap. - Abstract: We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.

  8. A grounded theory como abordagem metodológica: relatos de uma experiência de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Rezende Pinto

    2012-09-01

    principles. Secondly the field work that was done is described - in the manner of grounded theory – so as to investigate how the Brazilian consumers from the more popular classes live their experiences of consumers of electronic products. In the third and final section we present some refl ections on the practical requirements for the “operationalization” of research committed to the “spirit” of grounded theory, as well as the doubts, dilemmas, difficulties and anxieties experienced throughout the process research told by those who faced them.

  9. Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K H Vincent

    2014-03-01

    The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to

  10. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  11. On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.

  12. Classical field theory in the space of reference frames. [Space-time manifold, action principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, M [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita, Trento (Italy)

    1978-03-11

    The formalism of classical field theory is generalized by replacing the space-time manifold M by the ten-dimensional manifold S of all the local reference frames. The geometry of the manifold S is determined by ten vector fields corresponding to ten operationally defined infinitesimal transformations of the reference frames. The action principle is written in terms of a differential 4-form in the space S (the Lagrangian form). Densities and currents are represented by differential 3-forms in S. The field equations and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws (Noether's theorem) are derived from the action principle. Einstein's theory of gravitation and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism are reformulated in this language. The general formalism can also be used to formulate theories in which charge, energy and momentum cannot be localized in space-time and even theories in which a space-time manifold cannot be defined exactly in any useful way.

  13. Nurses' perceptions of leadership style in hospitals: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Fen; Jenkins, Mary; Liu, Po-Erh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the leadership style of hospital managers. Leadership has been widely studied in nursing from the perspective of nurses' psychological strain caused by nursing leadership. There is, however, little contained in the Western and Eastern literatures on the leadership style of hospital managers and certainly no study has explored managers' leadership style in Taiwanese hospitals from the nurses' stance. Grounded theory. A sample of 28 nurses from seven teaching hospitals in Taiwan, Republic of China was selected through theoretical sampling. A multi-step analytic procedure based on the grounded theory approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. The Chinese culture was found to affect the leadership style of Taiwanese hospital managers. They had extreme power and led nurses in a hierarchical manner. Nurse managers followed the autocratic leadership style of their hospital managers. The main category found in this study was thus hierarchical leadership. The Confucian principles of authoritarianism and obedience were found to be part of the Taiwanese hospitals' organisational cultures and strongly impacted on the managers' leadership style. Hospital managers' treatment of doctors and nurses was dependent on their social rankings. Nurses' lowly ranking fed into these enculturated managerial tendencies of using power and obedience thus increasing psychological strain on nurses. Managers of the hospitals demonstrate power and misuse obedience through their leadership style, resulting in deterioration of nurses' work environment. Nurses' managers are not given enough power by the hospitals in Taiwan. Subsequently, nurses feel themselves the lowest and most powerless subordinates. This study reveals that the Chinese cultural burdens are embedded in the leadership of Taiwanese hospitals. These findings enhance the knowledge of leadership and add to the understanding of managerial attitudes in Chinese hospitals located worldwide. © 2011 Blackwell

  14. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' - a constructivist grounded theory of surviving critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Susanne; Salisbury, Lisa G; Rattray, Janice; Walsh, Timothy S; Huby, Guro; Ramsay, Pamela

    2017-10-01

    To theorise intensive care unit survivorship after a critical illness based on longitudinal qualitative data. Increasingly, patients survive episodes of critical illness. However, the short- and long-term impact of critical illness includes physical, psychological, social and economic challenges long after hospital discharge. An appreciation is emerging that care needs to extend beyond critical illness to enable patients to reclaim their lives postdischarge with the term 'survivorship' being increasingly used in this context. What constitutes critical illness survivorship has, to date, not been theoretically explored. Longitudinal qualitative and constructivist grounded theory. Interviews (n = 46) with 17 participants were conducted at four time points: (1) before discharge from hospital, (2) four to six weeks postdischarge, (3) six months and (4) 12 months postdischarge across two adult intensive care unit setting. Individual face-to-face interviews. Data analysis followed the principles of Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' emerged as the core category and was theorised using concepts such as status passages, liminality and temporality to understand the various transitions participants made postcritical illness. Intensive care unit survivorship describes the unscheduled status passage of falling critically ill and being taken to the threshold of life and the journey to a life postcritical illness. Surviving critical illness goes beyond recovery; surviving means 'moving on' to life postcritical illness. 'Moving on' incorporates a redefinition of self that incorporates any lingering intensive care unit legacies and being in control of one's life again. For healthcare professionals and policymakers, it is important to realise that recovery and transitioning through to survivorship happen within an individual's time frame, not a schedule imposed by the healthcare system. Currently, there are no care pathways or policies in

  15. Basic equations of quasiparticle-phonon model of nucleus with account of Pauli principle and phonons interactions in ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, V.V.; Dang, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    the system of equations, enabling to calculate the energy and the structure of excited states, described by the wave function, containing one- and two-phon components was obtained in the framework of quasiparticlephonon model. The requirements of Pauli principle for two-phonon components and phonon correlation in the ground nucleus state are taken into account

  16. Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Phenomenology and Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha

    2015-08-01

    Qualitative methods such as phenomenology and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. A description and comparison of these methods. Phenomenology emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of phenomenology include life world, consciousness, phenomenological reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. There are differences in the philosophical approach, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the phenomenological method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. The use of grounded theory in studies of nurses and midwives' coping processes: a systematic literature search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheer, Karen; MacLaren, David; Tsey, Komla

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using grounded theory methodologies to study the professional experience of nurses and midwives. To review common grounded theory characteristics and research design quality as described in grounded theory studies of coping strategies used by nurses and midwives. A systematic database search for 2005-2015 identified and assessed grounded theory characteristics from 16 studies. Study quality was assessed using a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Grounded theory was considered a methodology or a set of methods, able to be used within different nursing and midwifery contexts. Specific research requirements determined the common grounded theory characteristics used in different studies. Most researchers did not clarify their epistemological and theoretical perspectives. To improve research design and trustworthiness of grounded theory studies in nursing and midwifery, researchers need to state their theoretical stance and clearly articulate their use of grounded theory methodology and characteristics in research reporting.

  18. Useful variational principle for the scattering length for the target ground-state wave function imprecisely known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, R.; Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1977-01-01

    A minimum principle for the calculation of the scattering length, applicable when the ground-state wave function of the target system is known precisely, has been available for some time. When, as is almost always the case, the target wave function is imprecisely known, a minimum principle is available but the simple minimum principle noted above is not applicable. Further, as recent calculations show, numerical instabilities usually arise which severely limit the utility of even an ordinary variational approach. The difficulty, which can be traced to the appearance of singularities in the variational construction, is here removed through the introduction of a minimum principle, not for the true scattering length, but for one associated with a closely connected problem. This guarantees that no instability difficulties can arise as the trial scattering wave function and the trial target wave function are improved. The calculations are little different from those required when the target ground-state wave function is known, and, in fact, the original version of the minimum principle is recovered as the trial target wave function becomes exact. A careful discussion is given of the types of problems to which the method can be applied. In particular, the effects of the Pauli principle, and the existence of a finite number of composite bound states, can be accounted for

  19. An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the “hybrid equilibrium,” to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith’s Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory. PMID:26348617

  20. Minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery: A grounded theory on living with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillemor R.-M. Hallberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992. Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category. This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the “pain gaps” are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to “pain gaps”. This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of

  1. School District Superintendents' Response to Ethical Dilemmas: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Fay Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas, situations involving a conflict between values or principles, often arise when employees of school districts violate laws or professional codes of behavior. Ethical dilemmas also occur when there are inequities in educational programming, resulting in missed opportunities for students. This qualitative study, conducted with the…

  2. Novel theory of the human brain: information-commutation basis of architecture and principles of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhovetskiy AS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Center for Biomedical Technologies, Federal Research and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, NeuroVita Clinic of Interventional and Restorative Neurology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain, the author proposes a new theory of information-commutation organization and architecture of the human brain which is an alternative to the conventional systemic connective morphofunctional paradigm of the brain framework. Informational principles of brain operation are defined: the modular principle, holographic principle, principle of systematicity of vertical commutative connection and complexity of horizontal commutative connection, regulatory principle, relay principle, modulation principle, “illumination” principle, principle of personalized memory and intellect, and principle of low energy consumption. The author demonstrates that the cortex functions only as a switchboard and router of information, while information is processed outside the nervous tissue of the brain in the intermeningeal space. The main structural element of information-commutation in the brain is not the neuron, but information-commutation modules that are subdivided into receiver modules, transmitter modules, and subscriber modules, forming a vertical architecture of nervous tissue in the brain as information lines and information channels, and a horizontal architecture as central, intermediate, and peripheral information-commutation platforms. Information in information-commutation modules is transferred by means of the carriers that are characteristic to the specific information level from inductome to genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, secretome, and magnetome

  3. Quantum Field Theoretic Derivation of the Einstein Weak Equivalence Principle Using Emqg Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

    1999-01-01

    We provide a quantum field theoretic derivation of Einstein's Weak Equivalence Principle of general relativity using a new quantum gravity theory proposed by the authors called Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG (ref. 1). EMQG is based on a new theory of inertia (ref. 5) proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff (which we modified and called Quantum Inertia). Quantum Inertia states that classical Newtonian Inertia is a property of matter due to the strictly local electrical force ...

  4. Least action principle with unilateral constraints on the velocity in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaquiere, Augustin

    1981-01-01

    A least action principle with unilateral constraints on the velocity is applied to an example in the area of the special theory of relativity. Equations obtained for a particle with non-zero rest-mass, and speed c the speed of light, are those which are usually associated with the photon, namely: the equation of eikonale and the wave equation of d'Alembert. Extension of the theory [fr

  5. Satisfaction with College Major: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2015-01-01

    All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…

  6. A finite state, finite memory minimum principle, part 2. [a discussion of game theory, signaling, stochastic processes, and control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, N. R., Jr.; Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the theory of the finite - state, finite - memory (FSFM) stochastic control problem is discussed. The sufficiency of the FSFM minimum principle (which is in general only a necessary condition) was investigated. By introducing the notion of a signaling strategy as defined in the literature on games, conditions under which the FSFM minimum principle is sufficient were determined. This result explicitly interconnects the information structure of the FSFM problem with its optimality conditions. The min-H algorithm for the FSFM problem was studied. It is demonstrated that a version of the algorithm always converges to a particular type of local minimum termed a person - by - person extremal.

  7. The Experiential Model of the Person-Centred Record: a social constructionist grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mihelcic, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the co-creation of person-centred records, to support memory, identity and personhood, with the person diagnosed with early stage dementia. This thesis describes the design of a second generation grounded theory methodology and applied archival research. With its postmodern, continuum and social constructionist influences second generation grounded theory sees a shift in how we understand the researcher’s interaction with participants in a study...

  8. Supervision of Special Education Instruction in Rural Public School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Debora Ann

    2001-01-01

    The grounded theory presented in this study describes how the supervision of special education instruction occurs in public elementary schools in rural settings. Grounded theory methodology (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was employed in this study. Nine elementary schools in three rural districts in the state of Virginia participated in the study. Interview data were collected from 34 participants, including special and general education teachers, principals, and directors of special education. Obs...

  9. Resisting Coherence: Trans Men's Experiences and the Use of Grounded Theory Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2017-01-01

    In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…

  10. On the foundations of special theory of relativity - II. (The principle of covariance and a basic inertial frame)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, S.P.; Gulati, S.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt has been made to replace the principle of relativity with the principle of covariance. This amounts to modification of the theory of relativity based on the two postulates (i) the principle of covariance and (ii) the light principle. Some of the fundamental results and the laws of relativistic mechanics, electromagnetodynamics and quantum mechanics are re-examined. The principle of invariance is questioned. (A.K.)

  11. Kleinian singularities and the ground ring of c=1 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoshal, D.; Jatkar, D.P.; Mukhi, S.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the ground ring of c=1 string theory at the special ADE points in the c=1 moduli space associated to discrete subgroups of SU(2). The chiral ground rings at these points are shown to define the ADE series of singular varieties introduced by Klein. The non-chiral ground rings relevant to closed-string theory are 3 real dimensional singular varieties obtained as U(1) quotients of the kleinian varieties. The unbroken symmetries of the theory at these points are the volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of these varieties. The theory of kleinian singularities has a close relation to that of complex hyperKaehler surfaces, or gravitational instantons. We speculate on the relevance of these instantons and of self-dual gravity in c=1 string theory. (orig.)

  12. Variational principles are a powerful tool also for formulating field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Isola , Francesco; Placidi , Luca

    2012-01-01

    Variational principles and calculus of variations have always been an important tool for formulating mathematical models for physical phenomena. Variational methods give an efficient and elegant way to formulate and solve mathematical problems that are of interest for scientists and engineers and are the main tool for the axiomatization of physical theories

  13. Quantifying confidence in density functional theory predictions of magnetic ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchins, Gregory; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2017-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) simulations, at the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level, are being routinely used for material discovery based on high-throughput descriptor-based searches. The success of descriptor-based material design relies on eliminating bad candidates and keeping good candidates for further investigation. While DFT has been widely successfully for the former, oftentimes good candidates are lost due to the uncertainty associated with the DFT-predicted material properties. Uncertainty associated with DFT predictions has gained prominence and has led to the development of exchange correlation functionals that have built-in error estimation capability. In this work, we demonstrate the use of built-in error estimation capabilities within the BEEF-vdW exchange correlation functional for quantifying the uncertainty associated with the magnetic ground state of solids. We demonstrate this approach by calculating the uncertainty estimate for the energy difference between the different magnetic states of solids and compare them against a range of GGA exchange correlation functionals as is done in many first-principles calculations of materials. We show that this estimate reasonably bounds the range of values obtained with the different GGA functionals. The estimate is determined as a postprocessing step and thus provides a computationally robust and systematic approach to estimating uncertainty associated with predictions of magnetic ground states. We define a confidence value (c-value) that incorporates all calculated magnetic states in order to quantify the concurrence of the prediction at the GGA level and argue that predictions of magnetic ground states from GGA level DFT is incomplete without an accompanying c-value. We demonstrate the utility of this method using a case study of Li-ion and Na-ion cathode materials and the c-value metric correctly identifies that GGA-level DFT will have low predictability for NaFePO4F . Further, there

  14. Space Theory and Strategy: War From the High Ground Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    M.V. “COYOTE” SMITH (Date) __________________________________________ COLONEL TIMOTHY CULLEN (Date) iii...reader, Colonel Timothy Cullen , I would like to express my gratitude for the insightful suggestions to this work. To the ultimate sounding board... William L. Shelton, “Military Space: A Strategic Crossroad,” Air & Space Power Journal (September-October 2013): 5-6, War From the High Ground Down

  15. First-principles theory of inelastic currents in a scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Thirstrup, C.

    1998-01-01

    A first-principles theory of inelastic tunneling between a model probe tip and an atom adsorbed on a surface is presented, extending the elastic tunneling theory of Tersoff and Hamann. The inelastic current is proportional to the change in the local density of states at the center of the tip due...... to the addition of the adsorbate. We use the theory to investigate the vibrational heating of an adsorbate below a scanning tunneling microscopy tip. We calculate the desorption rate of PI from Si(100)-H(2 X 1) as a function of the sample bias and tunnel current, and find excellent a,agreement with recent...

  16. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients' understandings, experiences, and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Shane; Beamer, Kate; Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hagen, Neil A

    2017-05-01

    Compassion is considered an essential element in quality patient care. One of the conceptual challenges in healthcare literature is that compassion is often confused with sympathy and empathy. Studies comparing and contrasting patients' perspectives of sympathy, empathy, and compassion are largely absent. The aim of this study was to investigate advanced cancer patients' understandings, experiences, and preferences of "sympathy," "empathy," and "compassion" in order to develop conceptual clarity for future research and to inform clinical practice. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and then independently analyzed by the research team using the three stages and principles of Straussian grounded theory. Data were collected from 53 advanced cancer inpatients in a large urban hospital. Constructs of sympathy, empathy, and compassion contain distinct themes and sub-themes. Sympathy was described as an unwanted, pity-based response to a distressing situation, characterized by a lack of understanding and self-preservation of the observer. Empathy was experienced as an affective response that acknowledges and attempts to understand individual's suffering through emotional resonance. Compassion enhanced the key facets of empathy while adding distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responder, action, and small, supererogatory acts of kindness. Patients reported that unlike sympathy, empathy and compassion were beneficial, with compassion being the most preferred and impactful. Although sympathy, empathy, and compassion are used interchangeably and frequently conflated in healthcare literature, patients distinguish and experience them uniquely. Understanding patients' perspectives is important and can guide practice, policy reform, and future research.

  17. Balancing the Roles of a Family Medicine Residency Faculty: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Randall; Sudano, Laura; Siler, Anne; Trimble, Kristopher

    2016-05-01

    Great variety exists in the roles that family medicine residency faculty fill in the lives of their residents. A family medicine-specific model has never been created to describe and promote effective training relationships. This research aims to create a consensus model for faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation. Using a modified grounded theory methods, researchers conducted phone interviews with 22 key informants from US family medicine residencies. Data were analyzed to delineate faculty roles, common role conflicts, and ethical principles for avoiding and managing role conflicts. Key informants were asked to apply their experience and preferences to adapt an existing model to fit with family medicine residency settings. The primary result of this research is the creation of a family medicine-specific model that describes faculty roles and provides insight into how to manage role conflicts with residents. Primary faculty roles include Role Model, Advisor, Teacher, Supervisor, and Evaluator. Secondary faculty roles include Friendly Colleague, Wellness Supporter, and Helping Hand. The secondary roles exist on a continuum from disengaged to enmeshed. When not balanced, the secondary roles can detract from the primary roles. Differences were found between role expectations of physician versus behavioral science faculty and larger/university/urban residencies versus smaller/community/rural residencies. Diversity of opinion exists related to the types of roles that are appropriate for family medicine faculty to maintain with residents. This new model is a first attempt to build consensus in the field and has application to faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation.

  18. How patients with gout become engaged in disease management: a constructivist grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howren, Alyssa; Cox, Susan M; Shojania, Kam; Rai, Sharan K; Choi, Hyon K; De Vera, Mary A

    2018-06-01

    Prior qualitative research on gout has focused primarily on barriers to disease management. Our objective was to use patients' perspectives to construct an explanatory framework to understand how patients become engaged in the management of their gout. We recruited a sample of individuals with gout who were participating in a proof-of-concept study of an eHealth-supported collaborative care model for gout involving rheumatology, pharmacy, and dietetics. Semistructured interviews were used. We analyzed transcripts using principles of constructivist grounded theory involving initial coding, focused coding and categorizing, and theoretical coding. Twelve participants with gout (ten males, two females; mean age, 66.5 ± 13.3 years) were interviewed. The analysis resulted in the construction of three themes as well as a framework describing the dynamically linked themes on (1) processing the diagnosis and management of gout, (2) supporting management of gout, and (3) interfering with management of gout. In this framework, patients with gout transition between each theme in the process of becoming engaged in the management of their gout and may represent potential opportunities for healthcare intervention. Findings derived from this study show that becoming engaged in gout management is a dynamic process whereby patients with gout experience factors that interfere with gout management, process their disease and its management, and develop the practical and perceptual skills necessary to manage their gout. By understanding this process, healthcare providers can identify points to adapt care delivery and thereby improve health outcomes.

  19. The Relationship between an Emerging Grounded Theory and the Existing Literature: Four phases for consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grounded theory researchers and the existing literature has become a red herring that even confuses some grounded theorists who have completed a study. Antoinette McCallin’s essay does a commendable job outlining the realities of the research terrain that make proceeding without some exposure to the literature unlikely and ill-advised in most situations. When embarking on my dissertation, I needed to know enough about the literature, both substantive and methodological, to argue for the use of classic grounded theory as opposed to many other choices within my field; yet my study benefited from the necessary tensions between the emerging grounded theory and the existing literature. In this brief essay I propose that the relationship between the existing literature and a developing grounded theory project goes through four discernible phases:noncommittal, comparative, integrative, and, if the analyst can push, a transcendent phase in which the theory is not simply one of a number of theories of a kind within the discipline’s literature. I explain the phases to make more explicit the under-recognized subversive potential of grounded theory to push pass disciplinary boundaries by broadening the ‘relevant’ literature. Barney Glaser has often admonished grounded theory researchers to put off the literature to avoid wasting time and energy with literature that may prove irrelevant. I have not found such literature to be irrelevant as much as limited, and in some cases restricted by what a particular discipline defines as the appropriate literature. Therefore, the question of what literature offers possibilities for literature review and comparisons that would allow for richer knowledge generation. I return to this matter toward the end of the essay.

  20. Scenistic Methods in Training: Definitions and Theory Grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach. Design/methodology/approach: Presented is the definition of the concept of scenistic training along with the step-by-step details of the implementation of the approach. Scenistic methods,…

  1. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  2. A Grounded Theory of Community College Presidential Succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Travis P.

    The rate of turnover among community college chief executive officers (CEO's) is high, but the effects of administrator succession on organizational effectiveness has received little scholarly attention. To address this, a theory of community college CEO succession was derived from an analysis of case study data gathered at four locally governed…

  3. Common Ground of Two Paradigms: Incorporating Critical Theory into Current Art Therapy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…

  4. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  5. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  6. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  7. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of reconciling…

  8. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  9. Being There: A Grounded-Theory Study of Student Perceptions of Instructor Presence in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeler, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of experienced individual online students at a community college in Texas in order to generate a substantive theory of community college student perceptions of online instructor presence. This qualitative study used Active Interviewing and followed a Straussian grounded-theory design to…

  10. Working Together Toward a Common Goal: A Grounded Theory of Nurse-Physician Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewster-Thuente, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Working together toward a common goal is an empirically derived theory that can guide education and practice to improve patient outcomes while saving money and lives. Grounded theory was used to explore nurses' and physicians' experiences with collaboration in order to understand the process intrinsically.

  11. Is Birth Order Really Important in Peer Relationship? A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Kerem; Çikrikci, Özkan; Topkaya, Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a theory about the importance of peer relationship among the oldest of the youngest children who have finished preschool education and already started primary school. In the study, observation was employed to collect data from 22 children. The data were analysed through the grounded theory approach, in which data are…

  12. Kohn-Sham Theory for Ground-State Ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, C. A.; Kohn, W.

    2001-01-01

    An electron density distribution n(r) which can be represented by that of a single-determinant ground state of noninteracting electrons in an external potential v(r) is called pure-state v -representable (P-VR). Most physical electronic systems are P-VR. Systems which require a weighted sum of several such determinants to represent their density are called ensemble v -representable (E-VR). This paper develops formal Kohn-Sham equations for E-VR physical systems, using the appropriate coupling constant integration. It also derives local density- and generalized gradient approximations, and conditions and corrections specific to ensembles

  13. Physical principles, geometrical aspects, and locality properties of gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Gauge field theories, particularly Yang - Mills theories, are discussed at a classical level from a geometrical point of view. The introductory chapters are concentrated on physical principles and mathematical tools. The main part is devoted to locality problems in gauge field theories. Examples show that locality problems originate from two sources in pure Yang - Mills theories (without matter fields). One is topological and the other is related to the existence of degenerated field configurations of the infinitesimal holonomy groups on some extended region of space or space-time. Nondegenerate field configurations in theories with semisimple gauge groups can be analysed with the help of the concept of a local gauge. Such gauges play a central role in the discussion. (author)

  14. At the frontier of spacetime scalar-tensor theory, Bells inequality, Machs principle, exotic smoothness

    CERN Document Server

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In this book, leading theorists present new contributions and reviews addressing longstanding challenges and ongoing progress in spacetime physics. In the anniversary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, developed 100 years ago, this collection reflects the subsequent and continuing fruitful development of spacetime theories. The volume is published in honour of Carl Brans on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Carl H. Brans, who also contributes personally, is a creative and independent researcher and one of the founders of the scalar-tensor theory, also known as Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. In the present book, much space is devoted to scalar-tensor theories. Since the beginning of the 1990s, Brans has worked on new models of spacetime, collectively known as exotic smoothness, a field largely established by him. In this Festschrift, one finds an outstanding and unique collection of articles about exotic smoothness. Also featured are Bell's inequality and Mach's principle. Personal memories and hist...

  15. Two new proofs of the test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory is discussed in relation to the recent theory of two-time fluctuations in plasma given by Williams and Oberman. Both a new deductive and a new inductive proof of the principle are presented; the deductive approach appears here for the first time in the literature. The fundamental observation is that two-time expectations of one-body operators are determined completely in terms of the (x,v) phase space density autocorrelation, which to lowest order in the discreteness parameter obeys the linearized Vlasov equation with singular initial condition. For the deductive proof, this equation is solved formally using time-ordered operators, and the solution is then re-arranged into the superposition principle. The inductive proof is simpler than Rostoker's although similar in some ways; it differs in that first-order equations for pair correlation functions need not be invoked. It is pointed out that the superposition principle is also applicable to the short-time theory of neutral fluids

  16. Theories of the nuclear ground state beyond Hartree-Fock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.

    1979-01-01

    Intensive efforts have been invested toward defining a microscopic approach, simple enough to render feasible systematic calculations of nuclear structure and of the some time sufficiently rich in information as to serve for updating traditional microscopic approaches to the collective excitations. Our starting point is the mean field approximation with density dependent effective forces. To describe the collective excitations we use the two well known extensions based on the H.F. theory namely the random phase approximation and the adiabatic approximation to the time dependent Hartree-Fock theory. The purpose of this paper is to show what sort of calculations can be effectively carried out in the frame of such fully self consistent approaches. (KBE) 891 KBE/KBE 892 ARA

  17. Investigation of Employee Security Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly , Lena; Lang , Michael; Tygar , J. ,

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: Security Management and Human Aspects of Security; International audience; At a time of rapid business globalisation, it is necessary to understand employee security behaviour within diverse cultural settings. While general deterrence theory has been extensively used in Behavioural Information Security research with the aim to explain the effect of deterrent factors on employees’ security actions, these studies provide inconsistent and even contradictory findings. Therefore, a further...

  18. A Technique of Teaching the Principle of Equivalence at Ground Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrica, Joel V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents one way of demonstrating the Principle of Equivalence in the classroom. Teaching the Principle of Equivalence involves someone experiencing acceleration through empty space, juxtaposed with the daily encounter with gravity. This classroom activity is demonstrated with a water-filled bottle containing glass marbles and…

  19. Role of Logic and Mentality as the Basics of Wittgenstein's Picture Theory of Language and Extracting Educational Principles and Methods According to This Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshi, Kamal Nosrati; Nasrabadi, Hassanali Bakhtiyar

    2016-01-01

    The present paper attempts to recognize principles and methods of education based on Wittgenstein's picture theory of language. This qualitative research utilized inferential analytical approach to review the related literature and extracted a set of principles and methods from his theory on picture language. Findings revealed that Wittgenstein…

  20. [Shared decision-making and communication theory: grounding the tango].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Jürgen; Légaré, France; Scheibler, Fülöp; Geiger, Friedemann

    2010-01-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) has the potential to overcome outdated social role models in the health care system. The concept, however, adheres to archaic epistemological assumptions as can be inferred from the rudimentary stage of the measurement methods used and from the information monopoly that the physician still holds in this concept. Advantages of an up-to-date model of knowledge for understanding and operationalising SDM are outlined. To this purpose, essential definitions of the concept are reflected in terms of epistemology. Accordingly, information emerges through a process of social construction. Likewise, interpersonal relations do not represent a static condition; rather, they develop anew with each interaction. Therefore, constructs suitable to focus on dyadic interaction processes can be used as indicators of sharing in SDM. Theories and methods of the interpersonal paradigm are advocated. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Linking the Intercultural and Grounded Theory: Methodological Issues in Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting intercultural research with Grounded Theory was advocated in the early history of intercultural theorising and includes the development of researchers' intercultural competencies. Such competency comes to the fore where intercultural theory places an equal emphasis on home and host cultures in migration research. In this context we have found a Grounded Theory approach particularly suitable for disentangling complex interlinkings within migration experiences and their individual outcomes. Grounded Theory allows for the exploration of various theories in different fields and the emergence of new or deeper interpretations of intercultural experiences, including where research has not engaged deeply with or avoided intercultural contexts. The use of software, based on Grounded Theory, provides the resource for systematically exploring the inter-related nature of data. In addition, engaging in intercultural research, in particular, raises questions around our practice as social science researchers: adherence to ethics guidelines, for instance, can be in some conflict with the relations we build with members of communities whose cultural values, for instance around friendship or trust, impact on the norms of both our own and institutional expectations. This leads to reflection on the relationship with research participants in terms of our own intercultural experiences and position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901363

  2. Toward Principles of Construct Clarity: Exploring the Usefulness of Facet Theory in Guiding Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptualization in theory development has received limited consideration despite its frequently stressed importance in Information Systems research. This paper focuses on the role of construct clarity in conceptualization, arguing that construct clarity should be considered an essential criterion for evaluating conceptualization and that a focus on construct clarity can advance conceptualization methodology. Drawing from Facet Theory literature, we formulate a set of principles for assessing construct clarity, particularly regarding a construct’s relationships to its extant related constructs. Conscious and targeted attention to this criterion can promote a research ecosystem more supportive of knowledge accumulation.

  3. On the role of the equivalence principle in the general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsenshtein, M.E.; Stanyukovich, K.P.; Pogosyan, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which the solutions of the general relativity theory equations satisfy the correspondence principle are considered. It is shown that in general relativity theory, as in a plane space any systems of coordinates satisfying the topological requirements of continuity and uniqueness are admissible. The coordinate transformations must be mutually unique, and the following requirements must be met: the transformations of the coordinates xsup(i)=xsup(i)(anti xsup(k)) must preserve the class of the function, while the transformation jacobian must be finite and nonzero. The admissible metrics in the Tolmen problem for a vacuum are considered. A prohibition of the vacuum solution of the Tolmen problem is obtained from the correspondence principle. The correspondence principle is applied to the solution of the Friedmann problem by constructing a spherical symmetric self-similar solution, in which replacement of compression by expansion occurs at a finite density. The examples adduced convince that the application of the correspondence principle makes it possible to discard physically inadmissible solutions and obtained new physical results

  4. Review: Günter Mey & Katja Mruck (Eds. (2007. Grounded Theory Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Schmidtke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The volume was published to mark the 40th anniversary of the publication of "The Discovery of Grounded Theory." The first part describes the emergence and fundamental positions of grounded theory methodology (GTM in methodological and theoretical terms; the second part focuses on research practices. The "Grounded Theory Reader" is an excellent compilation that doesn’t claim to be a standard textbook for newcomers to GTM. Rather, it is a reflection of the state of the art in GTM and enables insights in complex research practices. A basic understanding of GTM is recommended in order to get the most from the book. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903286

  5. "Emergence" vs. "Forcing" of Empirical Data? A Crucial Problem of "Grounded Theory" Reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Kelle

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960s Barney GLASER and Anselm STRAUSS, developers of the methodology of "Grounded Theory" have made several attempts to explicate, clarify and reconceptualise some of the basic tenets of their methodological approach. Diverging concepts and understandings of Grounded Theory have arisen from these attempts which have led to a split between its founders. Much of the explication and reworking of Grounded Theory surrounds the relation between data and theory and the role of previous theoretical assumptions. The book which initially established the popularity of GLASER's and STRAUSS' methodological ideas, "The Discovery of Grounded Theory", contains two conflicting understandings of the relation between data and theory—the concept of "emergence" on the one hand and the concept of "theoretical sensitivity" on the other hand. Much of the later developments of Grounded Theory can be seen as attempts to reconcile these prima facie diverging concepts. Thereby GLASER recommends to draw on a variety of "coding families" while STRAUSS proposes the use of a general theory of action to build an axis for an emerging theory. This paper first summarises the most important developments within "Grounded Theory" concerning the understanding of the relation between empirical data and theoretical statements. Thereby special emphasis will be laid on differences between GLASER's and STRAUSS' concepts and on GLASER's current critique that the concepts of "coding paradigm" and "axial coding" described by STRAUSS and Juliet CORBIN lead to the "forcing" of data. It will be argued that GLASER's critique points out some existing weaknesses of STRAUSS' concepts but vastly exaggerates the risks of the STRAUSSian approach. A main argument of this paper is that basic problems of empirically grounded theory construction can be treated much more effectively if one draws on certain results of contemporary philosophical and epistemological discussions and on widely

  6. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅱ)-MICROMORPHIC CONTINUUM THEORY AND COUPLE STRESS THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish the balance laws of momentum, angular momentumand energy and to derive the corresponding local and nonlocal balance equations formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory. The desired results formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory are naturally obtained via directtransitions and reductions from the coupled conservation law of energy for micropolarcontinuum theory, respectively. The basic balance laws and equation s for micromorphiccontinuum mechanics and couple stress theory are constituted by combining these resultsderived here and the traditional conservation laws and equations of mass and microinertiaand the entropy inequality. The incomplete degrees of the former related continuum theoriesare clarified. Finally, some special cases are conveniently derived.

  7. A least squares principle unifying finite element, finite difference and nodal methods for diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackroyd, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    A least squares principle is described which uses a penalty function treatment of boundary and interface conditions. Appropriate choices of the trial functions and vectors employed in a dual representation of an approximate solution established complementary principles for the diffusion equation. A geometrical interpretation of the principles provides weighted residual methods for diffusion theory, thus establishing a unification of least squares, variational and weighted residual methods. The complementary principles are used with either a trial function for the flux or a trial vector for the current to establish for regular meshes a connection between finite element, finite difference and nodal methods, which can be exact if the mesh pitches are chosen appropriately. Whereas the coefficients in the usual nodal equations have to be determined iteratively, those derived via the complementary principles are given explicitly in terms of the data. For the further development of the connection between finite element, finite difference and nodal methods, some hybrid variational methods are described which employ both a trial function and a trial vector. (author)

  8. Breaking Ground: A Study of Gestalt Therapy Theory and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.

    In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…

  9. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nathaniel J S; Glöckner, Andreas; Dickert, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one's options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a "deliberation with information" condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought (UT) over "deliberation without information," we find that "deliberation with information" equals or outperforms UT in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that UT has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. Furthermore, we show that "deliberate thought with information" leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to UT which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  10. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: Testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel James Siebert Ashby

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one’s options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a ‘deliberation with information’ condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought over ‘deliberation without information’, we find that ‘deliberation with information’ equals or outperforms unconscious thought in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that unconscious thought has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. We furthermore show that ‘deliberate thought with information’ leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to unconscious thought which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  11. The generally covariant locality principle - a new paradigm for local quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, R.; Fredenhagen, K.; Verch, R.

    2002-05-01

    A new approach to the model-independent description of quantum field theories will be introduced in the present work. The main feature of this new approach is to incorporate in a local sense the principle of general covariance of general relativity, thus giving rise to the concept of a locally covariant quantum field theory. Such locally covariant quantum field theories will be described mathematically in terms of covariant functors between the categories, on one side, of globally hyperbolic spacetimes with isometric embeddings as morphisms and, on the other side, of *-algebras with unital injective *-endomorphisms as morphisms. Moreover, locally covariant quantum fields can be described in this framework as natural transformations between certain functors. The usual Haag-Kastler framework of nets of operator-algebras over a fixed spacetime background-manifold, together with covariant automorphic actions of the isometry-group of the background spacetime, can be re-gained from this new approach as a special case. Examples of this new approach are also outlined. In case that a locally covariant quantum field theory obeys the time-slice axiom, one can naturally associate to it certain automorphic actions, called ''relative Cauchy-evolutions'', which describe the dynamical reaction of the quantum field theory to a local change of spacetime background metrics. The functional derivative of a relative Cauchy-evolution with respect to the spacetime metric is found to be a divergence-free quantity which has, as will be demonstrated in an example, the significance of an energy-momentum tensor for the locally covariant quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss the functorial properties of state spaces of locally covariant quantum field theories that entail the validity of the principle of local definiteness. (orig.)

  12. A discussion of differences in preparation, performance and postreflections in participant observations within two grounded theory approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the differences in using participant observation as a data collection method by comparing the classic grounded theory methodology of Barney Glaser with the constructivist grounded theory methodology by Kathy Charmaz. Participant observations allow nursing researchers to experience activities and interactions directly in situ. However, using participant observations as a data collection method can be done in many ways, depending on the chosen grounded theory methodology, and may produce different results. This discussion shows that how the differences between using participant observations in classic and constructivist grounded theory can be considerable and that grounded theory researchers should adhere to the method descriptions of performing participant observations according to the selected grounded theory methodology to enhance the quality of research. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Factors Relating to the Success or Failure of College Algebra Internet Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to discover the factors that contribute to the success or failure of college algebra for students taking college algebra by distance education Internet, and then generate a theory of success or failure of the group of College Algebra Internet students at one Utah college. Qualitative data were collected and analyzed on students’ perceptions and perspectives of a College Algebra Internet course that they took during the spring or summer 2006 semest...

  14. Development by Niels Bohr of the quantum theory of the atom and of the correspondence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El'yashevich, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Bohr's investigations in 1912-1923 on the quantum theory of atoms are considered. The sources of N. Bohr's works on this subject are analyzed, and the beginning of his quantum research in 1912 is described. A detailed analysis is given of N. Bohr's famous paper on the hydrogen atom theory and on the origin of spectra. The further development of Bohr's ideas on atomic structure is considered, special attention is being payed to his postulates of stationary states and of radiation transitions and to the development of the correspondence principle. It is shown how well N. Bohr understood the difficulties of the model theory and how be tried to obtain a deep understanding of quantum phenomena

  15. Showcasing Chemical Engineering Principles through the Production of Biodiesel from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sophie; Birdsall-Wilson, Max; Jenkins, Rhodri; Chew, Y. M. John; Chuck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical engineering is rarely encountered before higher-level education in the U.S. or in Europe, leaving prospective students unaware of what an applied chemistry or chemical engineering degree entails. In this lab experiment, we report the implementation of a three-day course to showcase chemical engineering principles for 16-17 year olds…

  16. Effects of the Virtual Environment on Online Faculty Perceptions of Leadership: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how faculty members, teaching in the virtual environment of higher education, perceived the effectiveness of leader actions to understand how principles of existing leadership theory in critical areas such as communication effectiveness, development of trust, and ability to motivate faculty…

  17. Methodological tools for the collection and analysis of participant observation data using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Heleena; Kaunonen, Marja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-11-01

    To give clarity to the analysis of participant observation in nursing when implementing the grounded theory method. Participant observation (PO) is a method of collecting data that reveals the reality of daily life in a specific context. In grounded theory, interviews are the primary method of collecting data but PO gives a distinctive insight, revealing what people are really doing, instead of what they say they are doing. However, more focus is needed on the analysis of PO. An observational study carried out to gain awareness of nursing care and its electronic documentation in four acute care wards in hospitals in Finland. Discussion of using the grounded theory method and PO as a data collection tool. The following methodological tools are discussed: an observational protocol, jotting of notes, microanalysis, the use of questioning, constant comparison, and writing and illustrating. Each tool has specific significance in collecting and analysing data, working in constant interaction. Grounded theory and participant observation supplied rich data and revealed the complexity of the daily reality of acute care. In this study, the methodological tools provided a base for the study at the research sites and outside. The process as a whole was challenging. It was time-consuming and it required rigorous and simultaneous data collection and analysis, including reflective writing. Using these methodological tools helped the researcher stay focused from data collection and analysis to building theory. Using PO as a data collection method in qualitative nursing research provides insights. It is not commonly discussed in nursing research and therefore this study can provide insight, which cannot be seen or revealed by using other data collection methods. Therefore, this paper can produce a useful tool for those who intend to use PO and grounded theory in their nursing research.

  18. The watercolor effect: a new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Werner, John S; Spillmann, Lothar

    2003-01-01

    The watercolor effect is perceived when a dark (e.g., purple) contour is flanked by a lighter chromatic contour (e.g., orange). Under these conditions, the lighter color will assimilate over the entire enclosed area. This filling-in determines figure-ground organization when it is pitted against the classical Gestalt factors of proximity, good continuation, closure, symmetry, convexity, as well as amodal completion, and past experience. When it is combined with a given Gestalt factor, the resulting effect on figure-ground organization is stronger than for each factor alone. When the watercolor effect is induced by a dark red edge instead of an orange edge, its figural strength is reduced, but still stronger than without it. Finally, when a uniform surface is filled physically using the color of the orange fringe, figure-ground organization is not different from that for the purple contour only. These findings show that the watercolor effect induced by the edge could be an independent factor, different from the classical Gestalt factors of figure-ground organization. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Doing the Things We Do: A Grounded Theory of Academic Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraw, Gregory; Wadkins, Theresa; Olafson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages,…

  20. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  1. The Lack of Motivation to Pursue Postsecondary Education among Hmong Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xang

    2015-01-01

    In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…

  2. Being reflexive in qualitative grounded theory: discussion and application of a model of reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engward, Hilary; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-07-01

    A discussion of the meaning of reflexivity in research with the presentation of examples of how a model of reflexivity was used in a grounded theory research project. Reflexivity requires the researcher to make transparent the decisions they make in the research process and is therefore important in developing quality in nursing research. The importance of being reflexive is highlighted in the literature in relation to nursing research, however, practical guidance as to how to go about doing research reflexively is not always clearly articulated. This is a discussion paper. The concept of reflexivity in research is explored using the Alvesson and Skoldberg model of reflexivity and practical examples of how a researcher developed reflexivity in a grounded theory project are presented. Nurse researchers are encouraged to explore and apply the concept of reflexivity in their research practices to develop transparency in the research process and to increase robustness in their research. The Alvesson and Skoldberg model is of value in applying reflexivity in qualitative nursing research, particularly in grounded theory research. Being reflexive requires the researcher to be completely open about decisions that are made in the research process. The Alvesson and Skolberg model of reflexivity is a useful model that can enhance reflexivity in the research process. It can be a useful practical tool to develop reflexivity in grounded theory research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fathers' Orientation to Their Children's Autism Diagnosis: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Michael D.; Hannon, LaChan V.

    2017-01-01

    Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental…

  4. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  5. Using Grounded Theory to Analyze Qualitative Observational Data that is Obtained by Video Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Griffiths

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the collection and analysis of qualitative data that is derived by observation and that may be used to generate a grounded theory. Video recordings were made of the verbal and non-verbal interactions of people with severe and complex disabilities and the staff who work with them. Three dyads composed of a student/teacher or carer and a person with a severe or profound intellectual disability were observed in a variety of different activities that took place in a school. Two of these recordings yielded 25 minutes of video, which was transcribed into narrative format. The nature of the qualitative micro data that was captured is described and the fit between such data and classic grounded theory is discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the use of video as a tool to collect data that is amenable to analysis using grounded theory are considered. The paper concludes by suggesting that using classic grounded theory to analyze qualitative data that is collected using video offers a method that has the potential to uncover and explain patterns of non-verbal interactions that were not previously evident.

  6. iPads in K-12 Schools: A Grounded Theory Study of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Mary Beth

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study investigated the value of iPads in K-12 schools when used in one-to-one ratios. The purpose of the study was to understand the perspectives of teachers using iPads in one-to-one ratios for teaching and learning in the classroom and administrators responsible for the implementation of these devices. The…

  7. Leading Effective Educational Technology in K-12 School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lara Gillian C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic grounded theory qualitative study was conducted investigating the process of effectively leading educational technology in New Jersey public K-12 school districts. Data were collected from educational technology district leaders (whether formal or non-formal administrators) and central administrators through a semi-structured online…

  8. Narrating the Self: A Grounded Theory Model of Emerging Purpose for College Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Kimball, Ezekiel W.; Moore, Adam; Newman, Barbara M.; Troiano, Peter F.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents findings and a model from a constructivist grounded theory study about purpose development for college students with disabilities. The 59 participants, drawn from 4 different higher education institutions, self-identified as having 1 or more of a variety of disabilities. Students engaged in imagination, exploration, and…

  9. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  10. Sifting for Success: A Grounded Theory Approach to Sponsorship of Black Student Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Shameka N.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous findings and theories have been used to make sense of African Americans students' educational successes and experiences. Along those lines, the purpose of this study is to generate a theoretical framework of sponsorship that is grounded in Black students' educational experiences. Sponsorship is taken to be the process through which agents…

  11. Saudi Deaf Students Post-Secondary Transitioning Experience: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almotiri, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) international students transition to post-secondary institutions is important for ensuring their academic and personal success. In this grounded theory study, five Saudi Arabian students who are DHH and enrolled at Gallaudet University were interviewed about their transition experience. Participants…

  12. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  13. The Factors That Influence Bureaucracy and Professionalism in Schools: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koybasi, Fatma; Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the interaction between bureaucracy and professionalism in schools and to develop a model of bureaucracy-professionalism interaction. This is a qualitative study carried out in grounded theory model. The study group consisted of 10 male and 10 female teachers who were working in Sivas…

  14. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  15. A Grounded Theory of Collaborative Synchronizing in Relation to Challenging Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…

  16. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  17. Understanding College Students' Civic Identity Development: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study designed to understand the development of college students' civic identity--that is, an identity encompassing their knowledge, attitudes, values, and actions regarding civic engagement. Grounded theory was used to examine the experiences and attitudes of 19 college seniors who manifested strong civic…

  18. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  19. Shaping Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Experienced Agriculture Teachers in the Plant Sciences: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The most emergent phenomenon to surface from the data was the influence of beliefs on participants' PCK. This central phenomenon became the cornerstone for the model of what was shaping experienced agriculture…

  20. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  1. Student Affairs Professionals Supporting Students with Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Ezekiel; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Vargas, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    In an action-based grounded theory project, the authors collected data from 31 student affairs professionals. During seven focus groups, practitioners described feeling unknowledgeable about disability law, accommodations, and diagnoses. However, they drew upon their core values and transferrable skills to support individual students. Participants…

  2. The Council of Regional Accrediting Commissions Framework for Competency-Based Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butland, Mark James

    2017-01-01

    Colleges facing pressures to increase student outcomes while reducing costs have shown an increasing interest in competency-based education (CBE) models. Regional accreditors created a joint policy on CBE evaluation. Two years later, through this grounded theory study, I sought to understand from experts the nature of this policy, its impact, and…

  3. Clarification of the Blurred Boundaries between Grounded Theory and Ethnography: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun; Le Navenec, Carol-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    There is confusion among graduate students about how to select the qualitative methodology that best fits their research question. Often this confusion arises in regard to making a choice between a grounded theory methodology and an ethnographic methodology. This difficulty may stem from the fact that these students do not have a clear…

  4. Theorizing Teachers' Perspectives on an EFL Textbook for Public High Schools of Iran: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaghi, Seyyed Ali Ostovar; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Saboor; Tajzad, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore language teachers' perspectives on Iranian third grade senior high school EFL textbook, which is prescribed by the Ministry of Education. In data collection and analysis, the researchers used theoretical sampling and the coding schemes presented in grounded theory. Final analysis yielded "Negative…

  5. A Grounded Theory of Text Revision Processes Used by Young Adolescents Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuknis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the revising processes used by 8 middle school students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing as they composed essays for their English classes. Using grounded theory, interviews with students and teachers in one middle school, observations of the students engaging in essay creation, and writing samples were collected for analysis.…

  6. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  7. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  8. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT...

  9. Philosophical Roots of Classical Grounded Theory: Its Foundations in Symbolic Interactionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Le Navenec, Carole-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers have discussed the historical relationship between the Grounded Theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism, they have not clearly articulated the congruency of their salient concepts and assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion of this congruency. A hypothetical example about smoking…

  10. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  11. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  12. On the relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvily, G.

    1981-01-01

    One sees the basic ideas of the gauge gravitation theory still not generally accepted in spite of more than twenty years of its history. The chief reason lies in the fact that the gauge character of gravity is connected with the whole complex of problems of Einstein General Relativity: about the reference system definition, on the (3+1)-splitting, on the presence (or absence) of symmetries in GR, on the necessity (or triviality) of general covariance, on the meaning of equivalence principle, which led Einstein from Special to General Relativity |1|. The real actuality of this complex of interconnected problems is demonstrated by the well-known work of V. Fock, who saw no symmetries in General Relativity, declared the unnecessary Equivalence principle and proposed even to substitute the designation ''chronogeometry'' instead of ''general relativity'' (see also P. Havas). Developing this line, H. Bondi quite recently also expressed doubts about the ''relativity'' in Einstein theory of gravitation. All proposed versions of the gauge gravitation theory must clarify the discrepancy between Einstein gravitational field being a pseudo-Riemannian metric field, and the gauge potentials representing connections on some fiber bundles and there exists no group, whose gauging would lead to the purely gravitational part of connection (Christoffel symbols or Fock-Ivenenko-Weyl spinorial coefficients). (author)

  13. Relationship between atomically related core levels and ground state properties of solids: first-principles calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vackář, Jiří; Šipr, Ondřej; Šimůnek, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 045112/1-045112/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100514; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : core levels * ab-initio calculations * electronic states * ground state properties Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  14. The watercolor effect: A new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, B; Werner, JS; Spillmann, L

    2003-01-01

    The watercolor effect is perceived when a dark (e.g., purple) contour is flanked by a lighter chromatic contour (e.g., orange). Under these conditions, the lighter color will assimilate over the entire enclosed area. This filling-in determines figure-ground organization when it is pitted against the classical Gestalt factors of proximity, good continuation, closure, symmetry, convexity, as well as amodal completion, and past experience. When it is combined with a given Gestalt factor, the res...

  15. Right to Place: A Political Theory of Animal Rights in Harmony with Environmental and Ecological Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Panagiotarakou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the “right to place” as a political theory of wild animal rights. Out of the debate between terrestrial cosmopolitans inspired by Kant and Arendt and rooted cosmopolitan animal right theorists, the right to place emerges from the fold of rooted cosmopolitanism in tandem with environmental and ecological principles. Contrary to terrestrial cosmopolitans—who favour extending citizenship rights to wild animals and advocate at the same time large-scale humanitarian interventions and unrestricted geographical mobility—I argue that the well-being of wild animals is best served by the right to place theory on account of its sovereignty model. The right to place theory advocates human non-interference in wildlife communities, opposing even humanitarian interventions, which carry the risk of unintended consequences. The right to place theory, with its emphasis on territorial sovereignty, bases its opposition to unrestricted geographical mobility on two considerations: (a the non-generalist nature of many species and (b the potential for abuse via human encroachment. In a broader context, the advantage of the right to place theory lies in its implicit environmental demands: human population control and sustainable lifestyles.

  16. Theory of Nonlinear Dispersive Waves and Selection of the Ground State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, A.; Weinstein, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    A theory of time-dependent nonlinear dispersive equations of the Schroedinger or Gross-Pitaevskii and Hartree type is developed. The short, intermediate and large time behavior is found, by deriving nonlinear master equations (NLME), governing the evolution of the mode powers, and by a novel multitime scale analysis of these equations. The scattering theory is developed and coherent resonance phenomena and associated lifetimes are derived. Applications include Bose-Einstein condensate large time dynamics and nonlinear optical systems. The theory reveals a nonlinear transition phenomenon, 'selection of the ground state', and NLME predicts the decay of excited state, with half its energy transferred to the ground state and half to radiation modes. Our results predict the recent experimental observations of Mandelik et al. in nonlinear optical waveguides

  17. The Development of the TPR-DB as Grounded Theory Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2018-01-01

    and refine the emerging concepts and categories and to validate the developing theories, the TPR-DB has been extended with further translation studies in different languages and translation modes. In this respect, it shares many features with Grounded Theory Method. This method was discovered in 1967...... and used in qualitative research in social science ad many other research areas. We analyze the TPR-DB development as a Grounded Theory Method....... on quantitative assessment of well-defined research questions on cognitive processes in human translation production, the integration of the data into the TPR-DB allowed for broader qualitative and exploratory research which has led to new codes, categories and research themes. In a constant effort to develop...

  18. Comfort vs risk: a grounded theory about female adolescent behaviour in the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth; Holloway, Immy; Galvin, Kathleen

    2014-07-01

    To generate a grounded theory about female adolescent behaviour in the sun. Nurses have key roles in health promotion and skin cancer prevention. Adolescents' resistance to sun safety messages and their vulnerability to sunburn are of concern internationally. Understanding why young women do as they do in the sun may enhance skin cancer prevention, but their behaviour has not been explained before in the UK. The study incorporated a qualitative grounded theory design using the approach of Glaser. Qualitative data were gleaned from group and one-to-one, semi-structured interviews with 20 female participants aged 14-17, research memos and literature. Sampling was purposive and theoretical. Data collection, analysis and theory generation occurred concurrently. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Data collection ended when a substantive theory had been generated. Data analysis revealed five categories of findings: fitting in, being myself, being physically comfortable, slipping up and being comfortable (the core category). The theory generated around the core explains how young women direct their sun-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychosocial comfort needs. A contribution of this research is the grounded theory explaining the behaviour of young women in the sun. Further, the theory challenges assumptions that female adolescents necessarily take risks; it explains their sun-related activities in terms of comfort. The theory extends findings from other researchers' descriptive qualitative studies and also appears to apply to young people in countries other than the UK. Understanding the sun-related activity of young women in terms of physical and psychosocial comfort may help nurses to develop new approaches to skin cancer prevention. These could complement existing messages and humanise health promotion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Christina Goulding Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Sage Publications No of pages: 186 £18.99 0761966838 0761966838 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    Much has been written about the grounded theory approach to qualitative research, however the number of books devoted solely to this methodology remains relatively few. Therefore, any new book dedicated to the subject is always likely to attract attention - especially given the increasing popularity of grounded theory in healthcare research.

  20. Five-dimensional projective unified theory and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sabbata, V.; Gasperini, M.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the physical consequences of a new five-dimensional projective theory unifying gravitation and electromagnetism. Solving the field equations in the linear approximation and in the static limit, we find that a celestial body would act as a source of a long-range scalar field, and that macroscopic test bodies with different internal structure would accelerate differently in the solar gravitational field; this seems to be in disagreement with the equivalence principle. To avoid this contradiction, we suggest a possible modification of the geometrical structure of the five-dimensional projective space

  1. A Critique of Social Bonding and Control Theory of Delinquency Using the Principles of Psychology of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the refined principles of Psychology of Mind and shows how their logical interaction can help explain the comparative amounts of deviant and conforming behavior of youthful offenders. The logic of these principles is used to examine the major assumptions of social bonding and control theory of delinquency focusing predominantly on the…

  2. COIN Goes GLOCAL: Traditional COIN With a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-17

    COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

  3. Implications of male circumcision for women in Papua New Guinea: a transformational grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick; McBride, William J H

    2017-07-27

    Male circumcision reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is being explored for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). PNG has a concentrated HIV epidemic which is largely heterosexually transmitted. There are a diverse range of male circumcision and penile modification practices across PNG. Exploring the implications of male circumcision for women in PNG is important to inform evidence-based health policy that will result in positive, intended consequences. The transformational grounded theory study incorporated participatory action research and decolonizing methodologies. In Phase One, an existing data set from a male circumcision study of 861 male and 519 female participants was theoretically sampled and analyzed for women's understanding and experience of male circumcision. In Phase Two of the study, primary data were co-generated with 64 women in seven interpretive focus group discussions and 11 semi-structured interviews to develop a theoretical model of the processes used by women to manage the outcomes of male circumcision. In Phase Three participants assisted to refine the developing transformational grounded theory and identify actions required to improve health. Many women know a lot about male circumcision and penile modification and the consequences for themselves, their families and communities. Their ability to act on this knowledge is determined by numerous social, cultural and economic factors. A transformational grounded theory was developed with connecting categories of: Women Know a Lot, Increasing Knowledge; Increasing Options; and Acting on Choices. Properties and dimensions of each category are represented in the model, along with the intervening condition of Safety. The condition of Safety contextualises the overarching lived realty for women in PNG, enables the inclusion of men in the transformational grounded theory model, and helps to explain relationships between men and women. The

  4. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  5. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  6. A Grounded Theory Study on Journeying through the Shield to Sacredness: "Ni'hokaa' Diyin Dine'e Idliini Dolzin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    In doing a grounded theory study, the researcher does not identify a hypothesis, formulate research questions, or state a specific problem at the beginning of the research. Grounded theory research begins with data collection, minimizing preconceptions about outcomes to the greatest extent possible. I began my research with this attitude of not…

  7. Usos e Aplicações da Grounded Theory em Administração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Pires Giavina Bianchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the usage and application of grounded theory in the administration area.Grounded theory is a research tool under the qualitative paradigm that, since its beginning in 1967raised some debates in the academic arena. Its original authors, Barney Glaser & Anselm Strauss,developed, throughout their academic trajectories,distinct thoughts regarding the process of datacollection and data analysis, the researcher attitude and the way of attainment the researchresults: theory grounded on empirical data. In spite of that, the history on the evolution of theresearch method, the research method working process clarification and an analysis of someapplications in the administrative area are discussed in this paper to support reflections ongrounded theory applicability and potentiality in administration. The purpose of this paper is tocontribute with researchers by bringing relevant information to support the processes of choice ofthis research method and its proper execution in their research. The conclusion is that groundedtheory is complex, rich, and powerful being applicable in administration as part of the social science

  8. Seeking Humanizing Care in Patient-Centered Care Process: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Esmaeili, Maryam; Salsali, Mahvash

    Patient-centered care is both a goal in itself and a tool for enhancing health outcomes. The application of patient-centered care in health care services globally however is diverse. This article reports on a study that sought to introduce patient-centered care. The aim of this study is to explore the process of providing patient-centered care in critical care units. The study used a grounded theory method. Data were collected on 5 critical care units in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Purposive and theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using 29 semistructured interviews with 27 participants (nurses, patients, and physician). Data obtained were analyzed according to the analysis stages of grounded theory and constant comparison to identify the concepts, context, and process of the study. The core category of this grounded theory is "humanizing care," which consisted of 4 interrelated phases, including patient acceptance, purposeful patient assessment and identification, understanding patients, and patient empowerment. A core category of humanizing care integrated the theory. Humanizing care was an outcome and process. Patient-centered care is a dynamic and multifaceted process provided according to the nurses' understanding of the concept. Patient-centered care does not involve repeating routine tasks; rather, it requires an all-embracing understanding of the patients and showing respect for their values, needs, and preferences.

  9. Schwinger variational principle in the nuclear two-body problem and multichannel theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, A.L.; Podkopaev, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the Schwinger variational principle in the nuclear two-body problem and the multichannel theory. An approach is proposed to problems of the potential scattering based on the substitution of the exact potential operator V by the finite rank operator Vsup((n)) with which the dynamic equations are solved exactly. The functionals obtained for observed values coincide with corresponding expressions derived by the Schwinger variational principle with the set of test functions. The determination of the Schwinger variational principle is given. The method is given for finding amplitude of the double-particle scattering with the potential Vsup((n)). The corresponding amplitudes are constructed within the framework of the multichannel potential model. Interpolation formula for determining amplitude, which describes with high accuracy a process of elastic scattering for any energies, is obtained. On the basis of the above method high-energy amplitude may be obtained within the range of small and large scattering angles

  10. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl F

    2014-10-14

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, "The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition" [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.

  11. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, Karl F., E-mail: freed@uchicago.edu [James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 929 East 57 Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, “The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition” [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.

  12. Adapting evidence-based interventions using a common theory, practices, and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Becker, Kimberly D

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of validated evidence-based intervention programs (EBIP) aim to improve families' well-being; however, most are not broadly adopted. As an alternative diffusion strategy, we created wellness centers to reach families' everyday lives with a prevention framework. At two wellness centers, one in a middle-class neighborhood and one in a low-income neighborhood, popular local activity leaders (instructors of martial arts, yoga, sports, music, dancing, Zumba), and motivated parents were trained to be Family Mentors. Trainings focused on a framework that taught synthesized, foundational prevention science theory, practice elements, and principles, applied to specific content areas (parenting, social skills, and obesity). Family Mentors were then allowed to adapt scripts and activities based on their cultural experiences but were closely monitored and supervised over time. The framework was implemented in a range of activities (summer camps, coaching) aimed at improving social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Successes and challenges are discussed for (a) engaging parents and communities; (b) identifying and training Family Mentors to promote children and families' well-being; and (c) gathering data for supervision, outcome evaluation, and continuous quality improvement. To broadly diffuse prevention to families, far more experimentation is needed with alternative and engaging implementation strategies that are enhanced with knowledge harvested from researchers' past 30 years of experience creating EBIP. One strategy is to train local parents and popular activity leaders in applying robust prevention science theory, common practice elements, and principles of EBIP. More systematic evaluation of such innovations is needed.

  13. Cluster expansion of the wavefunction. Calculation of electron correlations in ground and excited states by SAC and SAC CI theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuji, H.

    1979-01-01

    The SAC and SAC CI theories are formulated for actual calculations of singlet ground states and their excited states of arbitrary spin multiplicity. Approximations are considered for the variational methods since time-consuming terms are involved. The results of test calculations for singlet states have shown, with much smaller numbers of variables (sizes of the matrices involved), excellent agreement with the full CI and close-to-full CI results. This shows the utility of the SAC theory for ground states and especially of the SAC CI theory for excited states, since the slow convergence of the CI theory is much more critical for excited states than for ground states. (Auth.)

  14. Intentionality: evolutionary development in healing: a grounded theory study for holistic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2005-03-01

    Although intentionality has been implicated as a causal variable in healing research, its definition has been inconsistent and vague. The objective of this grounded theory study is to develop a substantive theory of intentionality in a naturalistic encounter between nurse-healers and their healee-clients, and to consider the implications for practice and research. Six expert nurse-healers and six healee-clients were interviewed as individuals and in dyads before and after treatments. Interviews and observational data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and synthesized analysis. Participants described their experience of intentionality in healing as an evolutionary process characterized by distinctive shifts. The theory of intentionality: the matrix for healing (IMH) includes definitions of intentionality and a conceptual framework of three developmental phases of intentionality (generic, healing, and transforming intentionalities). The predominant attribute, development, is described. The theory contributes to knowledge about healing and intentionality and has implications for practice and future research.

  15. The 'realities' of part-time nursing: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lynn N; Williams, Leonie Mosel; Lauder, William; Dwyer, Trudy

    2008-10-01

    To develop a theory that explains the 'realities' of part-time nursing. While little is known about the phenomenon of part-time nursing, increasing numbers of nurses work in part-time employment. Grounded theory. The problem that part-time nurses shared was an inability to achieve their personal optimal nursing potential. Motivators to work part-time, employment hours, specialty, individual and organizational factors formed contextual conditions that led to this problem. Part-time nurses responded to the challenges through a process of adaptation and adjustment. Harnessing the full productive potential of part-time nurses requires support to limit the difficulties that they encounter. The developed theory provides a valuable guide to managerial action. Nurse Managers need to consider the developed substantive theory when planning and managing nursing workforces.

  16. A Grounded Theory of the Process of Spiritual Change Among Homicide Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shannon K; Zitzmann, Brooks

    2018-01-01

    Grounded theory was used to generate a mid-range theory of the process of spiritual change in the lives of survivors of homicide victims. Theoretical sampling guided the selection of 30 participants from a larger study of spiritual change after homicide ( N = 112). Individual interviews were analyzed using a four-step sequence of line-by-line, focused, axial, and selective coding. Analysis generated a closed theory consisting of three fluids, consecutive but nonlinear stages. Each stage consisted of an overarching process and a state of being in the world: (a) Disintegrating: living in a state of shock; (b) Reckoning: living in a state of stagnation; (c) Recreating and reintegrating the self: living in a state of renewal. Movement through the stages was fueled by processes of spiritual connection that yielded changes that permeated the theory. Findings can be used to help practitioners address the processes that drive spiritual change in the lives of homicide survivors.

  17. Tailoring reablement: A grounded theory study of establishing reablement in a community setting in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Cathrine; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2018-01-01

    Reablement is an interprofessional, home-based rehabilitation service that aims to enable senior residents to cope with everyday life and to prevent functional impairments. Systematic accounts of what practitioners actually do when establishing reablement are lacking. This study aims to generate a grounded theory of practitioners' patterns of action when establishing reablement. The study is located in Norway, and grounded theory is the methodological approach. Data were collected from January 2014 to August 2016 through participant observations, focus group interviews and individual interviews. Informants are municipal healthcare employees in different organisational areas associated with the process of establishing reablement services (managers of conventional home care and representatives from the administration and service-provider offices). Altogether, 17 individuals are interviewed. The empirical data are analysed several times using open, selective and theoretical coding. The grounded theory, "tailoring reablement," includes three phases-replicating, adapting and establishing-and the strategies of collaborating, developing knowledge, habituating and filtering. The theory of tailoring reablement also includes the impact of the contextual factors. The study seeks to bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory of tailoring reablement emerges from an inductive approach and theorises participants' actions. The theory focuses on the phases from innovation to implementation. Establishing a new service model in a complex welfare setting requires a wide range of actors and agencies. Tailoring reablement also requires flexibility and professional autonomy. It is important to create terms and conditions for this within a stringent health and care service. The insights of this study have implications for practice development of reablement and can fit other public sector fields. © 2017 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John

  18. Conducting a Grounded Theory Study in a Language Other Than English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intansari Nurjannah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translation can be a problem area for researchers conducting qualitative studies in languages other than English who intend to publish the results in an English-language journal. Analyzing the data is also complex when the research team consists of people from different language backgrounds. Translation must be considered as an issue in its own right to maintain the integrity of the research, especially in a grounded theory study. In this article, we offer guidelines for the process of translation for data analysis in a grounded theory study in which the research was conducted in a language other than English (Indonesian. We make recommendations about procedures to choose when, who, and how to translate data. The translation procedure is divided into four steps which are as follows: translation in the process of coding, translation in the process of team discussion, translation in the process of advanced coding, and ensuring the accuracy of translation.

  19. Enterprise Factors Contributing to The Success of Malaysian Biotechnology SMEs: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saridan Abu Bakar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.Keywords: biotechnology, SMEs, Malaysia, success, qualitative study, grounded theory

  20. Psychotherapists' spiritual, religious, atheist or agnostic identity and their practice of psychotherapy: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi-Dopman, Danielle; Park-Taylor, Jennie; Ponterotto, Joseph G

    2011-05-01

    In this present grounded theory study, 16 experienced psychologists, who practiced from varied theoretical orientations and came from diverse religious/spiritual/nonreligious backgrounds, explored their personal religious/spiritual/nonreligious identity development journeys, their experiences with clients' religious/spiritual content in psychotherapy sessions, and how their identity may have influenced the way they interacted with religious/spiritual material during sessions. Results revealed that psychologists' spiritual/religious/nonreligious identity is conflicted and complex and that their academic and clinical training did not provide sufficient opportunity to examine how this may affect their therapeutic work. A tentative grounded theory emerged suggesting that psychologists both identified with and were activated by clients' spiritual/religious conflicts and their internal experiences about the spiritual/religious content, both of which presented significant challenges to therapeutic work.

  1. Business analysis methodology in telecommunication industry – the research based on the grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nenickova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems in telecommunication enterprises in Czech Republic. In the preparation of the methodology I have used the current needs of telecommunications companies, which are characterized mainly by high dependence on information systems. Besides that, this industry is characterized by high flexibility and competition and compressing of the corporate strategy timeline. The grounded theory of business analysis defines the specifics of the telecommunications industry, focusing on the very specific description of the procedure for collecting the business requirements and following the business strategy.

  2. A grounded theory como alternativa metodológica para pesquisa em enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ribeiro dos Santos

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo apresenta um método de pesquisa interpretativo e sistemático para desenvolvimento de pesquisa em enfermagem chamado grounded theory, cujo suporte teórico é o interacionismo simbólico. O propósito é descrever a grounded theory como alternativa metodológica para construção do conhecimento em enfermagem. O estudo destaca: princípio fundamental, conceitos básicos, trajetória do método e processo de análise dos dados. Concluímos que a sistematização dos dados e sua interpretação, a partir da experiência vivenciada pelos atores sociais, constituem ricos subsídios para gerar teorias através desta ferramenta de pesquisa.

  3. Psychosocial Intervention Use in Long-Stay Dementia Care: A Classic Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Keady, John; Casey, Dympna; Grealish, Annmarie; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a substantive grounded theory of staff psychosocial intervention use with residents with dementia in long-stay care. "Becoming a person again" emerged as the core category accounting for staffs' psychosocial intervention use within long-stay care. Interview data were collected from participants in nine Irish long-stay settings: 14 residents with dementia, 19 staff nurses, one clinical facilitator, seven nurse managers, 21 nursing assistants, and five relatives. Constant comparative method guided the data collection and analysis. The researcher's theoretical memos, based on unstructured observation, and applicable extant literature were also included as data. By identifying the mutuality of the participants' experiences, this classic grounded theory explains staff motivation toward psychosocial intervention use within long-stay care. It also explains how institutional factors interact with those personal factors that incline individuals toward psychosocial intervention use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The Frustrations of Reader Generalizability and Grounded Theory: Alternative Considerations for Transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Misco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I convey a recurring problem and possible solution that arose during my doctoral research on the topic of cross-cultural Holocaust curriculum development for Latvian schools. Specifically, as I devised the methodology for my research, I experienced a number of frustrations concerning the issue of transferability and the limitations of both reader generalizability and grounded theory. Ultimately, I found a more appropriate goal for the external applicability of this and other highly contextual research studies in the form of "grounded understandings," which are tentative apprehensions of the importance or significance of phenomena and conceptualizations that hold meaning and explanatory power, but are only embryonic in their potential to generate theory.

  5. First-principle study of quantum confinement effect on small sized silicon quantum dots using density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anas, M. M.; Othman, A. P.; Gopir, G.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT), as a first-principle approach has successfully been implemented to study nanoscale material. Here, DFT by numerical basis-set was used to study the quantum confinement effect as well as electronic properties of silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) in ground state condition. Selection of quantum dot models were studied intensively before choosing the right structure for simulation. Next, the computational result were used to examine and deduce the electronic properties and its density of state (DOS) for 14 spherical Si-QDs ranging in size up to ∼ 2 nm in diameter. The energy gap was also deduced from the HOMO-LUMO results. The atomistic model of each silicon QDs was constructed by repeating its crystal unit cell of face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, and reconstructed until the spherical shape obtained. The core structure shows tetrahedral (T d ) symmetry structure. It was found that the model need to be passivated, and hence it was noticed that the confinement effect was more pronounced. The model was optimized using Quasi-Newton method for each size of Si-QDs to get relaxed structure before it was simulated. In this model the exchange-correlation potential (V xc ) of the electrons was treated by Local Density Approximation (LDA) functional and Perdew-Zunger (PZ) functional

  6. Health Effects of Digital Textbooks on School-Age Children: A Grounded Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seomun, GA; Lee, JA; Kim, EY; Im, MY; Kim, M; Park, SA; Lee, Y

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "p...

  7. The electromagnetic virtual cloud of the ground-state hydrogen atom - a quantum field theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radozycki, T.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of the virtual cloud around the hydrogen atom in the ground state are studied with the use of quantum field theory methods. The relativistic expression for the electromagnetic energy density around the atom, with the electron spin taken into account, is obtained. The distribution of the angular momentum contained in the cloud and the self-interaction kernel for the electrons bound in atom are also investigated. (author)

  8. The Context and Values Inherent in Human Capital as Core Principles for New Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has a specific focus on the core foundation of New Economic Theory. That is, the focus on human capital and its implications for the theory and method of the new form of political economy. The central issue that is underlined is the importance of scientific and technological innovation and its necessary interdependence on global values and value analysis. The paper discusses the issue of scientific consciousness as a generator of technological value, and places scientific process at the heart of human consciousness. It discusses the complex interdependence of human relational subjectivity, scientific consciousness, and modern science. The paper draws attention to the problems of observation and participation, and the influence of modern quantum physics in drawing attention to aspects of human consciousness that go beyond the points of conventional science, and open up concern for the principle of non-locality. It explores human subjectivity in terms of the way in which “emotionalized behaviors” have effects on scientific objectivity. It also briefly touches on consciousness and its observable scientific role in the possible reconstruction of some aspects of reality. Mention is made of the Copenhagen perspective, the Many Worlds perspective, and the Penrose interpretation. These insights challenge us to explore human consciousness and innovation in economic organization. The discussion also brings in the principle of relational inter-subjectivity, emotion, and consciousness as a potential driver of human capital and value. In short, positive emotions can influence economic decision-making, as can negative emotions. These challenges stress the problem of human relational subjectivity, values, and technology as the tools to better understand the conflicts and potentials of human capital for New Economic Theory. The issue of value-analysis has both a descriptive and normative dimension. Both of these aspects raise important challenges

  9. Building bridges to observational perspectives: a grounded theory of therapy processes in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, Sarah; Tasker, Fiona; Wren, Bernadette

    2008-06-01

    This study set out to explore therapy processes in psychosis with an initial focus on reflexivity and how this might be expressed in therapy conversations. Leiman's (2000) definition of reflexivity was used as a starting-point for an exploratory investigation of the use of language as reflective activity. Grounded theory was chosen as an appropriate methodology to distil an explanatory account across the qualitative data collected. Six psychologist-client pairs supplied three tapes of therapy sessions spread out across the course of therapy. Each participant was separately interviewed on two occasions to ascertain their views of therapy and of the emerging grounded theory. A grounded theory was developed conceptualizing the processes and activities in psychological therapy in psychosis. Building bridges to observational perspectives summarizes the core process in psychological therapy in psychosis. Therapy in psychosis is understood as intimately linking the social and internal world in a dialogical process aimed at enhancing the client's functioning in the social world rather than at specifically developing the private mental experience of reflexivity or mentalizing.

  10. Opting in and opting out: a grounded theory of nursing's contribution to inpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Julie; Walker, Annette; O'Connell, Beverly; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2009-12-01

    To develop a grounded theory of nursing's contribution to patient rehabilitation from the perspective of nurses working in inpatient rehabilitation. Grounded theory method, informed by the theoretical perspective of symbolic interactionism, was used to guide data collection and analysis, and the development of a grounded theory. Five inpatient rehabilitation units in Australia. Thirty-five registered and 18 enrolled nurses participated in audio-taped interviews and/or were observed during periods of their everyday practice. The analysis revealed a situation whereby nurses made decisions about when to 'opt in' and when to 'opt out' of inpatient rehabilitation. This occurred on two levels: with their interaction with patients and allied health professionals, and when faced with negative system issues that impacted on their ability to contribute to patient rehabilitation. The primary contribution nurses made to inpatient rehabilitation was working directly with patients, enabling them to self-care. Nurses coached patients when their decisions about 'opting in' and 'opting out' were based on assessment of the person in their particular context. In contrast, the nurses mostly distanced themselves from system-based problems, 'opting out' of addressing them. They did this not to make their working lives easier, but more manageable. System-based problems impacted negatively on the nurses' ability to deliver comprehensive rehabilitation care. As a consequence, some nurses felt unable to influence the care and they withdrew professionally to make their work lives more manageable.

  11. The process of accepting breast cancer among Chinese women: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Qin; Liu, Jun-E; Li, Zhi; Su, Ya-Li

    2017-06-01

    To describe the process by which Chinese women accept living with breast cancer. Individual interviews were conducted with 18 Chinese women who completed breast cancer treatment. Data were collected from September 2014 to January 2015 at a large tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing, China. In this grounded theory study, data were analyzed using constant comparative and coding analysis methods. In order to explain the process of accepting having breast cancer among women in China through the grounded theory study, a model that includes 5 axial categories was developed. Cognitive reconstruction emerged as the core category. The extent to which the women with breast cancer accepted having the disease was found to increase with the treatment stage and as their treatment stage progressed with time. The accepting process included five stages: non-acceptance, passive acceptance, willingness to accept, behavioral acceptance, and transcendence of acceptance. Our study using grounded theory study develops a model describing the process by which women accept having breast cancer. The model provides some intervention opportunities at every point of the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A model to explain suicide by self-immolation among Iranian women: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rezaie, Leeba; Shakeri, Jalal; Schwebel, David C

    2015-11-01

    Self-immolation is a common method of suicide among Iranian women. There are several contributing motives for attempting self-immolation, and exploration of the process of self-immolation incidents will help interventionists and clinicians develop prevention programs. A grounded theory study using face-to-face, recorded interviews was conducted with surviving self-immolated patients (n=14), their close relatives (n=5), and medical staff (n=8) in Kermanshah, Iran. Data were analyzed using constant comparison in open, axial, and selective coding stages. A conceptual model was developed to explain the relationships among the main categories extracted through the grounded theory study. Family conflicts emerged as the core category. Cultural context of self-immolated patients offered a contextual condition. Other important categories linked to the core category were mental health problems, distinct characteristics of the suicidal method, and self-immolation as a threat. The role of mental health problems as a causal condition was detected in different levels of the self-immolation process. Finally, adverse consequences of self-immolation emerged as having important impact. The conceptual model, derived through grounded theory study, can guide design of prevention programs. The pivotal role of family conflicts should be emphasized in mental health interventions. The impact of adverse consequences of self-immolation on further suicidal processes necessitates post-suicide prevention programs. Further research to design specific interventions is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkner, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods: A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls’ perspectives of how significant others’ influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Results: Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. Conclusion: The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls’ perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity. PMID:29405881

  14. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Yvonne; Fawkner, Samantha; Niven, Ailsa

    2018-12-01

    Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls' perspectives of how significant others' influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls' perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity.

  15. Analytical study of Yang–Mills theory in the infrared from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siringo, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.siringo@ct.infn.it

    2016-06-15

    Pure Yang–Mills SU(N) theory is studied in the Landau gauge and four dimensional space. While leaving the original Lagrangian unmodified, a double perturbative expansion is devised, based on a massive free-particle propagator. In dimensional regularization, all diverging mass terms cancel exactly in the double expansion, without the need to include mass counterterms that would spoil the symmetry of the Lagrangian. No free parameters are included that were not in the original theory, yielding a fully analytical approach from first principles. The expansion is safe in the infrared and is equivalent to the standard perturbation theory in the UV. At one-loop, explicit analytical expressions are given for the propagators and the running coupling and are found in excellent agreement with the data of lattice simulations. A universal scaling property is predicted for the inverse propagators and shown to be satisfied by the lattice data. Higher loops are found to be negligible in the infrared below 300 MeV where the coupling becomes small and the one-loop approximation is under full control.

  16. Hand rim wheelchair propulsion training using biomechanical real-time visual feedback based on motor learning theory principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ian; Gagnon, Dany; Gallagher, Jere; Boninger, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As considerable progress has been made in laboratory-based assessment of manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, the necessity to translate this knowledge into new clinical tools and treatment programs becomes imperative. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a manual wheelchair propulsion training program aimed to promote the development of an efficient propulsion technique among long-term manual wheelchair users. Motor learning theory principles were applied to the design of biomechanical feedback-based learning software, which allows for random discontinuous real-time visual presentation of key spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters. This software was used to train a long-term wheelchair user on a dynamometer during 3 low-intensity wheelchair propulsion training sessions over a 3-week period. Biomechanical measures were recorded with a SmartWheel during over ground propulsion on a 50-m level tile surface at baseline and 3 months after baseline. Training software was refined and administered to a participant who was able to improve his propulsion technique by increasing contact angle while simultaneously reducing stroke cadence, mean resultant force, peak and mean moment out of plane, and peak rate of rise of force applied to the pushrim after training. The proposed propulsion training protocol may lead to favorable changes in manual wheelchair propulsion technique. These changes could limit or prevent upper limb injuries among manual wheelchair users. In addition, many of the motor learning theory-based techniques examined in this study could be applied to training individuals in various stages of rehabilitation to optimize propulsion early on.

  17. The San Miguel Artist Project: A Grounded Theory of "The Emergence of Wonder"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Medlock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs classical grounded theory methodology to explain the creative process of artists. Two integrally connected core variables are identified: emergence and wonder. Wonder represents the experience that motivates and sustains the creation of works of art, and emergence the process by which the sense of wonder is progressively embodied in the content and form of the work. The theory describes a number of distinct phases, including the experience of wonder, immersion in artistic practice, conceiving a specific work or project, composing the work, presenting the work for an actual or potential audience, and finally moving-on. These phases involve a dynamic stream of recursive processes—sketching, refining, connecting, channeling, and assessing—that ultimately facilitate the emergence of wonder in artistic works. The theory of the emergence of wonder also appears to apply to the research processes of both grounded theory methodology and phenomenology, suggesting that these two research methodologies are more similar and have more in common with the artistic creative process than is commonly acknowledged. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150256

  18. Exact multiple scattering theory of two-nucleus collisions including the Pauli principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Exact equations for two-nucleus scattering are derived in which the effects of the Pauli principle are fully included. Our method exploits a modified equation for the scattering of two identical nucleons, which is obtained at the beginning. Considering proton-nucleus scattering we found that the resulting amplitude has two components, one resembling a multiple scattering series for distinguishable particles, and the other a distorted (A-1) nucleon cluster exchange. For elastic pA scattering the multiple scattering amplitude is found in the form of an optical potential expansion. We show that the Kerman-McManus-Thaler theory of the optical potential could be easily modified to include the effects of antisymmetrization of the projectile with the target nucleons. Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied first for distinguishable target and beam nucleus. Afterwards the Pauli principle is included, where only the case of deuteron-nucleus scattering is discussed in detail. The resulting amplitude has four components. Two of them correspond to modified multiple scattering expansions and the others are distorted (A-1)- and (A-2)- nucleon cluster exchange. The result for d-A scattering is extended to the general case of nucleus-nucleus scattering. The equations are simple to use and as such constitute an improvement over existing schemes

  19. ["Grounded theory" develops medicine. Popular research method for exploring human behavior can discover new connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.

  20. Collective Inclusioning: A Grounded Theory of a Bottom-Up Approach to Innovation and Leading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lysek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a grounded theory study of how leaders (e.g., entrepreneurs, managers, etc. engage people in challenging undertakings (e.g., innovation that require everyone’s commitment to such a degree that they would have to go beyond what could be reasonably expected in order to succeed. Company leaders sometimes wonder why their employees no longer show the same responsibility towards their work, and why they are more concerned with internal politics than solving customer problems. It is because company leaders no longer apply collective inclusioning to the same extent as they did in the past. Collective inclusioning can be applied in four ways by convincing, afinitizing, goal congruencing, and engaging. It can lead to fostering strong units of people for taking on challenging undertakings. Collective inclusioning is a complementing theory to other strategic management and leading theories. It offers a new perspective on how to implement a bottom-up approach to innovation.

  1. Music from Ground Zero. The coloniality of theory and musical analysis at the university.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jovanna Holguín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer the influence of the coloniality of knowledge, the cleansing of blood and the hybris of the zero ground in the conception of the theory and musical analysis which is taught in our Latin American universities. The aim is to examine the survival of coloniality in the imaginary of musical theory and analysis in order to recognize the predominant hegemonic discourses and propose some options to decolonize these disciplines of professional music education. The rationale is based on the presentation of some concepts of decolonial studies, research on the conservatory model and the ideology of theory and analysis.The article is divided into three parts. In the first one, an approximation is made to the concept of coloniality and its categories. The second takes the categories to review the ideology of the chosen fields of musical knowledge and the third proposes some options to decolonize our conceptions in higher education.

  2. A constructivist grounded theory of generalist health professionals and their mental health work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunero, Scott; Ramjan, Lucie M; Salamonson, Yenna; Nicholls, Daniel

    2018-05-30

    Generalist health professionals, often without formal mental health training, provide treatment and care to people with serious mental illness who present with physical health problems in general hospital settings. This article will present findings from a constructivist grounded theory study of the work delivered by generalist health staff to consumers with mental illness on the general medical/surgical wards of two metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The results analysed included three participant observations, two focus groups, and 21 interviews and hospital policy and protocol documents. A substantive theory of mental health work in general hospital settings is illustrated which conceptualizes the following categories: (i) the experience: conflicting realities and ideals; (ii) The Context: facilitating social distancing; and (iii) the social processes: invisibility affecting confidence. The categories are understood through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism with the theory providing insights into how the generalist health professionals understand their sense of self or identity. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. A discussion of differences in preparation, performance and postreflections in participant observations within two grounded theory approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher Berthelsen, Connie; Damsgaard, Tove Lindhardt; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the differences in using participant observation as a data collection method by comparing the classic grounded theory methodology of Barney Glaser with the constructivist grounded theory methodology by Kathy Charmaz. Participant observations allow nursing...... researchers to experience activities and interactions directly in situ. However, using participant observations as a data collection method can be done in many ways, depending on the chosen grounded theory methodology, and may produce different results. This discussion shows that how the differences between...

  4. The role of pride in women with anorexia nervosa: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faija, Cintia L; Tierney, Stephanie; Gooding, Patricia A; Peters, Sarah; Fox, John R E

    2017-12-01

    Theory and clinical literature suggest that pride may play an important role in the maintenance of restrictive eating disorders. A grounded theory study explored experiences of, and reflections on, pride among women with a current or past diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. This is a qualitative study using grounded theory. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 women recruited from an eating disorder unit in England, and from a UK self-help organization. Grounded theory from a constructivist lens was used. Analysis involved coding, constant comparison, and memo-writing. Pride evolves over the course of anorexia nervosa. Two overarching conceptual categories were identified: 'pride becoming intertwined with anorexia' and 'pride during the journey towards recovery'. These categories encompassed different forms of pride: 'alluring pride', 'toxic pride', 'pathological pride', 'anorexia pride', 'shameful pride', 'recovery pride', and 'resilient pride'. Initially, pride contributed to self-enhancement and buffered negative emotions. As the condition progressed, pride became a challenge to health and interfered with motivation to change. During recovery, perceptions of pride altered as a healthy approach to living ensued. The evolving nature of pride plays a central role in development, maintenance, and treatment of anorexia nervosa. Understanding of pride and its role in psychotherapeutic work with this client group may increase motivation to change and promote recovery. Future work should investigate whether tackling pride in eating disorders increases treatment efficacy and reduces the risk of relapsing. Pride associated with anorexia appeared to evolve in nature. During early stages of the eating disorder, it stopped people from seeking help. Later on, it prevented them from seeing pride in healthy domains of life (outside anorexia). Over time, pride in anorexia became an overwhelming emotion that interfered with motivation to change. It is important for

  5. Reconciling the good patient persona with problematic and non-problematic humour: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreaddie, May; Wiggins, Sally

    2009-08-01

    Humour is a complex phenomenon, incorporating cognitive, emotional, behavioural, physiological and social aspects. Research to date has concentrated on reviewing (rehearsed) humour and 'healthy' individuals via correlation studies using personality-trait based measurements, principally on psychology students in laboratory conditions. Nurses are key participants in modern healthcare interactions however, little is known about their (spontaneous) humour use. A middle-range theory that accounted for humour use in CNS-patient interactions was the aim of the study. The study reviewed the antecedents of humour exploring the use of humour in relation to (motivational) humour theories. Twenty Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions and their respective peer groups in a country of the United Kingdom. An evolved constructivist grounded theory approach investigated a complex and dynamic phenomenon in situated contexts. Naturally occurring interactions provided the basis of the data corpus with follow-up interviews, focus groups, observation and field notes. A constant comparative approach to data collection and analysis was applied until theoretical sufficiency incorporating an innovative interpretative and illustrative framework. This paper reports the grounded theory and is principally based upon 20 CNS-patient interactions and follow-up data. The negative case analysis and peer group interactions will be reported in separate publications. The theory purports that patients' use humour to reconcile a good patient persona. The core category of the good patient persona, two of its constituent elements (compliance, sycophancy), conditions under which it emerges and how this relates to the use of humour are outlined and discussed. In seeking to establish and maintain a meaningful and therapeutic interaction with the CNS, patients enact a good patient persona to varying degrees depending upon the situated context. The good patient persona needs to be maintained within the

  6. First-principles Theory of Magnetic Multipoles in Condensed Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Michi-To; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2018-04-01

    The multipole concept, which characterizes the spacial distribution of scalar and vector objects by their angular dependence, has already become widely used in various areas of physics. In recent years it has become employed to systematically classify the anisotropic distribution of electrons and magnetization around atoms in solid state materials. This has been fuelled by the discovery of several physical phenomena that exhibit unusual higher rank multipole moments, beyond that of the conventional degrees of freedom as charge and magnetic dipole moment. Moreover, the higher rank electric/magnetic multipole moments have been suggested as promising order parameters in exotic hidden order phases. While the experimental investigations of such anomalous phases have provided encouraging observations of multipolar order, theoretical approaches have developed at a slower pace. In particular, a materials' specific theory has been missing. The multipole concept has furthermore been recognized as the key quantity which characterizes the resultant configuration of magnetic moments in a cluster of atomic moments. This cluster multipole moment has then been introduced as macroscopic order parameter for a noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure in crystals that can explain unusual physical phenomena whose appearance is determined by the magnetic point group symmetry. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the recent developments in the first-principles theory investigating multipolar degrees of freedom in condensed matter systems. These recent developments exemplify that ab initio electronic structure calculations can unveil detailed insight in the mechanism of physical phenomena caused by the unconventional, multipole degree of freedom.

  7. Precautionary discourse. Thinking through the distinction between the precautionary principle and the precautionary approach in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinneen, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the distinction, arising from the different ways the European Union and United States have come to adopt precaution regarding various environmental and health-related risks, between the precautionary principle and the precautionary approach in both theory and practice. First, this paper addresses how the precautionary principle has been variously defined, along with an exploration of some of the concepts with which it has been associated. Next, it addresses how the distinction between the precautionary principle and precautionary approach manifested itself within the political realm. Last, it considers the theoretical foundation of the precautionary principle in the philosophy of Hans Jonas, considering whether the principled-pragmatic distinction regarding precaution does or doesn't hold up in Jonas' thought.

  8. Living with the Choice: A Grounded Theory of Iraqi Refugee Resettlement to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa A

    2017-04-01

    Though the United States has become a place of increasing resettlement for refugees, particularly Iraqi refugees who have been forced to flee their homeland due to violence, persecution and civil unrest, little is known about Iraqi refugee resettlement in the United States, or the way in which resettlement impacts health and adjustment. A grounded theory study was conducted to develop a substantive theory of Iraqi refugee resettlement. Participants in the qualitative study included 29 Iraqi refugees and 2 community partners who participated in face-to face interviews. Data analysis and interpretation revealed fundamental concepts related to Iraqi refugee resettlement. Results of analysis showed that for Iraqis choosing to resettle here, the outcome is dichotomous: satisfaction or regret. The outcome is influenced by contextual factors as well as facilitating and hindering intervening conditions during the basic social process of resettlement transition. Each refugee's story is unique, yet all share common threads. This study allowed Iraqi refugees the opportunity to voice their personal experiences of resettling in America, and revealed life stories that inspire and illuminate a process that can guide health care delivery as they cope with the stresses of their journey. As a result, an in-depth storyline was established to explain the process of resettlement for Iraqi refugees. The development of this resettlement theory, grounded in Iraqi refugee experience, has the potential to guide nursing education, enhance the efficacy of practice, inform policy development and form the basis for research.

  9. Learning to live with a hand nerve disorder: A constructed grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Mark; Jerosch-Herold, Christina; Shepstone, Lee

    2017-11-29

    Grounded theory. The broader perspective of health offered by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has had a significant bearing on how we view the measurement of health outcomes after surgical or therapy interventions for peripheral nerve disorders affecting the hand. The value of the patient's perspective is now recognized and outcomes which reflect this are being advocated in the clinical management and support of this population. This qualitative study sought to explore the lived experience of a hand nerve disorder and in particular the impact on body structure/function, activities, and participation. In depth, one-to-one interviews with 14 people with a range of hand nerve disorders were conducted. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used to collect and analyze the data. Patients were also given the option of taking photographs to visually represent what it is like to live with a nerve disorder, to bring with them for discussion during the interview. The impact of hand nerve disorders forms part of a wider narrative on adaptation. A process of "struggling" and then "overcoming" was experienced. This was followed by an interior aspect of adaptation described as "accepting." This gave rise to participants "transforming," being changed as a result of the journey that they had been on. This study provides an explanatory theory on the adaptive process following a hand nerve disorder which may inform future patient-therapist interactions. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Social Accountable Model for Medical Education System in Iran: A Grounded-Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Abdolmaleki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Social accountability has been increasingly discussed over the past three decades in various fields providing service to the community and has been expressed as a goal for various areas. In medical education system, like other social accountability areas, it is considered as one of the main objectives globally. The aim of this study was to seek a social accountability theory in the medical education system that is capable of identifying all the standards, norms, and conditions within the country related to the study subject and recognize their relationship. In this study, a total of eight experts in the field of social accountability in medical education system with executive or study experience were interviewedpersonally. After analysis of interviews, 379 codes, 59 secondary categories, 16 subcategories, and 9 main categories were obtained. The resulting data was collected and analyzed at three levels of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding in the form of grounded theory study of “Accountability model of medical education in Iran”, which can be used in education system’s policies and planning for social accountability, given that almost all effective components of social accountability in highereducation health system with causal and facilitator associations were determined.Keywords: SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY, COMMUNITY–ORIENTED MEDICINE, COMMUNITY MEDICINE, EDUCATION SYSTEM, GROUNDED THEORY

  11. Taking Root: a grounded theory on evidence-based nursing implementation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Broome, M E; Feng, S; Hu, Y

    2018-06-01

    Evidence-based nursing is widely recognized as the critical foundation for quality care. To develop a middle-range theory on the process of evidence-based nursing implementation in Chinese context. A grounded theory study using unstructured in-depth individual interviews was conducted with 56 participants who were involved in 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects in Mainland China from September 2015 to September 2016. A middle-range grounded theory of 'Taking Root' was developed. The theory describes the evidence implementation process consisting of four components (driving forces, process, outcome, sustainment/regression), three approaches (top-down, bottom-up and outside-in), four implementation strategies (patient-centred, nurses at the heart of change, reaching agreement, collaboration) and two patterns (transformational and adaptive implementation). Certain perspectives may have not been captured, as the retrospective nature of the interviewing technique did not allow for 'real-time' assessment of the actual implementation process. The transferability of the findings requires further exploration as few participants with negative experiences were recruited. This is the first study that explored evidence-based implementation process, strategies, approaches and patterns in the Chinese nursing practice context to inform international nursing and health policymaking. The theory of Taking Root described various approaches to evidence implementation and how the implementation can be transformational for the nurses and the setting in which they work. Nursing educators, managers and researchers should work together to improve nurses' readiness for evidence implementation. Healthcare systems need to optimize internal mechanisms and external collaborations to promote nursing practice in line with evidence and achieve clinical outcomes and sustainability. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  12. The role of appraisal distortion, contempt, and morality in couple conflict: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jason B

    2008-01-01

    A common goal of couples' therapy is to help individuals modify their view of each other and the relationship. Distorted views and appraisals contribute to conflict, and these can be manifest by use of rationalization or denial. This study explored appraisal distortion as an evaluative and moral process that occurs during partner conflict, particularly when it becomes contemptuous and aggressive. Using a philosophical base that is grounded in the ethical relationship, a model of appraisal distortion and couple conflict was created using constructivist grounded theory methods. The theoretical concepts derived from the data show relationships between one's relational stance, appraisal distortion, and verbal and physical aggression. This model implies that helping individuals take responsibility for appraisals is important in treating conflict.

  13. Living Disconnected: Building a Grounded Theory View of Bereavement for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clute, Mary Ann

    2017-11-01

    This grounded theory study gathered descriptions the bereavement experience for adults with intellectual disabilities (IDD) through the eyes and voices of a small sample of grief counselors. The counselors described bereaved adults with IDD as individuals who faced potentially heightened effects of the broken attachment bonds, increased risk of coping obstacles, long histories of unrecognized losses, and disenfranchised grief. The participants described bereaved adults with IDD (who sought treatment) as getting pushed to the sidelines to deal with their losses in isolation and confusion. It became evident that though there are many similarities between how all people cope with loss and how people with IDD cope with loss, differences exist. Subtle variations in the experience of loss and grief appear to be driven by culture and beliefs about disability and protection for those with IDD. The participants in this dissertation study contributed foundation data for a theoretical explanation of grief for adults with IDD grounded in data from bereavement counselors.

  14. The principles of quantum theory, from Planck's quanta to the Higgs boson the nature of quantum reality and the spirit of Copenhagen

    CERN Document Server

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2016-01-01

    The book considers foundational thinking in quantum theory, focusing on the role the fundamental principles and principle thinking there, including thinking that leads to the invention of new principles, which is, the book contends, one of the ultimate achievements of theoretical thinking in physics and beyond. The focus on principles, prominent during the rise and in the immediate aftermath of quantum theory, has been uncommon in more recent discussions and debates concerning it. The book argues, however, that exploring the fundamental principles and principle thinking is exceptionally helpful in addressing the key issues at stake in quantum foundations and the seemingly interminable debates concerning them. Principle thinking led to major breakthroughs throughout the history of quantum theory, beginning with the old quantum theory and quantum mechanics, the first definitive quantum theory, which it remains within its proper (nonrelativistic) scope. It has, the book also argues, been equally important in qua...

  15. Accurate Ground-State Energies of Solids and Molecules from Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that ground-state energies approaching chemical accuracy can be obtained by combining the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with time-dependent densityfunctional theory. The key ingredient is a renormalization scheme, which eliminates the divergence...

  16. Nurses experience of using scientific knowledge in clinical practice: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renolen, Åste; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Guidelines recommend the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. Nurses are expected to give patients care and treatment based on the best knowledge available. They may have knowledge and positive attitudes, but this does not mean that they are basing their work on evidence-based practice. Knowledge is still lacking about what is needed to successfully implement evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about what nurses perceive as the most important challenge in implementing evidence-based practice and to explain how they act to face and overcome this challenge. We used classical grounded theory methodology and collected data through four focus groups and one individual interview in different geographical locations in one large hospital trust in Norway. Fourteen registered clinical practice nurses participated. We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using the constant comparative method. Contextual balancing of knowledge emerged as the core category and explains how the nurses dealt with their main concern, how to determine what types of knowledge they could trust. The nurses' main strategies were an inquiring approach, examining knowledge and maintaining control while taking care of patients. They combined their own experienced-based knowledge and the guidelines of evidence-based practice with a sense of control in the actual situation. The grounded theory contextual balancing of knowledge may help us to understand how nurses detect what types of knowledge they can trust in clinical practice. The nurses needed to rely on what they did, and they seemed to rely on their own experience rather than on research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Protocol: A grounded theory of 'recovery'-perspectives of adolescent users of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Lucianne; Patterson, Sue; O'Donovan, Analise; Bradley, Graham

    2017-07-20

    Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people's views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant. To inform development of policy and youth services, the study described in this protocol aims to develop a comprehensive account of the experiences and expectations of 12-17 year olds as they encounter mental disorders and transition through specialist mental health services. Data will be analysed to model recovery from the adolescents' perspective. This grounded theory study will use quantitative and qualitative data collected in interviews with 12-17 year olds engaged with specialist Child/Youth Mental Health Service in Queensland, Australia. Interviews will explore adolescents' expectations and experiences of mental disorder, and of services, as they transition through specialist mental health services, including the meaning of their experiences and ideas of 'recovery' and how their experiences and expectations are shaped. Data collection and analysis will use grounded theory methods. Adolescents' experiences will be presented as a mid-range theory. The research will provide tangible recommendations for youth-focused mental health policy and practice. Findings will be disseminated within academic literature and beyond to participants, health professionals, mental health advocacy groups and policy and decision makers via publications, research summaries, conferences and workshops targeting different audiences. Ethical and research governance approvals have been obtained from relevant Human Research Ethics committees and all

  18. Virtual patient design: exploring what works and why. A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, James; Allen, Maggie; Samani, Dipti; Kidd, Jane; Davies, David

    2013-06-01

    Virtual patients (VPs) are online representations of clinical cases used in medical education. Widely adopted, they are well placed to teach clinical reasoning skills. International technology standards mean VPs can be created, shared and repurposed between institutions. A systematic review has highlighted the lack of evidence to support which of the numerous VP designs may be effective, and why. We set out to research the influence of VP design on medical undergraduates. This is a grounded theory study into the influence of VP design on undergraduate medical students. Following a review of the literature and publicly available VP cases, we identified important design properties. We integrated them into two substantial VPs produced for this research. Using purposeful iterative sampling, 46 medical undergraduates were recruited to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed both VPs, an evaluation and a 1-hour focus group discussion. These were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory, supported by computer-assisted analysis. Following open, axial and selective coding, we produced a theoretical model describing how students learn from VPs. We identified a central core phenomenon designated 'learning from the VP'. This had four categories: VP Construction; External Preconditions; Student-VP Interaction, and Consequences. From these, we constructed a three-layer model describing the interactions of students with VPs. The inner layer consists of the student's cognitive and behavioural preconditions prior to sitting a case. The middle layer considers the VP as an 'encoded object', an e-learning artefact and as a 'constructed activity', with associated pedagogic and organisational elements. The outer layer describes cognitive and behavioural change. This is the first grounded theory study to explore VP design. This original research has produced a model which enhances understanding of how and why the delivery and design of VPs

  19. Recognizing and responding to uncertainty: a grounded theory of nurses' uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranley, Lisa A; Doran, Diane M; Tourangeau, Ann E; Kushniruk, Andre; Nagle, Lynn

    2012-08-01

    There has been little research to date exploring nurses' uncertainty in their practice. Understanding nurses' uncertainty is important because it has potential implications for how care is delivered. The purpose of this study is to develop a substantive theory to explain how staff nurses experience and respond to uncertainty in their practice. Between 2006 and 2008, a grounded theory study was conducted that included in-depth semi-structured interviews. Fourteen staff nurses working in adult medical-surgical intensive care units at two teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The theory recognizing and responding to uncertainty characterizes the processes through which nurses' uncertainty manifested and how it was managed. Recognizing uncertainty involved the processes of assessing, reflecting, questioning, and/or being unable to predict aspects of the patient situation. Nurses' responses to uncertainty highlighted the cognitive-affective strategies used to manage uncertainty. Study findings highlight the importance of acknowledging uncertainty and having collegial support to manage uncertainty. The theory adds to our understanding the processes involved in recognizing uncertainty, strategies and outcomes of managing uncertainty, and influencing factors. Tailored nursing education programs should be developed to assist nurses in developing skills in articulating and managing their uncertainty. Further research is needed to extend, test and refine the theory of recognizing and responding to uncertainty to develop strategies for managing uncertainty. This theory advances the nursing perspective of uncertainty in clinical practice. The theory is relevant to nurses who are faced with uncertainty and complex clinical decisions, to managers who support nurses in their clinical decision-making, and to researchers who investigate ways to improve decision-making and care delivery. ©2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. A grounded theory study of the acquisition of technology by Danish dairy producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Troels Vammen; Tandrup, Peter René; Brandt, Charlotte J.

    The problem of technology acquisition in SMEs represents an under-investigated area in IS research. Most IS literature focuses on either the internal development of systems, which SMEs rarely do, or on issues of usage after the acquisition has taken place. This gap is problematic since acquisition...... grounded theory method for this research. We carried out and analyzed 28 interviews with milk producers and 5 with technology vendors. Our results show that motivations for technology acquisition for milk producers include the economic situation of the farmer, the perceived value of the technology...

  1. Building Mobile Apps for Underrepresented Mental Health care Consumers: A Grounded Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F; Keefe, Robert H; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T; Mullick, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Cell phone mobile application ("app") use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps' effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes.

  2. Women's strategies for coping with the impacts of domestic violence in Kyrgyzstan: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Saltanat; Gioia, Deborah; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides an account of the adverse impacts of domestic violence on women in Kyrgyzstan and develops a grounded theory of coping among survivors of abuse. The results indicate that women adopt a range of strategies to prevent, avert, and minimize anticipated violence. Two key aspects of coping appeared in the narratives: 1) maintaining the status quo and 2) developing agency to resist the abuse. The results suggest that Government and nongovernmental organizations must take additional action to draw women to formal violence prevention services. Providing professional help at several levels (e.g., clinical, community, and societal) and promoting problem-focused strategies as part of therapeutic intervention are essential.

  3. Building Mobile Apps for Underrepresented Mental Health care Consumers: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F.; Keefe, Robert H.; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T.; Mullick, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Cell phone mobile application (“app”) use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps’ effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes. PMID:29056878

  4. Fathers' Orientation to their Children's Autism Diagnosis: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Michael D; Hannon, LaChan V

    2017-07-01

    Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental differences, engaging in research and education activities, having their children formally evaluated; inquiring about their children's prognosis, and having curiosities about autism's etiology. The orienting others phase entailed orientating family members and orienting members of their broader communities. Recommendations for responsive service provision, support for fathers, and future research are offered.

  5. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2017-08-01

    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Performance First-Principles Molecular Dynamics for Predictive Theory and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygi, Francois [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Galli, Giulia [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-03

    This project focused on developing high-performance software tools for First-Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) simulations, and applying them in investigations of materials relevant to energy conversion processes. FPMD is an atomistic simulation method that combines a quantum-mechanical description of electronic structure with the statistical description provided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This reliance on fundamental principles allows FPMD simulations to provide a consistent description of structural, dynamical and electronic properties of a material. This is particularly useful in systems for which reliable empirical models are lacking. FPMD simulations are increasingly used as a predictive tool for applications such as batteries, solar energy conversion, light-emitting devices, electro-chemical energy conversion devices and other materials. During the course of the project, several new features were developed and added to the open-source Qbox FPMD code. The code was further optimized for scalable operation of large-scale, Leadership-Class DOE computers. When combined with Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) calculations, this infrastructure was used to investigate structural and electronic properties of liquid water, ice, aqueous solutions, nanoparticles and solid-liquid interfaces. Computing both ionic trajectories and electronic structure in a consistent manner enabled the simulation of several spectroscopic properties, such as Raman spectra, infrared spectra, and sum-frequency generation spectra. The accuracy of the approximations used allowed for direct comparisons of results with experimental data such as optical spectra, X-ray and neutron diffraction spectra. The software infrastructure developed in this project, as applied to various investigations of solids, liquids and interfaces, demonstrates that FPMD simulations can provide a detailed, atomic-scale picture of structural, vibrational and electronic properties of complex systems

  7. Grounded Theory sebagai Metode Riset “Realitas Tertambah” di Museum Fatahillah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Widya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is part of the science of visual communication design/graphic design through theaddition of images on the real world with virtual information to enhance one’s senses with the help of “smart glasses”with three general characteristics: 1. The combination of real environment with virtual objects, 2. Interactivedisplay, 3. Display in 3D. Qualitative research methods and grounded theory approach in the real environmentin the area of Jakarta Fatahillah museum, discovered a new theory as a basis the idea that Visual PrototypingAugmented Reality technique with image manipulation-image nuanced Kota Tua as Jakarta Icon. The idea ofexploiting foreign tourists enriching way to learn more about Indonesia through social networking in a virtual worldstrategies to increase tourism.

  8. Reading Fluency Techniques from the Bottom-up: A Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In many EFL contexts, including language education milieu in Iran, reading fluency is usually taken for granted since language education in public high schools mainly focuses on reading comprehension. Taking the detrimental effect of fluency deficiency into account, some practitioners foreground reading fluency and try to develop it early on. To give voice to their theories of practice, this qualitative study interviewed teachers who were willing to share their experience with the researchers. In line with grounded theory, the iterative process of data collection and analysis continued until the conceptualization of fluency development techniques was saturated. The techniques emerged are conducive to fluency development and as such the findings have clear implications for practitioners and policy makers nation-wide.

  9. Nursing communication in nursing care to mastectomized women: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Araújo, Iliana Maria; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Bonfim, Isabela Melo; Fernandes, Ana Fátima Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to understand the nurse/patient communication process, emphasizing nursing care to mastectomized women. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory were used to interview eight nurses from a referral institution in cancer treatment, using the guiding question: how do nurses perceive their communication process with mastectomized women? Data analysis allowed for the creation of a central theory: the meaning of communication in nursing care to women, constituted by three distinct but inter-related phenomena: perceiving communication, the relationship nurse/mastectomized woman and rethinking the communication nurse/mastectomized woman. With a view to satisfactory communication, professionals need to get involved and believe that their presence is as important as the performance of technical procedures that relieve situations of stress.

  10. Four types of coping with COPD-induced breathlessness in daily living: a grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    COPD predominantly cope with breathlessness during daily living. We chose a multimodal grounded theory design that holds the opportunity to combine qualitative and quantitative data to capture and explain the multidimensional coping behaviour among poeple with COPD. The participants' main concern...... in coping with breathlessness appeared to be an endless striving to economise on resources in an effort to preserve their integrity. In this integrity-preserving process, four predominant coping types emerged and were labelled: `Overrater´, `Challenger´, `Underrater´, and `Leveller´. Each coping type...... comprised distrinctive physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial features constituting coping-type-specific indicators. In theory, four predominant coping types with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial properties are observed among people with COPD. The four coping types...

  11. A grounded theory of faculty's use of humanization to create online course climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the way faculty establish course social presence in an online course. The community of inquiry model by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer distinguished the area of social presence as an important component of online learning, and this study sought to understand how faculty perceive and create social presence in their online classroom. By employing a grounded theory approach, a substantive theory was developed to explain the way in which faculty create and maintain an online course climate. The sample consisted of 10 nursing faculty teaching various master's in nursing courses. Through a rigorous qualitative process using nursing faculty interviews and online course analysis, humanization was found to be the core category in setting online course climate. Faculty's efforts to humanize the climate lead each member of the community to view the other members as real, thereby enabling the establishment of online social presence.

  12. Finessing incivility: The professional socialisation experiences of student nurses' first clinical placement, a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Juliet; Jinks, Annette; Jack, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice is where student nurses are socialised into a professional role and acquire the distinct behaviour, attitudes and values of the nursing profession. Getting it right at the outset can maximise the development of a professional identity and the transmission of robust value systems. To explore the impact of the first clinical placement on the professional socialisation of adult undergraduate student nurses in the United Kingdom. Data of a longitudinal qualitative nature were collected and analysed using grounded theory. First year student nurses in hospital ward placements comprising a rural District General Hospital and a large inner city Hospital kept daily unstructured diaries for six weeks. A total of 26 undergraduate adult student nurses were purposefully sampled between 2008 and 2010 before undertaking their initial clinical placement. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory and the key question asked of the diarists 'tell me what it is like to be a first year nurse on a first placement' was theoretically adjusted during constant comparison and as the theory emerged. Ethical approval and consent was obtained. The theory of finessing incivility comprises a conceptual framework depicting how student nurses deal with professional incivility during their initial clinical placement and sustain a student identity. Being disillusioned with their role as worker rather than learner yields a sense of 'status dislocation'. Despite needing professional benevolence, they remain altruistic and seek recompense from significant others to negotiate for learning opportunities and relocate their student status. Despite the stressful transition into clinical practice rather than 'fit in', the student nurses want to belong as learners. His or her own resilience to learn nursing and be a professional student maintains their resolve, their altruism and strengthens their existing values to be benevolent towards an indifferent profession. This behaviour

  13. The Rediscovery and Resurrection of Bunk Johnson – a Grounded Theory Approach: A case study in jazz historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ekins, Ph.D., FRSA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written in the beginning phase of my transitioning from grounded theory sociologist (Ekins, 19971 to grounded theory musicologist (Ekins, 20102. In particular, it provides preliminary data for a grounded theory of ‘managing authenticity’, the core category/basic social process (Glaser, 1978 that has emerged from my ongoing grounded theory work in jazz historiography. It was written whilst I was ‘credentialising’ (Glaser, 2010 my transition to popular music studies and popular musicology. In consequence, it incorporates many aspects that are inimical to classic grounded theory. As with so much of Straussian and so-called constructivist grounded theory (Bryant and Charmaz, 2007, it roots itself in G.H. Mead and a social constructivist symbolic interactionism – inter alia, a legitimising (authenticating strategy. Moreover, as is typical of this mode of conceptualising, the paper fills the void of inadequate classic grounded theorising with less conceptual theorising and more conceptual description. Nevertheless, the article does introduce a number of categories that ‘fit and work’, and have ‘conceptual grab’ (Glaser, 1978; Glaser, 1992. In particular, in terms of my own continuing credentialising as a classic grounded theorist, it sets forth important categories to be integrated into my ongoing work on managing authenticity in New Orleans revivalist jazz, namely, ‘trailblazing’, ‘mythologizing’, ‘debunking’, and ‘marginalising’, in the context of the ‘rediscovering’ and ‘resurrecting’ of a jazz pioneer. More specifically, the paper is offered to classic grounded theorists as a contribution to preliminary generic social process analysis in the substantive area of jazz historiography.

  14. Ingredients and change processes in occupational therapy for children: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Samantha; Swallow, Veronica; Kolehmainen, Niina

    2017-05-01

    There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for participation outcomes in children with coordination difficulties. Developing theory about the interventions, i.e. their ingredients and change processes, is the first step to advance the evidence base. To develop theory about the key ingredients of occupational therapy interventions for children with coordination difficulties and the processes through which change in participation might happen. Grounded theory methodology, as described by Kathy Charmaz, was used to develop the theory. Children and parents participated in semi-structured interviews to share their experiences of occupational therapy and processes of change. Data collection and analysis were completed concurrently using constant comparison methods. Five key ingredients of interventions were described: performing activities and tasks; achieving; carer support; helping and supporting the child; and labelling. Ingredients related to participation by changing children's mastery experience, increasing capability beliefs and sense of control. Parents' knowledge, skills, positive emotions, sense of empowerment and capability beliefs also related to children's participation. The results identify intervention ingredients and change pathways within occupational therapy to increase participation. It is unclear how explicitly and often therapists consider and make use of these ingredients and pathway.

  15. On the impossibility of a small violation of the Pauli principle within the local quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the local quantum field theory of free fields allows only the generalizations of the conventional quantizations (corresponding to the Fermi and Bose statistics) that correspond to the para-Fermi and para-Bose statistics and does not permit ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle

  16. Improving the Quality of Online Discussion: The Effects of Strategies Designed Based on Cognitive Load Theory Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Jin, Li

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on heavy cognitive load as the reason for the lack of quality associated with conventional online discussion. Using the principles of cognitive load theory, four online discussion strategies were designed specifically aiming at reducing the discussants' cognitive load and thus enhancing the quality of their online discussion.…

  17. [Concept extraction of graduate research by modified grounded theory approach and creating of rubric oriented to performance evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Sone, Tomomichi; Kohno, Takeyuki; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

      A revised core curriculum model for pharmaceutical education, developed on the basis of the principles of outcome-based education, will be introduced in 2015. Inevitably, appropriate assessments of students' academic achievements will be required. Although evaluations of the cognitive domain can be carried out by paper tests, evaluation methods for the attitude domain and problem-solving abilities need to be established. From the viewpoint of quality assurance for graduates, pharmaceutical education reforms have become vital to evaluation as well as learning strategies. To evaluate student academic achievements on problem-solving abilities, authentic assessment is required. Authentic assessment is the evaluation that mimics the context tried in work and life. Specifically, direct evaluation of performances, demonstration or the learners' own work with integrated variety knowledge and skills, is required. To clarify the process of graduate research, we obtained qualitative data through focus group interviews with six teachers and analyzed the data using the modified grounded theory approach. Based on the results, we clarify the performance students should show in graduate research and create a rubric for evaluation of performance in graduate research.

  18. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  19. This too shall pass: a grounded theory study of Filipino cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B; Jimenez, Benito Christian B; Jocson, Kathlyn P; Junio, Aileen R; Junio, Drazen E; Jurado, Jasper Benjamin N; Justiniano, Angela Bianca F

    2013-03-01

    Considering the paucity of studies dealing with the holistic aspect of the cancer experience, this grounded theory study seeks to conceptualize the process of cancer survivorship among Filipinos. Twenty-seven Filipino cancer survivors were purposively selected, and a two-part instrument, specifically robotfoto and focus group interviews, was used to gather data. The Glaserian method of grounded theory analysis was used, and extended texts were analyzed inductively via a dendrogram. Member checking and correspondence were observed to validate the surfacing stages, leading to the conceptualization of a theoretical model termed as the Ribbon of Cancer Survivorship. The said model describes the trifling (living before), transfusing (accepting the reality), transforming (being strong), and transcending (living beyond) phases of cancer survivorship. Ten interesting substages were also identified, namely: tainting, desolating, disrupting, and embracing for the transfusing phase; tormenting, distressing, awakening, and transfiguring for the transforming phase, and trembling and enlivening for the transcending phase. The resulting theoretical model has clearly and successfully described the entire process of cancer survivorship among Filipinos. It is hoped that the model be used as a reference for future studies about cancer survivorship and as a guide for nurses in providing a more empathetic care among cancer patients.

  20. The Core of Sibling Stem Cell Donation – A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Annika M; Forsberg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of theoretical framework supporting stem cell transplant nurses in their assessment, judgment and caring interventions of sibling stem cell donors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore sibling stem cell donors’ main concerns and how they deal with them before and after donation. Method: Ten healthy sibling donors, 5 men and 5 women, with a median age of 54 years were included in this study when they were due to donate stem cells to a brother or sister. Data were collected prospectively on three occasions (before the donation and three and twelve months after it) through in-depth interviews, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by the Grounded Theory method according to Charmaz. Results: This study describes the efforts of the ten donors to fulfil their duty as a sibling by doing what they considered necessary in order to help. Their efforts were summarised in a process wherein the grounded theory generated three main categories; Prepare, Promote and Preserve. A clear path of transition leading to fulfilment is evident, starting before the donation and continuing for one year afterwards. Conclusions: Being a sibling stem cell donor means doing what you have to do to fulfil your duty and if possible, saving the life of a seriously ill brother or sister. The relationship between the siblings is strengthened by the donation process. Sibling stem cell donation appears to be about fulfilment and the theoretical framework may support clinicians in their evaluation and support of donors. PMID:28839511

  1. The Experiences of Young Adults With Hodgkin Lymphoma Transitioning to Survivorship: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Lauren; Boulton, Mary; Lavender, Verna; Collins, Graham; Mitchell-Floyd, Tracy; Watson, Eila

    2016-09-01

    To explore the experiences of young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma during the first year following the end of initial treatment. 
. A qualitative grounded theory study.
. Interviews with patients recruited from three cancer centers in England.
. 10 Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (four men and six women aged 21-39 years) recruited as part of a larger study of 28 young adult cancer survivors.
. Semistructured interviews were conducted about two months after treatment completion, and follow-up interviews were conducted seven months later. The authors' grounded theory of positive psychosocial adjustment to cancer provided the conceptual framework.
. Positive reframing, informal peer support, acceptance, and normalization helped young adults dismantle the threats of Hodgkin lymphoma during the course of treatment. However, they described losing a sense of security following treatment completion. Greater age-specific information to enable better preparation for the future was desired regarding body image, fertility, sexual relationships, work, and socializing.
. Informal support mechanisms, like peer support and patient navigator interventions, may be useful ways to further support young adults after treatment completion.
. Positive psychosocial adjustment to cancer survivorship in young adults is facilitated by having informal peer support; being able to positively reframe, accept, and normalize their experience; and being prepared for the future.

  2. Women's self-management of chronic illnesses in the context of caregiving: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marcos, Mercedes; De la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Uncover how women self-manage their own chronic illness while taking care of a dependent relative. International policies place special emphasis in promoting interventions addressed to control, prevent and care for people with chronic health conditions. Self-management is a crucial part of this care. Caregivers are more prone to have chronic illness than non-caregivers. They are confronted with dilemmas about taking care of themselves while taking care of their dependent relative and the rest of their families. Caregivers articulate strategies to enable them to focus their energy on caring. Qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory. Thirty-nine women caregivers with a chronic illness participated in the study. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were carried out between April 2010-December 2011. Data were analysed using grounded theory procedures. Self-management helps women caregivers with a chronic illness to balance the demands of their own illness and those of the dependent relative. They self-manage their illness by self-regulating the treatment, by regulating their strength and by controlling their emotions. Women caregivers integrate effectively and creatively the management of their chronic illnesses within the complexities of family care. This renders their health needs invisible and reaffirms them as capable caregivers. Identifying self-management strategies of women caregivers allow health professionals to acknowledge and reinforce effective self-care measures and to deter those that are ineffective and lessen their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Core of Sibling Stem Cell Donation - A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Annika M; Forsberg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of theoretical framework supporting stem cell transplant nurses in their assessment, judgment and caring interventions of sibling stem cell donors. The purpose of this study was to explore sibling stem cell donors' main concerns and how they deal with them before and after donation. Ten healthy sibling donors, 5 men and 5 women, with a median age of 54 years were included in this study when they were due to donate stem cells to a brother or sister. Data were collected prospectively on three occasions (before the donation and three and twelve months after it) through in-depth interviews, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by the Grounded Theory method according to Charmaz. This study describes the efforts of the ten donors to fulfil their duty as a sibling by doing what they considered necessary in order to help. Their efforts were summarised in a process wherein the grounded theory generated three main categories; Prepare, Promote and Preserve. A clear path of transition leading to fulfilment is evident, starting before the donation and continuing for one year afterwards. Being a sibling stem cell donor means doing what you have to do to fulfil your duty and if possible, saving the life of a seriously ill brother or sister. The relationship between the siblings is strengthened by the donation process. Sibling stem cell donation appears to be about fulfilment and the theoretical framework may support clinicians in their evaluation and support of donors.

  4. GP and pharmacist inter-professional learning - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, David E; Ferguson, Julie; Wakeling, Judy; Zlotos, Leon; Power, Ailsa

    2016-05-01

    Practice Based Small Group Learning (PBSGL) is an established learning resource for primary care clinicians in Scotland and is used by one-third of general practitioners (GPs). Scottish Government and UK professional bodies have called for GPs and pharmacists to work more closely together to improve care. To gain GPs' and pharmacists' perceptions and experiences of learning together in an inter-professional PBSGL pilot. Qualitative research methods involving established GP PBSGL groups in NHS Scotland recruiting one or two pharmacists to join them. A grounded theory method was used. GPs were interviewed in focus groups by a fellow GP, and pharmacists were interviewed individually by two researchers, neither being a GP or a pharmacist. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory methods. Data saturation was achieved and confirmed. Three themes were identified: GPs' and pharmacists' perceptions and experiences of inter-professional learning; Inter-professional relationships and team-working; Group identity and purpose of existing GP groups. Pharmacists were welcomed into GP groups and both professions valued inter-professional PBSGL learning. Participants learned from each other and both professions gained a wider perspective of the NHS and of each others' roles in the organisation. Inter-professional relationships, communication and team-working were strengthened and professionals regarded each other as peers and friends.

  5. Balancing power: A grounded theory study on partnership of academic service institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Yazdani, Shahram

    2017-07-01

    Governments and professional organizations have called for new partnerships between health care providers and academics to improve clinical education for the benefit of both students and patients. To develop a substantive grounded theory on the process of forming academic-service partnerships in implementing clinical education, from the perspective of academic and clinical nursing staff members and managers working in Iranian settings. The participants included 15 hospital nurses, nurse managers, nurse educators, and educational managers from two central universities and clinical settings from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected through 30 in-depth, semi-structure interviews with the individual participants and then analyzed using the methodology of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. Utilizing "balancing power" as the core variable enabled us to integrate the concepts concerning the partnership processes between clinical and educational institutes. Three distinct and significant categories emerged to explain the process of partnership: 1) divergence, 2) conflict between educational and caring functions, and 3) creation of balance between educational and caring functions. In implementing clinical education, partnerships have been formed within a challenging context in Iran. Conflict between clinical and educational functions was the main concern of both sides of the partnership in forming a collaborative relationship, with our findings emphasizing the importance of nursing educators' role in the establishment of partnership programs.

  6. Balancing power: A grounded theory study on partnership of academic service institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH HESHMATI NABAVI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Governments and professional organizations have called for new partnerships between health care providers and academics to improve clinical education for the benefit of both students and patients. To develop a substantive grounded theory on the process of forming academic-service partnerships in implementing clinical education, from the perspective of academic and clinical nursing staff members and managers working in Iranian settings. Methods: The participants included 15 hospital nurses, nurse managers, nurse educators, and educational managers from two central universities and clinical settings from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected through 30 in-depth, semi-structure interviews with the individual participants and then analyzed using the methodology of Strauss and Corbin’s grounded theory. Results: Utilizing “balancing power” as the core variable enabled us to integrate the concepts concerning the partnership processes between clinical and educational institutes. Three distinct and significant categories emerged to explain the process of partnership: 1 divergence, 2 conflict between educational and caring functions, and 3 creation of balance between educational and caring functions. Conclusions: In implementing clinical education, partnerships have been formed within a challenging context in Iran. Conflict between clinical and educational functions was the main concern of both sides of the partnership in forming a collaborative relationship, with our findings emphasizing the importance of nursing educators’ role in the establishment of partnership programs.

  7. Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Joynt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.

  8. Neural principles of memory and a neural theory of analogical insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David I.; Lawson, Anton E.

    1993-12-01

    Grossberg's principles of neural modeling are reviewed and extended to provide a neural level theory to explain how analogies greatly increase the rate of learning and can, in fact, make learning and retention possible. In terms of memory, the key point is that the mind is able to recognize and recall when it is able to match sensory input from new objects, events, or situations with past memory records of similar objects, events, or situations. When a match occurs, an adaptive resonance is set up in which the synaptic strengths of neurons are increased; thus a long term record of the new input is formed in memory. Systems of neurons called outstars and instars are presumably the underlying units that enable this to occur. Analogies can greatly facilitate learning and retention because they activate the outstars (i.e., the cells that are sampling the to-be-learned pattern) and cause the neural activity to grow exponentially by forming feedback loops. This increased activity insures the boost in synaptic strengths of neurons, thus causing storage and retention in long-term memory (i.e., learning).

  9. Explaining transgression in respiratory rate observation methods in the emergency department: A classic grounded theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenady, Tracy; Dwyer, Trudy; Applegarth, Judith

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal respiratory rates are one of the first indicators of clinical deterioration in emergency department(ED) patients. Despite the importance of respiratory rate observations, this vital sign is often inaccurately recorded on ED observation charts, compromising patient safety. Concurrently, there is a paucity of research reporting why this phenomenon occurs. To develop a substantive theory explaining ED registered nurses' reasoning when they miss or misreport respiratory rate observations. This research project employed a classic grounded theory analysis of qualitative data. Seventy-nine registered nurses currently working in EDs within Australia. Data collected included detailed responses from individual interviews and open-ended responses from an online questionnaire. Classic grounded theory (CGT) research methods were utilised, therefore coding was central to the abstraction of data and its reintegration as theory. Constant comparison synonymous with CGT methods were employed to code data. This approach facilitated the identification of the main concern of the participants and aided in the generation of theory explaining how the participants processed this issue. The main concern identified is that ED registered nurses do not believe that collecting an accurate respiratory rate for ALL patients at EVERY round of observations is a requirement, and yet organizational requirements often dictate that a value for the respiratory rate be included each time vital signs are collected. The theory 'Rationalising Transgression', explains how participants continually resolve this problem. The study found that despite feeling professionally conflicted, nurses often erroneously record respiratory rate observations, and then rationalise this behaviour by employing strategies that adjust the significance of the organisational requirement. These strategies include; Compensating, when nurses believe they are compensating for errant behaviour by enhancing the patient's outcome

  10. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  11. Entrepreneurial Orientation of Community College Workforce Divisions and the Impact of Organizational Structure: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefen, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on how organizational structure of community colleges influenced the entrepreneurial orientation of deans, directors, vice presidents, and vice chancellors of workforce units. Using grounded theory methodology, the researcher identified three emergent theories applicable to both integrated and separate workforce units. These…

  12. How People Reason: A Grounded Theory Study of Scientific Reasoning about Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu

    Scientific reasoning is crucial in both scientific inquiry and everyday life. While the majority of researchers have studied "how people reason" by focusing on their cognitive processes, factors related to the underpinnings of scientific reasoning are still under-researched. The present study aimed to develop a grounded theory that captures not only the cognitive processes during reasoning but also their underpinnings. In particular, the grounded theory and phenomenographic methodologies were integrated to explore how undergraduate students reason about competing theories and evidence on global climate change. Twenty-six undergraduate students were recruited through theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis of responses from interviews and written assessments revealed that participants were mostly drawn to the surface features when reasoning about evidence. While prior knowledge might not directly contribute to participants' performance on evidence evaluation, it affected their level of engagement when reading and evaluating competing arguments on climate issues. More importantly, even though all participants acknowledged the relative correctness of multiple perspectives, they predominantly favored arguments that supported their own beliefs with weak scientific reasoning about the opposing arguments. Additionally, factors such as personal interests, religious beliefs, and reading capacity were also found to have bearings on the way participants evaluated evidence and arguments. In all, this work contributes to the current endeavors in exploring the nature of scientific reasoning. Taking a holistic perspective, it provides an in-depth discussion of factors that may affect or relate to scientific reasoning processes. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional methods used in the literature, the methodological approach employed in this work brought an innovative insight into the investigation of scientific reasoning. Last but not least, this research may

  13. Generating or developing grounded theory: methods to understand health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology that aims to explain social phenomena, e.g. why particular motivations or patterns of behaviour occur, at a conceptual level. Developed in the 1960s by Glaser and Strauss, the methodology has been reinterpreted by Strauss and Corbin in more recent times, resulting in different schools of thought. Differences arise from different philosophical perspectives concerning knowledge (epistemology) and the nature of reality (ontology), demanding that researchers make clear theoretical choices at the commencement of their research when choosing this methodology. Compared to other qualitative methods it has ability to achieve understanding of, rather than simply describing, a social phenomenon. Achieving understanding however, requires theoretical sampling to choose interviewees that can contribute most to the research and understanding of the phenomenon, and constant comparison of interviews to evaluate the same event or process in different settings or situations. Sampling continues until conceptual saturation is reached, i.e. when no new concepts emerge from the data. Data analysis focusses on categorising data (finding the main elements of what is occurring and why), and describing those categories in terms of properties (conceptual characteristics that define the category and give meaning) and dimensions (the variations within properties which produce specificity and range). Ultimately a core category which theoretically explains how all other categories are linked together is developed from the data. While achieving theoretical abstraction in the core category, it should be logical and capture all of the variation within the data. Theory development requires understanding of the methodology not just working through a set of procedures. This article provides a basic overview, set in the literature surrounding grounded theory, for those wanting to increase their understanding and quality of research output.

  14. The Anatomy of Virtual Manipulative Apps: Using Grounded Theory to Conceptualize and Evaluate Educational Apps that Contain Virtual Manipulatives

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to investigate the anatomy of educational apps that contain virtual manipulatives. For this study 100 virtual manipulatives within educational apps designed for the iPad were observed by the researcher in order to expand the explanations of and build theory about virtual manipulatives within apps. Affordance theory was used to frame all six phases of the study in which the researcher identified virtual manipulatives situated within educa...

  15. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Waxegård

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods: Using classic grounded theory (Glaser, we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results: The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions: The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development.

  16. Seniors’ self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration – A grounded theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning. PMID:27172511

  17. Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  18. Occupational therapy students in the process of interprofessional collaborative learning: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.

  19. Intentionality in Healing--The Voices of Men in Nursing: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and potentially modify or expand a previously developed theory: Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH) using a sample of men in nursing. A modified grounded theory approach described by Chen and Boore (2009) and by Amsteus (2014). Twelve men in nursing were recruited. Each was interviewed at least once and their feedback solicited to determine accuracy of interpretation. Results were compared and contrasted to those obtained from the earlier research with six female nurses and their patients. Both groups viewed intentionality as different from, and greater than, intention. Intentionality reflects the whole person's values, goals, and experiences. The men emphasized the importance of reflective spiritual practices, developing self-awareness, being aware of the stress experienced by males in a female profession, and the role of action in manifesting intentionality in healing. The theory is substantiated with minor changes in emphases. Further study is warranted to expand the understanding of this basic concept in nursing and healing. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Experience of an Individual With a Chronic Wound in an Open Abdomen: A Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alejandra

    2017-06-01

    The open abdomen (OA) surgical technique has become an option for treating complex abdominal injuries; however, complications leading to late closure conditions might arise. In these cases the wound must be left open, which greatly impacts the patient's life. The author aims to describe the experiences of individuals with a chronic OA wound. Qualitative design using grounded theory was utilized. This study was carried out with a group of 28 adults who were treated with OA technique and whose wound had remained open for more than a month in duration and only received outpatient wound care. Data were collected through open interviews and examined under continuous comparison. The average age of the respondents was 45 years, and their wound, treated with OA due to severe abdominal infection, remained open between 2 months and 8 years. An emergent theory was developed to describe how people facing this experience undergo a process of 4 stages: 1) finding an OA wound upon waking, 2) feeling desperate about the healing process and the limitations involved, 3) regaining control of their life, and 4) taking advantage of their second chance at life with an OA wound. This study provides insight for nurses and other health care professionals into the experiences of patients with a chronic OA wound and proposes an emerging theory based on the conceptualization of these experiences.

  2. Grounded Theory Study of Conflicts in Norwegian Agile Software Projects: The Project Managers’ Perspective

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    Lubna Siddique

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the process of conflicts in agile software projects. The purpose was to investigate the causes and consequences of these conflicts. For this purpose, we conducted a qualitative study involving agile software projects in Norway. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data and the interview findings are presented using Glaser´s Six C model (context, condition, causes, consequences, contingencies, and covariance. The research findings suggest that there are several causes of conflicts. These include: the role of the product owner, an inexperienced project manager, the customer’s lack of knowledge about methodology organizational hierarchy in public companies, contracting, personal egos, financial issues, not getting the right team. Consequences of conflicts include: decreased productivity, wastage of time and resources, diverted attention from project objectives loss of motivation, poor decision making, loss of communication. Based on interview data, different conflict strategies are suggested and these include appropriately skilled project manager, communication and negotiation, defining clear roles, stakeholder analysis, managing stakeholder´s expectations, discussion, finding the root cause of conflict. Project managers are using these strategies to avoid or resolve conflicts. The competencies required to handle these kind of conflicts are also discussed in the paper, while the implications of theory and practice of conflict management theory are also presented.

  3. Seniors’ self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration – A grounded theory

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    Jeanette Källstrand Eriksson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling. Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving, adapting (by finding new ways, and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  4. Brain-grounded theory of temporal and spatial design in architecture and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    In this book, brain-grounded theory of temporal and spatial design in architecture and the environment is discussed. The author believes that it is a key to solving such global problems as environmental disorders and severe climate change as well as conflicts that are caused by the ill-conceived notion of “time is money”. There are three phases or aspects of a person’s life: the physical life, the spiritual or mental life, and the third stage of life, when a person moves from middle age into old age and can choose what he or she wishes to do instead of simply what must be done. This book describes the temporal design of the environment based on the theory of subjective preference, which could make it possible for an individual to realize a healthy life in all three phases. In his previously published work, the present author wrote that the theory of subjective preference has been established for the sound and visual fields based on neural evidence, and that subjective preference is an overall response o...

  5. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxegård, Gustaf; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development. PMID:27609793

  6. Restoring integrity--A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. The study design used classical grounded theory. The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients' main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.

  7. Reconciling professional identity: A grounded theory of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L

    2017-12-01

    Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anticipatory vigilance: A grounded theory study of minimising risk within the perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brid; Andrews, Tom; Savage, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    To explore and explain how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Perioperative nurses care for patients who are having surgery or other invasive explorative procedures. Perioperative care is increasingly focused on how to improve patient safety. Safety and risk management is a global priority for health services in reducing risk. Many studies have explored safety within the healthcare settings. However, little is known about how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Classic grounded theory. Ethical approval was granted for all aspects of the study. Thirty-seven nurses working in 11 different perioperative settings in Ireland were interviewed and 33 hr of nonparticipant observation was undertaken. Concurrent data collection and analysis was undertaken using theoretical sampling. Constant comparative method, coding and memoing and were used to analyse the data. Participants' main concern was how to minimise risk. Participants resolved this through engaging in anticipatory vigilance (core category). This strategy consisted of orchestrating, routinising and momentary adapting. Understanding the strategies of anticipatory vigilance extends and provides an in-depth explanation of how nurses' behaviour ensures that risk is minimised in a complex high-risk perioperative setting. This is the first theory situated in the perioperative area for nurses. This theory provides a guide and understanding for nurses working in the perioperative setting on how to minimise risk. It makes perioperative nursing visible enabling positive patient outcomes. This research suggests the need for training and education in maintaining safety and minimising risk in the perioperative setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Societal marketing concept and spirituality in the workplace theory: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Ferreira Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that there exist many theoretical linkages between the societal marketing concept (SMC and spirituality in the workplace (SWP theory. Thus, it is reviewed the literature of both SMC and the emerging field of SWP theory in order to find unexplored commonalities between them. As a result, it acknowledges that SMC broached a new perspective in marketing discipline regarding that it added sizeable social and ethical responsibility to the marketer's role. Most importantly, it posits that the common ground between SMC and SWP theory is, in large measure, the moral reasoning. Overall, this study expands McKee's work (2003 on theoretical intersections between marketing and the spirituality philosophy or paradigm. Rather, it proposes that there is a clear evidence of theoretical overlapping in some constructs, namely, employees, work, workplace, quality of life, ethics, corporate citizenship, and social responsibility. In addition, it is also proposed that SMC-driven organizations are poised to embrace an overall spiritual orientation - whether they have not already done it.

  10. How robotics programs influence young women's career choices : a grounded theory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced young women's career decisions and the program's effect on engineering, physics, and computer science career interests. To test this, a study was mounted to explore how the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition (FRC) program influenced young women's college major and career choices. Career theories suggested that experiential programs coupled with supportive relationships strongly influence career decisions, especially for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. The study explored how and when young women made career decisions and how the experiential program and! its mentors and role models influenced career choice. Online focus groups and interviews (online and face-to-face) with 10 female FRC alumnae and GT processes (inductive analysis, open coding, categorizations using mind maps and content clouds) were used to generate a general systems theory style model of the career decision process for these young women. The study identified gender stereotypes and other career obstacles for women. The study's conclusions include recommendations to foster connections to real-world challenges, to develop training programs for mentors, and to nurture social cohesion, a mostly untapped area. Implementing these recommendations could help grow a critical mass of women in engineering, physics, and computer science careers, a social change worth pursuing.

  11. Transferring and practicing the correspondence principle in the old quantum theory: Franck, Hund and the Ramsauer effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaehnert, Martin [MPIWG, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In 1922 Niels Bohr wrote a letter to Arnold Sommerfeld complaining that: ''[i]n the last years my attempts to develop the principles of quantum theory were met with very little understanding.'' Looking for the correspondence idea in publications, one finds that the principle was indeed hardly applied by physicists outside of Copenhagen. Only by 1922 physicists from wider research networks of quantum theory started to transfer the principle into their research fields, often far removed from its initial realm of atomic spectroscopy. How and why did physicists suddenly become interested in the idea that Bohr*s writings had been promoting since 1918? How was the correspondence principle transferred to these fields and how did its transfer affect these fields and likewise the correspondence principle itself? To discuss these questions, my talk focuses on the work of James Franck and Friedrich Hund on the Ramsauer effect in 1922 and follows the interrelation of the developing understanding of a newly found effect and the adaptation of the correspondence idea in a new conceptual and sociological context.

  12. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

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    Dastjerdi Mahdieh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains

  13. Student veterans' construction and enactment of resilience: A constructivist grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A T; Kearney, C A; Isla, K; Bryant, R

    2018-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Resilience is an ability and a process that allows an individual to develop positive adaptation despite challenges and adversities. Many military veterans returning to college after their military service have difficulty transitioning to civilian life. Although some research exists that explores factors related to the resilience of college student veterans, limited theoretical descriptions exist that explain how student veterans construct resilience, and how resilience is enacted and enhanced in their academic and personal (non-academic) lives. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The resilience of student veterans involves a complex process of transitioning from military to civilian life and an iterative journey between positive adaptation and transient perturbations. Student veterans' resilience is a result of integrating and resolving various aspects of their academic and personal challenges. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses can apply this grounded theory as a practical framework for equipping student veterans with effective strategies to develop and enhance resilience. Nurses can employ a holistic approach of care in their interactions with military veterans and student veterans that includes fostering psychological resilience, helping to manage their multiple non-academic responsibilities and supporting their academic success. Introduction Adjusting to college life is one of the most difficult experiences in a military veteran's transition to civilian life. Many military veterans returning to college not only encounter academic challenges, but also deal with physical and psychiatric disabilities, loss of military camaraderie and social disconnect. These often negatively affect their personal and academic lives. Hence, it is important to explore resilience to best support student veterans as they transition from military to civilian life. Aim The aim of this study was to explore how student veterans

  14. Schwinger's quantum action principle from Dirac’s formulation through Feynman’s path integrals, the Schwinger-Keldysh method, quantum field theory, to source theory

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    Milton, Kimball A

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the earlier notions of stationary action principles, these tutorial notes shows how Schwinger’s Quantum Action Principle descended from Dirac’s formulation, which independently led Feynman to his path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics. Part I brings out in more detail the connection between the two formulations, and applications are discussed. Then, the Keldysh-Schwinger time-cycle method of extracting matrix elements is described. Part II will discuss the variational formulation of quantum electrodynamics and the development of source theory.

  15. Development of a conceptual framework for understanding financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic disease: a protocol for a qualitative (grounded theory) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J T; Manns, Braden J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sanmartin, Claudia; King-Shier, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases may face financial barriers to accessing health care, even in Canada, where universal health care insurance is in place. No current theory or framework is adequate for understanding the impact of financial barriers to care on these patients or how they experience financial barriers. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework for understanding the role of financial barriers to care in the lives of patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases and the impact of such barriers on their health. We will perform an inductive qualitative grounded theory study to develop a framework to understand the effect of financial barriers to care on patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases. We will use semistructured interviews (face-to-face and telephone) with a purposive sample of adult patients from Alberta with at least 1 of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. We will analyze interview transcripts in triplicate using grounded theory coding techniques, including open, focused and axial coding, following the principle of constant comparison. Interviews and analysis will be done iteratively to theoretical saturation. Member checking will be used to enhance rigour. A comprehensive framework for understanding financial barriers to accessing health care is instrumental for both researchers and clinicians who care for patients with chronic diseases. Such a framework would enable a better understanding of patient behaviour and nonadherence to recommended medical therapies and lifestyle modifications.

  16. Revisiting a theory of negotiation: the utility of Markiewicz (2005) proposed six principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Diane

    2008-08-01

    their differences and be willing to move on. But the problem is that evaluators are not necessarily equipped with the technical or personal skills required for effective negotiation. In addition, the time and effort that are required to undertake this mediating role are often not sufficiently understood by those who commission a review. With such issues in mind Markiewicz, A. [(2005). A balancing act: Resolving multiple stakeholder interests in program evaluation. Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 4(1-2), 13-21] has proposed six principles upon which to build a case for negotiation to be integrated into the evaluation process. This paper critiques each of these principles in the context of an evaluation undertaken of a youth program. In doing so it challenges the view that stakeholder consensus is always possible if program improvement is to be achieved. This has led to some refinement and further extension of the proposed theory of negotiation that is seen to be instrumental to the role of an evaluator.

  17. The Form of Law: Practical Principles and the Foundations of Kant’s Moral Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Reckner, William Leland

    2017-01-01

    Immanuel Kant argued that morality requires us to act on principles that we can will as universal laws. However, there has always been profound disagreement about how to apply this requirement, and about why this demand should be morally fundamental. This dissertation offers new answers to these questions by developing a deeper understanding of the “practical” principles that Kant wants us to be able to will as universal laws.My primary thesis is that practical principles state three things: ...

  18. The effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training of surgical skills: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive overload can inhibit learning, and cognitive load theory-based instructional design principles can be used to optimize learning situations. This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training...

  19. Managing uncertainty: a grounded theory of stigma in transgender health care encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; German, Danielle; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was taken to this study of stigma in health care interactions. Between January and July 2011, fifty-five transgender people and twelve medical providers participated in one-time in-depth interviews about stigma, discrimination, and health care interactions between providers and transgender patients. Due to the social and institutional stigma against transgender people, their care is excluded from medical training. Therefore, providers approach medical encounters with transgender patients with ambivalence and uncertainty. Transgender people anticipate that providers will not know how to meet their needs. This uncertainty and ambivalence in the medical encounter upsets the normal balance of power in provider-patient relationships. Interpersonal stigma functions to reinforce the power and authority of the medical provider during these interactions. Functional theories of stigma posit that we hold stigmatizing attitudes because they serve specific psychological functions. However, these theories ignore how hierarchies of power in social relationships serve to maintain and reinforce inequalities. The findings of this study suggest that interpersonal stigma also functions to reinforce medical power and authority in the face of provider uncertainty. Within functional theories of stigma, it is important to acknowledge the role of power and to understand how stigmatizing attitudes function to maintain

  20. Australian perioperative nurses' experiences of assisting in multi-organ procurement surgery: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zaneta; Leslie, Gavin; Wynaden, Dianne

    2015-03-01

    Multi-organ procurement surgical procedures through the generosity of deceased organ donors, have made an enormous impact on extending the lives of recipients. There is a dearth of in-depth knowledge relating to the experiences of perioperative nurses working closely with organ donors undergoing multi-organ procurement surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to address this gap by describing the perioperative nurses experiences of participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures and interpreting these findings as a substantive theory. This qualitative study used grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory of the experiences of perioperative nurses participating in multi-organ procurement surgery. Recruitment of participants took place after the study was advertised via a professional newsletter and journal. The study was conducted with participants from metropolitan, rural and regional areas of two Australian states; New South Wales and Western Australia. Thirty five perioperative nurse participants with three to 39 years of professional nursing experience informed the study. Semi structured in-depth interviews were undertaken from July 2009 to April 2010 with a mean interview time of 60 min. Interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study results draw attention to the complexities that exist for perioperative nurses when participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures reporting a basic social psychological problem articulated as hiding behind a mask and how they resolved this problem by the basic social psychological process of finding meaning. This study provides a greater understanding of how these surgical procedures impact on perioperative nurses by providing a substantive theory of this experience. The findings have the potential to guide further research into this challenging area of nursing practice with implications for clinical initiatives, management

  1. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  2. Oscillating between Conservation and Investment: A Grounded Theory of Students’ Strategies for Optimizing Personal Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hakel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Students’ use of time and effort during their studies has been discussed exhaustively in mass media and educational research. In most cases, researchers try to give advice to teachers on how to get their students to become more active and engaged. The grounded theory presented in this article, however, challenges this approach by focusing on the students’ point of view. When interviewing students for this study, I soon realized that students only have a limited amount of time and effort at their disposal. Optimizing these personal resources emerged as their main concern. For the students, investing resources into one study activity always means having to reduce the amount of time and effort they can spend on other activities. They resolve their main concern by oscillating between conservation and investment strategies. Their decision regarding which type of strategy to use depends strongly on the students’ evaluation of their current situation.

  3. Trust Development With the Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Patient: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M

    2018-06-01

    Interpersonal trust between patient and nurse is important in patient-centered care. Trust development may be more difficult if the patient and nurse do not speak the same language. In this grounded theory study, Spanish-speaking Mexican American adults ( n = 20) hospitalized on a medical-surgical or obstetric unit in the Midwestern United States were interviewed. Through data analysis, a model of how trust develops between nurse and patient revealed eight categories and the core category Caring for Me Well Even When Not Understanding Me. The beginning phase had four categories: Asking for Help, Bothering, Communicating, and Understanding. The middle phase had two categories: Platicando (chatting) and Being Available. The end point category was Having Trust, and outcomes were Feeling Comfortable and Feeling Supported. The language barrier was a hindrance to trust development but the nurse's way of being (personality) was more important. Therefore, the patient did develop trust with nurses who did not speak Spanish.

  4. Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Building and Interpreting Clusters from Grounded Theory and Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Merlino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods present a wide spectrum of application possibilities as well as opportunities for combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the social sciences fruitful theoretical discussions and a great deal of empirical research have taken place. This article introduces an empirical investigation which demonstrates the logic of combining methodologies as well as the collection and interpretation, both sequential as simultaneous, of qualitative and quantitative data. Specifically, the investigation process will be described, beginning with a grounded theory methodology and its combination with the techniques of structural semiotics discourse analysis to generate—in a first phase—an instrument for quantitative measuring and to understand—in a second phase—clusters obtained by quantitative analysis. This work illustrates how qualitative methods allow for the comprehension of the discursive and behavioral elements under study, and how they function as support making sense of and giving meaning to quantitative data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701219

  5. Guiding the Process of Culturally Competent Care With Hispanic Patients: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Linda L; Metzler Sawin, Erika

    2016-05-01

    To explore nursing care actions that lead to culturally competent care for Hispanic patients. Nurses report apprehension when delivering nursing care because of language barriers and a lack of Hispanic cultural understanding. Research is needed to inform culturally aware nursing practice actions for Hispanic patients. The study used a qualitative, grounded theory design to address the questions: (a) What cultural knowledge should nurses have when caring for Hispanic patients and families and (b) What nursing actions should nurses take to provide culturally competent care? Hispanic lay health promoters and Hispanic community members were interviewed to make recommendations for care. A model was identified that informs culturally competent nursing care. "Connectedness," the central phenomenon, describes nursing actions and contains subthemes explaining influences on nursing care. "Up to You" and "At the Mercy of the System" are descriptive themes influencing connectedness. Connectedness is central to culturally well-informed nurse-patient interactions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Complementary medicines in medicine: Conceptualising terminology among Australian medical students using a constructivist grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    Terminology around the use of complementary medicines (CM) within medical discourse is ambiguous. Clear collective discourse within the medical context is required. This study reports the findings of a Constructivist Grounded Theory Method study used to explore medical students' conceptualisation of terminology and associated value components around CMs as evidenced within their discourse community. The results show that terminology surrounding CMs within medicine is politically charged and fraught with value judgements. Terms used to describe CMs were considered, many of which were deemed problematic. Categorisation of specific medicines was also deemed inappropriate in certain contexts. Conceptualisation of CM terminology, categorisation and value implications, discriminated between levels of evidence for CMs and provided insights into the social change of medicine towards emergence of an evidence-based integrative approach. The results show that terminology surrounding CM is a social construct consistent with fluid conceptualisation and operationalisation in different social contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world underlying patients' health and illness behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The Temporal Sensitivity of Enforced Accelerated Work Pace: A grounded theory building approach

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    Graham John James Kenealy, BA (Hons, Ph.D. Candidate

    Full Text Available This research explores how a large national UK government organisation copes with radical structural change over time and provides an insight into the temporal effects of ‘Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’ on behaviour and receptivity within an organisational context. The stages of ‘Acceptance’, ‘Reaction’ and‘Withdrawal’ capture the essence of the ‘Coping Reflex Actions relating to Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’, all sensitive to the effects of time. ‘Temporal Sensitivity’; the duration of the changes to work patterns played a large part in the behavioural responses. The underlying logic of this research is grounded theory building, a general method that works well with qualitative data collection approaches and involves inducting insights from field based, case data (Glaser, 1998. A methodology discovered and developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967, negating all others.

  9. Motivational journey of Iranian bachelor of nursing students during clinical education: a grounded theory study.

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    Hanifi, Nasrin; Parvizy, Soroor; Joolaee, Soodabeh

    2013-09-01

    This study explored how nursing students can be kept motivated throughout their clinical education. Motivation is a key issue in nursing clinical education for student retention. The study was conducted using grounded theory methods, which are appropriate when studying process in a social context. Sixteen students and four instructors, who were purposefully selected, participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Students' motivational journey occurred in three steps: (i) social condition; (ii) encountering the clinical education challenges; and (iii) looking for an escape from nursing, or simply tolerating nursing. Struggling with professional identity emerged as the core variable. Iran's social context and many other conditions in the clinical education setting affect students' motivation. Identifying motivational process might assist educational authorities in offering solutions to promote motivation among students. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Research on the evaluation indicators of skilled employees’ career success based on grounded theory

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    Fulei Chu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: summarized and sorted career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees Design/methodology/approach: Based on Grounded Theory, through interviews and questionnaires to railway skilled employees Findings and Originality/value: the study shows that “subjective career success”, including work-family balance, life satisfaction, career satisfaction, perception of career success, “objective career success”, including level of total revenue venue, growth rate of wage and times of promotion, “knowledge and skills career success” including upgrade of knowledge and skills, classification of skills, external competitiveness and job autonomy, are three important career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees. Originality/value: The results show that different age groups, different titles and different positions of skilled employees, there is a significant difference in the choice of career success evaluation indicators. It provides a useful reference to establish a career development system for the skilled employees.

  11. Phantom sensations in people with complete spinal cord lesions: a grounded theory perspective.

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    Drysdale, Daren G; Shem, Kazuko; Walbom, Agnes; Miner, Maureen D; Maclachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Phantom sensations are somatic phenomena arising from denervated parts of the body. There is very little research, and much diagnostic confusion, regarding such experiences in people with spinal cord injuries. In the case of 'complete' spinal cord lesions, phantom experiences may challenge, and indeed, contradict, the understanding that both clinicians and patients have of such injuries. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of such 'phantom' sensations in spinal cord injury. We used grounded theory methods to explore 'phantom' sensations as experienced by individuals with complete (ASIA A) spinal lesions. Eight people with complete lesions, who were selected through theoretical sampling, participated in a semi-structured interview. Emergent themes included injury context, sensations experienced, the meaning of sensations, body connectivity, attitude and communication about sensations. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of the embodied experience of phantom sensations, and important insights regarding self-construction and rehabilitative processes in people with spinal cord injury who experience such anomalous sensations.

  12. A Grounded Theory of Mothering in the Early Years for Women Recovering From Substance Use.

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    Marcellus, Lenora

    2017-08-01

    Women in recovery from addiction experience significant sociostructural barriers to reestablishing self, family, and home after having a baby. The aim of this grounded theory study was to describe pathways that women and their families followed and how transitions were experienced in the early years after receiving services through an integrated community-based maternity program. Eighteen women completed questionnaires and participated in a series of semistructured interviews over 2 years. The overall process women experienced was that of holding it together, which women did by restoring their sense of self during recovery, becoming a strong center for their family, and creating a sense of home no matter what the circumstances. Key elements supporting women in their transition to recovery and parenthood included longer term health, social, and recovery programs and services that addressed determinants of health (in particular, gender, housing, and income), and receiving support provided from strengths-based perspectives.

  13. A Grounded Theory of Sexual Minority Women and Transgender Individuals' Social Justice Activism.

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    Hagen, Whitney B; Hoover, Stephanie M; Morrow, Susan L

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial benefits of activism include increased empowerment, social connectedness, and resilience. Yet sexual minority women (SMW) and transgender individuals with multiple oppressed statuses and identities are especially prone to oppression-based experiences, even within minority activist communities. This study sought to develop an empirical model to explain the diverse meanings of social justice activism situated in SMW and transgender individuals' social identities, values, and experiences of oppression and privilege. Using a grounded theory design, 20 SMW and transgender individuals participated in initial, follow-up, and feedback interviews. The most frequent demographic identities were queer or bisexual, White, middle-class women with advanced degrees. The results indicated that social justice activism was intensely relational, replete with multiple benefits, yet rife with experiences of oppression from within and outside of activist communities. The empirically derived model shows the complexity of SMW and transgender individuals' experiences, meanings, and benefits of social justice activism.

  14. Rules of performance in the nursing home: A grounded theory of nurse-CNA communication.

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    Madden, Connie; Clayton, Margaret; Canary, Heather E; Towsley, Gail; Cloyes, Kristin; Lund, Dale

    This study offers an initial theoretical understanding of nurse-CNA communication processes from the perspectives of nurses and CNAs who are providing direct care to residents in nursing homes. A grounded theory approach provided an understanding of nurse-CNA communication process within the complexities of the nursing home setting. Four themes (maintaining information flow, following procedure, fostering collegiality, and showing respect) describe the "rules of performance" that intertwine in nuanced relationships to guide nurse-CNA communication processes. Understanding how these rules of performance guide nurse-CNA communication processes, and how they are positively and negatively influenced, suggests that nurse-CNA communication during direct care of nursing home residents could be improved through policy and education that is specifically designed to be relevant and applicable to direct care providers in the nursing home environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring Partner Intimacy Among Couples Raising Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

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    Johnson, Jake; Piercy, Fred P

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks. We also found that intimacy is not a fixed point at which couples one day arrive, but is an iterative process taking place over time and requiring work to develop and maintain. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  16. Health effects of digital textbooks on school-age children: a grounded theory approach.

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    Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner.

  17. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

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    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

  18. Enterprise Factors Contributing to The Success of Malaysian Biotechnology SMEs: A Grounded Theory Approach

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    Saridan Abu Bakar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available While numerous empirical studies have been conducted in Western countries on biotechnology enterprises, little empirical research has been done in Malaysia especially in respect to the factors that contribute to the success of biotechnology small and medium enterprises (SMEs. In view of this, a study was undertaken recently in Malaysia to address this gap in the existing body of biotechnology knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study managed to develop a conceptual framework that sheds useful information on the enterprise factors that significantly impact the success of Malaysian biotechnology SMEs. Specifically, this study found that organizational structure, innovation activities, linkages with academic research institutions, linkages with other private enterprises, personal linkages with academic researchers, access to financial capital, the procuring of government assistances, vertical integration, enterprise image, GMP compliance and halal certification, strongly influence enterprise success.

  19. Self-Reorientation Following Colorectal Cancer Treatment - A Grounded Theory Study.

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    Johansson, Ann-Caroline B; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva

    2015-01-01

    After colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, people reorganize life in ways that are consistent with their understanding of the illness and their expectations for recovery. Incapacities and abilities that have been lost can initiate a need to reorient the self. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explicitly focused on the concept of self-reorientation after CRC treatment. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore self-reorientation in the early recovery phase after CRC surgery. Grounded theory analysis was undertaken, using the method presented by Charmaz. The present results explained self-reorientation as the individual attempting to achieve congruence in self-perception. A congruent self-perception meant bringing together the perceived self and the self that was mirrored in the near environs. The results showed that societal beliefs and personal explanations are essential elements of self-reorientation, and that it is therefore important to make them visible.

  20. Depression in adoptive parents: a model of understanding through grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J

    2010-04-01

    A limited number of studies have explored parental depression in the postadoption time periods and these studies frequently lack a social context of the adoptive parent experience. The objective of this study is to form a midrange theoretical interpretation of parental postadoption depression as shared by adoptive parents and experts through a grounded theory approach. Semistructured interviews of adoptive parents, who acknowledge being depressed after the child is placed in the home, and adoption experts are audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to reveal themes. In total, 30 interviews are conducted. Researchers are also participant-observers during an adoptive parent support group meeting. Data reveal recurrent themes in relation to postadoption depression. These themes take into account the various contexts of adoption (international and domestic, public and private, etc.). Parents express unfulfilled and unrealistic expectations in the domains of self, child, family or friends, and society or others. A theoretical model is presented to facilitate the understanding of depression reported by adoptive parents.