WorldWideScience

Sample records for grounded theory methodologies

  1. Methodological issues in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R

    2000-06-01

    Examination of the qualitative methodological literature shows that there appear to be conflicting opinions and unresolved issues regarding the nature and process of grounded theory. Researchers proposing to utilize this method would therefore be wise to consider these conflicting opinions. This paper therefore identifies and attempts to address four key issues, namely, sampling, creativity and reflexivity, the use of literature, and precision within grounded theory. The following recommendations are made. When utilizing a grounded method researchers need to consider their research question, clarify what level of theory is likely to be induced from their study, and then decide when they intend to access and introduce the second body of literature. They should acknowledge that in the early stages of data collection, some purposeful sampling appears to occur. In their search for conceptually dense theory, grounded theory researchers may wish to free themselves from the constraints that limit their use of creativity and tacit knowledge. Furthermore, the interests of researchers might be served by attention to issues of precision including, avoiding method slurring, ensuring theoretical coding occurs, and using predominantly one method of grounded theory while explaining and describing any deviation away from this chosen method. Such mindfulness and the resulting methodological rigour is likely to increase the overall quality of the inquiry and enhance the credibility of the findings.

  2. Grounded theory methodology--narrativity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.

  3. Grounded theory: methodology and philosophical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeljeh, Tahereh Najafi; Emami, Azita

    2009-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory reshapes the interactive relationship between researcher and participants and provides the reader with a sense of the analytical views through which the researcher examines the data. This paper presents an overview of grounded theory and constructivist grounded theory, exploring the ontological, epistemological and methodological aspects using examples from nursing research.

  4. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  5. Grounded Theory as a General Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception over forty years ago, grounded theory has achieved canonical status in the research world (Locke, 2001, p.1. Qualitative researchers, in particular, have embraced grounded theory although often without sufficient scholarship in the methodology (Partington, 2000, p.93; 2002, p.136. The embrace renders many researchers unable to perceive grounded theory as a general methodology and an alternative to the dominant qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The result is methodological confusion and an often unconscious remodelling of the original methodology (Glaser, 2003. Given the various interpretations and approaches that have been popularised under the rubric of grounded theory, this paper addresses the important distinction between grounded theory as a general methodology and its popularisation as a qualitative research method. The paper begins with a brief overview of grounded theory’s origins and its philosophical foundations then continues by addressing the basic distinction between abstract conceptualisation as employed in classic grounded theory and the conceptual description approach as adopted by many qualitative researchers. The paper continues with a brief overview of the criteria for judging the quality of classic grounded theory and concludes by detailing its methodological principles.

  6. Grounded theory as feminist research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, B; Sims, S L; Stern, P N

    1996-03-01

    Feminist research is evolving, and with it new methods of doing science. In this feminist post-positivist era, grounded theory, while less inclusive and descriptive than ethnography, allows for complex analysis of complex questions. While Glaser & Strauss (the originators of this methodology) have written about grounded theory in an esoteric way, others have written extensively about this method in a much clearer and less rigid fashion. In this paper we discuss how grounded theory could be used in a creative and constantly evolving manner for feminist research.

  7. Grounded theory in nursing research: Part 1--Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of grounded theory make it valuable in the study of nursing, which is premised on an interpersonal process between nurses and clients. Further, it is a useful style of research when there is little prior information about a topic. In this article (Part 1), Terence McCann and Eileen Clark outline the key features of this methodology. In the follow-up article (Part 2, McCann and Clark 2003a), a critique is provided of grounded theory and the two main approaches to this methodology. In the final article in the series (Part 3, McCann and Clark 2003b), the authors illustrate how grounded theory can be applied to nursing research with examples from McCann's Australian study (McCann and Baker 2001) of how community mental health nurses promote wellness with clients who are experiencing an early episode of psychotic illness.

  8. Evolving Grounded Theory Methodology: towards a discursive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreaddie, May; Payne, Sheila

    2010-06-01

    Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM) is a widely cited research approach based upon symbolic interaction with a focus on interaction, action and processes. Relatively recently, Discursive Psychology; a language-based interaction research approach also based on symbolic interaction, emerged. At present Discursive Psychology is principally cited in the social sciences literature. Given Discursive Psychology's symbolic interaction foundations, what relevance does this approach have for evolving GTM? A number of methodological challenges were posed by a study looking at humour in Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions. This paper will use the phenomenon of spontaneous humour in healthcare interactions to illustrate the potential for a new form of GTM drawing on discursive approaches; Discursive GTM. First, the challenges presented by a study looking at spontaneous humour in Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions are presented. Second, the research approach adopted to meet these challenges - Discursive GTM (DGTM) - is explicated and the results of the study are outlined. Third, the different GTM approaches and Discursive Psychology are compared and contrasted in relation to the DGTM approach adopted. Finally, the challenges and tensions of using DGTM as well as the opportunities afforded by the use of naturally occurring data are reviewed. The authors contend that a DGTM approach may be appropriate in analyzing certain phenomena. In particular, we highlight the potential contribution of naturally occurring data as an adjunct to researcher-elicited data. Thus, when exploring particular phenomena, a DGTM approach may address the potentially under-developed symbolic interaction tenet of language.

  9. Integrating Software in the Teaching of Grounded Theory Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Mühlmeyer-Mentzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of our hands-on seminar is based on the understanding of grounded theory methodology (GTM as a craft that can be taught to a great extent. The successful learning process requires knowing, understanding and practising the procedural steps of this craft. It is also important to open up spaces for the development of reflexive and analytical competences. Having an orientation toward a research project within the teaching-learning process assists in deepening the understanding of GTM and provides a scope for practise and reflection at the same time. It is important for us to retain the student-centred nature of the teaching-learning process to enable active and praxis-oriented student engagement instead of focusing on the transmission of factual knowledge. The structural fit that exists between GTM and ATLAS.ti allows students to experience the software as a support in the analyses of their own data. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103171

  10. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  11. Adopting a Grounded Theory Approach to Cultural-Historical Research: Conflicting Methodologies or Complementary Methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Seaman PhD

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory has long been regarded as a valuable way to conduct social and educational research. However, recent constructivist and postmodern insights are challenging long-standing assumptions, most notably by suggesting that grounded theory can be flexibly integrated with existing theories. This move hinges on repositioning grounded theory from a methodology with positivist underpinnings to an approach that can be used within different theoretical frameworks. In this article the author reviews this recent transformation of grounded theory, engages in the project of repositioning it as an approach by using cultural historical activity theory as a test case, and outlines several practical methods implied by the joint use of grounded theory as an approach and activity theory as a methodology. One implication is the adoption of a dialectic, as opposed to a constructivist or objectivist, stance toward grounded theory inquiry, a stance that helps move past the problem of emergence versus forcing.

  12. Are There Two Methods of Grounded Theory? Demystifying the Methodological Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheri Ann Hernandez, RN, Ph.D., CDE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is an inductive research method for the generation of substantive or formal theory, using qualitative or quantitative data generated from research interviews, observation, or written sources, or some combination thereof (Glaser & Strauss, 1967. In recent years there has been much controversy over the etiology of its discovery, as well as, the exact way in which grounded theory research is to be operationalized. Unfortunately, this situation has resulted in much confusion, particularly among novice researchers who wish to utilize this research method. In this article, the historical, methodological and philosophical roots of grounded theory are delineated in a beginning effort to demystify this methodological debate. Grounded theory variants such as feminist grounded theory (Wuest, 1995 or constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 1990 are beyond the scope of this discussion.

  13. Business analysis methodology in telecommunication industry - the research based on the grounded theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hana Nenickova

    2013-01-01

      The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems...

  14. Advancing Nursing Research in the Visual Era: Reenvisioning the Photovoice Process Across Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, and Critical Theory Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Boutain, Doris M; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    Photovoice is a powerful research method that employs participant photography for advancing voice, knowledge, and transformative change among groups historically or currently marginalized. Paradoxically, this research method risks exploitation of participant voice because of weak methodology to method congruence. The purposes of this retrospective article are to revisit current interdisciplinary research using photovoice and to suggest how to advance photovoice by improving methodology-method congruence. Novel templates are provided for improving the photovoice process across phenomenological, grounded theory, and critical theory methodologies.

  15. Construction of a Conceptualization of Personal Knowledge within a Knowledge Management Perspective Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to construct a conceptualization of personal knowledge within a knowledge management (KM) perspective. The need for the current research was based on the use of just two categories of knowledge, explicit and tacit, within KM literature to explain diverse characteristics of personal…

  16. Construction of a Conceptualization of Personal Knowledge within a Knowledge Management Perspective Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to construct a conceptualization of personal knowledge within a knowledge management (KM) perspective. The need for the current research was based on the use of just two categories of knowledge, explicit and tacit, within KM literature to explain diverse characteristics of personal…

  17. Business analysis methodology in telecommunication industry – the research based on the grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nenickova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems in telecommunication enterprises in Czech Republic. In the preparation of the methodology I have used the current needs of telecommunications companies, which are characterized mainly by high dependence on information systems. Besides that, this industry is characterized by high flexibility and competition and compressing of the corporate strategy timeline. The grounded theory of business analysis defines the specifics of the telecommunications industry, focusing on the very specific description of the procedure for collecting the business requirements and following the business strategy.

  18. Qualitative data analysis using the n Vivo programe and the application of the methodology of grounded theory procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedbalski Jakub

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to identify the capabilities and constraints of using CAQDAS (Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software programs in qualitative data analysis. Our considerations are based on the personal experiences gained while conducting the research projects using the methodology of grounded theory (GT and the NVivo 8 program. In presented article we focusedon relations between the methodological principles of grounded theory and the technical possibilities of NVivo 8. The paper presents our opinion about the most important options available in NVivo 8 and their application in the studies based on the methodology of grounded theory.

  19. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  20. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  1. [Nursing care systematization according to the nurses' view: a methodological approach based on grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Ana Lúcia; dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; de Cabral, Rômulo Wanderley Lima

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at understanding, from the nurses' perspective, the experience of going through the Systematization of nursing care (SNC) in an obstetric service unit. We used grounded theory as the theoretical and methodological framework. The subjects of this study consisted of thirteen nurses from a public hospital in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. The data analysis resulted in the following phenomenon. "perceiving SNC as a working method that organizes, directs and improves the quality of care by bringing visibility and providing security for the nursing staff" The nurses expressed the extent of knowledge about the SNC experienced in obstetrics as well as considered the nursing process as a decision-making process, which guides the reasoning of nurses in the planning of nursing care in obstetrics. It was concluded that nurses perceive the SNC as an instrument of theoretical-practical articulation leading to personalized assistance.

  2. Exploring student nurse anesthetist stressors and coping using grounded theory methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joy Kieffer

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the challenges that recent graduates of nurse anesthesia programs coped with during their anesthesia curriculum from their perspective. The initial research questions for this study were: From the graduates'perspective, what were the stressors that they encountered during their nurse anesthesia program? And how did they successfully negotiate those stressors in order to graduate from their program? This phenomenon was studied using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected by individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews with 12 recent nurse anesthesia program graduates, from 5 different nurse anesthesia programs, who have been out of school for less than 2 years. This exploration into student nurse anesthetist stress and coping articulates 3 phases of development as these students progressed through their program. The phases are transitioning in (first 9 months of program), finding their way (9 to 18 months into program), and transitioning out (18 to 28 months into program). Coping mechanisms employed by the participants were problem focused, emotion focused, and a combination of the 2. Recommendations for action and future research are discussed.

  3. Linking the Intercultural and Grounded Theory: Methodological Issues in Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting intercultural research with Grounded Theory was advocated in the early history of intercultural theorising and includes the development of researchers' intercultural competencies. Such competency comes to the fore where intercultural theory places an equal emphasis on home and host cultures in migration research. In this context we have found a Grounded Theory approach particularly suitable for disentangling complex interlinkings within migration experiences and their individual outcomes. Grounded Theory allows for the exploration of various theories in different fields and the emergence of new or deeper interpretations of intercultural experiences, including where research has not engaged deeply with or avoided intercultural contexts. The use of software, based on Grounded Theory, provides the resource for systematically exploring the inter-related nature of data. In addition, engaging in intercultural research, in particular, raises questions around our practice as social science researchers: adherence to ethics guidelines, for instance, can be in some conflict with the relations we build with members of communities whose cultural values, for instance around friendship or trust, impact on the norms of both our own and institutional expectations. This leads to reflection on the relationship with research participants in terms of our own intercultural experiences and position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901363

  4. Selection of Grounded Theory as an Appropriate Research Methodology for a Dissertation: One Student’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Jones, Ed.D.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Doctoral students wanting to use grounded theory as a methodological approach for their dissertation often face multiple challenges gaining acceptance of their approach by their committee. This paper presents the case that the author used to overcome these challenges through the process of eliminating other methodologies, leaving grounded theory as the preferred method for the desired research issue. Through examining the approach used successfully by the author, other doctoral students will be able to frame similar arguments justifying the use of grounded theory in their dissertations and seeing the use of the method continue to spread into new fields and applications. This paper examines the case built for selecting grounded theory as a defensible dissertation approach. The basic research issue that I wanted to investigate was how practitioners in an applied field sought information in their work; in other words, how they researched. I further narrowed the investigation down to a more specific field, but the paper presented here is left in broader form so that other students can see the approach in more general terms.

  5. A Coding Scheme Development Methodology Using Grounded Theory For Qualitative Analysis Of Pair Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Salinger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of quantitative studies of pair programming (the practice of two programmers working together using just one computer have partially conflicting results. Qualitative studies are needed to explain what is really going on. We support such studies by taking a grounded theory (GT approach for deriving a coding scheme for the objective conceptual description of specific pair programming sessions independent of a particular research goal. The present article explains why our initial attempts at using GT failed and describes how to avoid these difficulties by a predetermined perspective on the data, concept naming rules, an analysis results metamodel, and pair coding. These practices may be helpful in all GT situations, particularly those involving very rich data such as video data. We illustrate the operation and usefulness of these practices by real examples derived from our coding work and present a few preliminary hypotheses regarding pair programming that have surfaced.

  6. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  7. Grounded Theory Approach in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Venkat Pulla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Grounded Theory, which is one of the newer methodologies becoming popular with social researchers since its evolution in the late 1960s. The paper discusses the principles and processes of the Grounded Theory and then explores the nature of codes, coding process and the concept of saturation. It then goes on to discuss the pros and cons, arguments for and against the use of Grounded Theory methodology in social research and explores the applicability of this methodology in producing sound theoretical basis for practice. Selected narratives from the author’s recent studies are used to explain the processes of Grounded Theory methodology.

  8. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  10. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mills

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. They also discuss Charmaz's landmark work on constructivist grounded theory relative to her positioning of the researcher in relation to the participants, analysis of the data, and rendering of participants' experiences into grounded theory. Grounded theory can be seen as a methodological spiral that begins with Glaser and Strauss' original text and continues today. The variety of epistemological positions that grounded theorists adopt are located at various points on this spiral and are reflective of their underlying ontologies.

  12. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  13. The Validity of Divergent Grounded Theory Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nils Amsteus PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assess whether divergence of grounded theory method may be considered valid. A review of literature provides a basis for understanding and evaluating grounded theory. The principles and nature of grounded theory are synthesized along with theoretical and practical implications. It is deduced that for a theory to be truly grounded in empirical data, the method resulting in the theory should be the equivalent of pure induction. Therefore, detailed, specified, stepwise a priori procedures may be seen as unbidden or arbitrary. It is concluded that divergent grounded theory can be considered valid. The author argues that securing methodological transparency through the description of the actual principles and procedures employed, as well as tailoring them to the particular circumstances, is more important than adhering to predetermined stepwise procedures. A theoretical foundation is provided from which diverse theoretical developments and methodological procedures may be developed, judged, and refined based on their own merits.

  14. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  15. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  16. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  17. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  18. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist In­quiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170

  19. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  20. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...

  1. Exploring the use of grounded theory as a methodological approach to examine the 'black box' of network leadership in the national quality forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoflund, A Bryce

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how grounded theory was used to investigate the "black box" of network leadership in the creation of the National Quality Forum. Scholars are beginning to recognize the importance of network organizations and are in the embryonic stages of collecting and analyzing data about network leadership processes. Grounded theory, with its focus on deriving theory from empirical data, offers researchers a distinctive way of studying little-known phenomena and is therefore well suited to exploring network leadership processes. Specifically, this paper provides an overview of grounded theory, a discussion of the appropriateness of grounded theory to investigating network phenomena, a description of how the research was conducted, and a discussion of the limitations and lessons learned from using this approach.

  2. Constructing New Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Constructivist Approach to Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about da...

  3. [Thoughts regarding researchers utilizing Grounded Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Joséte Luzia; da Silva, Laura Johanson; de Oliveira, Rosane Mara Pontes; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição

    2012-06-01

    This descriptive-reflexive study was performed with the objective to present the characteristics of researchers who use the Grounded Theory method, and outline the development of aptitudes for the researcher to become a Grounded Theoretician. The theoretical discussion was based on the frameworks of this methodology and supported by the literature. The article presents the main demands of qualitative studies using Grounded Theory, and important behaviors, attitudes and characteristics developed by the researchers. It is concluded that learning about Grounded Theory involves more than operationalizing a group of procedures and techniques. It also involves facing challenges to change one's attitude as a researcher and develop new ways of thinking and researching, gathering knowledge based on data to form a theory.

  4. Doing Formal Grounded Theory: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Andrews PhD

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the latest in a family of Grounded Theory books by Glaser that continue to build on previous work and make the methodology much more explicit. Its purpose is quite simply to provide Grounded Theory researchers with a set of procedures that can be followed to generate a Formal Grounded Theory (FGT. Despite several chapters in previous books that deal with generating formal grounded theory it has been given scant attention by researchers and this book aims to reverse this. It brings together and synthesises these previous writings in one book and seeks to specify much more clearly what is meant by a formal grounded theory. As with other more recent books by Glaser, this one is based on data in that the procedures outlined are come from previously generated formal grounded theories. However, Glaser cautions that this is based on limited data since not many FGTs exist yet and as more are generated, the method will become more explicit. The book has been eagerly anticipated by grounded theorists and it does not disappoint.

  5. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  6. Grounded theory and leadership research: A critical realist perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The methodology of grounded theory has great potential to contribute to our understanding of leadership within particular substantive contexts. However, our notions of good science might constrain these contributions. We argue that for grounded theorists a tension might exist between a desire to create a contextualised theory of leadership and a desire for scientifically justified issues of validity and generalizable theory. We also explore how the outcome of grounded theory research can crea...

  7. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  8. Making sense of grounded theory in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Lingard, Lorelei A

    2006-02-01

    Grounded theory is a research methodology designed to develop, through collection and analysis of data that is primarily (but not exclusively) qualitative, a well-integrated set of concepts that provide a theoretical explanation of a social phenomenon. This paper aims to provide an introduction to key features of grounded theory methodology within the context of medical education research. In this paper we include a discussion of the origins of grounded theory, a description of key methodological processes, a comment on pitfalls encountered commonly in the application of grounded theory research, and a summary of the strengths of grounded theory methodology with illustrations from the medical education domain. The significant strengths of grounded theory that have resulted in its enduring prominence in qualitative research include its clearly articulated analytical process and its emphasis on the generation of pragmatic theory that is grounded in the data of experience. When applied properly and thoughtfully, grounded theory can address research questions of significant relevance to the domain of medical education.

  9. Constructing New Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Constructivist Approach to Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dori Barnett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about data collection and analysis. Implications for future research directions and policy and practice in the field of special and alternative education are discussed.

  10. Health as expanding consciousness: a nursing perspective for grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janet Witucki

    2011-07-01

    Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness provides an excellent nursing perspective for nursing grounded theory research studies. Application of this nursing theory to grounded theory research provides a unitary-transformative paradigm perspective to the sociological underpinnings of grounded theory methodology. The fit between this particular nursing theory and grounded theory methodology is apparent when purpose, timing, process, and health outcomes of the two are compared. In this column, the theory of health as expanding consciousness is described and the theory's research as praxis methodology is compared to grounded theory methodology. This is followed by a description of how the theory of health as expanding consciousness can be utilized as a perspective for nursing grounded theory research.

  11. Do we need methodological theory to do qualitative research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Mark

    2003-09-01

    Positivism is frequently used to stand for the epistemological assumption that empirical science based on principles of verificationism, objectivity, and reproducibility is the foundation of all genuine knowledge. Qualitative researchers sometimes feel obliged to provide methodological alternatives to positivism that recognize their different ethical, ontological, and epistemological commitments and have provided three theories: phenomenology, grounded theory, and ethnography. The author argues that positivism was a doomed attempt to define empirical foundations for knowledge through a rigorous separation of theory and evidence; offers a pragmatic, coherent view of knowledge; and suggests that rigorous, rational empirical investigation does not need methodological theory. Therefore, qualitative methodological theory is unnecessary and counterproductive because it hinders critical reflection on the relation between methodological theory and empirical evidence.

  12. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  13. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Das Buch "Naturalist Inquiry" (NI) von LINCOLN und GUBA (1985) spielt eine wichtige Rolle für die Qualitative Datenanalyse (QDA). Dies ist für das Feld der QDA unproblematisch: NI hat hier wesentlich zur Verdeutlichung und weiteren Entfaltung methodologischer Fragen beigetragen. Bezogen auf die originäre Grounded Theory (GT) hat sich NI jedoch als Hindernis erwiesen durch sukzessive Mitnutzung und "Verfälschung" der ersteren: Für LINCOLN und GUBA ist GT ganz offensichtlich ein QDA-Verfahren (...

  14. "Naturalist Inquiry" und Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser

    2004-01-01

    Das Buch "Naturalist Inquiry" (NI) von LINCOLN und GUBA (1985) spielt eine wichtige Rolle für die Qualitative Datenanalyse (QDA). Dies ist für das Feld der QDA unproblematisch: NI hat hier wesentlich zur Verdeutlichung und weiteren Entfaltung methodologischer Fragen beigetragen. Bezogen auf die originäre Grounded Theory (GT) hat sich NI jedoch als Hindernis erwiesen durch sukzessive Mitnutzung und "Verfälschung" der ersteren: Für LINCOLN und GUBA ist GT ganz offensichtlich ein QDA-Verfahren (...

  15. From Darwin to constructivism: the evolution of grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Helen; Griffiths, Debra; McKenna, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    To explore the evolution of grounded theory and equip the reader with a greater understanding of the diverse conceptual positioning that is evident in the methodology. Grounded theory was developed during the modernist phase of research to develop theories that are derived from data and explain human interaction. Its philosophical foundations derive from symbolic interactionism and were influenced by a range of scholars including Charles Darwin and George Mead. Rather than a rigid set of rules and procedures, grounded theory is a way of conceptualising data. Researchers demonstrate a range of perspectives and there is significant variation in the way the methodology is interpreted and executed. Some grounded theorists continue to align closely with the original post-positivist view, while others take a more constructivist approach. Although the diverse interpretations accommodate flexibility, they may also result in confusion. The grounded theory approach enables researchers to align to their own particular world view and use methods that are flexible and practical. With an appreciation of the diverse philosophical approaches to grounded theory, researchers are enabled to use and appraise the methodology more effectively.

  16. Theory of mind and Verstehen (understanding) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former. From that perspective, lessons for current clinical psychiatry are drawn.

  17. Book Review: Essentials of Accessible Grounded Theory (Stern & Porr, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Porr is a relative newcomer to grounded theory, Stern has been at it for many years (she received her PhD under Glaser and Strauss in 1977. She has been instrumental in introducing many students to grounded theory, particularly in the nursing field, as well as making notable contributions to grounded theory literature. As Stern’s (1994 observations and insights suggested, constructivist versions of grounded theory emerged and spread in part because grounded theory was often being taught by teachers who themselves had a superficial, distorted understanding of the methodology, because they had learned it “minus mentor.” Given her observations, insights, and writings, when I began reading Essentials, my expectations were high. But, after reading it, I concluded that, in some important ways, it falls short. Given Stern’s considerable experience and previous contributions to grounded theory, it is ironic that Essentials contains more confusing and subtly inaccurate content than a book written for neophyte grounded theorists should. Although I think it is a noble effort with useful information, it contains material that is at variance with classic grounded theory, yet this isn’t made clear to the reader. Because Stern and Porr failed to make a clear distinction between classic and other forms of grounded theory, many readers, particularly neophytes, will of course expect that what they present in this book accurately represents essential canons of all types of grounded theory, including classic. Readers will carry the understandings and misunderstandings gained from the book into their research and discussions with other neophytes and individuals who express interest in grounded theory.

  18. Taking-On: A Grounded Theory of Addressing Barriers in Task Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austinson, Julie Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study of taking-on was conducted using classical grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Classical grounded theory is inductive, empirical, and naturalistic; it does not utilize manipulation or constrained time frames. Classical grounded theory is a systemic research method used to generate…

  19. The Roots of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I studied sociology at Stanford 1948 to 1952, which was partially fine but limited in those days. But then I knew I wanted to be a sociologist. Returning to the USA from the army in 1955 to study sociology at Columbia confirmed my goals. I bought the program 100% on doing sociology as my life work. All I do is sociology in every facet of life; work, recreation, family etc. My life is sociology driven and directed.Now let me give you a quote from Barton’s (1955, p.246 article of Paul F. Lazarsfeld [PFL], “Analyzing the logic of research operations to clarify concepts remained a key to PFL’s life”. It has been the key to my life also.“All is data” – that now sloganized tenet of Grounded Theory [GT] – clearly came from PFL per Barton’s words. Robert K. Merton’s [RKM] brief flicker of light – to admit to emergence (see Barton, p. 255 – became the key to GT’s theoretical stance.

  20. Toward A Practical General Systems Methodological Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib Callaos; Belkis Sánchez de Callaos

    2003-01-01

    Our main purpose in this paper is to describe the way in which we have been relating General System Theory (GST) to practice and to the design of a General Systems Methodology (GSM). Our first step was to apply GST to design a methodology for software development. Then, in a second step, by means of the experience/knowledge learned from applying the methodology to developing specific information systems, a continuous designing and re-designing process started, which simultaneously generalized...

  1. How to do a grounded theory study: a worked example of a study of dental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Grounded theory is the methodology most-often cited by authors of qualitative studies in medicine, but it has been suggested that many 'grounded theory' studies are not concordant with the methodology. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Methods We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice. Results We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. Conclusions By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.

  2. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our......In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field...... discussion to the potential value of grounded theory research to the field of entrepreneurship and thus the need in this field of further grounded theory....

  3. A Grounded Theory Study of Supervision of Preservice Consultation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a university-based supervision process for consultants-in-training (CITs) engaged in a preservice level consultation course with applied practicum experience. The study was approached from a constructivist worldview using a grounded theory methodology. Data consisted of supervision session transcripts,…

  4. University Students' Experiences of Nonmarital Breakups: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Sarah; Popadiuk, Natalee

    2008-01-01

    Prior nonmarital breakup research has been focused on negative outcomes, rarely examining the personal growth aspects of this experience. In this study, we used a qualitative grounded theory methodology to explore the changes that university students reported experiencing as a result of a heterosexual nonmarital breakup and how those changes…

  5. The application of grounded theory and symbolic interactionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the methodological and theoretical context and underpinnings of a study that examined community psychiatric nurses' work with family caregivers of older people with depression. The study used grounded theory research methods, with its theoretical foundations drawn from symbolic interactionism. The aims of the study were to describe and conceptualize the processes involved when community nurses work and interact with family caregivers and to develop an explanatory theory of these processes. This paper begins with an explanation of the rationale for using grounded theory as the method of choice, followed by a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of the study, including a brief summary of the nature and origins of symbolic interactionism. Key premises of symbolic interactionism regarded as central to the study are outlined and an analytical overview of the grounded theory method is provided. The paper concludes with a commentary on some of the issues and debates in the use of grounded theory in nursing research. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodical and critical review of symbolic interactionism and grounded theory that can help readers, particularly those who are intending to use grounded theory, better understand the processes involved in applying this method to their research.

  6. Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research describes the current state of the art in research on written text production. The chapters in the first part offer contributions to the creation of new theories and models for writing processes. The second part examines specific elements of the w

  7. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.

  8. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  9. Grounded theory and feminist inquiry: revitalizing links to the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Marilyn; Young, Lynne E

    2010-04-01

    Grounded theory has served feminist research endeavors since the mid-1990s. Researchers from a variety of disciplines claim methodological compatibility and incorporate feminist principles into their grounded theory studies. This article seeks to demonstrate the epistemological affinity between feminist inquiry and grounded theory. Although this relationship is not necessarily unique, the authors contend that when combined, it loosens the androcentric moorings of the empirical processes underpinning grounded theory, enabling the researchers to design inquiry with greater potential to reveal issues particular to the lives and experiences of marginalized women. The article begins by retracing the roots of grounded theory and feminist inquiry to identify six key areas where the underpinnings of GT are enriched by a feminist perspective when working with women. In addition, the authors draw on the literature and their experience from a 2005 study of peer support and lone mothers' health to demonstrate the advantages of combining these theoretical perspectives. Finally, the authors recommend that nurse researchers draw on feminist principles to guide their use of grounded theory to better serve the interests of women by surfacing issues of gender and power that influence the health experience.

  10. Growing Open: The transition from QDA to Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Doing a PhD can principally be carried out in three ways; firstly by applying existing theories on new data, secondly by theoretically comparing existing theories and thirdly by generating a new theory. Choice of approach of course depends on awareness and accessibility of alternatives. In essence, most PhD studies are exploratory journeys in a jungle of descriptive methodologies based on very uniform data. In this paper, the author elaborates the exploratory research process that subconsciously, and later consciously, required a shift from the initial QDA approach to grounded theory. The cutting point was discovering the multifaceted implications of the all-is-data dictum in GT.

  11. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  12. Doing Quantitative Grounded Theory: A theory of trapped travel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Rosenbaum, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available All is data. Grounded theorists employ this sentence in their quest to create original theoretical frameworks. Yet researchers typically interpret the word gdatah to mean qualitative data or, more specifically, interview data collected from respondents. This is not to say that qualitative data is deficient; however, grounded theorists may be missing vast opportunities to create pioneering theories from quantitative data. Indeed, Glaser and Strauss (1967 argued that researchers would use qualitative and/or quantitative data to fashion original frameworks and related hypotheses, and Glaserfs (2008 recently published book, titledDoing Quantitative Grounded Theory, is an attempt to help researchers understand how to use quantitative data for grounded theory (GT.

  13. Clarification of the Blurred Boundaries between Grounded Theory and Ethnography: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun; Le Navenec, Carol-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    There is confusion among graduate students about how to select the qualitative methodology that best fits their research question. Often this confusion arises in regard to making a choice between a grounded theory methodology and an ethnographic methodology. This difficulty may stem from the fact that these students do not have a clear…

  14. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  15. A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

  16. Reactions to Reading 'Remaining Consistent with Method? An Analysis of Grounded Theory Research in Accounting': A Comment on Gurd

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is a comment on Gurd's paper published in QRAM 5(2) on the use of grounded theory in interpretive accounting research. Methodology: Like Gurd, we conducted a bibliographic study on prior pieces of research claiming the use of grounded theory. Findings: We found a large diversity of ways of doing grounded theory. There are as many ways as articles. Consistent with the spirit of grounded theory, the field suggested the research questions, methods and verifiability criteria. ...

  17. A discussion of differences in preparation, performance and postreflections in participant observations within two grounded theory approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    researchers to experience activities and interactions directly in situ. However, using participant observations as a data collection method can be done in many ways, depending on the chosen grounded theory methodology, and may produce different results. This discussion shows that how the differences between......This paper presents a discussion of the differences in using participant observation as a data collection method by comparing the classic grounded theory methodology of Barney Glaser with the constructivist grounded theory methodology by Kathy Charmaz. Participant observations allow nursing...... using participant observations in classic and constructivist grounded theory can be considerable and that grounded theory researchers should adhere to the method descriptions of performing participant observations according to the selected grounded theory methodology to enhance the quality of research....

  18. A discussion of differences in preparation, performance and postreflections in participant observations within two grounded theory approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2016-05-10

    This paper presents a discussion of the differences in using participant observation as a data collection method by comparing the classic grounded theory methodology of Barney Glaser with the constructivist grounded theory methodology by Kathy Charmaz. Participant observations allow nursing researchers to experience activities and interactions directly in situ. However, using participant observations as a data collection method can be done in many ways, depending on the chosen grounded theory methodology, and may produce different results. This discussion shows that how the differences between using participant observations in classic and constructivist grounded theory can be considerable and that grounded theory researchers should adhere to the method descriptions of performing participant observations according to the selected grounded theory methodology to enhance the quality of research.

  19. Grounded theory: building a middle-range theory in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of nursing as a discipline results from a boom of investigations underway for nearly a century, and of the construction of theories that have arisen during the 1950’s, with greater relevance since the 1960’s. Giving continuation to the production of knowledge in nursing and seeking to contribute to the increase in the number of explanatory theories of the functional content of nurses, there is interest in answering the question: how can a middle-range theory in nursing be built that explains the nurse-elderly interaction in a successful aging process? As well, we address the goal of describing the process of building a middle-range theory in nursing. Middle-range theory refers to a qualitative paradigm study of inductive thinking, developed in the context of primary health care. The information was collected through participant observation and interviews. Method of analysis grounded theory by Corbin and Strauss(1 was followed, utilizing the triangulation of data and theoretical sampling. Grounded theory has become a method of analysis which facilitates the understanding and explanation of the phenomenon under study. By making clear the nature and process of the nurse-elderly interaction in the selected context and within the context of successful aging, a middle-range theory proposal emerged.

  20. Classic Grounded Theory to Analyse Secondary Data: Reality and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Andrews

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on the experiences of two researchers and discusses how they conducted a secondary data analysis using classic grounded theory. The aim of the primary study was to explore first-time parents’ postnatal educational needs. A subset of the data from the primary study (eight transcripts from interviews with fathers was used for the secondary data analysis. The objectives of the secondary data analysis were to identify the challenges of using classic grounded theory with secondary data and to explore whether the re-analysis of primary data using a different methodology would yield a different outcome. Through the process of re-analysis a tentative theory emerged on ‘developing competency as a father’. Challenges encountered during this re-analysis included the small dataset, the pre-framed data, and limited ability for theoretical sampling. This re-analysis proved to be a very useful learning tool for author 1(LA, who was a novice with classic grounded theory.

  1. On Utilizing Grounded Theory in Business Doctoral Research: Guidance on the Research Design, Procedures, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Boadu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a powerful and rigorous theory building methodology that has attracted considerable interest in business research; however, it is a challenging endeavour especially for novice researchers and in particular at the doctoral level. Although several researchers have attempted to clarify the cannons of various grounded theory approaches, still there is a shortage in guidance for doctoral students who wish to apply grounded theory for their studies. Using an example from a grounded theory business doctoral thesis, this paper provides a guide on the research design and utilisation of the Straussian grounded theory at doctoral level. In doing so, the paper discusses the rationale, features, and benefits of grounded theory. Using an example from corporate governance research, the paper illustrates how the procedures of data analysis (coding, theoretical memoing, and theoretical sampling are applied to systematically generate a grounded theory. Finally, the paper discusses major challenges to utilising grounded theory and how these can be addressed by doctoral researchers. This paper provides a clear and pragmatic exposition that can be useful to guide doctoral researchers who are interested in utilizing the Straussian approach of grounded theory in their studies.

  2. Is That a Real Theory or Did You Just Make It Up? Teaching Classic Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of this paper was derived from an incident I observed some years ago while accompanying a highly talented musician-songwriter friend to a performance. During a break, an audience member approached him to compliment the last song he had performed. He had written both the music and the lyrics to the song, one of many he had written. The audience member queried, “Is that a real song, or did you just make it up?” A touch amused, and not knowing whether he should be flattered or insulted, he politely replied, “It is a real song and I made it up.”This episode puts in mind a similar attitude in the social sciences that Glaser and Strauss (1967 noted, in which a small number of ’theoretical capitalists’ originate what are considered to be “real” theories and others are relegated to the role of “proletariat” testers. The means by which these theorists derived their theories remained largely mysterious. Unleashing proletariat testers was one of the chief rationales behind Glaser and Strauss’ development of grounded theory. It brought a democratic option into the social sciences that enabled anyone who learned the methodology to generate theory. The democratic ethos of the methodology may also have inadvertently unleashed an abundance of aspiring remodelers of the methodology, who unfortunately have eroded its primary purpose—to generate theories that are fully grounded in data rather than speculation or ideology.

  3. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  4. Thematic Review and Analysis of Grounded Theory Application in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Badreddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present metacodes, a new concept to guide grounded theory (GT research in software engineering. Metacodes are high level codes that can help software engineering researchers guide the data coding process. Metacodes are constructed in the course of analyzing software engineering papers that use grounded theory as a research methodology. We performed a high level analysis to discover common themes in such papers and discovered that GT had been applied primarily in three software engineering disciplines: agile development processes, geographically distributed software development, and requirements engineering. For each category, we collected and analyzed all grounded theory codes and created, following a GT analysis process, what we call metacodes that can be used to drive further theory building. This paper surveys the use of grounded theory in software engineering and presents an overview of successes and challenges of applying this research methodology.

  5. Characteristics of a central change programme within a governmental bureaucracy: A grounded theory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Korte (Ronald); G.J. van der Pijl (Gert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The purpose of the paper is to present a theory of organisational change within the setting of a governmental bureaucracy. Design/methodology/ approach Orthodox grounded theory is employed in the setting of a change programme in 12 Audit departments of the Dutch Ministries (publi

  6. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  7. Moral Distress Model Reconstructed Using Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hsun-Kuei; Chin, Chi-Chun; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2016-12-29

    The problems of nurse burnout and manpower shortage relate to moral distress. Thus, having a good understanding of moral distress is critical to developing strategies that effectively improve the clinical ethical climate and improve nursing retention in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the model of moral distress using the grounded theory. Twenty-five staff nurses at work units who attend to the needs of adult, pediatric, acute, and critical disease or end-of-life-care patients were recruited as participants using theoretical sampling from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan. Data were collected using intensive, 2- to 3-hour interviews with each participant. Audio recordings of the interviews were made and then converted into transcripts. The data were analyzed using the grounded theory. In the clinical setting, the perspective that nurses take toward clinical moral events reflects their moral values, which trigger moral cognition, provocation, and appraisal. The moral barriers that form when moral events that occur in clinical settings contradict personal moral values may later develop into moral distress. In handling moral barriers in the clinical environment, nurses make moral judgments and determine what is morally correct. Influenced by moral efficacy, the consequence may either be a moral action or an expression of personal emotion. Wasting National Health Insurance resources and Chinese culture are key sources of moral distress for nurses in Taiwan. The role of self-confidence in promoting moral efficacy and the role of heterodox skills in promoting moral actions represent findings that are unique to this study. The moral distress model was used in this study to facilitate the development of future nursing theories. On the basis of our findings, we suggested that nursing students be encouraged to use case studies to establish proper moral values, improve moral cognition and judgment capabilities, and promote moral actions to better handle the

  8. L'identità percepita: applicare la Grounded Theory in biblioteca Perceived Identity: applying Grounded Theory in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Faggiolani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available L'applicazione della Grounded Theory alle indagini finalizzate ad approfondire l'identità della biblioteca percepita dagli utenti è illustrata attraverso uno studio su quattro biblioteche del sistema bibliotecario comunale di Perugia. Inaugurata alla fine degli anni Sessanta, è una metodologia di ricerca sociale e un insieme di procedure capaci di generare sistematicamente una teoria fondata sui dati. È uno dei metodi interpretativi che mirano a descrivere i significati attribuiti ai fenomeni in esame, risultando particolarmente adatta all’esplorazione dei processi sociali e psicologici sottostanti. I dati passano attraverso le tre fasi di codifica - aperta, assiale, selettiva - e sono spesso elaborati con CAQDAS (Computer Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Software. In biblioteca, la metodologia GT è fondamentale per la piena comprensione dello "scarto" rappresentato da ciò che viene realmente fatto dal bibliotecario e ciò che viene percepito dall'utente. La ricerca nelle biblioteche perugine, condotta attraverso focus group e interviste semi-strutturate, ha portato in primo luogo alla consapevolezza che il concetto che l'utente ha della biblioteca è legato più al "luogo" e allo "spazio" piuttosto che al "servizio". Inoltre, le esigenze riscontrate durante la ricerca riguardano primariamente i campi che si occupano del coinvolgimento dell'utente, del rapporto della biblioteca con la scuola, dell'innovazione, della promozione di collezioni a scaffale aperto, della vivacità culturale, e degli aspetti logistico-architettonici.
    This article presents a reflection on the application of Grounded Theory methodology in a study which aims at understanding how the identity of libraries is perceived by users. The Grounded Theory, elaborated in the sixties by the sociologists, Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L. Strauss, and widely applied today in empirical research in varied disciplines, is a methodology of social research and a combination of

  9. Use of empathy in psychiatric practice: constructivist grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. Aims To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. Method This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) ‘How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?’ and (b) ‘How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?’ The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. Results This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Conclusions Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of ’empathetic engagement’. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243463

  10. Book Review: Grounded Theory: A practical guide (Birks & Mills, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available What is grounded theory and how is a grounded theory study carried out? Several recent publications have been trying to answer these questions, building on a literature list on the topic that covers more than 40 years of research and scholarship. According to the authors, this book is aimed at beginner researchers, research students and experienced researchers from a variety of disciplines who are unfamiliar with grounded theory.

  11. Review Essay: Eine Reise durch die Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In "Constructing Grounded Theory" begleitet Kathy CHARMAZ die Leser(innen) durch den Forschungsprozess. Ausgehend von einem historischen Rückblick auf die Entwicklung der Grounded Theory Methodologie führt sie die Lesenden von der Datenerfassung über das Kodieren zum Schreiben von Memos und schließlich zum ersten Entwurf der eigenen Grounded Theory. Durch die zahlreichen Beispiele aus ihrer eigenen Forschung erhalten Lesende jedoch mehr als einen theoretischen Überblick; sie haben vielmehr di...

  12. Book Review: Grounded Theory: A practical guide (Birks & Mills, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Gynnild, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    What is grounded theory and how is a grounded theory study carried out? Several recent publications have been trying to answer these questions, building on a literature list on the topic that covers more than 40 years of research and scholarship. According to the authors, this book is aimed at beginner researchers, research students and experienced researchers from a variety of disciplines who are unfamiliar with grounded theory.

  13. Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

  14. Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

  15. Grounded Theory Method: Sociology's Quest for Exclusive Items of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Tolhurst

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The genesis and development of grounded theory method (GTM is evaluated with reference to sociology's attempt to demarcate exclusive referents of inquiry. The links of objectivist GTM to positivistic terminology and to the natural scientific distinction from "common sense" are explored. It is then considered how the biological sciences have prompted reorientation towards constructivist GTM, underpinned by the metaphysics of social constructionism. GTM has been shaped by the endeavor to attain the sense of exactitude associated with positivism, whilst also seeking exclusive referents of inquiry that are distinct from the empirical realm of the natural sciences. This has generated complex research techniques underpinned by tortuous methodological debate: eschewing the perceived requirement to define and defend an academic niche could help to facilitate the development of a more useful and pragmatic orientation to qualitative social research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203261

  16. Reactions to reading “Remaining consistent with method? An analysis of grounded theory research in accounting”: A comment on Gurd

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper is a comment on Gurd's paper published in QRAM on the use of grounded theory in interpretive accounting research. Methodology: Like Gurd, we conducted a bibliographic study on prior pieces of research claiming the use of grounded theory. Findings: We found a large diversity of ways of doing grounded theory. There are as many ways as articles. Consistent with the spirit of grounded theory, the field suggested the research questions, methods and verifiability criteria...

  17. Reactions to reading “Remaining consistent with method? An analysis of grounded theory research in accounting”: A comment on Gurd

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper is a comment on Gurd’s paper published in QRAM on the use of grounded theory in interpretive accounting research. Methodology: Like Gurd, we conducted a bibliographic study on prior pieces of research claiming the use of grounded theory. Findings: We found a large diversity of ways of doing grounded theory. There are as many ways as articles. Consistent with the spirit of grounded theory, the field suggested the research questions, methods and verifiability criteria...

  18. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  19. Vygotsky's Methodological Contribution to Sociocultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Holbrook

    1999-01-01

    This article introduces major contributions of educational psychologist, Lev S. Vygotsky, through examination of his dialectical methodological approach. Topics discussed include semiotic mediation, social sources of development, verbal thinking, concept formation, spontaneous and scientific concepts, the zone of proximal development, and higher…

  20. Review: Günter Mey & Katja Mruck (Eds. (2007. Grounded Theory Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Schmidtke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The volume was published to mark the 40th anniversary of the publication of "The Discovery of Grounded Theory." The first part describes the emergence and fundamental positions of grounded theory methodology (GTM in methodological and theoretical terms; the second part focuses on research practices. The "Grounded Theory Reader" is an excellent compilation that doesn’t claim to be a standard textbook for newcomers to GTM. Rather, it is a reflection of the state of the art in GTM and enables insights in complex research practices. A basic understanding of GTM is recommended in order to get the most from the book. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903286

  1. Being, knowing, and doing: a phronetic approach to constructing grounded theory with Aboriginal Australian partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Whiteside, Mary; McCalman, Janya

    2013-02-01

    Researchers working with Aboriginal Australian partners are confronted with an array of historical, social, and political complexities which make it difficult to come to theoretical and methodological decisions. In this article, we describe a culturally safe and respectful framework that maintains the intellectual and theoretical rigor expected of academic research. As an Aboriginal woman and two non-Aboriginal women, we discuss the arguments and some of the challenges of using grounded theory methods in Aboriginal Australian contexts, giving examples from our studies of Aboriginal empowerment processes. We argue that the ethics of care and responsibility embedded in Aboriginal research methodologies fit well with grounded theory studies of Aboriginal social processes. We maintain that theory development grounded in data provides useful insights into the processes for raising the health, well-being, and prosperity of Aboriginal Australians.

  2. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  3. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously a

  4. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  5. To what extent is language teaching methodology informed by theory?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱殿勇; 崔丹

    2005-01-01

    With the globalization of the world, language teaching becomes more important than ever before, and many universities and classroom teachers are active to explore the most efficient and effective methodology to teach languages to achieve a desirable result. When they seek to improve the quality of language teaching, they ofter research teaching methodologies by referring to general theories about language and language learning. Theoretical bases and teachers' hands-out experience have informed methodologies of language teaching, and methods of language teaching have been improved with the developments about linguistics, psychology and education. But there is a question which extent the information that theory has made available can be used to explore language teaching methodology and of the relevance of theory to language teaching methodology.

  6. Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for Environmental ... AANT to research environmental policy processes surrounding the formulation and ... or self regulation – preferred by Organised Business and Organised Labour).

  7. Concept Generation for Design Creativity A Systematized Theory and Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Taura, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    The concept generation process seems like an intuitional thought: difficult to capture and perform, although everyone is capable of it. It is not an analytical process but a synthetic process which has yet to be clarified. Furthermore, new research methods for investigating the concept generation process—a very difficult task since the concept generation process is driven by inner feelings deeply etched in the mind—are necessary to establish its theory and methodology.  Concept Generation for Design Creativity—A Systematized Theory and Methodology presents the concept generation process both theoretically and methodologically. Theoretically, the concept generation process is discussed by comparing metaphor, abduction, and General Design Theory from the perspective of similarities and dissimilarities. Property mapping, concept blending, and concept integration in thematic relation have been explained methodologically. So far, these theories and methods have been discussed independently, and the relation...

  8. Getting Clean in a Drug Rehabilitation Program in Prison: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon; Ferguson, Neil

    2005-01-01

    High-risk drug use is prevalent among UK prison populations (Lipton, 1995) while recovery in prison is both complex and variable. Grounded theory methodology was employed to gain a greater understanding of the perceptions and conceptualisations of "risk," "need" and "motivation" in relation to prisoner drug abusing practices, criminal practices,…

  9. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  10. Philosophical Roots of Classical Grounded Theory: Its Foundations in Symbolic Interactionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Le Navenec, Carole-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers have discussed the historical relationship between the Grounded Theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism, they have not clearly articulated the congruency of their salient concepts and assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion of this congruency. A hypothetical example about smoking…

  11. Professional Identity Development: A Grounded Theory of Transformational Tasks of New Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Donna M.; Dollarhide, Colette T.; Moss, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional identity development is an important professional issue. Examining the lived experiences of counselors-in-training (CITs), the authors used grounded theory methodology to describe the transformational tasks that are required for professional identity development. Tasks include finding a personal definition of counseling, internalizing…

  12. Analyzing Literacy Practice: Grounded Theory to Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Perry, Kristen H.; Briseno, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    In this methodological and theoretical article, we address the need for more cross-case work on studies of literacy in use within different social and cultural contexts. The Cultural Practices of Literacy Study (CPLS) project has been working on a methodology for cross-case analyses that are principled in that the qualitative nature of each case,…

  13. Theory and methodology in premenstrual syndrome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A

    1995-09-01

    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a controversial and ill-defined phenomenon, the aetiology of which remains an enigma, despite considerable research effort. In this paper, four meta-theoretical approaches to PMS are described and evaluated. Approaches to PMS can be criticised on three inter-related grounds. They have failed to describe women's experiences in detail before explaining them; they have not placed experience within its socio-cultural context; and they have assumed a linear relationship between biology or culture and behaviour. Future research can address these issues in two ways. Biopsychosocial models of PMS may integrate a variety of approaches and improve our understanding of individual experiences but are unlikely to offer new insights into the phenomenon of PMS. These are more likely to emerge from anthropological and sociological studies which question the cultural and individual meaning of PMS.

  14. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thulesius, Hans O; Scott, Helen; Helgesson, Gert; Lynöe, Niels

    2013-01-01

    ...?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS...

  15. "Emergence" vs. "Forcing" of Empirical Data? A Crucial Problem of "Grounded Theory" Reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Kelle

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960s Barney GLASER and Anselm STRAUSS, developers of the methodology of "Grounded Theory" have made several attempts to explicate, clarify and reconceptualise some of the basic tenets of their methodological approach. Diverging concepts and understandings of Grounded Theory have arisen from these attempts which have led to a split between its founders. Much of the explication and reworking of Grounded Theory surrounds the relation between data and theory and the role of previous theoretical assumptions. The book which initially established the popularity of GLASER's and STRAUSS' methodological ideas, "The Discovery of Grounded Theory", contains two conflicting understandings of the relation between data and theory—the concept of "emergence" on the one hand and the concept of "theoretical sensitivity" on the other hand. Much of the later developments of Grounded Theory can be seen as attempts to reconcile these prima facie diverging concepts. Thereby GLASER recommends to draw on a variety of "coding families" while STRAUSS proposes the use of a general theory of action to build an axis for an emerging theory. This paper first summarises the most important developments within "Grounded Theory" concerning the understanding of the relation between empirical data and theoretical statements. Thereby special emphasis will be laid on differences between GLASER's and STRAUSS' concepts and on GLASER's current critique that the concepts of "coding paradigm" and "axial coding" described by STRAUSS and Juliet CORBIN lead to the "forcing" of data. It will be argued that GLASER's critique points out some existing weaknesses of STRAUSS' concepts but vastly exaggerates the risks of the STRAUSSian approach. A main argument of this paper is that basic problems of empirically grounded theory construction can be treated much more effectively if one draws on certain results of contemporary philosophical and epistemological discussions and on widely

  16. Ground tilt monitoring at Phlegraean Fields (Italy: a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Del Gaudio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Among geodetic methods used for monitoring ground deformation in volcanic areas, tiltmetry represents the most rapid technique and therefore it is used by almost all the volcanological observatories in the world. The deformation of volcanic building is not only the result of endogenous causes (i.e. dykes injection or magma rising, but also non-tectonic environmental factors. Such troubles cannot be removed completely but they can be reduce. This article outlines the main source of errors affecting the signals recorded by Phlegraean tilt, network, such as the dependence of the tilt response on temperature and to the thermoelastic effect on ground deformation. The analytical procedure used to evaluate about such errors and their reduction is explained. An application to data acquired from the tilt network during two distinct phases of ground uplift and subsidence of the Phlegraean Fields is reported.

  17. Peirce’s Theory of Abduction: Logic, Methodology, and Instinct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguayo W.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on Peirce’s theory of abduction have not been free of controversy, given the difficulty to determine clearly the nature and epistemic function of this inference. The article examines three ways of understanding the concept of abduction, developed by Peirce himself throughout his work. The main objective is to reconstruct the logical, methodological, and instinctive conception of this type of reasoning in order to establish the possibility of a theory of abduction.

  18. A usage-centered evaluation methodology for unmanned ground vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Looije, R.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a usage-centered evaluation method to assess the capabilities of a particular Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for establishing the operational goals. The method includes a test battery consisting of basic tasks (e.g., slalom, funnel driving, object detection). Tests can be of diffe

  19. A usage-centered evaluation methodology for unmanned ground vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Looije, R.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a usage-centered evaluation method to assess the capabilities of a particular Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for establishing the operational goals. The method includes a test battery consisting of basic tasks (e.g., slalom, funnel driving, object detection). Tests can be of diffe

  20. Entrepreneurial Orientation of Community College Workforce Divisions and the Impact of Organizational Structure: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefen, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on how organizational structure of community colleges influenced the entrepreneurial orientation of deans, directors, vice presidents, and vice chancellors of workforce units. Using grounded theory methodology, the researcher identified three emergent theories applicable to both integrated and separate workforce units. These…

  1. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  2. Entrepreneurial Orientation of Community College Workforce Divisions and the Impact of Organizational Structure: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefen, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on how organizational structure of community colleges influenced the entrepreneurial orientation of deans, directors, vice presidents, and vice chancellors of workforce units. Using grounded theory methodology, the researcher identified three emergent theories applicable to both integrated and separate workforce units. These…

  3. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  4. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  5. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  6. A Grounded Theory of Counseling Students Who Report Problematic Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.

    2014-01-01

    All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…

  7. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  8. The journey into fatherhood: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Liamtrirat, Saowanee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the process of transition into fatherhood for Thai men from childbirth to the postpartum period. Forty-one first-time Thai fathers were voluntarily recruited from two hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from December 2012 to June 2013. In-depth interviews were used to collect the data, which were analyzed based on grounded theory methodology. The basic social process that emerged as the core category was termed: "the journey into fatherhood." This process was divided into three phases: labor, delivery, and family beginning. Within this process, there were various situations, challenges, and pressures, which caused many changes of mood and feelings for the first-time fathers. Throughout this process, they applied various strategies to manage their concerns and needs, in order to develop into masterly fathers. Identifying the process of the journey into fatherhood provides nurses and midwives insight into the new fathers' experiences, which will enable them to be more sensitive, respectful, and effective caregivers.

  9. The Process of Patient's Privacy: A Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethics, customs, and divine and human values in all scientific and non-academic issues are accepted among all human societies in different eras. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of nursing professionals about the patient's privacy. Methods: 21 participants were selected by theoretical sampling which was guided by emerging categories. All participants were interviewed individually. Subjects were interviewed in a private setting and transcription was done after each interview. In-depth interviews and semi-structured questions were used for data collection. Corbin and Strauss’ Ground theory methodology was applied in order to explain the process of patient's privacy. Data analysis was an ongoing process which was started during data collection. Data analysis method included a three-step coding process including open coding, axial and selective coding through repeated line by line reading of transcripts. Results: Four central categories were identified from transcripts' constant comparative analysis: weakness of system, actors with serious effort, trying to maintain privacy and tension creation. Conclusion: Familiarity with how nurses deal with patient’s privacy can improve professional development, client satisfaction and observation of their rights. Nurses with sensitivity to patient’s privacy can manage their expectations respectfully.

  10. Methodological issues in testing the marginal productivity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T. Gottschalk (Peter); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractPrevious tests of the marginal productivity theory have been criticized on several grounds reviewed by the authors. One important deficiency has been the small number of factor inputs entered in the production functions. In 1978 Gottschalk suggested a method to estimate production functi

  11. Studying Doctoral Education: Using Activity Theory to Shape Methodological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Jazvac-Martek, Marian; McAlpine, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The study reported here, one part of a larger study on doctoral education, describes a pilot study that used Activity Theory to shape a methodological tool for better understanding the tensions inherent in the doctoral experience. As doctoral students may function within a range of activity systems, we designed data collection protocols based on…

  12. Conceptual and Methodological Concerns in the Theory of Perceptual Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eBenoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a short critical review of the theory of perceptual load. It closely examines the basic tenets and assumptions of the theory and identifies major conceptual and methodological problems that have been largely ignored in the literature. The discussion focuses on problems in the definition of the concept of perceptual load, on the circularity in the characterization and manipulation of perceptual load and the confusion between the concept of perceptual load and its operationalization. The paper also selectively reviews evidence supporting the theory as well as inconsistent evidence which proposed alternative dominant factors influencing the efficacy of attentional selection.

  13. Philosophical and Methodological Problem of Consistency of Mathematical Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michailova N. V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased abstraction of modern mathematical theories has revived interest in traditional philosophical and methodological problem of internally consistent system of axioms where the contradicting each other statements can’t be deduced. If we are talking about axioms describing a well-known area of mathematical objects from the standpoint of local consistency this problem does not appear to be as relevant. But these problems are associated with the various attempts of formalists to explain the mathematical existence through consistency. But, for example, with regard to the problem of establishing of consistency of mathematical analysis the solution of which would clarify the fate of Hilbert's proof theory it has not solved yet so as the problem of the consistency of axiomatic set theory. Therefore it can be assumed that the criterion of consistency despite its essential role in axiomatic systems both formal and substantive nature is the same auxiliary logical criterion as well as mathematical provability. An adequate solution of the problem of consistency of mathematics can be achieved in the area of methodological and substantive arguments revealing the mechanism of appearance of contradictions in the mathematical theory. The paper shows that from a systemic point of view in the context of philosophical and methodological synthesis of various directions of justification of modern mathematics it can’t insist on only the rationale for consistency of mathematical theories.

  14. A case study using grounded theory of environmental education in an alternative school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Laurina Isabella

    This study examines the appropriate practices of an alternative school in west Tennessee in educating middle and high school students in long- and short-term alternative school placement. The participants included 23 students in grades 7-12 who had been classified as disruptive or failing academically, thus requiring intervention. The study's aim was to determine the effect of environmental education on the academic progress of these students. Data were obtained through multi-triangulation methodology and analyzed by grounded theory methodology. Four concepts emerged: social dynamics, relevance, conversion, and affirmation. A grounded theory for effective alternative education through environmental education based on the emergent concepts is proposed, including a new learning framework from which alternative school educators can design curricula and instructional units.

  15. Questions Arising about Emergence, Data Collection, and Its Interaction with Analysis in a Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bruce

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a strong call for increased clarity and transparency of method in qualitative research. Although qualitative data analysis has been detailed, data management has not been made as transparent in the literature. How do data collection and analysis interact in practical terms? What constitutes sufficient data? And can research be both planful and emergent? In this paper, the author highlights several methodological strategies for addressing data management challenges in a grounded theory study of preservice mathematics teachers.

  16. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  17. [The theory of functional systems in medicine: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrutskiĭ, K S

    2009-01-01

    P.K. Anokhin's theory of functional systems (TFS) is a unique scientific development extending an original field of biomedical research initiated in this country by I.M. Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, and A.A. Ukhtomsky. Unique methodology of TFS is based on the integrated approach to the study of human vital activity including psychic and somatic processes. The main results of the studies in the framework of TFS methodology and prospects for its further development are reviewed with special reference to the key mechanisms of eitiopathogenesis of chronic non-infectious diseases.

  18. Software Development and Test Methodology for a Distributed Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Guillebeau, Pat; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes in an effort to minimize unnecessary overhead while maximizing process benefits. The Software processes that have evolved still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Processes have evolved, highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project.

  19. A Discussion with Prof Kathy Charmaz on Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Interviewed by Graham R Gibbs at the BPS Qualitative Social Psychology Conference, University of Huddersfield, UK\\ud September 14-16 2013\\ud The discussion focusses on ideas from her book, Constructing Grounded Theory of which a second edition was published in March 2014, a few months after this interview. This second edition elaborates many of the points covered in the discussion.\\ud Charmaz, K (2014) Constructing Grounded Theory. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGE.\\ud http://www.uk.sage...

  20. The making of a grounded theory: after death communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devers, Edie; Robinson, Katherine Morton

    2002-04-01

    Qualitative research provides understanding of phenomena with a depth and richness that cannot be generated through quantitative approaches. Qualitative methods, however, can often appear difficult, if not confusing. In this article, the authors take the reader through the grounded theory process using Devers's research, Experiencing the Deceased: Reconciling the Extraordinary (1994), a study of after death communication (ADC), to illustrate the use of this particular qualitative method. The authors hope that this article will leave the reader with a better understanding of grounded theory method and stimulate an interest in using it for studying other death-related topics.

  1. RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY IN SOCIOLOGY: A METHODOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA GHEONDEA-ELADI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available În the last years, rational choice theory (RCT took over a lot of the social sciences, almost polarizing discussions in sociology, such that I was able to hear questions like: are there any other theories in sociology, besides rational choice theory? Although the answer to this question is clearly yes, what seems to be important to avoid is that the moment when this theory monopolizes behavioural explanations in a multi-paradigmatic discipline should not come from partial or incomplete knowledge of it. Consequently, I decided to write this article with two goals in mind: one, to make a review of what rational choice theory is and means to sociology and secondly, to shortly present a research which questioned the structuring of social events according to this theory2. In the first part of this paper, I will present the main aspects of rational choice theory, such that I can argue for choosing one of its variants in the second section. In the last part I will present the methodology I used to explore the closeness of the Volunteer’s Dilemma (as Diekmann (1985, 1993 proposed it to the volunteering situation in Romania. I shall do this by aid of institutional analysis and interview analysis. The results of the research will be briefly described, such that, in the end, the conclusions can summarize the main ideas about rational choice theory emerging from this article

  2. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  3. How Chairpersons Enhance Faculty Research: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Brown, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    A study examined how department chairpersons enhanced research performance of college and university faculty. By applying grounded theory methods to a corpus of 33 interviews with chairpersons, the study resulted in a typology of chair roles (administrative, advocacy, interpersonal), then assessed the process of assistance for faculty at four…

  4. Year 7 Students, Information Literacy, and Transfer: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…

  5. How Chairpersons Enhance Faculty Research: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Brown, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    A study examined how department chairpersons enhanced research performance of college and university faculty. By applying grounded theory methods to a corpus of 33 interviews with chairpersons, the study resulted in a typology of chair roles (administrative, advocacy, interpersonal), then assessed the process of assistance for faculty at four…

  6. Educational Administrative Inservice Training: An Outline of a Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysinski, Patricia R.

    This outline of a grounded theory of educational administrative inservice training demonstrates the organizational characteristics and outcomes for participants as the results of a qualitative study. Focusing on high school principals, this study addresses two questions: What are the organizational characteristics of inservice training for school…

  7. Reflecting on E-Recruiting Research Using Grounded Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmüller, Elfi; Wilderom, Celeste

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a syn

  8. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  9. Infusing Participants' Voices into Grounded Theory Research: A Poetic Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article augments the author's grounded theory study of student and teacher interactions in alternative education classrooms by presenting poetic transcription as a way to portray the essences and experiences of the participants. The author builds on the experimental writing traditions of other researchers to embrace her own experiences as a…

  10. A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In social psychology, the attribution model of helping behavior suggests that beliefs of the helping target’s responsibility for the need for help evoke affective motivators such as feelings of pity, sympathy, or anger. The affective motivation leads to helping or not helping the target. The current emergent theory is an enhancement of this theory by incorporating other personal and situational variables.Through the use of classic grounded theory, I interviewed 80 participants from different De La Salle Schools in the Philippines. This yielded over 1300 individual incidents that were compared and contrasted to form codes, categories and subcategories. A theory on the decision making process of helping emerged that incorporates the helper’s personal conviction, and rational deliberations of the situation. The desire to help is based on the helper’s rationalemotive beliefs (philosophical ideals and values that nurture helping and the knowledge of the nature of risk/problem and relational-emotive ties (with the one who needs help and with a social group that nurtures helping. The desire to help undergoes a process of rationalpragmatic-deliberations on the appropriateness of the recipients need of help, the cost of helping, the helper’s capability of helping, and the logistics of helping before the actual helping occurs. The theory has implications for current social psychological theories of helping, and the use of classic grounded theory research.

  11. METHODOLOGY OF PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION: THEORY AND PRACTICE (theoretical and methodological foundations of vocational teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny M. Dorozhkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at investigating a justification of the new approach to the problem of vocational education development through the prism of interdependence research methodology and practice. This conceptual setup allows determining the main directions for teacher training modernization of vocational schools. The authors note that the current socio-economic situation in our country has actualized the problem of personnel training. Politicians, economists and scientists’ speeches are all about the shortage of skilled personnel. They see the main reason of this catastrophic situation in the present system of primary and secondary vocational education. At least they concern over the current practice of pedagogical personnel training of vocational education who are to restore the system of vocational education. Our country, Russia has a great positive experience in solving this problem. Scientific-methodological centre for vocational teacher education is the Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University under the scientific direction of Academician of the Russian Academy of Education, G. M. Romantsev. The reflection of scientifictheoretical bases of this education led the authors to the analysis and designing (formation of existent and new professional and pedagogical methodology. Methods. The fundamental position of A. M. Novikov on the generality of the research (scientific and practical activity methodology has become the theoretical platform of the present study. Conceptual field, conceptual statements and professional model are presented as the whole system (or integrating factor. The theoretical framework has determined the logic of the study and its results. Scientific and educational methodology differentiation in terms of the subject of cognitive activity has allowed identifying the main scientific and practical disciplines of vocational teacher education. The creative concept as the subject ground is instrumental analysis of

  12. No theory of justice can ground health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Griffin

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that no theory or single conception of justice can provide a fundamental grounding for health care reform in the United States. To provide such a grounding, (1) there would need to be widespread support among citizens for a particular conception of justice, (2) citizens would have to apprehend this common conception of justice as providing the strongest available rationale for health care reform, and (3) this rationale would have to overwhelm countervailing values. I argue that neither of the first two conditions is met.

  13. Discovering and Articulating What Is Not yet Known: Using Action Learning and Grounded Theory as a Knowledge Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleen, David J.; Corbitt, Brian; Yoong, Pak

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a conceptual model for the discovery and articulation of emergent organizational knowledge, particularly knowledge that develops when people work with new technologies. Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on two widely accepted research methods--action learning and grounded theory--and is illustrated using a case…

  14. School Counselors' Strategies for Social Justice Change: A Grounded Theory of What Works in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Urbano, Alessandra; Haston, Meg; McMahon, Eleanor

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to explore the strategies that 16 school counselors who self-identified as social justice agents used to advocate for systemic change within their school communities. Findings included seven overarching themes: (a) using political savvy to navigate power structures, (b) consciousness raising,…

  15. The Experience of Gifted Girls Transitioning from Elementary School to Sixth and Seventh Grade: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperell, Jennifer L.; Rubel, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the experiences of gifted girls transitioning from elementary school to sixth and seventh grade. The current literature indicates that gifted girls often struggle emotionally during this transition. Seven research participants were selected and interviewed over a four-month period. Grounded theory methodology was used to…

  16. The Frustrations of Reader Generalizability and Grounded Theory: Alternative Considerations for Transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Misco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I convey a recurring problem and possible solution that arose during my doctoral research on the topic of cross-cultural Holocaust curriculum development for Latvian schools. Specifically, as I devised the methodology for my research, I experienced a number of frustrations concerning the issue of transferability and the limitations of both reader generalizability and grounded theory. Ultimately, I found a more appropriate goal for the external applicability of this and other highly contextual research studies in the form of "grounded understandings," which are tentative apprehensions of the importance or significance of phenomena and conceptualizations that hold meaning and explanatory power, but are only embryonic in their potential to generate theory.

  17. The Logical Structure of Data in ATLAS.ti and its Advantage for Grounded Theory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Mühlmeyer-Mentzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative data analysis software is quite similar regarding the fundamental steps and procedures of data analysis, but the way in which the results of the analysis are stored is different. This article focuses on the fit of grounded theory methodology (GTM and a network-like storage, as is used in ATLAS.ti. Using data from an ongoing research study as an example, a description is provided of how the analytical steps of GTM are implemented in ATLAS.ti and how results are stored as a net of nodes. This code net represents the developed "grounded theory" as structured conceptualized information. Exported as an XML file the code net can be used in other applications by other researchers. This has the potential to support data quality and scientific cooperation between qualitative researchers. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101325

  18. Grounded Theory in studies on health of the elderly: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Oliveira de Mesquita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available : It is an integrative literature review in order to analyze national scientific production on the health of the elderly who used the Grounded Theory (DFT or Grounded Theory. We conducted a search in the Virtual Library databases Health considering all publications until March 2015. The search resulted in the selection of 11 articles by keywords: Grounded Theory and Aging Health. A Grounded Theory has contributed in the development of theories and meanings of experiences.  

  19. Newly-graduated midwives transcending barriers: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Grounded theory for radiotherapy practitioners: Informing clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, N.A., E-mail: Nadia.Walsh@gstt.nhs.u [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Radiotherapy practitioners may be best placed to undertake qualitative research within the context of cancer, due to specialist knowledge of radiation treatment and sensitivity to radiotherapy patient's needs. The grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis is a unique method of identifying a theory directly based on data collected within a clinical context. Research for radiotherapy practitioners is integral to role expansion within the government's directive for evidence-based practice. Due to the paucity of information on qualitative research undertaken by radiotherapy radiographers, this article aims to assess the potential impact of qualitative research on radiotherapy patient and service outcomes.

  1. Space Theory and Strategy: War From the High Ground Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Strategy is the “art of creating power.”30 Strategy constantly adjusts to current realities generating advantageous options.31 Thus, it makes sense to...SPACE THEORY AND STRATEGY: WAR FROM THE HIGH GROUND DOWN BY ANGELO FERNANDEZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL...you find a way to make me laugh. Thank you for the memories and I can not wait to make more. vi ABSTRACT This thesis provides a

  2. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  3. Scanning The Business Environment For Information: a Grounded Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Correia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the principal findings of research that sought to provide a comprehensive understanding of the environmental scanning process. The methodology used was of major importance in obtaining data that are grounded largely in the personal experience of managers, but also in documentary evidence and in direct observation by the researcher. The purpose of the study was to investigate how managers in the Portuguese chemical industry scan their environment for information, what are the contextual factors that affect this activity, and also how managers' perceptions of environmental change affect the strategic change they implement.

  4. A Grounded Theory Analysis of Introductory Computer Science Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wellons

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning is a critical, early step on the path to successful program writing and a skill that is often lacking in novice programmers. As practitioners we are continually searching for or creating interventions to help our students, particularly those who struggle in the early stages of their computer science education. In this paper we report on our ongoing research of novice programming skills that utilizes the qualitative research method of grounded theory to develop theories and inform the construction of these interventions. We describe how grounded theory, a popular research method in the social sciences since the 1960’s, can lend formality and structure to the common practice of simply asking students what they did and why they did it. Further, we aim to inform the reader not only about our emerging theories on interventions for planning but also how they might collect and analyze their own data in this and other areas that trouble novice programmers. In this way those who lecture and design CS1 interventions can do so from a more informed perspective.

  5. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torquato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with isotropic “stealthy” bounded long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations have classical ground states that are (counterintuitively disordered, hyperuniform, and highly degenerate. Disordered hyperuniform systems have received attention recently because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d-dimensional Euclidean space R^{d} is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density ρ and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. The purpose of this paper is to take some initial steps in this direction. Specifically, we derive general exact relations for thermodynamic properties (energy, pressure, and isothermal compressibility that apply to any ground-state ensemble as a function of ρ in any d, and we show how disordered degenerate ground states arise as part of the ground-state manifold. We also derive exact integral conditions that both the pair correlation function g_{2}(r and structure factor S(k must obey for any d. We then specialize our results to the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit by exploiting an ansatz that stealthy states behave remarkably like “pseudo”-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for g_{2}(r and S(k are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across the first three space dimensions. These results are used to obtain order metrics, local number variance, and nearest-neighbor functions across dimensions. We also derive

  6. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, S.; Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with isotropic "stealthy" bounded long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are (counterintuitively) disordered, hyperuniform, and highly degenerate. Disordered hyperuniform systems have received attention recently because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density ρ and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. The purpose of this paper is to take some initial steps in this direction. Specifically, we derive general exact relations for thermodynamic properties (energy, pressure, and isothermal compressibility) that apply to any ground-state ensemble as a function of ρ in any d , and we show how disordered degenerate ground states arise as part of the ground-state manifold. We also derive exact integral conditions that both the pair correlation function g2(r ) and structure factor S (k ) must obey for any d . We then specialize our results to the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit) by exploiting an ansatz that stealthy states behave remarkably like "pseudo"-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for g2(r ) and S (k ) are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across the first three space dimensions. These results are used to obtain order metrics, local number variance, and nearest-neighbor functions across dimensions. We also derive accurate analytical

  7. A Summary of Some Teaching Methodologies as well as Some Linguistic and Learning Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦耀咏

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to summarize some main schools 0f teaching methodologies abroad and some main learning theories abroad. From this paper, we can know the main learning theories, the basic theories of them and the leading figures. It can help us understand the characteristics of each school of the teaching methodologies and learning theories.

  8. Becoming Selfless: A Grounded Theory of Commitment to Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Nino L. Agoncillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of commitment to service in the community of educational partners in the Philippines. Educational partners are lay people who assist religious organizations in the field of education, and in the Philippines, about 96 percent of educational partners are in Lasallian schools and organizations. Educational partners are young professionals, volunteers between the ages of 24-39 who strive to live the teachings of St. John Baptist De La Salle. The volunteers aim to generate a spirit of service, a sense of mission to the youth. By using a classic Grounded Theory approach, the theory of becoming selfless was generated. The theory explains the stages educational partners undergo when resolving their organizational commitment to service. Organizational commitment is the psychological attachment, involvement and identification of the individual to the organization. Becoming selfless provides a theoretical focal point to better understand the complexity of commitment.

  9. A grounded theory for unaccompanied foreign minors in Italy: the case study of Egyptian minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Bianchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests to share a research first emerging categories according to methodological universe of the "Grounded Theory" based on a mental construction/orientation process. The main target is to investigate in the educational relationship between an unaccompanied minor (MSNA and his educator, and so has also to consider the progressive changes in the learning of the language and the corresponding humanization of the same, so well the continued definition and shared construction of the intercultural practice. At this stage of doctoral research, some categories are emerging that are particularly pertinent to the Egyptian participants in the study. The egyptians are the main nationality present in italian system of host. The theory which is emergeting will be a scratch theory and has not a validation target of preconceived hypothesis.

  10. Generating or developing grounded theory: methods to understand health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology that aims to explain social phenomena, e.g. why particular motivations or patterns of behaviour occur, at a conceptual level. Developed in the 1960s by Glaser and Strauss, the methodology has been reinterpreted by Strauss and Corbin in more recent times, resulting in different schools of thought. Differences arise from different philosophical perspectives concerning knowledge (epistemology) and the nature of reality (ontology), demanding that researchers make clear theoretical choices at the commencement of their research when choosing this methodology. Compared to other qualitative methods it has ability to achieve understanding of, rather than simply describing, a social phenomenon. Achieving understanding however, requires theoretical sampling to choose interviewees that can contribute most to the research and understanding of the phenomenon, and constant comparison of interviews to evaluate the same event or process in different settings or situations. Sampling continues until conceptual saturation is reached, i.e. when no new concepts emerge from the data. Data analysis focusses on categorising data (finding the main elements of what is occurring and why), and describing those categories in terms of properties (conceptual characteristics that define the category and give meaning) and dimensions (the variations within properties which produce specificity and range). Ultimately a core category which theoretically explains how all other categories are linked together is developed from the data. While achieving theoretical abstraction in the core category, it should be logical and capture all of the variation within the data. Theory development requires understanding of the methodology not just working through a set of procedures. This article provides a basic overview, set in the literature surrounding grounded theory, for those wanting to increase their understanding and quality of research output.

  11. Reduced M(atrix) theory models: ground state solutions

    CERN Document Server

    López, J L

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to find exact ground state solutions to reduced models of the SU($N$) invariant matrix model arising from the quantization of the 11-dimensional supermembrane action in the light-cone gauge. We illustrate the method by applying it to lower dimensional toy models and for the SU(2) group. This approach could, in principle, be used to find ground state solutions to the complete 9-dimensional model and for any SU($N$) group. The Hamiltonian, the supercharges and the constraints related to the SU($2$) symmetry are built from operators that generate a multicomponent spinorial wave function. The procedure is based on representing the fermionic degrees of freedom by means of Dirac-like gamma matrices, as was already done in the first proposal of supersymmetric (SUSY) quantum cosmology. We exhibit a relation between these finite $N$ matrix theory ground state solutions and SUSY quantum cosmology wave functions giving a possible physical significance of the theory even for finite $N$.

  12. Implications of male circumcision for women in Papua New Guinea: a transformational grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick; McBride, William J H

    2017-07-27

    Male circumcision reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is being explored for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). PNG has a concentrated HIV epidemic which is largely heterosexually transmitted. There are a diverse range of male circumcision and penile modification practices across PNG. Exploring the implications of male circumcision for women in PNG is important to inform evidence-based health policy that will result in positive, intended consequences. The transformational grounded theory study incorporated participatory action research and decolonizing methodologies. In Phase One, an existing data set from a male circumcision study of 861 male and 519 female participants was theoretically sampled and analyzed for women's understanding and experience of male circumcision. In Phase Two of the study, primary data were co-generated with 64 women in seven interpretive focus group discussions and 11 semi-structured interviews to develop a theoretical model of the processes used by women to manage the outcomes of male circumcision. In Phase Three participants assisted to refine the developing transformational grounded theory and identify actions required to improve health. Many women know a lot about male circumcision and penile modification and the consequences for themselves, their families and communities. Their ability to act on this knowledge is determined by numerous social, cultural and economic factors. A transformational grounded theory was developed with connecting categories of: Women Know a Lot, Increasing Knowledge; Increasing Options; and Acting on Choices. Properties and dimensions of each category are represented in the model, along with the intervening condition of Safety. The condition of Safety contextualises the overarching lived realty for women in PNG, enables the inclusion of men in the transformational grounded theory model, and helps to explain relationships between men and women. The

  13. Theory and research in audiology education: understanding and representing complexity through informed methodological decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L

    2013-05-01

    The discipline of audiology has the opportunity to embark on research in education from an informed perspective, learning from professions that began this journey decades ago. The goal of this article is to position our discipline as a new member in the academic field of health professional education (HPE), with much to learn and contribute. In this article, I discuss the need for theory in informing HPE research. I also stress the importance of balancing our research goals by selecting appropriate methodologies for relevant research questions, to ensure that we respect the complexity of social processes inherent in HPE. Examples of relevant research questions are used to illustrate the need to consider alternative methodologies and to rethink the traditional hierarchy of evidence. I also provide an example of the thought processes and decisions that informed the design of an educational research study using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. As audiology enters the scholarly field of HPE, we need to arm ourselves with some of the knowledge and perspective that informs the field. Thus, we need to broaden our conceptions of what we consider to be appropriate styles of academic writing, relevant research questions, and valid evidence. Also, if we are to embark on qualitative inquiry into audiology education (or other audiology topics), we need to ensure that we conduct this research with an adequate understanding of the theories and methodologies informing such approaches. We must strive to conduct high quality, rigorous qualitative research more often than uninformed, generic qualitative research. These goals are imperative to the advancement of the theoretical landscape of audiology education and evolving the place of audiology in the field of HPE. American Academy of Audiology.

  14. PENGALAMAN MAHASISWA DALAM MELAKUKAN WIRAUSAHA INFORMASI: SEBUAH PENELITIAN GROUNDED THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdini Rihlatul Mahmudah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is to explore students’ understanding of information entrepreneurship. This is a qualitative study using grounded theory. Selection of the method is based on research conducted purpose, namely to build a theory based on the views of respondents. The steps taken to obtain the data are interviews, observation, and document review. The data is analyzed based on data analysis model constructivism form of transcription of data and interpretation of data through open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. Because that’s grounded theory meant to know in depth understanding of information entrepreneurship is mainly done by the students. The study also covers entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity information extracted information from the perspective of students. The conclusion of this study is an entrepreneur information definition. That defi nition is work in the fi eld of information that can be done independently or in groups, with flexibility in the time and place of the work, in the form of search activity information, creating web and library systems, consulting libraries, teachers, and librarians to make money, add experience and knowledge, as well as develop social activities.

  15. Book Review: Glaser, B.G. (2007. Doing Formal Grounded Theory: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita K. Nathaniel, PhD, APRN, BC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty years after developing the classic grounded theory method with Anselm Strauss, Barney Glaser has published the long-anticipated follow-up monograph that details the method for generating formal grounded theory. Through the years, Glaser continued writing about substantive grounded theory, but formal grounded theory remained in the background, lacking a clear definition and distinctive method. Although his previous monographs offer hints about formal grounded theory, this is the first definitive guide for researcher-theorists. It is Glaser’s aim that this monograph will provide the inspiration and direction needed by researcher-theorists who will then generate formal grounded theory. The intended audience for this book is grounded theorists who have previous experience developing substantive grounded theories.

  16. Surface Signature Characterization at SPE through Ground-Proximal Methods: Methodology Change and Technical Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    A portion of LANL’s FY15 SPE objectives includes initial ground-based or ground-proximal investigations at the SPE Phase 2 site. The area of interest is the U2ez location in Yucca Flat. This collection serves as a baseline for discrimination of surface features and acquisition of topographic signatures prior to any development or pre-shot activities associated with SPE Phase 2. Our team originally intended to perform our field investigations using previously vetted ground-based (GB) LIDAR methodologies. However, the extended proposed time frame of the GB LIDAR data collection, and associated data processing time and delivery date, were unacceptable. After technical consultation and careful literature research, LANL identified an alternative methodology to achieve our technical objectives and fully support critical model parameterization. Very-low-altitude unmanned aerial systems (UAS) photogrammetry appeared to satisfy our objectives in lieu of GB LIDAR. The SPE Phase 2 baseline collection was used as a test of this UAS photogrammetric methodology.

  17. Assertiveness process of Iranian nurse leaders: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.

  18. Research report: a grounded theory description of pastoral counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loren L

    2011-01-01

    Historically, clerical paradigms of ordained ministry have defined pastoral counseling. However, these fail to describe pastoral counselors in the complex social, theological and medical contexts in which they now work. This study asks the question: How do pastoral counselors in clinical practice describe what is uniquely "pastoral" about the counseling they offer clients? Grounded theory was used to propose a preliminary description and an intermediate theory of how pastoral counselors interpret "pastoral." Eighty-five pastoral counselors were selected for the study over a four year period using criteria to assure maximum variation. Interviews and pastoral identity statements were collected and coded, and theoretical models were organized using NVIVO, a computer assisted qualitative design and analysis software (CAQDAS) package. Results suggest that pastoral counselors share some common ideas regarding "pastoral identity" and clinical practice. How pastoral counselors interpret "pastoral" is highly context sensitive and varies widely.

  19. Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Yalof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory (CGT was used to identify a main concern of online students in higher education. One of the main impediments to studying online is a sense of isolation and lack of access to support systems as students navigate through complex requirements of their online programs. Hypothetical probability statements illustrate the imbalance between heightened needs of virtual learners and perceived inadequate support provided by educational institutions. The core variable, marshaling resources, explains how peer supports sustain motivation toward successful program completion. Understanding the critical contribution virtual interpersonal networks make towards maximizing resources by group problem solving is a significant aspect of this theory. Keywords: Online learning, e-learning, personal learning networks, peer networks

  20. Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Building and Interpreting Clusters from Grounded Theory and Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Merlino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods present a wide spectrum of application possibilities as well as opportunities for combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the social sciences fruitful theoretical discussions and a great deal of empirical research have taken place. This article introduces an empirical investigation which demonstrates the logic of combining methodologies as well as the collection and interpretation, both sequential as simultaneous, of qualitative and quantitative data. Specifically, the investigation process will be described, beginning with a grounded theory methodology and its combination with the techniques of structural semiotics discourse analysis to generate—in a first phase—an instrument for quantitative measuring and to understand—in a second phase—clusters obtained by quantitative analysis. This work illustrates how qualitative methods allow for the comprehension of the discursive and behavioral elements under study, and how they function as support making sense of and giving meaning to quantitative data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701219

  1. 'Veiling sexualities': a grounded theory of mental health nurses responses to issues of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Agnes; Barker, Phil; Begley, Cecily M

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to develop a grounded theory explaining how mental health nurses respond to issues of sexuality in clinical practice. The history of sexuality and people with mental health problems has largely been a history shrouded in misunderstanding, stigma, myth and negativity. However, individuals with mental health problems may experience sexuality and relationship difficulties related to their life experiences, mental illness, or its treatment. Grounded theory was the methodology used for the study. Interviews were conducted in 2005-2006 with 27 mental health nurses working an urban area in the Republic of Ireland. Data were analysed using the concurrent processes of constant comparative analysis, data collection, theoretical sampling and memo writing. The core category to emerge from the data was 'veiling sexualities'. This refers to participants' accounts of how they responded to the sexuality dimension of clients' lives. Participants' main concerns about sexuality were related to feelings of personal and professional vulnerability, due to a lack of competence, comfort and confidence in this area. The theory highlights the manner in which nurses perpetuate practices that marginalize, discriminate and socially exclude clients as 'sexual citizens'. The theory of Veiled Sexualities may facilitate acknowledgement of the presence of sexuality in all nurse-client encounters, and promote a discourse on the sexual rights of people experiencing mental distress among mental health nurses and all involved in the delivery of mental health services.

  2. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  3. Examining Philosophy of Technology Using Grounded Theory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark David Webster

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to examine the philosophy of technology of K-12 technology leaders, and explore the influence of their thinking on technology decision making. The research design aligned with CORBIN and STRAUSS grounded theory methods, and I proceeded from a research paradigm of critical realism. The subjects were school technology directors and instructional technology specialists, and data collection consisted of interviews and a written questionnaire. Data analysis involved the use of grounded theory methods including memo writing, open and axial coding, constant comparison, the use of purposive and theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation of categories. Three broad philosophy of technology views were widely held by participants: an instrumental view of technology, technological optimism, and a technological determinist perspective that saw technological change as inevitable. Technology leaders were guided by two main approaches to technology decision making, represented by the categories Educational goals and curriculum should drive technology, and Keep up with technology (or be left behind. The core category and central phenomenon that emerged was that technology leaders approached technology leadership by placing greater emphasis on keeping up with technology, being influenced by an ideological orientation to technological change, and being concerned about preparing students for a technological future. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160252

  4. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-07-29

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed.

  5. Jargonizing: The use of the grounded theory vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available When in doubt, jargonize.When you wish to belong, network, be collegial or be ‘a part of’,jargonize.When you want to sound knowledgeable, jargonize.When you wish to sound experienced, jargonize.Jargonizing is normal. All people, all human kind, jargonize in their lives to some degree or other. We use the vocabulary (jargon of the area in which we act and talk. Jargon is a vocabulary of action by which to talk about what is going on. Most fields have their jargon. Few do not. Jargonizing cannot be stopped. It is needed. It can be very meaningful, properly so, for a field. In this book, however, I am writing about jargoning as just words with little or no real meaning, but sounding good and knowledgeable when talking about an area that one knows little or nothing about. In this way, jargonizing continually regenerates the GT (grounded theory vocabulary wrongly as it is being applied to QDA (qualitative data analysis concerns. Grounded theory is the buzzword in academic circles doing QDA research.

  6. Applying Grounded Theory to Investigating Change Management in the Nonprofit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rosenbaum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is well supported as a qualitative research method that historically responded to the epistemological challenges of defining knowledge and determining how it has been acquired. While its historical and unique methodological underpinnings remain consistent, its ongoing application and methods of execution continue to expand its use. The consideration of using grounded theory by researchers embodies the need to explore the methodology and thereafter seek to develop the method that reflects the researcher’s skills, the research setting, and the research aims. This article sets out a particular method of applying it to the study of change management using a rich single case study in the nonprofit sector. Key findings are that nonprofit specific change management models may need to incorporate a focus on formal reflection for change agents and change recipients, development of trust and confidence in the organization prior to the actual change, focusing on the individual experience of change, and recognizing the sequencing of events from a planning perspective.

  7. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists.

  8. THE CONTEMPORARY METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND THEORIES EXPLAINING INTERNATIONAL TOURISM FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorina SISCAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the fact that international tourism is in permanent growth the last decades, and contributes signi­ficantly to the development of contemporary national economies, the authors of the article have focused on methodo­logical and theoretical frame that allows deeper understanding of the touristic flows from various aspects. In doing so, the first author has launched some methodological approaches that allow deepening a perspective research on touristic flows while the second author has concentrated upon grouping and analysis of existing theories used to explain touristic flows. As an outcome, the authors recommend a blend of those approaches and theories to be used for an adequate understanding and managing the existing and perspective touristic flows.ABORDDĂRI METODOLOGICE ȘI TEORII CONTEMPORANE CARE EXPLICĂ FLUXURILE DE TURISM INTERNAȚIONALPornind de la faptul că turismul internațional manifestă permanentă creștere în ultimele decenii, precum și contribuie semnificativ la dezvoltarea economiilor naționale contemporane, autorii articolului s-au axat pe cadrul metodologic și teoretic ce ar permite conceperea aprofundată a fluxurilor de turism internațional. Primul autor a lansat unele abordări metodologice care ar contribui la aprofundarea cercetărilor de perspectivă ale fluxurilor turistice, iar cel de-al doilea autor și-a concentrat atenția asupra grupării și analizei teoriilor existente în care se explică natura fluxurilor de turism. Ca rezultat, autorii recomandă utilizarea îmbinării organice a abordărilor și teoriilor considerate pentru perceperea și gestionarea adecvată a fluxurilor de turism existente și de perspectivă.

  9. Clarifying Analysis and Interpretation in Grounded Theory: Using a Conditional Relationship Guide and Reflective Coding Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wilson Scott PhD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although qualitative methods, grounded theory included, cannot be reduced to formulaic procedures, research tools can clarify the process. The authors discuss two instruments supporting grounded theory analysis and interpretation using two examples from doctoral students. The conditional relationship guide contextualizes the central phenomenon and relates categories linking structure with process. The reflective coding matrix serves as a bridge to the final phase of grounded theory analysis, selective coding and interpretation, and, ultimately, to substantive theory generation.

  10. A Grounded Theory of Political Intelligentizing in Business Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel-Mauve Adjognon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of business administration using the classic grounded theory method. Business administration is mostly driven by political games between top-level corporate managers. The main concern of the managers I met was that they wanted to be more politically successful. For them, success meant being able to change regularly the course of decisions and action within their firm. The study led to the emergence of a core variable called political intelligentizing. Political intelligentizing explains the recurrent main concern that these managers have to resolve, and it explains the competences managers have to combine to succeed regularly in organisational politics. They resolve their main problem through political intelligentizing which consists in acquiring, developing and combining six specific skills: time matching, rhetorical fitting, silence juggling, strategic forward-thinking, strategic interacting and relationing.

  11. The Grounded Theory Perspective: Its Origins and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The book is about the origins and growth of grounded theory (GT as developed and written by Barney G. Glaser. It is not written to compete or compare with other QDA methods. The competition with other perspectives is up to the reader to write up, if he so desires. My goal in this paper is to write up the GT perspective clearly and historically to date so it can be used by others in research and the rhetorical wrestle between different perspectives. As GT spreads throughout the world a clear view of the GT perspective is constantly needed and requested from me by researchers for doing GT and for trying to explain the method to others, particularly supervisors and peer reviewers.

  12. Becoming an Older Volunteer: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Witucki Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This Grounded Theory study describes the process by which older persons “become” volunteers. Forty interviews of older persons who volunteered for Habitat for Humanity were subjected to secondary content analysis to uncover the process of “becoming” a volunteer. “Helping out” (core category for older volunteers occurs within the context of “continuity”, “commitment” and “connection” which provide motivation for volunteering. When a need arises, older volunteers “help out” physically and financially as health and resources permit. Benefits described as “blessings” of volunteering become motivators for future volunteering. Findings suggest that older volunteering is a developmental process and learned behavior which should be fostered in older persons by personally inviting them to volunteer. Intergenerational volunteering projects will allow older persons to pass on knowledge and skills and provide positive role modeling for younger volunteers.

  13. Self-criticism in therapist training: A grounded theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Divya; Levitt, Heidi M

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this study is to engender an understanding of how therapists-in-training experience and cope with self-criticism in the context of their clinical training and therapy experiences. In this study, trainees were interviewed about their experience of self-criticism related to psychotherapy practice and these interviews were subjected to a grounded theory analysis generating a core self-critical process. The analysis highlighted the vulnerability of self-criticism in therapists' training experiences, especially when they related to balancing the "expert" role while maintaining authentic interactions with their clients. The results also described ways in which self-criticism is mitigated by a sense of interpersonal safety and the provision of clinical freedom and flexibility in therapists' training. The implications for future psychotherapy research and clinical training within clinical training environments are discussed.

  14. A Grounded Theory Approach to Physical Activity and Advanced Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya S. Lowe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity has demonstrated benefits in cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients, however the role of physical activity at the end stage of cancer has not been established. To challenge positivist–empiricist assumptions, I am seeking to develop a new theoretical framework that is grounded in the advanced cancer patient’s experience of activity. Aim: To gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients. Objectives: (1 To explore the meaning of activity for advanced cancer patients in the context of their day-to-day life, (2 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ perceptions of activity with respect to their quality of life, and (3 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ views of barriers and facilitators to activity in the context of their day-to-day life. Study Design: A two-phase, cross-sectional, qualitative study will be conducted through the postpositivist lens of subtle realism and informed by the principles of grounded theory methods. Study Methods: Advanced cancer patients will be recruited through the outpatient department of a tertiary cancer center. For Phase one, participants will wear an activPAL™ activity monitor and fill out a daily record sheet for seven days duration. For Phase two, the activity monitor output and daily record sheets will be used as qualitative probes for face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Concurrent coding, constant comparative analysis, and theoretical sampling will continue with the aim of achieving as close as possible to theoretical saturation. Ethics and Discussion: Ethical and scientific approval will be obtained by all local institutional review boards prior to study commencement. The findings will generate new mid-level theory about the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients and aid in the development of a new theoretical framework for designing

  15. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  16. Ground validation of DPR precipitation rate over Italy using H-SAF validation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puca, Silvia; Petracca, Marco; Sebastianelli, Stefano; Vulpiani, Gianfranco

    2017-04-01

    The H-SAF project (Satellite Application Facility on support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management, funded by EUMETSAT) is aimed at retrieving key hydrological parameters such as precipitation, soil moisture and snow cover. Within the H-SAF consortium, the Product Precipitation Validation Group (PPVG) evaluate the accuracy of instantaneous and accumulated precipitation products with respect to ground radar and rain gauge data adopting the same methodology (using a Unique Common Code) throughout Europe. The adopted validation methodology can be summarized by the following few steps: (1) ground data (radar and rain gauge) quality control; (2) spatial interpolation of rain gauge measurements; (3) up-scaling of radar data to satellite native grid; (4) temporal comparison of satellite and ground-based precipitation products; and (5) production and evaluation of continuous and multi-categorical statistical scores for long time series and case studies. The statistical scores are evaluated taking into account the satellite product native grid. With the recent advent of the GPM era starting in march 2014, more new global precipitation products are available. The validation methodology developed in H-SAF can be easily applicable to different precipitation products. In this work, we have validated instantaneous precipitation data estimated from DPR (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar) instrument onboard of the GPM-CO (Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory) satellite. In particular, we have analyzed the near surface and estimated precipitation fields collected in the 2A-Level for 3 different scans (NS, MS and HS). The Italian radar mosaic managed by the National Department of Civil Protection available operationally every 10 minutes is used as ground reference data. The results obtained highlight the capability of the DPR to identify properly the precipitation areas with higher accuracy in estimating the stratiform precipitation (especially for the HS). An

  17. Surviving Grounded Theory Research Method in an Academic World: Proposal Writing and Theoretical Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Elliott

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory research students are frequently faced with the challenge of writing a research proposal and using a theoretical framework as part of the academic requirements for a degree programme. Drawing from personal experiences of two PhD graduates who used classic grounded theory in two different universities, this paper highlights key lessons learnt which may help future students who are setting out to use grounded theory method. It identifies key discussion points that students may find useful when engaging with critical audiences, and defending their grounded theory thesis at final examination. Key discussion points included are: the difference between inductive and deductive inquiry; how grounded theory method of data gathering and analysis provide researchers with a viable means of generating new theory; the primacy of the questions used in data gathering and data analysis; and, the research-theory link as opposed to the theory-research link.

  18. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  19. A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Nora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity.

  20. How People Reason: A Grounded Theory Study of Scientific Reasoning about Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu

    Scientific reasoning is crucial in both scientific inquiry and everyday life. While the majority of researchers have studied "how people reason" by focusing on their cognitive processes, factors related to the underpinnings of scientific reasoning are still under-researched. The present study aimed to develop a grounded theory that captures not only the cognitive processes during reasoning but also their underpinnings. In particular, the grounded theory and phenomenographic methodologies were integrated to explore how undergraduate students reason about competing theories and evidence on global climate change. Twenty-six undergraduate students were recruited through theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis of responses from interviews and written assessments revealed that participants were mostly drawn to the surface features when reasoning about evidence. While prior knowledge might not directly contribute to participants' performance on evidence evaluation, it affected their level of engagement when reading and evaluating competing arguments on climate issues. More importantly, even though all participants acknowledged the relative correctness of multiple perspectives, they predominantly favored arguments that supported their own beliefs with weak scientific reasoning about the opposing arguments. Additionally, factors such as personal interests, religious beliefs, and reading capacity were also found to have bearings on the way participants evaluated evidence and arguments. In all, this work contributes to the current endeavors in exploring the nature of scientific reasoning. Taking a holistic perspective, it provides an in-depth discussion of factors that may affect or relate to scientific reasoning processes. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional methods used in the literature, the methodological approach employed in this work brought an innovative insight into the investigation of scientific reasoning. Last but not least, this research may

  1. Workplace bullying in emergency nursing: Development of a grounded theory using situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lisa A; Perhats, Cydne; Clark, Paul R; Moon, Michael D; Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich

    2017-09-22

    The Institute of Medicine recognizes that the workplace environment is a crucial factor in the ability of nurses to provide safe and effective care, and thus interactions that affect the quality and safety of the work environment require exploration. The purpose of this study was to use situational analysis to develop a grounded theory of workplace bullying as it manifests specifically in the emergency care setting. This study used a grounded theory methodology called situational analysis. 44 emergency RNs were recruited to participate in one of 4 focus group sessions, which were transcribed in their entirety, and, along with field notes, served as the dataset. This grounded theory describes the characteristics of human actors and their reactions to conditions in the practice environment that lead to greater or lesser levels of bullying, and the responses to bullying as it occurs in U.S. emergency departments. Workplace bullying is a significant factor in the dynamics of patient care, nursing work culture, and nursing retention. The impact on patient care cannot be overestimated, both in terms of errors, substandard care, and the negative effects of high turnover of experienced RNs who leave, compounded by the inexperience of newly hired RNs. An assessment of hospital work environments should include nurse perceptions of workplace bullying, and interventions should focus on effective managerial processes for handling workplace bullying. Future research should include testing of the theoretical coherence of the model, and the testing of bullying interventions to determine the effect on workplace environment, nursing intent to leave/retention, and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ingredients and change processes in occupational therapy for children: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Samantha; Swallow, Veronica; Kolehmainen, Niina

    2017-05-01

    There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for participation outcomes in children with coordination difficulties. Developing theory about the interventions, i.e. their ingredients and change processes, is the first step to advance the evidence base. To develop theory about the key ingredients of occupational therapy interventions for children with coordination difficulties and the processes through which change in participation might happen. Grounded theory methodology, as described by Kathy Charmaz, was used to develop the theory. Children and parents participated in semi-structured interviews to share their experiences of occupational therapy and processes of change. Data collection and analysis were completed concurrently using constant comparison methods. Five key ingredients of interventions were described: performing activities and tasks; achieving; carer support; helping and supporting the child; and labelling. Ingredients related to participation by changing children's mastery experience, increasing capability beliefs and sense of control. Parents' knowledge, skills, positive emotions, sense of empowerment and capability beliefs also related to children's participation. The results identify intervention ingredients and change pathways within occupational therapy to increase participation. It is unclear how explicitly and often therapists consider and make use of these ingredients and pathway.

  3. Theoretical and methodological analysis of personality theories of leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Григорівна Гуменюк

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The psychological analysis of personality theories of leadership, which is the basis for other conceptual approaches to understanding the nature of leadership, is conducted. Conceptual approach of leadership is analyzed taking into account the priority of personality theories, including: heroic, psychoanalytic, «trait» theory, charismatic and five-factor. It is noted that the psychological analysis of personality theories are important in understanding the nature of leadership

  4. Theory Emergence in IS Research: The Grounded Theory Method Applied : 10. JAIS Theory Development Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Mueller, Benjamin; Niederman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Where IS research aims at theory building and testing, the vast bulk of theory is borrowed from reference disciplines. While this provides some momentum for research output, it also tends to shift the focus of research away from direct observation of central, core IS issues. The purpose of this pape

  5. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  6. Adjustment with Climate Change: Application of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Azizi-Khalkheili

    2014-11-01

    The study place is Marvdasht in Fars Province that is one of the leading regions in the agriculture sector and is confronted with serious drought as well as reducing the precipitation in recent years. This qualitative study used grounded theory principles to collect and analyze data and provide a paradigmatic model. Research sample includes two villages, which were selected purposefully: Esmaeilabad with highest climate changes and Chamesohrabkhani with lowest climate changes in Marvdasht. In order to gather the required data field observations and in depth focus group interviews were used. Nine farmers in Esmaeilabad as well as eight farmers in Chamsohrabkhani attended in interview sessions. Questions were grouped into 4 categories: 1 Farmers’ perceptions about climate changes, the situation of agriculture and their properties; 2 farmers’ behavior toward adaptation, their future decisions and existed problems and obstacles; 3 farmers’ resources for climate information and consultation to farm management decisions; and 4 farmers’ perception about future of agriculture sector in this region. Discussion of Results & Conclusions The analytical process in grounded theory involves coding strategies: Open coding is the process of breaking down interviews, observations and other forms of appropriate data into distinct units of meaning which are labeled to generate concepts. The focus of axial coding is to create a model that details the specific conditions of phenomenon’s occurrence. Selective coding is the process of selecting the central or core category, systematically relating it to other categories, validating those relationships, and complete categories that need further refinement and development. Some major research results in this study according to the above coding system include: Farmers' perception about reduction in precipitation and warmer environment, decreasing in quantity and quality of crops, increasing crop pests and diseases, reduction of

  7. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans O; Scott, Helen; Helgesson, Gert; Lynöe, Niels

    2013-03-13

    Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was "what is going on in the field of dying today?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient's death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on "gut feelings" - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North

  8. Balancing power: A grounded theory study on partnership of academic service institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Yazdani, Shahram

    2017-07-01

    Governments and professional organizations have called for new partnerships between health care providers and academics to improve clinical education for the benefit of both students and patients. To develop a substantive grounded theory on the process of forming academic-service partnerships in implementing clinical education, from the perspective of academic and clinical nursing staff members and managers working in Iranian settings. The participants included 15 hospital nurses, nurse managers, nurse educators, and educational managers from two central universities and clinical settings from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected through 30 in-depth, semi-structure interviews with the individual participants and then analyzed using the methodology of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. Utilizing "balancing power" as the core variable enabled us to integrate the concepts concerning the partnership processes between clinical and educational institutes. Three distinct and significant categories emerged to explain the process of partnership: 1) divergence, 2) conflict between educational and caring functions, and 3) creation of balance between educational and caring functions. In implementing clinical education, partnerships have been formed within a challenging context in Iran. Conflict between clinical and educational functions was the main concern of both sides of the partnership in forming a collaborative relationship, with our findings emphasizing the importance of nursing educators' role in the establishment of partnership programs.

  9. Gli insegnanti si raccontano. Il metodo della Grounded Theory nella comprensione fenomenologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Merola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available - The teachers tell their story. The method of Grounded Theory in the phenomenological understanding - The research topic is focused on the difficulties of teachers (through the narration of their experiences and how put in place by themselves to overcome it.The method of Grounded Theory was the thread that led to the exploration of the phenomenon through categories that have presented a structured dimension of the phenomenon to arrive at a conceptual description in their mutual relations. In the process of analysis protocols transcription of the interviews, I identified the categories (such as sets of conceptual tools of the method, with a different degree of generalization or amplitude in the conceptual description of the phenomenon, so I came gradually to a higher degree of conceptual abstraction. The construction methodological widens upwards, is an inductive process, from small (concept labels or codes, in what is intermediate (categories or families queues, to what is the next highest level (macro categories, up to higher level in the conceptualization (core category with the same generative nucleus that has a subtle primordial structure develops its essence, takes shape, grows up, goes back to his seminal nature and generative.

  10. Balancing power: A grounded theory study on partnership of academic service institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH HESHMATI NABAVI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Governments and professional organizations have called for new partnerships between health care providers and academics to improve clinical education for the benefit of both students and patients. To develop a substantive grounded theory on the process of forming academic-service partnerships in implementing clinical education, from the perspective of academic and clinical nursing staff members and managers working in Iranian settings. Methods: The participants included 15 hospital nurses, nurse managers, nurse educators, and educational managers from two central universities and clinical settings from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected through 30 in-depth, semi-structure interviews with the individual participants and then analyzed using the methodology of Strauss and Corbin’s grounded theory. Results: Utilizing “balancing power” as the core variable enabled us to integrate the concepts concerning the partnership processes between clinical and educational institutes. Three distinct and significant categories emerged to explain the process of partnership: 1 divergence, 2 conflict between educational and caring functions, and 3 creation of balance between educational and caring functions. Conclusions: In implementing clinical education, partnerships have been formed within a challenging context in Iran. Conflict between clinical and educational functions was the main concern of both sides of the partnership in forming a collaborative relationship, with our findings emphasizing the importance of nursing educators’ role in the establishment of partnership programs.

  11. Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Joynt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.

  12. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE; María ROMERO-CALMACHE; Alejandro ÁLVAREZ-NOBELL; Paz ARAGÜÉS-DUFOL

    2012-01-01

    ... subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o...

  13. Back- and fore-grounding ontology: exploring the linkages between critical realism, pragmatism, and methodologies in health & rehabilitation sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForge, Ryan; Shaw, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Back- and fore-grounding ontology: exploring the linkages between critical realism, pragmatism, and methodologies in health & rehabilitation sciences As two doctoral candidates in a health and rehabilitation sciences program, we describe in this paper our respective paradigmatic locations along a quite nonlinear ontological-epistemological-axiological-methodological chain. In a turn-taking fashion, we unpack the tenets of critical realism and pragmatism, and then trace the linkages from these paradigmatic locations through to the methodological choices that address a community-based research problem. Beyond serving as an answer to calls for academics in training to demonstrate philosophical-theoretical-methodological integrity and coherence in their scholarship, this paper represents critical realism and its fore-grounding of a deeply stratified ontology in reflexive relation to pragmatism and its back-grounding of ontology. We conclude by considering the merits and challenges of conducting research from within singular versus proliferate paradigmatic perspectives.

  14. Theory and Methodology in Researching Emotions in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    Differing theoretical approaches to the study of emotions are presented: emotions as private (psychodynamic approaches); emotions as sociocultural phenomena (social constructionist approaches); and a third perspective (interactionist approaches) transcending these two. These approaches have important methodological implications in studying…

  15. Investigating Agile User-Centered Design in Practice: A Grounded Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    This paper investigates how the integration of agile methods and User-Centered Design (UCD) is carried out in practice. For this study, we have applied grounded theory as a suitable qualitative approach to determine what is happening in actual practice. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews with professionals who have already worked with an integrated agile UCD methodology. Further data was collected by observing these professionals in their working context, and by studying their documents, where possible. The emerging themes that the study found show that there is an increasing realization of the importance of usability in software development among agile team members. The requirements are emerging; and both low and high fidelity prototypes based usability tests are highly used in agile teams. There is an appreciation of each other's work from both UCD professionals and developers and both sides can learn from each other.

  16. Achieving Rigour and Relevance in Information Systems Studies: Using grounded theory to investigate organizational cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lehmann, Ph.D.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on the belief that rigorous Information Systems (IS research can help practitioners to better understand and to adapt to emerging situations. Contrary to the view seeing rigour and relevance as a dichotomy, it is maintained that IS researchers have a third choice; namely, to be both relevant and rigorous. The paper proposes ways in which IS research can contribute to easing the practitioners’ burden of adapting to changes by providing timely, relevant, and rigorous research. It is argued that synergy between relevance and rigour is possible and that classic grounded theory methodology in combination with case-based data provides a good framework for rigorous and relevant research of emerging phenomena in information systems.

  17. The Temporal Sensitivity of Enforced Accelerated Work Pace: A grounded theory building approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham John James Kenealy, BA (Hons, Ph.D. Candidate

    Full Text Available This research explores how a large national UK government organisation copes with radical structural change over time and provides an insight into the temporal effects of ‘Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’ on behaviour and receptivity within an organisational context. The stages of ‘Acceptance’, ‘Reaction’ and‘Withdrawal’ capture the essence of the ‘Coping Reflex Actions relating to Enforced Accelerated Work Pace’, all sensitive to the effects of time. ‘Temporal Sensitivity’; the duration of the changes to work patterns played a large part in the behavioural responses. The underlying logic of this research is grounded theory building, a general method that works well with qualitative data collection approaches and involves inducting insights from field based, case data (Glaser, 1998. A methodology discovered and developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967, negating all others.

  18. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world underlying patients' health and illness behavior.

  19. A Critique of the Capacity of Strauss Grounded Theory for Prediction, Change, and Control in Organisational Strategy via a Grounded Theorisation of Leisure and Cultural Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Ali; Bakir, Vian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we critique grounded theory's ability to fulfil its aim of offering a practical vehicle for prediction, change, and control as stipulated in grounded theory's original formulation by Glaser and Strauss, and later developed by Strauss. We do this through a case study approach, whereby we develop a grounded theory of leisure and…

  20. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful.

  1. [A Grounded Theory Approach on Nurses' Experience with Workplace Bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.

  2. A Grounded Theory of Moral Reckoning in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita K. Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Moral distress is a pervasive problem in nursing, contributing to nurses’ emotional and physical health problems, loss of nurses’ ethical integrity,dissatisfaction with the work of nursing, and loss of nurses from the workforce. The purpose of this research was twofold: 1 to further elucidate the experiences and consequences of professional nurses’ moral distress and 2 to formulate a logical, systematic, and explanatory theory of moral distress and its consequences. METHOD: This Glaserian grounded theory study utilizedvolunteer and purposive sampling to recruit 21 registered nurses. Analysis of the data resulted in an original substantive theory of moral reckoning in nursing, which reaches further than the concept of moral distress, identifying a critical juncture in nurses’ lives and better explaining a process that affects nurses and the health care that they deliver. Results: Moral reckoning in nursing consists of a three-stage process. After a novice period, the nurse experiences a Stage of Ease in which there is comfort in the workplace and congruence of internal and external values. Unexpectedly, a situational bind occurs in which the nurse’s core beliefs come into irreconcilable conflict with social norms. This forces the nurse out of the Stage of Ease into the Stage of Resolution, in which the nurseeither gives up or makes a stand. The nurse then moves into the Stage of Reflection in which beliefs, values, and actions are iteratively examined. The nurse tries to make sense of experiences through remembering, telling the story, examining conflicts, and living with the consequences. Implications: In today’s complex health care system, nurses find themselves faced with morally troubling situations which if not resolved can lead to serious consequences for nurses, patients, and the health care system as a whole. This study sets the stage for further investigation on the human consequences of moral distress. Further, since moral

  3. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  4. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  5. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  6. Methodological Barriers Precluding the Development of Comprehensive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, William; King, Stephen

    The authors examine published research in speech communication and evaluate its potential for theory development. Two major suggestions are advanced that will facilitate the quest for viable theory of speech communication. First, research should begin to focus on relevant communication behaviors rather than merely using them as convenient contexts…

  7. Liberating methodological thinking in human sciences from grand theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita; Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2016-01-01

    focus on the necessity of a “grand unified theory” at the expense of any and all alternative perspectives. Properties of grand theories are discussed on the examples of Giddens and Bourdieu. It is argued that grand theories hamper a more productive focus on concrete phenomena. Robert Merton’s focus...

  8. Liberating methodological thinking in human sciences from grand theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita; Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2016-01-01

    Many humanistic and social disciplines are naturally inclined to seek for human-, person-, self- centered focus, and develop a holistic theory of such. Such disciplines continually engage with philosophical, metaphysical and meta-theoretical perspectives. This engagement often leads to a singular...... focus on the necessity of a “grand unified theory” at the expense of any and all alternative perspectives. Properties of grand theories are discussed on the examples of Giddens and Bourdieu. It is argued that grand theories hamper a more productive focus on concrete phenomena. Robert Merton’s focus...... on “middle range” theories is revisited and its continuing relevance is highlighted. The level of abstraction characteristic of such theories, as well as the way they engage with the empirical social reality, are discussed. The article concludes by considering the paradoxical reductionism that can...

  9. Grounded Theory in media research and the use of the computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, E.J.S.; Peters, V.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This article offers, from a perspective of Grounded Theory, a comprehensive summary of general procedures for qualitative analysis and the advantages of the use of the computer. The Grounded Theory Approach is one of the most elaborated methods in the field of interpretive analysis within which anal

  10. Grounded Theory: Managing the Challenge for Those Facing Institutional Review Board Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen; Thomas, M. Lori

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine one of the earliest systematic forms of qualitative inquiry to identify some of the boundaries needed in grounded theory designs to provide a small corner of clarity in the discourse about what is acceptable science from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) perspective. Beginning with an overview of grounded theory research as…

  11. A Novel Method of Enhancing Grounded Theory Memos with Voice Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Rachel; Close, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the recent discovery of a novel method of supplementing written grounded theory memos with voice recording, the combination of which may provide significant analytical advantages over solely the traditional written method. Memo writing is an essential component of a grounded theory study, however it is often…

  12. Grounded Theory Study of Conflicts in Norwegian Agile Software Projects: The Project Managers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Siddique

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the process of conflicts in agile software projects. The purpose was to investigate the causes and consequences of these conflicts. For this purpose, we conducted a qualitative study involving agile software projects in Norway. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data and the interview findings are presented using Glaser´s Six C model (context, condition, causes, consequences, contingencies, and covariance. The research findings suggest that there are several causes of conflicts. These include: the role of the product owner, an inexperienced project manager, the customer’s lack of knowledge about methodology organizational hierarchy in public companies, contracting, personal egos, financial issues, not getting the right team. Consequences of conflicts include: decreased productivity, wastage of time and resources, diverted attention from project objectives loss of motivation, poor decision making, loss of communication. Based on interview data, different conflict strategies are suggested and these include appropriately skilled project manager, communication and negotiation, defining clear roles, stakeholder analysis, managing stakeholder´s expectations, discussion, finding the root cause of conflict. Project managers are using these strategies to avoid or resolve conflicts. The competencies required to handle these kind of conflicts are also discussed in the paper, while the implications of theory and practice of conflict management theory are also presented.

  13. Minority nursing student success: A grounded theory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mister, Brenda J.

    There has been a dramatic increase in the nation's racial and ethnic minority populations over recent years. This increase is placing a higher demand on the health care industry to provide culturally competent care to these diverse populations. This challenge is met with yet another problem as the nation faces a critical shortage of nurses, particularly minority nurses. This shortage is only expected to worsen over the next several years. As schools of nursing across the country are being asked to increase the number of nursing program graduates, specifically minorities, they are confronted with a double edged sword as retention rates are decreasing, and attrition rates are increasing. This is particularly troublesome when many racial and ethnic minority nursing students do not graduate. This qualitative study was implemented to assess and understand the perceived educational experiences of racial and ethnic minority nursing students enrolled in a rural community college nursing program on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Eight voluntary nursing students who identified themselves as either a racial or ethnic minority participated in the study. Data were collected by: individual audio-taped interview sessions; audio-taped focus group sessions; and documentation of field notes. Participants also provided demographic information and were asked to provide a brief written response to a scenario regarding increasing the recruitment and retention rates of minority nursing students. All data were analyzed utilizing the constant comparative method. Results of the study revealed six different themes: personal support systems and peer relationships; college services and academic resources; faculty support; cultural understanding versus cultural insensitivity; personal attributes of self-efficacy/advice for future nursing students; and suggestions for college and nursing program improvement. After the major themes were examined one central theme, a grounded theory, was born. The

  14. Quality of life in schizophrenia: A grounded theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Mike

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into health related quality of life (HRQoL in schizophrenia has predominantly been conducted using lengthy interviewer administered questionnaires, many of which have not been validated for use with schizophrenic samples. The present study seeks to address the dearth of qualitative research by conducting a small-scale qualitative exploration of the impact of schizophrenia on HRQoL. Method The study was conducted using the qualitative approach of grounded theory. Six individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia participated (3 men, 3 women. Mean age of participants was 33.3 years (range 20–55, mean length of illness was 12 years (range 2–38 years and average length of interviews was 47 minutes (range 20–70. Results Ten HRQoL domains were identified as being important: (1 barriers placed on relationships; (2 reduced control of behaviours and actions; (3 loss of opportunity to fulfil occupational roles; (4 financial constraints on activities and plans; (5 subjective experience of psychotic symptoms; (6 side effects and attitudes to medication; (7 psychological responses to living with schizophrenia; (8 labelling and attitudes from others; (9 concerns for the future and (10 positive outcomes from experiences. Conclusions Domains identified by participants encompassed a wide range of factors that may be expected to contribute generally to engaging in a positive quality of life. Participants identified that it was the loss of these things as a direct consequence of having schizophrenia that influenced their HRQoL. It would appear that in the main, factors that are secondary to the experience of schizophrenia are of most importance to participants. Suggestions are also made in the discussion for future research.

  15. Living with coeliac disease: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C; Howard, R

    2014-02-01

    Coeliac disease can be controlled only through adherence to a gluten-free diet. This diet is highly restrictive and can be challenging to maintain. It has been linked with elevated levels of psychological distress, including depression, anxiety and social phobia. Narratives on living with coeliac disease were written by 130 adult members of Coeliac UK (mean age 52.7 years; mean time since diagnosis 10.2 years; 67% sample female; 28% male). Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods identified five key categories: living with widespread ignorance; social invisibility; creating a coeliac community; a changed identity; grief - and accepting the trade-off. A psychosocial model of living with coeliac disease was constructed from the findings, the central category of which was the changed identity of those diagnosed with the condition. Grief was experienced in relation to a loss of the former diet, changed personal and social identities, loss of social confidence and loss of social activities. Grief was generally mitigated over time as adjustments were made to changes in identity and lifestyle. Creating (or becoming part of) a coeliac community was a strategy enabling those with coeliac disease to re-establish their identities and increase social recognition and acceptance of the condition. Gluten-free living entails a substantial restriction of food choice. The losses and changes entailed impact on the personal and social identities of those living with coeliac disease, and on the behaviour of others towards them. Psychosocial interventions focussed on facilitating coping and adjustment may benefit those experiencing difficulties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Student nurse socialisation in compassionate practice: a Grounded Theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine; Horton, Khim; Smith, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Compassionate practice is expected of Registered Nurses (RNs) around the world while at the same time remaining a contested concept. Nevertheless, student nurses are expected to enact compassionate practice in order to become RNs. In order for this to happen they require professional socialisation within environments where compassion can flourish. However, there is concern that student nurse socialisation is not enabling compassion to flourish and be maintained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate this further, a glaserian Grounded Theory study was undertaken using in-depth, digitally recorded interviews with student nurses (n=19) at a university in the north of England during 2009 and 2010. Interviews were also undertaken with their nurse teachers (n=5) and data from National Health Service (NHS) patients (n=72,000) and staff (n=290,000) surveys were used to build a contextual picture of the student experience. Within the selected findings presented, analysis of the data indicates that students aspire to the professional ideal of compassionate practice although they have concerns about how compassionate practice might fit within the RN role because of constraints on RN practice. Students feel vulnerable to dissonance between professional ideals and practice reality. They experience uncertainty about their future role and about opportunities to engage in compassionate practice. Students manage their vulnerability and uncertainty by balancing between an intention to uphold professional ideals and challenge constraints, and a realisation they might need to adapt their ideals and conform to constraints. This study demonstrates that socialisation in compassionate practice is compromised by dissonance between professional idealism and practice realism. Realignment between the reality of practice and professional ideals, and fostering student resilience, are required if students are to be successfully socialised in compassionate practice and enabled

  17. Grounded Theory and Pragmatism: The Curious Case of Anselm Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Bryant

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sir Arthur CONAN DOYLE's stories featuring Sherlock Holmes are justly famous the world over. In The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (1993 one story entitled Silver Blaze contains an exchange between Holmes and a Scotland Yard detective as follows: Gregory (Scotland Yard detective: "Is there any other point to which you would wish to draw my attention?" Holmes: "To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time." Gregory: "The dog did nothing in the night-time." Holmes: "That was the curious incident." In similar fashion I wish to draw attention to the curious case of Anselm STRAUSS: There is already a good deal of work pointing to the continuities between the Grounded Theory Method (GTM and the Pragmatism of John DEWEY and Charles PEIRCE. This has usually focused on Anselm STRAUSS with his Chicago-influenced Pragmatist background, although STRAUSS himself never articulated the way in which Pragmatism informed or could be brought to bear on the method as it evolved from the 1960s onwards. This paper argues that many of the contentious issues surrounding GTM can be resolved if they are understood against the context of some of the core tenets of Pragmatism, particularly the ways in which some of the more recent Pragmatists such as Richard RORTY have brought them back as a focus of attention. In so doing is raises the question of why, given his intellectual background and formation, Anselm STRAUSS did so little to bring Pragmatist ideas into GTM in its later embodiments and extended statements. That is the "curious incident" to which specific attention is drawn at several points in what follows; it remains a perplexing one, with perhaps no convincing solution, unlike the Sherlock Holmes mystery alluded to above. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090325

  18. Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    2005-01-31

    Jan 31, 2005 ... This paper deliberates on actor/actant-network theory (AANT) as ..... entrepreneurs (Keeley & Scoones, 2003), taking centre stage in networking and marketing .... this paper are summarised towards the end of this paper.

  19. Learning Theory Bases of Communicative Methodology and the Notional/Functional Syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline D., Beebe

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the learning theories that underlie the philosophy and practices known as communicative language teaching methodology. These theories are identified first as a reaction against the behavioristic learning theory of audiolingualism. Approaches to syllabus design based on both the "weak" version of communicative language teaching-learning to use the second language-and the "strong" version-using the second language to learn it-are examined. The application of cognitive theory...

  20. Learning Theory Bases of Communicative Methodology and the Notional/Functional Syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline D., Beebe

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the learning theories that underlie the philosophy and practices known as communicative language teaching methodology. These theories are identified first as a reaction against the behavioristic learning theory of audiolingualism. Approaches to syllabus design based on both the "weak" version of communicative language teaching-learning to use the second language-and the "strong" version-using the second language to learn it-are examined. The application of cognitive theory...

  1. Employees' and Managers' Accounts of Interactive Workplace Learning: A Grounded Theory of "Complex Integrative Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, Genevieve; Whiteley, Alma

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' and managers' accounts of interactive learning and what might encourage or inhibit emergent learning. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken was a constructivist/social constructivist ontology, interpretive epistemology and qualitative methodology, using grounded theory…

  2. Methodologies in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: The Example of School-Based Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postholm, May Britt

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Relatively little research has been conducted on methodology within Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). CHAT is mainly used as a framework for developmental processes. The purpose of this article is to discuss both focuses for research and research questions within CHAT and to outline methodologies that can be used…

  3. Learning theories and assessment methodologies - an engineering educational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, O. A. B.

    2011-08-01

    This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational policy as regards promoting the learning of engineering is discussed. It is suggested that an integrated learning method in which cognitive levels, social factors and teamwork and behaviouristic elements are integrated will optimise the learning process on an engineering course. Moreover, assessment of learning should not be isolated from views of teaching and the learning methods employed by the university teacher.

  4. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  5. The Postmodern Turn: Shall Classic Grounded Theory Take That Detour? A Review Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, PhD

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Adherents to classic grounded theory have gotten used to spotting the pretenders working under the grounded theory banner. Some of these faux-GT researchers have worked in a fog, misunderstanding fundamentals of the method; these are the studies that leave us shaking our heads and wondering about the doctoral committee and peer reviewers who did not bother to find out more about the method they were evaluating. More infuriating are the authors who are claiming to improve on grounded theory, to reground it, to quote one notable British author who, lack of handson grounded theory experience aside, manages a booklength critique of the method. Two recent books in the“remaking grounded theory” genre are from sociologists with some years of grounded theory projects behind them. Adele E. Clarke, author of Situational Analysis, was a student and colleague of Anselm L. Strauss at the University of California San Francisco. Kathy Charmaz, author of Constructing Grounded Theory, is among the few grounded theorists who studied with Barney G. Glaser and Strauss at UCSF.

  6. Using Action Research Methodology to Unite Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…

  7. RESEARCH ON A SYSTEMATIC METHODOLOGY FOR THEORY OF ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建辉; 刘光栋; 尚守平

    2003-01-01

    The equivalence between differential form and integral form of a systematicmethodology for theory of elasticity is proved. A uniform framework of the systematicmethodology is established. New system includes differential form, integral form and mixedform. All kinds of variational principle are proved by the equivalence between differentialform and integral form. The idea for generalized virtual work and virtual function ispresented.

  8. Theory and Methodology of Appraisal of Enterprise Economic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadvornaya Gyul’nara Gazanfarovna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of an enterprise is based on building and use of its economic potential. The company’s performance depends on the quality of these processes. Modern conditions of highly dynamic operating environment put demands on the search and application of new approaches to the building and use of economic potential of enterprises which provide opportunities for identifying and using internal economic growth reserves. An important economic parameter of the enterprise operation is the appraisal of economic potential formation and use effectiveness. Lack of economic control mechanisms scientifically proved for market management conditions and appraisal of the enterprises’ state in terms of efficiency of economic resources formation and use diminish investment activity and the competitiveness of economic entities. This necessitates the search for new methods and models for appraising economic potential, which defines economic independence as a system of management impacts on the economic state and development of an enterprise. All these factors indicate the relevance of further studies of enterprise economic potential, the mechanism of its functioning, the development of a system of management decisions aimed at effective formation and use of the enterprise economic potential. The aim of the study is to evaluate theoretical and methodological approaches to the enterprise economic potential and form methodological principles for its appraisal and effective functioning. During the study, the authors carried out a retrospective evaluation and systematization of theoretical and methodological approaches to the appraisal of enterprise economic potential. It has been determined that properties of enterprise economic potential, namely, consistency, which implies the study of interaction and mutual influence of system elements, were understudied. The study presents a methodical approach to appraising enterprise economic potential and its effective

  9. Negotiating the role of the professional nurse: The pedagogy of simulation: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joni; Chute, Elizabeth; Ball, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is the mainstay of laboratory education in health sciences, yet there is a void of pedagogy-the art and science of teaching. Nursing faculty does not have adequate evidence-based resources related to how students learn through simulation. The research questions that were addressed were as follows: (a) How do students learn using simulation? (b) What is the process of learning with simulations from the students' perspective? (c) What faculty teaching styles promote learning? and (d) How can faculty support students during simulation? Grounded theory methodology was used to explore how senior baccalaureate nursing students learn using simulation. Twenty-six students participated in this research study. Sixteen nursing students who completed two semesters of simulation courses volunteered for in-depth audio-taped interviews. In addition, there were two focus groups with five senior students in each group who validated findings and identified faculty teaching styles and supportive interventions. Negotiating the Role of the Professional Nurse was the core category, which included the following phases (I) feeling like an imposter, (II) trial and error, (III) taking it seriously, (IV) transference of skills and knowledge, and (V) professionalization. Faculty traits and teaching strategies for teaching with simulation were also identified. A conceptual model of the socialization process was developed to assist faculty in understanding the ways students learn with simulation and ways to facilitate their development. These findings provide a midrange theory for the pedagogy of simulation and will help faculty gain insight and help to assimilate into teaching-learning strategies.

  10. The Postmodern Turn: Shall Classic Grounded Theory Take That Detour? A Review Essay

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Adherents to classic grounded theory have gotten used to spotting the pretenders working under the grounded theory banner. Some of these faux-GT researchers have worked in a fog, misunderstanding fundamentals of the method; these are the studies that leave us shaking our heads and wondering about the doctoral committee and peer reviewers who did not bother to find out more about the method they were evaluating. More infuriating are the authors who are claiming to improve on grounded theory, t...

  11. The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiona Martin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations.Research purpose: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in maledominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths.Motivation for the study: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more female-dominated or gender-balanced career paths. An understanding of women’s experiences may facilitate strategies geared towards their motivation and retention in male-dominated occupations.Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. They used a purposive sample of five women and conducted in-depth unstructured interviews. They analysed data using a constructivist grounded theory methodology.Main findings: The authors found that formal and covert organisational practices, which upheld gender discrimination and bias, were the main challenges that women face. These practices included the inadequate accommodation of women’s unique physical, identity and work-life balance needs. Elements of women’s resilience included the use of femininity, adopting male characteristics, mentorship and intrinsic motivational factors. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide organisations to develop and implement policies, strategies and initiatives geared towards attracting, integrating, retaining, supporting and motivating women who are, or wish to be, employed in historically maledominated occupations.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to an evolving body of knowledge aimed at understanding how to integrate and retain women in male-dominated occupations better.

  12. Toward a Theory of Employee Compliance with Information Security Policies: A Grounded Theory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikolia, David Wafula

    2013-01-01

    User non-compliance with information security policies in organizations due to negligence or ignorance is reported as a key data security problem for organizations. The violation of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of organizational data has led to losses in millions of dollars for organizations in terms of money and time spent…

  13. Toward a Theory of Employee Compliance with Information Security Policies: A Grounded Theory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikolia, David Wafula

    2013-01-01

    User non-compliance with information security policies in organizations due to negligence or ignorance is reported as a key data security problem for organizations. The violation of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of organizational data has led to losses in millions of dollars for organizations in terms of money and time spent…

  14. Entrevista reflexiva e grounded-theory: estratégias metodológicas para compreensão da resiliência em famílias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Mattar Yunes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the phenomenon of resilience in families is a new domain in Psychology and therefore requires further investigation, either from the conceptual or methodological point of view. The present article presents a critical think about the quantitative studies on resilience in individuals and considers that the complexity of this construct suggests new methodologies to study the phenomenon in families. As a possible methodological solution we propose the association of two qualitative strategies: the reflexive interview and grounded-theory. The reflexive interview is an interactive and dynamic method to obtain information and the grounded-theory presents principles of analysis that complement and subside this type of collection allowing the concepts to emerge from the data rather than being imposed on it

  15. Reflections on methodological approaches and conceptual contributions in a program of caregiving research: development and testing of Wuest's theory of family caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Judith; Hodgins, Marilyn J

    2011-02-01

    Caregiving by family members, particularly women, is a societal expectation that is intensifying in the context of an aging population and health care restructuring. Our program of caregiving research spans two decades, moving from inductive theory development using grounded theory methods to deductive theory testing. In this article, we reflect on the serendipitous development of this program of research methodologically and conceptually. We summarize the key conceptual contributions that the program has made to caregiving knowledge, particularly with respect to the past relationship between care recipient and caregiver, obligation to care, caregiver agency, and relationships between caregivers and the health care system.

  16. Ground state properties of graphene in Hartree-Fock theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hainzl, Christian; Sparber, Christof

    2012-01-01

    We study the Hartree-Fock approximation of graphene in infinite volume, with instantaneous Coulomb interactions. First we construct its translation-invariant ground state and we recover the well-known fact that, due to the exchange term, the effective Fermi velocity is logarithmically divergent at zero momentum. In a second step we prove the existence of a ground state in the presence of local defects and we discuss some properties of the linear response to an external electric field. All our results are non perturbative.

  17. Self-perceived participation among adults with spinal cord injury: a grounded theory study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ripat, J D; Woodgate, R L

    2012-01-01

    A grounded theory study of 19 adults with spinal cord injury was conducted. Participants engaged in individual in-depth interviews, and took photographs of aspects of their environment that promoted and restricted participation...

  18. The Grounded Theory Method: Deconstruction and Reconstruction in a Human Patient Simulation Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Parker PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain modes of qualitative inquiry, such as grounded theory, can serve to uncover the abstract processes and broad conceptual themes influencing the personal experiences of undergraduate nursing students encountering clinical scenarios utilizing human patient simulators (HPS. To date insufficient research has been conducted to uncover the basic social-psychological processes encountered by students as they engage in a HPS-based clinical scenario. The authors assert that HPS-based learning experiences are in reality social endeavors that lead to the creation of socially negotiated knowledge and meanings relevant to the adult learner. To understand how grounded theory is suited to deriving answers to these questions, an analysis of the theoretical and philosophical foundations of grounded theory is undertaken. This critical analysis concludes with a discussion of specific considerations to be reflected upon by researchers when applying the inductively derived method of grounded theory in uncovering the social processes that occur within HPS-based clinical scenarios.

  19. Is it really theoretical? A review of sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Niall; Purssell, Edward

    2016-10-01

    Grounded theory is a distinct method of qualitative research, where core features are theoretical sampling and constant comparative analysis. However, inconsistent application of these activities has been observed in published studies. This review assessed the use of theoretical sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing journals. An adapted systematic review was conducted. Three leading nursing journals (2010-2014) were searched for studies stating grounded theory as the method. Sampling was assessed using a concise rating tool. A high proportion (86%) of the 134 articles described an iterative process of data collection and analysis. However, half of the studies did not demonstrate theoretical sampling, with many studies declaring or indicating a purposive sampling approach throughout. Specific reporting guidelines for grounded theory studies should be developed to ensure that study reports describe an iterative process of fieldwork and theoretical development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Reflections on the Use of Grounded Theory to Uncover Patterns of Exclusion in an Online Discussion Forum at an Institution of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Postma PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an example of grounded theory methodology used in a case study to describe power inequalities among participants in an online forum at a higher education institution in South Africa. Critical poststructuralist theory informs the study as it investigates how hegemony influences the strategic interaction of participants. An interpretive analysis through coding procedures uncovered elements of intensified exclusion, inequality, and oppression. This took place within a virtual space which is theoretically idealized as an equalizer and promoter of freedom of speech. The process involved in the eliciting of voices and in the analysing and interpreting of subjective accounts is described to give an account of disillusioned experiences with a potentially liberating form of technology. The article contributes to qualitative methodology in applying the generic paradigmatic conditions within grounded theory and illustrates both the interrelatedness and the cyclic nature of the conditions within the specific paradigms of participants.

  1. Satisfaction with College Major: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2015-01-01

    All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…

  2. On the Ground State Wave Function of Matrix Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an explicit construction of the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the ground state wave function of BFSS SU(N) matrix quantum mechanics. Our proposal is consistent with the expected factorization property in various limits of the Coulomb branch, and involves a different scaling behavior from previous suggestions. We comment on some possible physical implications.

  3. On the ground state wave function of matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Yin, Xi

    2015-11-01

    We propose an explicit construction of the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the ground state wave function of BFSS SU( N ) matrix quantum mechanics. Our proposal is consistent with the expected factorization property in various limits of the Coulomb branch, and involves a different scaling behavior from previous suggestions. We comment on some possible physical implications.

  4. A new methodology for monitoring wood fluxes in rivers using a ground camera: Potential and limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacchio, Véronique; Piégay, Hervé; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Vaudor, Lise

    2017-02-01

    Ground imagery, which produces large amounts of valuable data at high frequencies, is increasingly used by fluvial geomorphologists to survey and understand processes. While such technology provides immense quantities of information, it can be challenging to analyze and requires automatization and associated development of new methodologies. This paper presents a new approach to automate the processing of image analysis to monitor wood delivery from the upstream Rhône River (France). The Génissiat dam is used as an observation window; all pieces of wood coming from the catchment are trapped here, hence a wood raft accumulates over time. In 2011, we installed an Axis 211W camera to acquire oblique images of the reservoir every 10 min with the goal of automatically detecting a wood raft area, in order to transform it to wood weight (t) and flux (t/d). The methodology we developed is based on random forest classification to detect the wood raft surface over time, which provided a good classification rate of 97.2%. Based on 14 mechanical wood extractions that included weight of wood removed each time, conducted during the survey period, we established a relationship between wood weight and wood raft surface area observed just before the extraction (R2 = 0.93). We found that using such techniques to continuously monitor wood flux is difficult because the raft undergoes very significant changes through time in terms of density, with a very high interday and intraday variability. Misclassifications caused by changes in weather conditions can be mitigated as well as errors from variation in pixel resolution (owing to camera position or window size), but a set of effects on raft density and mobility must still be explored (e.g., dam operation effects, wind on the reservoir surface). At this stage, only peak flow contribution to wood delivery can be well calculated, but determining an accurate, continuous series of wood flux is not possible. Several recommendations are

  5. Directivity in NGA earthquake ground motions: Analysis using isochrone theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, P.; Chiou, B.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present correction factors that may be applied to the ground motion prediction relations of Abrahamson and Silva, Boore and Atkinson, Campbell and Bozorgnia, and Chiou and Youngs (all in this volume) to model the azimuthally varying distribution of the GMRotI50 component of ground motion (commonly called 'directivity') around earthquakes. Our correction factors may be used for planar or nonplanar faults having any dip or slip rake (faulting mechanism). Our correction factors predict directivity-induced variations of spectral acceleration that are roughly half of the strike-slip variations predicted by Somerville et al. (1997), and use of our factors reduces record-to-record sigma by about 2-20% at 5 sec or greater period. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  6. [Interaction-directed nursing ethics. Sketch of an integrated theory, didactics and methodology of nursing ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ach, J S

    1998-06-01

    The articles seeks to outline an integrated theory, didactics, and methodology of nursing ethics. To do so requires an analysis of the social and institutional situation in which nursing takes place as well as reflections on the theoretical status of nursing ethics as part of so-called applied ethics. From this starting point didactical and methodological conclusions may be drawn which finally lead to an interaction oriented ethics of nursing.

  7. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  8. Analysis of English Complex Sentences based on Figure-Ground Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯皓

    2015-01-01

    English is a language featuring its complex sentences composed of main and sub-ordinate clauses. The subordinate clause conveys the unifnished messages in main clause and it becomes quite complicated. English complex sentence is a fair impor-tant sentence type and also of importance in English teaching. Analyzing complex sentence based on Figure-Ground Theory, especially the Adverbial Clause, is help-ful to learn English and translate it. The Figure-Ground Theory originated in psychol-ogy studies and it was introduced in cognitive linguistics to explain some language phenomena. From Figure-Ground perspective, the essay studies attributive clause, adverbial clause and nominal clause and some critical sentence types have been analyzed carefully and the major ifnding is Figure-Ground Theory is dynamic not static.

  9. Book Review: Grounded Theory in Perspective: A Lifetime’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Scott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The grounded theory general method of research was Glaser and Strauss’ response to the problem of “superthink”: the generation of hypotheses in the field of sociology without recourse to data. Glaser and Strauss observed that since such hypotheses were of little relevance, pursuing them wasted resources and had fateful impact on young researchers’ careers. Glaser and Strauss preferred to ground their hypotheses in data that was from the field and was of relevance to their participants. The resultant development of the grounded theory method to maturity has taken decades of dedicated, scholarly endeavour. Glaser explains and examples how this has been achieved in his new book: The grounded theory perspective: Its origins and growth.

  10. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  11. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  12. Common Ground of Two Paradigms: Incorporating Critical Theory into Current Art Therapy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…

  13. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of reconciling…

  14. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of reconciling…

  15. Common Ground of Two Paradigms: Incorporating Critical Theory into Current Art Therapy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…

  16. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  17. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of…

  18. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  19. How Iranian Medical Trainees Approach their Responsibilities in Clinical Settings; A Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Asemani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.

  20. Decision-making regarding organ donation in Korean adults: A grounded-theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Young Mi; Kim, Jung A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the hidden patterns of behavior leading toward the decision to donate organs. Thirteen registrants at the Association for Organ Sharing in Korea were recruited. Data were collected using in-depth interview and the interview transcripts were analyzed using Glaserian grounded-theory methodology. The main problem of participants was "body attachment" and the core category (management process) was determined to be "pursuing life." The theme consisted of four phases, which were: "hesitating," "investigating," "releasing," and "re-discovering. " Therefore, to increase organ donations, it is important to find a strategy that will create positive attitudes about organ donation through education and public relations. These results explain and provide a deeper understanding of the main problem that Korean people have about organ donation and their management of decision-making processes. These findings can help care providers to facilitate the decision-making process and respond to public needs while taking into account the sociocultural context within which decisions are made. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinYoung; Oh, Seieun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  2. Can nurse teachers manage student incivility by guided democracy? A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mostafa; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ildarabadi, Eshagh

    2017-07-17

    Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. The present study aims at discovering teachers and students' experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students' incivility. The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Can nurse teachers manage student incivility by guided democracy? A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mostafa; Ildarabadi, Eshagh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. Objectives The present study aims at discovering teachers and students’ experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students’ incivility. Design The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. Settings This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Participants Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). Method In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. Results The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Conclusions Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. PMID:28716787

  4. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  5. Possibilities and limits of Joyce Travelbee's theory for the construction of a family care methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Pagliarini Waidman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical, reflexive study that has as its aim to present Joyce Travelbee's theory and to analyze its limitations and potentialities, with the purpose of building a family care methodology. To do so, I made an explanation of the theory including the author's concepts, beliefs and principles. I have also performed a review of several authors that used this theories in their scientific studies and I finally present a reflection begining with the theory analysis, its expliciting its possibilities and its limits and how it can be used as a base for the development of a care methodology for families that have members with mental disorders, aiming at taking these people from the mental institutions and reinserting them in their families and community.

  6. Shifting Ground(s): Surveying the contested terrain of LGBT studies and queer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovaas, Karen E; Elia, John P; Yep, Gust A

    2006-01-01

    While queer theory initially grew out of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) studies, there are numerous points of contestation between these two approaches, originating mostly from their disparate positions on (sexual) identity politics. To describe, analyze, and contextualize this contested terrain, we begin this piece by providing some historical notes on LGBT studies and queer theory. Next, we turn to an explication of some enduring tensions to identify the criticisms generated by LGBT scholars toward queer theory approaches and vice versa. What follows is our rationale for producing LGBT Studies and Queer Theory: New Conflicts, Collaborations, and Contested Terrain. In this section we discuss how this project originated and the specific objectives we hope this volume will meet. The contributions of the individual articles in this volume are identified and summarized next. Finally, in the context of LGBT studies' and queer theory's similar qualities and points of difference, we offer ideas for potential directions of scholarship in the future that would explore three major areas: identity and difference; community and community organizing; and political engagement and social change.

  7. Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S. [Physics of Transportation and Traffic, University Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-03-10

    It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliable used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular stochastic value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory, we discuss three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.

  8. Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2013-11-01

    It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliably used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that the generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular (fixed or stochastic) value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory, we discuss the three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.

  9. Toward an Analytical and Methodological Understanding of Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Jackson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Actor-Network theory (ANT is well developed within social studies of science and technology. The last two decades have seen an increasing awareness and interest in ANT within the social sciences and it has increasingly been invoked to theorise the role of ‘nonhumans’ in social life.  In this respect the conceptual repertoire of ANT has been increasingly drawn upon to examine the relational dimensions between artefacts and people. Despite this the use of ANT as an analytical and/or methodological approach occupies a peripheral within social science research.  In part, the reticence towards ANT may be explained by its lack of theoretical unity. Analytically and methodologically the application of ANT and thought which is closely associated with the approach is considerably varied. ANT informed research often differs quite considerably in terms of methodological approach and style of analyses. This is further complicated by the disparate emphases of ANT proponents and the proliferation of different versions of ANT. Thus, there is no generic way to ‘apply’ actor-network theory and it lacks methodological prescription. This article intends to articulate the analytical and methodological possibilities of ANT. For those who are encountering ANT for the first time or for whom ANT has been regarded as a somewhat left field and inaccessible theory obscured by its own vocabularies and heterogeneity this article may provide a useful conceptual map through which the key elements of ANT can be navigated.

  10. A general methodology for mobility analysis of mechanisms based on constraint screw theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the traditional Grübler-Kutzbach formula fails to calculate the mobility of some classical mechanisms or many modern parallel robots,and this situation seriously hampers mechani-cal innovation.To seek an efficient and universal method for mobility calculation has been a heated topic in the sphere of mechanism.The modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion proposed by us achieved success in calculating the mobility of a lot of highly complicated mechanisms,especially the mobility of all recent parallel mechanisms listed by Gogu,and the Bennett mechanism known for its particular difficulty.With wide applications of the criterion,a systematic methodology has recently formed.This paper systematically presents the methodology based on the screw theory for the first time and ana-lyzes six representative puzzling mechanisms.In addition,the methodology is convenient for judgment of the instantaneous or full-cycle mobility,and has become an effective and general method of great scientific value and practical significance.In the first half,this paper introduces the basic screw theory,then it presents the effective methodology formed within this decade.The second half of this paper presents how to apply the methodology by analyzing the mobility of several puzzling mechanisms.Finally,this paper contrasts and analyzes some different methods and interprets the essential reason for validity of our methodology.

  11. A general methodology for mobility analysis of mechanisms based on constraint screw theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen; LIU JingFang; ZENG DaXing

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the traditional Grubler-Kutzbach formula fails to calculate the mobility of some classical mechanisms or many modern parallel robots, and this situation seriously hampers mechani-cal innovation. To seek an efficient and universal method for mobility calculation has been a heated topic in the sphere of mechanism. The modified Grubler-Kutzbach criterion proposed by us achieved success in calculating the mobility of a lot of highly complicated mechanisms, especially the mobility of all recent parallel mechanisms listed by Gogu, and the Bennett mechanism known for its particular difficulty. With wide applications of the criterion, a systematic methodology has recently formed. This paper systematically presents the methodology based on the screw theory for the first time and ana-lyzes six representative puzzling mechanisms. In addition, the methodology is convenient for judgment of the instantaneous or full-cycle mobility, and has become an effective and general method of great scientific value and practical significance. In the first half, this paper introduces the basic screw theory,then it presents the effective methodology formed within this decade. The second half of this paperpresents how to apply the methodology by analyzing the mobility of several puzzling mechanisms.Finally, this paper contrasts and analyzes some different methods and interprets the essential reason for validity of our methodology.

  12. Critical Race Theory-Social Constructivist Bricolage: A Health-Promoting Schools Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Lawrence; Murray-Orr, Anne

    2017-01-01

    While the current literature recognises the capacity of diverse methodologies to provide informative understandings of health-promoting schools (HPS), there is a paucity of examples to show how different research strategies can be used. We address this knowledge gap by examining the significance of a critical race theory-social constructivist…

  13. The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…

  14. A Q-Methodological Study of the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Anne M.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the correspondence between stage changes hypothesized by the Kubler-Ross theory and the perception of the course of illness by seriously ill patients and their spouses. Supported the use of Q-methodology as a research procedure for investigations of terminal illness. (Author)

  15. A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Collaboration in Schools: Theory, Methodology, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging trend in educational research is the use of social network theory and methodology to understand how teacher collaboration can support or constrain teaching, learning, and educational change. This article provides a critical synthesis of educational literature on school social networks among educators to advance our understanding of the…

  16. Toward Paradigmatic Change in TESOL Methodologies: Building Plurilingual Pedagogies from the Ground Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary TESOL methodologies have been characterized by compartmentalization of languages in the classroom. However, recent years have seen the beginning signs of paradigmatic change in TESOL methodologies that indicate a move toward plurilingualism. In this article, the author draws on the case of Hong Kong to illustrate how, in the past four…

  17. DIMENSIONAL DESIGN THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF 6-DOF SCISSOR PARALLEL MANIPULATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Xiaoqiang; Li Tiemin; Wang Jinsong

    2004-01-01

    Parallel manipulators have many advantages over serial manipulators in terms of high load/weight ratio, velocity, stiffness and precision.A dimensional design theory and methodology of six degrees of freedom scissor parallel manipulator (SPM) is investigated.The SPM kinematics inverse equation is given.Based on the formulation of the local dexterity and the definition about the indexes of workspace incircle radius, the effects of the design parameters on the dexterity and workspace are discussed.Moreover the incircle radius change ratio about workspace are defined and used as the evaluated indicator to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the performances.A dimensional design theory that could satisfy the requirement of dexterity and workspace is proposed.The dimensional design theory and methodology can be of help in the design, trajectory planning and control of parallel manipulator.

  18. Investigating the Perceptions of Care Coordinators on Using Behavior Theory-Based Mobile Health Technology With Medicaid Populations: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Brittany Erika

    2017-03-21

    Medicaid populations are less engaged in their health care than the rest of the population, translating to worse health outcomes and increased health care costs. Since theory-based mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to increase patient engagement, mobile phones may be an optimal strategy to reach this population. With increased development of theory-based mHealth technology, these interventions must now be evaluated with these medically underserved populations in a real-world setting. The aim of our study was to investigate care coordinators' perceived value of using a health behavior theory-based mHealth platform with Medicaid clients. In particular, attention was paid to the perceived impact on patient engagement. This research was conducted using the patient-provider text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform, Sense Health (now Wellpass), which integrates the transtheoretical model (TTM), also called the stages of change model; social cognitive theory (SCT); supportive accountability; and motivational interviewing (MI). Interviews based in grounded theory methodology were conducted with 10 care managers to understand perceptions of the relationship between mHealth and patient engagement. The interviews with care managers yielded a foundation for a grounded theory model, presenting themes that suggested 4 intertwined correlative relationships revolving around patient engagement: (1) A text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform supplements the client-care manager dynamic, which is grounded in high quality, reciprocal-communication to increase patient engagement; (2) Texting enhances the relationship between literacy and access to care for Medicaid patients, increasing low-literacy patients' agency to access services; (3) Texting enhances communication, providing care managers with a new means to support their clients; and (4) Reminders augment client accountability, leading to both increased motivation and readiness to change

  19. Investigating the Perceptions of Care Coordinators on Using Behavior Theory-Based Mobile Health Technology With Medicaid Populations: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Medicaid populations are less engaged in their health care than the rest of the population, translating to worse health outcomes and increased health care costs. Since theory-based mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to increase patient engagement, mobile phones may be an optimal strategy to reach this population. With increased development of theory-based mHealth technology, these interventions must now be evaluated with these medically underserved populations in a real-world setting. Objective The aim of our study was to investigate care coordinators’ perceived value of using a health behavior theory-based mHealth platform with Medicaid clients. In particular, attention was paid to the perceived impact on patient engagement. This research was conducted using the patient-provider text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform, Sense Health (now Wellpass), which integrates the transtheoretical model (TTM), also called the stages of change model; social cognitive theory (SCT); supportive accountability; and motivational interviewing (MI). Methods Interviews based in grounded theory methodology were conducted with 10 care managers to understand perceptions of the relationship between mHealth and patient engagement. Results The interviews with care managers yielded a foundation for a grounded theory model, presenting themes that suggested 4 intertwined correlative relationships revolving around patient engagement: (1) A text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform supplements the client-care manager dynamic, which is grounded in high quality, reciprocal-communication to increase patient engagement; (2) Texting enhances the relationship between literacy and access to care for Medicaid patients, increasing low-literacy patients’ agency to access services; (3) Texting enhances communication, providing care managers with a new means to support their clients; and (4) Reminders augment client accountability, leading to both

  20. Methodology for Web Services Adoption Based on Technology Adoption Theory and Business Process Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Liping; YAN Jianyuan; TONG Lingyun

    2008-01-01

    Web services use an emerging service-oriented architecture for distributed computing. Many organizations are either in the process of adopting web services technology or evaluating this option for incorporation into their enterprise information architectures. Implementation of this new technology requires careful assessment of the needs and capabilities of an organization to formulate adoption strategies. This paper presents a methodology for web services adoption based on technology adoption theory and business process analyses. The methodology suggests that strategies, business areas, and functions within an organization should be considered based on the existing organizational information technology status during the process of adopting web services to support the business needs and requirements.

  1. Major methodological challenges for the economic theory of the firm in the economies of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Boehlke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the major methodological challenges in microeconomic theory of the firm in theeconomies of Central and Eastern Europe. The methodological weaknesses of the theory are not only thecause of cognitive limitation but also an important condition for an effective economic policy during thetransition period.

  2. Breaking Ground: A Study of Gestalt Therapy Theory and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.

    In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…

  3. Four types of coping with COPD-induced breathlessness in daily living: a grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    COPD predominantly cope with breathlessness during daily living. We chose a multimodal grounded theory design that holds the opportunity to combine qualitative and quantitative data to capture and explain the multidimensional coping behaviour among poeple with COPD. The participants' main concern...... comprised distrinctive physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial features constituting coping-type-specific indicators. In theory, four predominant coping types with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial properties are observed among people with COPD. The four coping types...

  4. Factors Relating to the Success or Failure of College Algebra Internet Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to discover the factors that contribute to the success or failure of college algebra for students taking college algebra by distance education Internet, and then generate a theory of success or failure of the group of College Algebra Internet students at one Utah college. Qualitative data were collected and analyzed on students’ perceptions and perspectives of a College Algebra Internet course that they took during the spring or summer 2006 semest...

  5. Inhibiting Interference - a grounded theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a grounded theory explaining health professionals' pattern of behaviour and experience related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes during total joint replacement. BACKGROUND: Health professionals uphold standardised care for patients, and effect...... on quality is seen when relatives support patients during total joint replacement. Since health professionals often have problematic relationships with relatives, knowledge is needed of the health professionals' pattern of behaviour in relation to relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programme....... DESIGN: Grounded theory according to Glaser's methodology was used to generate substantive theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010 to 2011 by 44 health professionals in orthopaedic wards at two Danish hospitals. Data from nonparticipant observations...

  6. Making sense of medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Louise

    2013-06-01

    Background General practitioners often encounter patients with medically unexplained symptoms. These patients share many common features, but there is little agreement about the best diagnostic framework for describing them. Aims This study aimed to explore how GPs make sense of medically unexplained symptoms. Design Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 GPs. Each participant was asked to describe a patient with medically unexplained symptoms and discuss their assessment and management. Setting The study was conducted among GPs from teaching practices across Australia. Methods Participants were selected by purposive sampling and all interviews were transcribed. Iterative analysis was undertaken using constructivist grounded theory methodology. Results GPs used a variety of frameworks to understand and manage patients with medically unexplained symptoms. They used different frameworks to reason, to help patients make sense of their suffering, and to communicate with other health professionals. GPs tried to avoid using stigmatising labels such as 'borderline personality disorder', which were seen to apply a 'layer of dismissal' to patients. They worried about missing serious physical disease, but managed the risk by deliberately attending to physical cues during some consultations, and focusing on coping with medically unexplained symptoms in others. They also used referrals to exclude serious disease, but were wary of triggering a harmful cycle of uncoordinated care. Conclusion GPs were aware of the ethical relevance of psychiatric diagnoses, and attempted to protect their patients from stigma. They crafted helpful explanatory narratives for patients that shaped their experience of suffering. Disease surveillance remained an important role for GPs who were managing medically unexplained symptoms.

  7. Work and Risk: Perceptions of Nuclear-Power Personnel. a Study in Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Claire Dewitt

    1992-01-01

    The utility industry has devoted time and money to assure personnel within nuclear power plants are informed about occupational risks. Radiation-protection training programs are designed to present information to employees about occupational radiation and protective procedures. Work -related concerns are known to create stress, affect the morale of the workforce, influence collective bargaining, and increase compensation claims. This study was designed to determine perceptions of risk among employees of nuclear power plants and identify variables that influence these perceptions. Four power plants were included in the study, one in Canada and three in the United States. Data were generated through participant observations and interviews of 350 participants during a period of 3 weeks at each plant. Data were gathered and analyzed following procedures advanced by Grounded Theory, a naturalistic methodology used in this study. Training content, information, and communication materials were additional sources of data. Findings indicated employees believed health and safety risks existed within the work environment. Perceptions of risk were influenced by training quality, the work environment, nuclear myths and images of the general public, and fears of family members. Among the three groups of workers, administration personnel, security personnel, and radiation workers, the latter identified a larger number of risks. Workers perceived radiation risks, shift work, and steam pipe ruptures as high-level concerns. Experiencing stress, making mistakes, and fear of sabotage were concerns shared among all employee groups at various levels of concern. Strategies developed by employees were used to control risk. Strategies included teamwork, humor, monitoring, avoidance, reframing, and activism. When risks were perceived as uncontrollable, the employee left the plant. A coping strategy of transferring concerns about radiological risks to nonradiological risks were uncovered in

  8. Decision-making in Swiss home-like childbirth: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Yvonne; Frank, Franziska; Schläppy Muntwyler, Franziska; Fleming, Valerie; Pehlke-Milde, Jessica

    2017-06-14

    Decision-making in midwifery, including a claim for shared decision-making between midwives and women, is of major significance for the health of mother and child. Midwives have little information about how to share decision-making responsibilities with women, especially when complications arise during birth. To increase understanding of decision-making in complex home-like birth settings by exploring midwives' and women's perspectives and to develop a dynamic model integrating participatory processes for making shared decisions. The study, based on grounded theory methodology, analysed 20 interviews of midwives and 20 women who had experienced complications in home-like births. The central phenomenon that arose from the data was "defining/redefining decision as a joint commitment to healthy childbirth". The sub-indicators that make up this phenomenon were safety, responsibility, mutual and personal commitments. These sub-indicators were also identified to influence temporal conditions of decision-making and to apply different strategies for shared decision-making. Women adopted strategies such as delegating a decision, making the midwife's decision her own, challenging a decision or taking a decision driven by the dynamics of childbirth. Midwives employed strategies such as remaining indecisive, approving a woman's decision, making an informed decision or taking the necessary decision. To respond to recommendations for shared responsibility for care, midwives need to strengthen their shared decision-making skills. The visual model of decision-making in childbirth derived from the data provides a framework for transferring clinical reasoning into practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinYoung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  10. The Evolution of Confusion: soft systems methodology and social theory revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Houghton

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft Systems Methodology (SSM is a potentially powerful tool for improving the management of the complex social systems aspect of Information Systems. Yet if it is to be employed effectively IS managers need to understand the theory of social systems that makes SSM a meaningful practical approach. However finding out about that social theory is not straightforward. It is 20 years since the first discussions of the social reality implied by Soft Systems Methodology (SSM and the area has been given little attention since. Yet SSM itself has progressed dramatically since those first critiques of its underpinning social theory were first developed. This paper revisits the area in order to provide a contemporary perspective and foundation for future development. It reveals apparent weaknesses in the research debate about SSM and social theory, and shows how the evolution of SSM has apparently been affected by that debate. SSM is introduced and examined according to the primary literature and re-evaluated using Burrell and Morgan's four-paradigm matrix of social theory paradigms in order to understand the social reality implied by SSM. The paper examines criticisms of SSM, the recent evolution of SSM, and suggests future directions for development.

  11. Development of methodology and computer programs for the ground response spectrum and the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Kyoung [Semyung Univ., Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technol , Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Objective of this study is to investigate and develop the methodologies and corresponding computer codes, compatible to the domestic seismological and geological environments, for estimating ground response spectrum and probabilistic seismic hazard. Using the PSHA computer program, the Cumulative Probability Functions(CPDF) and Probability Functions (PDF) of the annual exceedence have been investigated for the analysis of the uncertainty space of the annual probability at ten interested seismic hazard levels (0.1 g to 0.99 g). The cumulative provability functions and provability functions of the annual exceedence have been also compared to those results from the different input parameter spaces.

  12. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  13. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  14. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  15. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  16. Using Grounded Theory to Analyze Qualitative Observational Data that is Obtained by Video Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Griffiths

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the collection and analysis of qualitative data that is derived by observation and that may be used to generate a grounded theory. Video recordings were made of the verbal and non-verbal interactions of people with severe and complex disabilities and the staff who work with them. Three dyads composed of a student/teacher or carer and a person with a severe or profound intellectual disability were observed in a variety of different activities that took place in a school. Two of these recordings yielded 25 minutes of video, which was transcribed into narrative format. The nature of the qualitative micro data that was captured is described and the fit between such data and classic grounded theory is discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the use of video as a tool to collect data that is amenable to analysis using grounded theory are considered. The paper concludes by suggesting that using classic grounded theory to analyze qualitative data that is collected using video offers a method that has the potential to uncover and explain patterns of non-verbal interactions that were not previously evident.

  17. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  18. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  19. Teachers' Perceived Influences on Technology Integration Decisions: A Grounded Theory on Instructional Decisions after Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Karen Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study explored teachers' instructional decisions around planning and practice for technology integration after participation in professional development. The purpose of this study was to determine how a long-term hybrid professional development experience influenced, if at all, math teachers' instructional…

  20. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  1. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  2. Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

  3. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  4. How Australian Female Adolescents Prioritize Pregnancy Protection: A Grounded Theory Study of Contraceptive Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory principles were systematically employed to reveal key differences in pregnancy risk and underlying disparities in contraceptive use in (a) never-pregnant (b) pregnant-terminated and (c) pregnant-continued teenagers. Analysis of 69 semistructured interviews revealed a bicausal model of pregnancy protection that accounted for…

  5. Constructing Grounded Theory: Reflections on a Case Study of a Professor of Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, Valerie J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a case study describing the philosophy of teaching design to architecture students as practiced by one professor. A model of his architectural design curriculum emerged. Three issues arose: constructing theory from data grounded in experience, posing appropriate research questions, and understanding the roots of ethnographic inquiry.…

  6. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  7. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  8. Making Connections: Grounding Professional Development in the Developmental Theories of Vygotsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Barohny

    2008-01-01

    Professional development is grounded in the developmental theories of Vygotsky in an attempt to better understand the mechanism underlying teacher development. The rationale for the use of Vygotskian framework is provided in the context of describing the various models of professional development. Within this theoretical framework, it is argued…

  9. Fathers' Orientation to Their Children's Autism Diagnosis: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Michael D.; Hannon, LaChan V.

    2017-01-01

    Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental…

  10. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  11. A Grounded Theory Study of Effective Global Leadership Development Strategies: Perspectives from Brazil, India, and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokkesmoe, Karen Jane

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focuses on global leadership and global leadership development strategies from the perspective of people from three developing countries, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. The study explores conceptualizations of global leadership, the skills required to lead effectively in global contexts, and recommended…

  12. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  13. Teachers' Perceived Influences on Technology Integration Decisions: A Grounded Theory on Instructional Decisions after Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Karen Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study explored teachers' instructional decisions around planning and practice for technology integration after participation in professional development. The purpose of this study was to determine how a long-term hybrid professional development experience influenced, if at all, math teachers' instructional…

  14. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  15. Making Connections: Grounding Professional Development in the Developmental Theories of Vygotsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Barohny

    2008-01-01

    Professional development is grounded in the developmental theories of Vygotsky in an attempt to better understand the mechanism underlying teacher development. The rationale for the use of Vygotskian framework is provided in the context of describing the various models of professional development. Within this theoretical framework, it is argued…

  16. The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research…

  17. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  18. Residents' Interaction with Their College Living-Learning Peer Mentor: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Jonathan Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study used Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory model to describe and explain the stories of residents' interactions with their peer mentor, in a health, education, and human development living-learning community (LLC). The question answered in this study was: What is the impact of the interaction between a peer mentor and…

  19. Executive Function and Reading Aptitude: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study investigated teacher perspectives on the relationship between executive function and reading aptitude. The influence of executive function may be underestimated in terms of its impact on reading aptitude, which could have significant implications on how reading aptitude is currently defined. The foundational…

  20. A Grounded Theory of Text Revision Processes Used by Young Adolescents Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuknis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the revising processes used by 8 middle school students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing as they composed essays for their English classes. Using grounded theory, interviews with students and teachers in one middle school, observations of the students engaging in essay creation, and writing samples were collected for analysis.…

  1. Theorizing Teachers' Perspectives on an EFL Textbook for Public High Schools of Iran: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaghi, Seyyed Ali Ostovar; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Saboor; Tajzad, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore language teachers' perspectives on Iranian third grade senior high school EFL textbook, which is prescribed by the Ministry of Education. In data collection and analysis, the researchers used theoretical sampling and the coding schemes presented in grounded theory. Final analysis yielded "Negative…

  2. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  3. A Grounded Theory of Collaborative Synchronizing in Relation to Challenging Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…

  4. Student Affairs Professionals Supporting Students with Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Ezekiel; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Vargas, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    In an action-based grounded theory project, the authors collected data from 31 student affairs professionals. During seven focus groups, practitioners described feeling unknowledgeable about disability law, accommodations, and diagnoses. However, they drew upon their core values and transferrable skills to support individual students. Participants…

  5. Leading Effective Educational Technology in K-12 School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lara Gillian C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic grounded theory qualitative study was conducted investigating the process of effectively leading educational technology in New Jersey public K-12 school districts. Data were collected from educational technology district leaders (whether formal or non-formal administrators) and central administrators through a semi-structured online…

  6. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  7. A Grounded Theory of Counselor Educators Integrating Social Justice into Their Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Melissa A.; Vereen, Linwood G.

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice has received considerable attention in the counseling literature; however, little empirical research exists. This grounded theory study examined 4 counselor educators' process of integrating social justice constructs into their pedagogy. Data analysis revealed 4 primary experiences that emerged in the participants'…

  8. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  9. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  10. A Grounded Theory of Connectivity and Persistence in a Limited Residency Doctoral Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.; Snyder, Martha M.; Dringus, Laurie P.; Maddrey, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Limited-residency and online doctoral programs have an attrition rate significantly higher than traditional programs. This grounded-theory study focused on issues pertaining to communication between students, their peers and faculty and how interpersonal communication may affect persistence. Data were collected from 17 students actively working on…

  11. A grounded theory study of the acquisition of technology by Danish dairy producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Troels Vammen; Tandrup, Peter René; Brandt, Charlotte J.;

    grounded theory method for this research. We carried out and analyzed 28 interviews with milk producers and 5 with technology vendors. Our results show that motivations for technology acquisition for milk producers include the economic situation of the farmer, the perceived value of the technology...

  12. Executive Function and Reading Aptitude: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study investigated teacher perspectives on the relationship between executive function and reading aptitude. The influence of executive function may be underestimated in terms of its impact on reading aptitude, which could have significant implications on how reading aptitude is currently defined. The foundational…

  13. The dynamics of international information systems anatomy of a grounded theory investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This work probes the efficacy of using the Grounded Theory method to study the factors that lead to failure or success in the creation and ongoing management of IIS within the global enterprises. It details case studies of three large transnational companies.

  14. Grounding of Six Sigma s Breakthrough Cookbook: How to research a methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Six Sigma programme has developed into a standard for quality and efficiency improvement in business and industry. This fact makes scientific research into the validity and applicability of this methodology important. This article explores the possibilities of a scientific study of the methodolo

  15. Grounding of Six Sigma s Breakthrough Cookbook: How to research a methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Six Sigma programme has developed into a standard for quality and efficiency improvement in business and industry. This fact makes scientific research into the validity and applicability of this methodology important. This article explores the possibilities of a scientific study of the

  16. CSAU methodology and results for an ATWS event in a BWR using information theory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Thermal-Hydraulics and Nuclear Engineering Group (TIN), Institute for Energy Engineering (IEE), Valencia (Spain); Escrivá, A., E-mail: aescriva@iqn.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Thermal-Hydraulics and Nuclear Engineering Group (TIN), Institute for Energy Engineering (IEE), Valencia (Spain); Mendizabal, R., E-mail: rmsanz@csn.es [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pelayo, F., E-mail: fpl@csn.es [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Melara, J., E-mail: jls@iberdrola.es [IBERINCO, IBERDROLA Ingeniería y Construcción, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We apply the CSAU methodology to an ATWS in a BWR using information theory methods. • We show how to perform the selection of the most influential inputs on the critical safety parameter. • We apply the maximum entropy principle to get the input parameter distribution. • We examine the maximum relative entropy principle to update the input parameter PDF. • We quantify the uncertainty of the critical safety parameter using order statistics and information theory. - Abstract: This paper shows an application of the CSAU methodology to an ATWS in a BWR reactor, when the temperature of the suppression pool is taken as the critical safety parameter. The method combines CSAU methodology with recent techniques of information theory. In this paper we use auxiliary tools to help in the evaluation and improvement of the parameters distribution that enter in the elements II and III of CSAU based methodologies. These tools have been implemented in two FORTRAN programs: GEDIPA (Generation of the Parameter Distribution) and UNTHERCO (Uncertainty in Thermal Hydraulic Codes). The first one analyzes the information data available on a given parameter or parameters with the goal to know all the information about the probability distribution function of these parameters. The second apply information theory methods, as the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and the maximum relative entropy Principle (MREP), in order to build conservative distribution functions for the parameters from the available data. Also, the distribution function of a given parameter can be updated using the MREP principle when new information is provided. UNTHERCO performs the MONTECARLO sampling for a given set of parameters when the distribution function of these parameters is previously known. If the distribution of a parameter is unknown, then, the MEP is applied to deduce the distribution function for this parameter.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN CONSTRUCTION THEORY: BY USING 5'S METHODOLOGY AS TOOL - CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Prashant S. Kuklare*, Dr. M. N. Hedaoo

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a implementation of lean construction theory by using 5'S methodology as tool in construction management. 5’S is a systematic technique used by organizations comes from five Japanese words, Seiri (sort), Seiton (set in order), Seiso (shine), Seiketsu (standardize), and Shitsuke(sustain). This system helps to organize a workplace for efficiency and decrease wasting and optimize quality and productivity via monitoring an organized environment. It also provides useful visual ...

  18. Field theory of unification in nonlinear and linear network (I)——Theoretical grounds of field theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燊年; 何煜光; 王建成

    1995-01-01

    A field theory has been proposed. The laws of conservation of charge and energy can be obtained from the Maxwell’s equations, which are placed in nonlinear network for simultaneous solution, and therefore the Kirchhoff’s law with its most fundamental integral formulae in nonlinear network can be obtained. Thus, it will strictly push forward the total basic equations from non-linear network to linear network as well as other important new relationships to provide the theoretical grounds for the field theory.

  19. Etnografia e grounded theory na pesquisa de marketing de relacionamento no mercado consumidor: uma proposta metodológica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Ferreira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction between company and consumer during the processof purchase involve complex situations that are too diffi cult to be understood byquantitative research. As a result, qualitative approach has gained a growingspace in recent marketing research. A good example of it is ethnography, anapproach that has been used in the studies about consumer behaviour. Hence,the objective of this study is to discuss ethnography along with another qualitativeapproach, grounded theory, as methodologies of research in relationship marketing in the consumer market (RMC capable of grasping the internal dynamicsof this phenomenon. The discussion is on how the use of these approachescan contribute for the scientifi c advancement of the RMC area and the conclusionis that its use is adequate as these research approaches, by focusing on subjectiveaspects, have the potential of revelling why consumers and companiesinvolve themselves in exchange relationships.

  20. Feeling like me again: a grounded theory of the role of breast reconstruction surgery in self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, L N; Newman, E F; Adair, P

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the role of breast reconstruction in women's self-image. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women from breast cancer support groups who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore their experiences. The study generated a model of 'breast cancer, breast reconstruction and self-image', with a core category entitled 'feeling like me again' and two principal categories of 'normal appearance' and 'normal life'. A further two main categories, 'moving on' and 'image of sick person' were generated. The results indicated a role of breast reconstruction in several aspects of self-image including the restoration of pre-surgery persona, which further promoted adjustment.

  1. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  2. Mixing a Grounded Theory Approach with a Randomized Controlled Trial Related to Intimate Partner Violence: What Challenges Arise for Mixed Methods Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Catallo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1 planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2 consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase.

  3. Mixing a Grounded Theory Approach with a Randomized Controlled Trial Related to Intimate Partner Violence: What Challenges Arise for Mixed Methods Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M.; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase. PMID:23577245

  4. Mixing a grounded theory approach with a randomized controlled trial related to intimate partner violence: what challenges arise for mixed methods research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M; Ciliska, Donna; Macmillan, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase.

  5. Application of a methodology based on the Theory of Constraints in the sector of tourism services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyner Pérez Campdesuñer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the research was aimed at achieving the implementation of the theory of constraints on the operating conditions of a hotel, which differs by its characteristics of traditional processes that have applied this method, from the great heterogeneity of resources needed to meet the demand of customers. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this purpose, a method of generating conversion equations that allowed to express all the resources of the organization under study depending on the number of customers to serve facilitating comparison between different resources and estimated demand through techniques developed traditional forecasting, these features were integrated into the classical methodology of theory of constraints. Findings: The application of tools designed for hospitality organizations allowed to demonstrate the applicability of the theory of constraints on entities under conditions different from the usual, develop a set of conversion equations of different resources facilitating comparison with demand and consequently achieve improve levels of efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. Originality/value: The originality of the research is summarized in the application of the theory of constraints in a very different from the usual conditions, covering 100% of the processes and resources in hospitality organizations.

  6. Sistematização da assistência de enfermagem na perspectiva dos enfermeiros: uma abordagem metodológica na teoria fundamentada Sistematización de la asistencia enfermería en vista de las enfermeras: un enfoque metodológico de la teoría fundamentada Nursing care systematization according to the nurses' view: a methodological approach based on grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia de Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    enfermería en obstetricia. Se concluye que las enfermeras perciben el SAE como instrumento de articulación teórico-práctico que conduce a la asistencia personalizada.This study was aimed at understanding, from the nurses' perspective, the experience of going through the Systematization of Nursing Care (SNC in an obstetric service unit. We used grounded theory as the theoretical and methodological framework. The subjects of this study consisted of thirteen nurses from a public hospital in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. The data analysis resulted in the following phenomenon: "perceiving SNC as a working method that organizes, directs and improves the quality of care by bringing visibility and providing security for the nursing staff." The nurses expressed the extent of knowledge about the SNC experienced in obstetrics as wellas considered the nursing process as a decision-making process, which guides the reasoning of nurses in the planning of nursing care in obstetrics. It was concluded that nurses perceive the SNC as an instrument of theoretical-practical articulation leading to personalized assistance.

  7. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  8. A Grounded Theory Study on Journeying through the Shield to Sacredness: "Ni'hokaa' Diyin Dine'e Idliini Dolzin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    In doing a grounded theory study, the researcher does not identify a hypothesis, formulate research questions, or state a specific problem at the beginning of the research. Grounded theory research begins with data collection, minimizing preconceptions about outcomes to the greatest extent possible. I began my research with this attitude of not…

  9. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  10. Finding common ground to achieve a “good death”: family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Amy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a “bad death” experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians’ experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Methods Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Results Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated. The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a “good death” and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death. Finding Common Ground to Achieve a “Good Death” for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1 Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2 Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3 Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for

  11. Finding common ground to achieve a "good death": family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy; Manca, Donna

    2013-01-22

    Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a "bad death" experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians' experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated.The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a "good death" and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death.Finding Common Ground to Achieve a "Good Death" for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. A novel framework for developing

  12. Usos e Aplicações da Grounded Theory em Administração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Pires Giavina Bianchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the usage and application of grounded theory in the administration area.Grounded theory is a research tool under the qualitative paradigm that, since its beginning in 1967raised some debates in the academic arena. Its original authors, Barney Glaser & Anselm Strauss,developed, throughout their academic trajectories,distinct thoughts regarding the process of datacollection and data analysis, the researcher attitude and the way of attainment the researchresults: theory grounded on empirical data. In spite of that, the history on the evolution of theresearch method, the research method working process clarification and an analysis of someapplications in the administrative area are discussed in this paper to support reflections ongrounded theory applicability and potentiality in administration. The purpose of this paper is tocontribute with researchers by bringing relevant information to support the processes of choice ofthis research method and its proper execution in their research. The conclusion is that groundedtheory is complex, rich, and powerful being applicable in administration as part of the social science

  13. Methodology for Simulation and Analysis of Complex Adaptive Supply Network Structure and Dynamics Using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rodewald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply networks existing today in many industries can behave as complex adaptive systems making them more difficult to analyze and assess. Being able to fully understand both the complex static and dynamic structures of a complex adaptive supply network (CASN are key to being able to make more informed management decisions and prioritize resources and production throughout the network. Previous efforts to model and analyze CASN have been impeded by the complex, dynamic nature of the systems. However, drawing from other complex adaptive systems sciences, information theory provides a model-free methodology removing many of those barriers, especially concerning complex network structure and dynamics. With minimal information about the network nodes, transfer entropy can be used to reverse engineer the network structure while local transfer entropy can be used to analyze the network structure’s dynamics. Both simulated and real-world networks were analyzed using this methodology. Applying the methodology to CASNs allows the practitioner to capitalize on observations from the highly multidisciplinary field of information theory which provides insights into CASN’s self-organization, emergence, stability/instability, and distributed computation. This not only provides managers with a more thorough understanding of a system’s structure and dynamics for management purposes, but also opens up research opportunities into eventual strategies to monitor and manage emergence and adaption within the environment.

  14. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…

  15. A Test of a Strong Ground Motion Prediction Methodology for the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Ioannidou, E; Voulgaris, N; Kalogeras, I; Savy, J; Foxall, W; Stavrakakis, G

    2004-08-06

    We test a methodology to predict the range of ground-motion hazard for a fixed magnitude earthquake along a specific fault or within a specific source volume, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this into probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). We modeled ground motion with empirical Green's functions. We tested our methodology with the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens earthquake, we: (1) developed constraints on rupture parameters based on prior knowledge of earthquake rupture processes and sources in the region; (2) generated impulsive point shear source empirical Green's functions by deconvolving out the source contribution of M < 4.0 aftershocks; (3) used aftershocks that occurred throughout the area and not necessarily along the fault to be modeled; (4) ran a sufficient number of scenario earthquakes to span the full variability of ground motion possible; (5) found that our distribution of synthesized ground motions span what actually occurred and their distribution is realistically narrow; (6) determined that one of our source models generates records that match observed time histories well; (7) found that certain combinations of rupture parameters produced ''extreme'' ground motions at some stations; (8) identified that the ''best fitting'' rupture models occurred in the vicinity of 38.05{sup o} N 23.60{sup o} W with center of rupture near 12 km, and near unilateral rupture towards the areas of high damage, and this is consistent with independent investigations; and (9) synthesized strong motion records in high damage areas for which records from the earthquake were not recorded. We then developed a demonstration PSHA for a source region near Athens utilizing synthesized ground motion rather that traditional attenuation. We synthesized 500 earthquakes distributed throughout the source zone likely to have Mw=6.0 earthquakes near Athens. We assumed an average return period of 1000 years for this

  16. Evaluation of a multi-modal grounded theory approach to explore patients’ daily coping with breathlessness due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Conventional methods have not yet succeeded in capturing the complexity of how people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cope with breathlessness during daily living. We used a multi-modal grounded theory (GT) approach to investigate coping. In this paper, we describe and evaluate ...... the potential to generate new knowledge and may become an important methodological contribution towards understanding the multidimensionality of coping with breathlessness.......; and be ethically justifiable. The approach should also be consistent with the GT methodology of generating a theory. Striving to develop and perfect the multi-modal GT approach was time-consuming. Apart from this practical challenge, the multimodal GT approach met all evaluation criteria. This approach has...... the participants’ ability to remember and narrate how they cope with breathlessness; capture the multidimensional aspects involved in coping with breathlessness; encompass tools for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data, providing the opportunity to generate, synchronize, and combine data...

  17. Potential performance theory (PPT): describing a methodology for analyzing task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David; Rice, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    Based on potential performance theory (PPT), a methodological paradigm is developed that allows for individual-level analyses. The proposed methodology distinguishes among observed performance, strategy, and consistency, with the idea that changes in observed performance can be caused by changes in strategy or consistency. Equations are presented that allow the computation of strategy and consistency scores for groups and individuals, with the goal of enabling researchers to find the reasons why performance improves or does not improve. More specifically, people may (1) develop better strategies, (2) use them more consistently, (3) both, or (4) neither. It is even possible to have strategy-consistency trade-offs, as individuals focus on one at the expense of the other. Data obtained from an experiment illustrate these possibilities.

  18. Recent advances in combination of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry: methodology and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepárník, Karel

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the latest development of microseparation electromigration methods in capillaries and microfluidic devices with MS detection and identification. A wide selection of 183 relevant articles covers the literature published from June 2012 till May 2014 as a continuation of the review article on the same topic by Kleparnik [Electrophoresis 2013, 34, 70-86]. Special attention is paid to the new improvements in the theory of instrumentation and methodology of MS interfacing with capillary versions of zone electrophoresis, ITP, and IEF. Ionization methods in MS include ESI, MALDI, and ICP. Although the main attention is paid to the development of instrumentation and methodology, representative examples illustrate also applications in the proteomics, glycomics, metabolomics, biomarker research, forensics, pharmacology, food analysis, and single-cell analysis. The combinations of MS with capillary versions of electrochromatography and micellar electrokinetic chromatography are not included.

  19. Protection Measures for Buildings Based on Coordinating Action Theory of Ground, Foundation and Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of coordinating action of building ground, foundation and structure, this paper presents a modified method for calculating additional stresses on buildings in mining areas by considering the joint effect of curvature deformation and horizontal deformation on buildings. It points out that for buildings over the coal pillar, it is advisable to soften the intermediate ground of buildings when they are affected by mining. For buildings over the goaf, it is preferable to soften the ground at both ends of buildings. In order to enhance the ability of a building to resist tensile deformation, the key measure is to reinforce the bottom foundation of the building. In addition, the concept of "angle of break of building" is proposed. It is because of this angle that the protecting coal pillar is left, which is a better solution than prevailing solutions The findings provide a more scientific basis for mining under buildings.

  20. A grounded theory como alternativa metodológica para pesquisa em enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ribeiro dos Santos

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo apresenta um método de pesquisa interpretativo e sistemático para desenvolvimento de pesquisa em enfermagem chamado grounded theory, cujo suporte teórico é o interacionismo simbólico. O propósito é descrever a grounded theory como alternativa metodológica para construção do conhecimento em enfermagem. O estudo destaca: princípio fundamental, conceitos básicos, trajetória do método e processo de análise dos dados. Concluímos que a sistematização dos dados e sua interpretação, a partir da experiência vivenciada pelos atores sociais, constituem ricos subsídios para gerar teorias através desta ferramenta de pesquisa.

  1. Conducting a Grounded Theory Study in a Language Other Than English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intansari Nurjannah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translation can be a problem area for researchers conducting qualitative studies in languages other than English who intend to publish the results in an English-language journal. Analyzing the data is also complex when the research team consists of people from different language backgrounds. Translation must be considered as an issue in its own right to maintain the integrity of the research, especially in a grounded theory study. In this article, we offer guidelines for the process of translation for data analysis in a grounded theory study in which the research was conducted in a language other than English (Indonesian. We make recommendations about procedures to choose when, who, and how to translate data. The translation procedure is divided into four steps which are as follows: translation in the process of coding, translation in the process of team discussion, translation in the process of advanced coding, and ensuring the accuracy of translation.

  2. Vom Text zum Bild – Überlegungen zu einer visuellen Grounded-Theory-Methodologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Mey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ausgehend von der für die Grounded-Theory-Methodologie (GTM zentralen Prämisse des "all is data" und vor dem Hintergrund zunehmender Beschäftigung mit visuellen Daten in der qualitativen Forschung, bietet der Beitrag einen orientierenden Rahmen für eine visuelle Grounded-Theory-Methodologie. Aufbauend auf Überlegungen aus der objektiven Hermeneutik, der dokumentarischen Methode, der Segmentanalyse sowie GTM-internen Perspektiven wird gezeigt, wie dieser traditionell textorientierte Ansatz auf visuelle Daten bezogen werden kann. Im Zentrum steht dabei die (Re- Formulierung der Verfahrensschritte Inventarisierung, Segmentierung, Kodierung/Kategorienbildung inkl. Memowriting sowie Sampling zur Untersuchung von Bildern im Sinne einer GTM-Logik. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160225

  3. Qualitative research: Data analysis framework generating grounded theory applicable to the crisis in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.

    The shortage of qualified teachers, and the quality and quantity of the science taught in precollege institutions are two focal issues in today's national crisis in science education. This article delineates aspects of qualitative research having the potential of providing guidance to change agents in designing effective strategies to mitigate the crisis. A discursive approach to qualitative research involving the method of collecting and simultaneously analyzing data known as grounded theory is described. Role theory and schools as organizations composed of interactive subsystems are defined as suitable frameworks within which to analyze data.

  4. Information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators: A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Susan Ward

    2005-12-01

    Geoscience educators use a variety of resources and resource formats in their classroom teaching to facilitate student understanding of concepts and processes that define subject areas considered in the realm of geoscience. In this study of information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators, the researcher found that participants preferred visual media such as personal photographic and digital images, as well as published figures, animations, and cartoons, and that participants bypassed their academic libraries to meet these information needs. In order to investigate the role of information in developing introductory geoscience course and instruction, a grounded theory study was conducted through a qualitative paradigm with an interpretive approach and naturalistic inquiry. The theoretical and methodological framework was constructivism and sense-making. Research questions were posited on the nature of geoscience subject areas and the resources and resource formats used in conveying geoscience topics to science and non-science majors, as well as educators' preferences and concerns with curriculum and instruction. The underlying framework was to investigate the place of the academic library and librarian in the sense-making, constructivist approach of geoscience educators. A purposive sample of seven geoscience educators from four universities located in mid-western United States was identified as exemplary teachers by department chairpersons. A triangulation of data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, document reviews, and classroom observations. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, which included coding, categorizing, and interpreting for patterns and relationships. Contextual factors were identified and a simple model resulted showing the role of information in teaching for these participants. While participants developed lectures and demonstrations using intrapersonal knowledge and personal collections, one barrier

  5. Cross-check for completeness: exploring a novel use of Leximancer in a Grounded Theory study

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, I.A.; Gapp, R.; Stewart, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for Leximancer software to actively support the Grounded Theory (GT) analyst in assessing the ‘completeness’ of their study. The case study takes an existing GT study and retrospectively analyzes the data with Leximancer. The Leximancer output showed encouraging similarities to the main themes emerging from the GT analysis; but not sufficiently at the selective coding level to justifiably claim a definitive cross-check for overall theoretical saturation. ...

  6. Masses and magnetic moments of ground-state baryons in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vicente-Vacas, M J

    2012-01-01

    We report on some recent developments in our understanding of the light-quark mass dependence and the SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking corrections to the magnetic moments of the ground-state baryons in a covariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory, the so-called EOMS formulation. We show that this covariant ChPT exhibits some promising features compared to its heavy-baryon and infrared counterparts.

  7. Diagrammatic perturbation theory applied to the ground state of the water molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, D. M.; Wilson, S.

    1977-01-01

    The diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory is applied to the ground state of the water molecule within the algebraic approximation. Using four different basis sets, the total energy, the equilibrium OH bond length, and the equilibrium HOH bond angle are examined. The latter is found to be a particularly sensitive test of the convergence of perturbation expansions. Certain third-order results, which incorporate all two-, three-, and four-body effects, show evidence of good convergence properties.

  8. Ground state of medium-heavy doubly-closed shell nuclei in correlated basis function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bisconti, C; Có, G; Fabrocini, A

    2006-01-01

    The correlated basis function theory is applied to the study of medium-heavy doubly closed shell nuclei with different wave functions for protons and neutrons and in the jj coupling scheme. State dependent correlations including tensor correlations are used. Realistic two-body interactions of Argonne and Urbana type, together with three-body interactions have been used to calculate ground state energies and density distributions of the 12C, 16O, 40Ca, 48Ca and 208Pb nuclei.

  9. Reflecting on the role of literature in qualitative public administration research:learning from grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen undertaking qualitative research, public administration scholars must walk a thin line between being theoretically sensitive and imposing preconceived ideas on their work. This article identifies opportunities and pitfalls in using literature in qualitative public administration research. Whereas the opportunities are already well known within the discipline, the pitfalls remain underexposed. We identify potential pitfalls by using insights from the grounded theory approach. ...

  10. The symbol-grounding problem in numerical cognition: A review of theory, evidence, and outstanding questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem.

  11. Methodology of analysis sustainable development of Ukraine by using the theory fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Methodology of analysis sustainable development of Ukraine by using the theory fuzzy logic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Article objective is analysis of the theoretical and methodological aspects for the assessment of sustainable development in times of crisis. The methodical approach to the analysis of sustainable development territory taking into account the assessment of the level of economic security has been proposed. A necessity of development of the complex methodical approach to the accounting of the indeterminacy properties and multicriterial in the tasks to provide economic safety on the basis of using the fuzzy logic theory (or the fuzzy sets theory was proved. The results of using the method of fuzzy sets of during the 2002-2012 years the dynamics of changes dynamics of sustainable development in Ukraine were presented.

  12. What helps people with bipolar affective disorder succeed in employment: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Yeats, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The present study used a qualitative research design to unfold those contextual factors which influence vocational outcomes amongst people with bipolar disorder (BD). The data for this qualitative study was collated using a grounded theory approach because of its particular relevance to the study's aims i.e., to propose a theory grounded in the data that provided an account of the vocational integration process people with BD go through. The emerging theory consists of two over-arching principles that determine an individual's readiness to join the workforce: i) recovery from an acute phase of BD and ii) goodness of fit between the individual, support, job and wider contextual components. The emerging theory is in general agreement with those issues discussed in the literature. The present study also highlights the importance of maintaining a sense of hope and how self-determination may help individuals achieve their vocational goals. The credibility of these findings was strengthened by the method of triangulation of data interpretation and sources.

  13. The timing of the literature review in grounded theory research: an open mind versus an empty head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Tracey; King, Lindy; de Lacey, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The timing of the literature review in grounded theory has been debated for decades, with previous recommendations to delay the review now under question. Mounting evidence suggests that a preliminary review can enhance theoretical sensitivity and rigor and may lead to innovative insights. However, researchers must acknowledge the influence of prior knowledge during data analysis and theory development to avoid bias. This article critically examines the ongoing debate and recommends that we should not seek to avoid preconceptions but ensure that they are well grounded in evidence and always subject to further investigation, revision, and refutation. If used reflexively, a preliminary literature review may well enhance grounded theory research.

  14. Ground-State Properties of Z = 59 Nuclei in the Relativistic Mean-Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong; MA Zhong-Yu; CHEN Bao-Qiu; LI Jun-Qing

    2000-01-01

    Ground-state properties of Pr isotopes are studied in a framework of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory using the recently proposed parameter set TM1. Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) pproximation and blocking method is adopted to deal with pairing interaction and the odd nucleon, respectively. The pairing forces are taken to be isospin dependent. The domain of the validity of the BCS theory and the positions of neutron and proton drip lines are studied. It is shown that RMF theory has provided a good description of the binding energy,isotope shifts and deformation of nuclei over a large range of Pr isotopes, which are in good agreement with those obtained in the finite-range droplet model.

  15. Rationalising Transgression: A Grounded Theory Explaining how Emergency Department Registered Nurses Rationalise Erroneous Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Flenady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this classic grounded theory study was to unearth the main concern of emergency department (ED registered nurses (RN when they perform respiratory rate observations to generate a substantive theory that explicates how the identified problem is resolved. Analysis of data collected from 79 registered nurses revealed that health sector forced compliance in recording observations meant that ED RNs are more than likely to record a respiratory rate without actually counting respirations. This erroneous behaviour provokes varying degrees of emotional discomfort as the nurses’ actions are often incongruent with their professional values and beliefs. The theory Rationalising Transgression explains how nurses continually resolve this issue by compensating, minimalizing, or trivialising to titrate the level of emotional discomfort associated with erroneous behaviour, consequently facilitating the rationalisation of transgression.

  16. Reading Fluency Techniques from the Bottom-up: A Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In many EFL contexts, including language education milieu in Iran, reading fluency is usually taken for granted since language education in public high schools mainly focuses on reading comprehension. Taking the detrimental effect of fluency deficiency into account, some practitioners foreground reading fluency and try to develop it early on. To give voice to their theories of practice, this qualitative study interviewed teachers who were willing to share their experience with the researchers. In line with grounded theory, the iterative process of data collection and analysis continued until the conceptualization of fluency development techniques was saturated. The techniques emerged are conducive to fluency development and as such the findings have clear implications for practitioners and policy makers nation-wide. Keywords: reading theory, reading fluency, reading techniques

  17. Collective Inclusioning: A Grounded Theory of a Bottom-Up Approach to Innovation and Leading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lysek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a grounded theory study of how leaders (e.g., entrepreneurs, managers, etc. engage people in challenging undertakings (e.g., innovation that require everyone’s commitment to such a degree that they would have to go beyond what could be reasonably expected in order to succeed. Company leaders sometimes wonder why their employees no longer show the same responsibility towards their work, and why they are more concerned with internal politics than solving customer problems. It is because company leaders no longer apply collective inclusioning to the same extent as they did in the past. Collective inclusioning can be applied in four ways by convincing, afinitizing, goal congruencing, and engaging. It can lead to fostering strong units of people for taking on challenging undertakings. Collective inclusioning is a complementing theory to other strategic management and leading theories. It offers a new perspective on how to implement a bottom-up approach to innovation.

  18. Ground-Water Capture Zone Delineation of Hypothetical Systems: Methodology Comparison and Real-World Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, J. A.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2003-12-01

    A capture zone is the aquifer volume through which ground-water flows to a pumping well over a given time of travel. Determining a well's capture zone aids in water-supply management by creating an awareness of the water source. This helps ensure sustainable pumping operations and outlines areas where protection from contamination is critical. We are delineating the capture zones of hypothetical conceptual models that resemble the Fairbanks, Alaska floodplain both in aquifer parameters and boundary conditions. We begin with a very simple hydrogeologic system and gradually add complexity such as heterogeneity, anisotropy, multiple wells, and zones of permafrost. Commonly-used delineation methods are applied to each case. These include calculated fixed-radius, analytical and numerical models. The calculated fixed-radius method uses a mathematical equation with several simplifying assumptions. Analytical techniques employ a series of equations that likewise assume simple conditions, although to a lesser degree than the fixed-radius method. Our chosen numerical model is MODFLOW-2000, which offers a particle-tracking package (MODPATH) for delineating recharge areas. The delineations are overlayed for each conceptual model in order to compare the capture zones produced by the different methods. Contrasts between capture zones increase with the complexity of the hydrogeology. Simpler methods are restricted by their underlying assumptions. When methods can no longer account for complexities in the conceptual model, the resulting delineations remain similar to those of simpler models. Meanwhile, the zones generated by more sophisticated methods are able to change with changes to the conceptual model. Hence, the simpler methods now lack accuracy and credibility. We have found that these simpler techniques tend to overestimate the capture zone. Water-supply managers must consider such inaccuracies when evaluating the costs of each method. In addition to comparing delineation

  19. Theory, methodology and practice – Cesare Brandi and wall painting restoration in Denmark in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents connections between theory and practice in the aesthetic treatment of wall painting in Denmark, with an emphasis on the assimilation (or lack of) of Brandi's theories. In the 1930s a unique, but short-lived retouching methodology was developed in Denmark that shared a common t...

  20. Grounded Theory as a Methodology to Design Teaching Strategies for Historically Informed Musical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Moreno, Daniel; Alcaraz-Iborra, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Our work highlights the necessity of revising the materials employed in instrumental education, which are systematically based on a progressive development of technical abilities and, though only transversely, without a structured sequence of contents, on issues referring to the interpretation of different periods and styles. In order to elaborate…

  1. Comparison of the Operational Characteristics of the Theory of Constraints and Just-In-Time Scheduling Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    performance of production systems which utilize Just-in-’ime (JIT) and Theory of Constraints (TOC) scheduling methodologies. Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt ...with the intent of JIT (Schonberger, 1982:31-32). Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt has said that the system variability problems associated with JIT can be...the theories and practices that comprise TOC ( Goldratt and Cox, 1986:266- 272). TOC is based on the theory of Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt which builds on the

  2. A grounded theory: seeking relief from flatus as relevant client-nurse action and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annells, Merilyn

    2007-01-01

    Flatus problems are not uncommon among gastroenterological clients and those in other care settings. Yet what clients and nurses do productively about those problems in regard to their actions and interactions and why they do so has not previously been the focus of research. Holistic health management requires trustworthy qualitative evidence to guide best practice in this regard. This study systematically developed a substantive grounded theory that details and explains the trajectory of the basic social process: seeking relief from being discommoded (inconvenienced, troubled) by flatus in the situational context of client-nurse interactions. In the theory, there is also a focus on the context of nursing care situations, possible constraints, and likely outcomes. Grounded theory method was applied. Data were collected through semistructured individual interviews, nonparticipant observation, and document analysis regarding incidents and situations involving 38 participants-clients and registered nurses. The results show that clients, when trying to do something about the situation, can be severely discommoded by flatus problems and are hampered by embarrassment and the social taboo about admitting that one is bothered by flatus. The individual may or may not disclose the problem to a nurse, and nurses may or may not be attuned to these problems. There are ways for nurses to be helpful in these situations and possible remedies are identified in this article.

  3. Studying the learning of programming using grounded theory to support activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Alsop

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching programming to first year undergraduates in large numbers is challenging. Currently, online supported learning is becoming more dominant, even on face-to-face courses, and this trend will increase in the future. This paper uses activity theory (AT to analyse the use of tools to support learning. Data collection took place during 2008-2010 at Kingston University and involves over one hundred responses. This has been analysed into activity systems offering a detailed analysis of the use of a number of tools being used (in AT these include physical tools, such as technologies including books, and non-physical tools, such as conversation. When teaching programming to large numbers of students it is difficult to offer one-to-one attention and the reliance on such tools becomes more important. For example, in student responses a good integrated development environment (IDE is shown to make learning easier and more enjoyable, whereas a bad IDE makes the learning experience poor. Teaching materials, and access to these, were often mentioned positively. These included online communication, discussion boards and video lectures. Using AT offers sufficiently rich detail to identify key interventions and aids the redesign of the learning process. For example, the choice of an IDE for a specific language can have a larger impact than is initially apparent. This paper will report on the data collected to show where simple improvements to the use of tools may have a large impact on students' abilities to learn programming.

  4. Sifting, sorting and saturating data in a grounded theory study of information use by practice nurses: a worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Karen J; Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen

    2012-12-01

    The terminology used to analyse data in a grounded theory study can be confusing. Different grounded theorists use a variety of terms which all have similar meanings. In the following study, we use terms adopted by Charmaz including: initial, focused and axial coding. Initial codes are used to analyse data with an emphasis on identifying gerunds, a verb acting as a noun. If initial codes are relevant to the developing theory, they are grouped with similar codes into categories. Categories become saturated when there are no new codes identified in the data. Axial codes are used to link categories together into a grounded theory process. Memo writing accompanies this data sifting and sorting. The following article explains how one initial code became a category providing a worked example of the grounded theory method of constant comparative analysis. The interplay between coding and categorization is facilitated by the constant comparative method.

  5. Accurate Ground-State Energies of Solids and Molecules from Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that ground-state energies approaching chemical accuracy can be obtained by combining the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with time-dependent densityfunctional theory. The key ingredient is a renormalization scheme, which eliminates the divergence...

  6. "The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money" J. M. Keynes: Background, Methodology and Specific Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper was prepared for the 80-th anniversary of publishing of John Maynard Keynes’ “General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money”. It discusses the stages of the economist’s life, the main books written prior to "The General Theory ...". Particular attention is devoted to the development issues of the monetary policy in the works of "Indian Currency and Finance", ”A Tract on Monetary Reform” and "A Treatise on Money". A special section is dedicated to the analysis of Keynes’ methodology, its logic and structure, influenced by John. E. Moore. The paper reveals the unity and the difference in approaches of A. Marshall and John M. Keynes, and explores new categories of behavioral economics and marginal analysis, which established the success of "General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money", shows the value of Keynes's theory for the further development of macroeconomics. Particular attention is paid to the popularization of Keynes's ideas from the initial interpretations of "The General Theory ..." to the neoclassical synthesis and further to neo-Keynesianism and post-Keynesianism. The paper studies the unity and the distinction between Hicks’ and American Keynesianism. Hicksian assumptions of a savings-investment function have determined the features of the IS-LM model. The contributions to the development of Keynesianism A. Hansen and P. A. Samuelson are also shown, as well as the history of the "Keynesian Cross". A comparative analysis of the neoclassical and Keynesian models of general economic equilibrium is given and analyzes the institutional reasons explaining differences between neoclassical and Keynesian paradigms. A special section is devoted to the Keynesian theory of growth, showing unity and difference of R. Harrod and E. Domar models, along with their impact on the creation of Development Economics. Simplified understanding of Keynes's legacy has caused the emergence of unorthodox Keynesianism. The paper

  7. Conceptual Tenets of the Theory of Hydration of Heterogeneous Surface with Polar Order of Disperse Ground Layers of Sedimentary Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara G. Makeeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the established regularity defines the basic tenets of the theory of hydration of heterogeneous surface with polar order of disperse ground layers of sedimentary genesis. It offers classification and formula for the associated water density, valid corrections for the associated water density, calculates the water film thickness in disperse ground, develops the reliable physicochemical model of the disperse ground, determines the range of applicability of the existing laboratory and field methods.

  8. [The system theory of aging: methodological principles, basic tenets and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krut'ko, V N; Dontsov, V I; Zakhar'iashcheva, O V

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the system theory of aging constructed on the basis of present-day scientific methodology--the system approach. The fundamental cause for aging is discrete existence of individual life forms, i.e. living organisms which, from the thermodynamic point of view, are not completely open systems. The primary aging process (build-up of chaos and system disintegration of aging organism) obeys the second law of thermodynamics or the law of entropy increase in individual partly open systems. In living organisms the law is exhibited as synergy of four main aging mechanisms: system "pollution" of organism, loss of non-regenerative elements, accumulation of damages and deformations, generation of variability on all levels, and negative changes in regulation processes and consequent degradation of the organism systematic character. These are the general aging mechanisms; however, the regulatory mechanisms may be important equally for organism aging and search for ways to prolong active life.

  9. Teaching Theory of Science and Research Methodology to Nursing Students: A Practice-Developing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievert, Anne; Chaiklin, Seth

    2007-01-01

    , in a principled way, to select subject-matter content for a course for nursing students on theory of science and research methodology. At the same time, the practical organisation of the project was motivated by a practice-developing research perspective. The purpose of the presentation is to illustrate how...... in organising the project (e.g., attention to the motives of the participants, tasks that serve to develop consciousness about general needs, general structure that reflects the whole of the practice – both for teachers and students), together with a discussion of the main characteristics of how the project...... achieved. This specific problem reflects a more general problem for the cultural-historical tradition, namely, how to work with a focus on practice and change of practice from a theoretical perspective....

  10. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2017-08-01

    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Considerations in Grounded Theory Research Method: A reflection on the lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Mavetera, Nehemiah; Kroeze, Jan H

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a discussion on the practical issues faced by Information Systems (IS) professionals when they employ Grounded Theory Method (GTM) in Information Systems research. Various strands of GTM are in use, all of which are derivatives of the grand GTM proposed by Barney G. Glaser and Anselm G. Strauss in 1967. Starting with the dicta proposed by these two authors in 1967 on the use of GTM, the paper explores several variants of the method that have surfaced and are currently in use....

  12. Marx’s Ground Rent Theory and Innovation of China’s Urban Land System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiefang; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    China’s traditional urban land system is established in highly centralized planned economy. This system negates functions of value law and economic law fundamentally,so it is not favorable for establishment of market mechanism and development of market economy. This study took Marx’s ground rent theory as guidance,combined existing problems of China’s land use system,and made analysis on innovation of China’s urban land system from property right system,land market and land price.

  13. Phenomenography and grounded theory as research methods in computing education research field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Päivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and analysis phases and the type of resulting outcomes of these methods. We also discuss the challenges and threats the both methods may pose to the researcher. We conclude that while aimed at tackling different types of research questions, both of these methods provide computing education researchers a useful tool in their research method toolbox.

  14. Symmetry breaking in noncommutative finite temperature λphi4 theory with a nonuniform ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J. M.; Ramírez, C.; Sánchez, M.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the CJT effective action at finite temperature for a noncommutative real scalar field theory, with noncommutativity among space and time variables. We study the solutions of a stripe type nonuniform background, which depends on space and time. The analysis in the first approximation shows that such solutions appear in the planar limit, but also under normal anisotropic noncommutativity. Further we show that the transition from the uniform ordered phase to the non uniform one is first order and that the critical temperature depends on the nonuniformity of the ground state.

  15. Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household's Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rezaei, Mahboubeh

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household's health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women's personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions.

  16. Philosophical and methodological crisis of excessive complexity of contemporary mathematical theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailova N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the analysis and identification of new philosophical aspects of the problem of justification of modern mathematics according to which to the end of the 20th century the most exact of sciences had experienced new shocks associated with the crisis of excessive complexity of the mathematical theories. In the context of justification of mathematics philosophical conclusion consists in the fact that from a methodological point of view for general assessment of whether mathematics is developed or not just the lack of crises is more negative phenomenon than its too long trouble-free state. Accomplished fact is that a computer can be regarded as one of the serious revolutionary technological inventions of the last century, which has had a huge influence on mathematics. In this development of progress of contemporary mathematics, more precisely, in its instrumental technologies the new philosophical problems are revealed - this is the role of computers and the new standards of mathematical thinking. In addition, with the development of contemporary mathematics and the emergence of increasingly complicated and long proofs, they lose their methodological advantage - the property of visibility and convincingness. Within the philosophy of mathematics this problem has not been discussed yet, possibly because the leading mathematicians haven’t expressed their opinions on the subject. After that, we can wait for a methodologically important period clarifying details, which can make the process itself foundations of mathematics philosophical consummation as the crisis complexity; in mathematics it is not a “systemic crisis” carrying the potential danger of the destruction of all mathematical knowledge.

  17. Husserl's theory of wholes and parts and the methodology of nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gary S; Cobb-Stevens, Richard

    2004-10-01

    Whenever the name Edmund Husserl appears in the context of nursing research, what correctly comes to mind is the phenomenological approach to qualitative methodology. Husserl is not only considered the founder of phenomenology, but his broad concept development also contributed to the demise of positivism and inspired fruitful approaches to the social sciences. In this spirit of inspiration, it must be expressed that Husserl's theory of wholes and parts, and particularly his differentiation of parts into "pieces" and "moments", is very helpful in guiding the selection of research methods across the board in nursing science. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a frame of reference for nursing researchers to use in examining the essential nature of that which is being studied. This frame of reference is the Husserlian philosophy of "pieces" and "moments" in relation to the whole. "Pieces" are independent parts of the whole that are subject to isolability in study, whereas "moments" are nonindependent parts, which cannot be detached, presented, or studied apart from the whole. The intent is to propose this frame of reference as a philosophical base from which nursing researchers may better select among paradigms and methodological approaches in regard to the essential nature ("pieces" or "moments") of that which they are researching.

  18. The SIMRAND methodology: Theory and application for the simulation of research and development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A research and development (R&D) project often involves a number of decisions that must be made concerning which subset of systems or tasks are to be undertaken to achieve the goal of the R&D project. To help in this decision making, SIMRAND (SIMulation of Research ANd Development Projects) is a methodology for the selection of the optimal subset of systems or tasks to be undertaken on an R&D project. Using alternative networks, the SIMRAND methodology models the alternative subsets of systems or tasks under consideration. Each path through an alternative network represents one way of satisfying the project goals. Equations are developed that relate the system or task variables to the measure of reference. Uncertainty is incorporated by treating the variables of the equations probabilistically as random variables, with cumulative distribution functions assessed by technical experts. Analytical techniques of probability theory are used to reduce the complexity of the alternative networks. Cardinal utility functions over the measure of preference are assessed for the decision makers. A run of the SIMRAND Computer I Program combines, in a Monte Carlo simulation model, the network structure, the equations, the cumulative distribution functions, and the utility functions.

  19. Triangulation for the assessment of clinical nursing skills: a review of theory, use and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, Diane

    2010-03-01

    To review the use and usefulness of the methodological strategy of triangulation in the assessment of skill in nursing curricula. Systematic search of the literature relevant to the definition and assessment of skill, reliability and validity of assessment methods and triangulation of assessment strategies. One hundred and twenty papers from nursing, medical, educational and social scientific databases, relevant websites and relevant books were reviewed. Forty papers were included based on their relevance to the theory and methodology of clinical skills assessment of health care professionals, particularly nurses. Papers concerning vocational skills assessment and the assessment of skill in school children were excluded. There is a current imperative within the field of health care professional education to assess clinical skills and to quantify this assessment. However, clinical skill, as it relates to cognition, is poorly defined concept and may be viewed as a quality of the practitioner and, as such, is difficult to quantify. Very many methods of assessing clinical skill have been documented and there are inherent issues in ensuring both reliability and validity of these assessment strategies for clinical skill. This has led commentators to suggest that the process of triangulation should be employed. The paper fundamentally questions whether the concept of triangulation can be applied to skills assessment without dependable measures of reliability and validity of the tools of assessment and concludes that the process of applying multiple modes of assessment should not be confused with the process of triangulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatsikos, Georgia; Miles, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand how parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse, including prevention as well as early intervention and detection strategies. Using a social constructivist theoretical foundation and grounded theory methods, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with Australian parents between 2006 and 2008. Based on the data, a balance theory was developed, which explains how parents attempt to balance the type of information given to children in order to protect their children from sexual abuse without scaring them as well as how parents manage sexual boundary crossing incidents experienced by their children in the context of complex social relationships. Implications for prevention programs as well as reporting of child sexual abuse are discussed.

  1. Nursing communication in nursing care to mastectomized women: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Araújo, Iliana Maria; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Bonfim, Isabela Melo; Fernandes, Ana Fátima Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to understand the nurse/patient communication process, emphasizing nursing care to mastectomized women. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory were used to interview eight nurses from a referral institution in cancer treatment, using the guiding question: how do nurses perceive their communication process with mastectomized women? Data analysis allowed for the creation of a central theory: the meaning of communication in nursing care to women, constituted by three distinct but inter-related phenomena: perceiving communication, the relationship nurse/mastectomized woman and rethinking the communication nurse/mastectomized woman. With a view to satisfactory communication, professionals need to get involved and believe that their presence is as important as the performance of technical procedures that relieve situations of stress.

  2. Grounded Theory sebagai Metode Riset “Realitas Tertambah” di Museum Fatahillah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Widya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is part of the science of visual communication design/graphic design through theaddition of images on the real world with virtual information to enhance one’s senses with the help of “smart glasses”with three general characteristics: 1. The combination of real environment with virtual objects, 2. Interactivedisplay, 3. Display in 3D. Qualitative research methods and grounded theory approach in the real environmentin the area of Jakarta Fatahillah museum, discovered a new theory as a basis the idea that Visual PrototypingAugmented Reality technique with image manipulation-image nuanced Kota Tua as Jakarta Icon. The idea ofexploiting foreign tourists enriching way to learn more about Indonesia through social networking in a virtual worldstrategies to increase tourism.

  3. Pushing For Privileged Passage: A grounded theory of guardians to middle level mathematics students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This grounded theory research identified conflict over decisions about placement into high ability mathematics classes. A theory termed pushing for privileged passage emerged from data collected from parents and educators in the Northwest United States as well as international literature. Pushing occurs following a break down of trust among parents and/or educators over various facets of the school and over student abilitygrouping decisions in mathematics specifically. Subsequently they try to circumvent the system to gain advantaged placement for specific students. Those who push use investing strategies to insure a child’s future success. They use pressuring techniques on decision-makers to garner advanced mathematics access. Finally, those who push use strategic lobbying for program changes.

  4. Decision-making processes for the self-management of persistent pain: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Clare; Chaboyer, Wendy; St John, Winsome

    2012-08-01

    Persistent pain negatively impacts upon the individual suffering this condition. Almost all care related to persistent pain is self-managed. Decision-making is a critical skill of the self-manager and without these skills it would be improbable that effective self-management would emerge. However, current theories regarding decision-making and self-management have not adequately accounted for the many difficulties faced by individuals enduring persistent pain and the consequences of these experiences for the decision-maker. This grounded theory study revealed that individuals will transform into three distinct types of decision-makers using three different styles of decision-making in response to the many and varied problems related to the experience of persistent pain. These findings will provide nurses with valuable information to better equip individuals with persistent pain through the decision-making processes necessary for successful self-management.

  5. Normalization of Neglect: A Grounded Theory of RNs' Experiences as Family Caregivers of Hospitalized Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Tarnia; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Taipale, Priscilla

    2016-06-01

    Often older people, while maintaining a level of independence, rely on family members to provide care and assistance. Caregivers who are also registered nurses (RNs) may provide a different perspective around the experience when their older relative is admitted to acute care. The aim of our research was to investigate and develop theory regarding nursing care provision as described by RNs, who were family caregivers to older adults, when that older adult was admitted to acute care. Over a six-month period in 2011, RNs meeting this criterion (n = 12) were interviewed individually. We identified two central categories: "Culture of Neglect" and "Vigil by the Bedside". The core category "Normalization of Neglect" was identified as the theory, grounded in the data the participants provided which described a culture of neglect that had normalized poor nursing care. These findings highlight the issue of neglect and abuse, and further investigation is warranted.

  6. The Rediscovery and Resurrection of Bunk Johnson – a Grounded Theory Approach: A case study in jazz historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ekins, Ph.D., FRSA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written in the beginning phase of my transitioning from grounded theory sociologist (Ekins, 19971 to grounded theory musicologist (Ekins, 20102. In particular, it provides preliminary data for a grounded theory of ‘managing authenticity’, the core category/basic social process (Glaser, 1978 that has emerged from my ongoing grounded theory work in jazz historiography. It was written whilst I was ‘credentialising’ (Glaser, 2010 my transition to popular music studies and popular musicology. In consequence, it incorporates many aspects that are inimical to classic grounded theory. As with so much of Straussian and so-called constructivist grounded theory (Bryant and Charmaz, 2007, it roots itself in G.H. Mead and a social constructivist symbolic interactionism – inter alia, a legitimising (authenticating strategy. Moreover, as is typical of this mode of conceptualising, the paper fills the void of inadequate classic grounded theorising with less conceptual theorising and more conceptual description. Nevertheless, the article does introduce a number of categories that ‘fit and work’, and have ‘conceptual grab’ (Glaser, 1978; Glaser, 1992. In particular, in terms of my own continuing credentialising as a classic grounded theorist, it sets forth important categories to be integrated into my ongoing work on managing authenticity in New Orleans revivalist jazz, namely, ‘trailblazing’, ‘mythologizing’, ‘debunking’, and ‘marginalising’, in the context of the ‘rediscovering’ and ‘resurrecting’ of a jazz pioneer. More specifically, the paper is offered to classic grounded theorists as a contribution to preliminary generic social process analysis in the substantive area of jazz historiography.

  7. Spectral fine structure of the atomic ground states based on full relativistic theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghe Zhu; Yongjian Tang

    2011-01-01

    @@ We focus on the full relativistic quantum mechanical calculations from boron to fluorine atoms with electronic configuration of 1s22s22pn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), where 1s22s2 is the closed shell and 2pn is the open shell. Their active electrons in the open shell occupy all the six spinors as far as possible.Therefore, we suggest a new rule called "maximum probability" for the full symmetry group relativistic theory. Furthermore, the spectral fine structure of the atomic ground states based on the full relativistic theory and their intervals of L-S splitting are all reasonable. It is impossible to calculate the L-S splitting through non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The relativistic effect of atomic mass is increased significantly by about 12 folds from boron atom to fluorine atom.%We focus on the full relativistic quantum mechanical calculations from boron to fluorine atoms with electronic configuration of 1s22s22pn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), where 1s22s2 is the closed shell and 2pn is the open shell. Their active electrons in the open shell occupy all the six spinors as far as possible.Therefore, we suggest a new rule called "maximum probability" for the full symmetry group relativistic theory. Furthermore, the spectral fine structure of the atomic ground states based on the full relativistic theory and their intervals of L-S splitting are all reasonable. It is impossible to calculate the L-S splitting through non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The relativistic effect of atomic mass is increased significantly by about 12 folds from boron atom to fluorine atom.

  8. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  9. Spectral Analyses and Radiation Exposures from Several Ground-Level Enhancement (GLE) Solar Proton Events: A Comparison of Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan; Dietrich, William; Badavi, Francis; Rojdev, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Several methods for analyzing the particle spectra from extremely large solar proton events, called Ground-Level Enhancements (GLEs), have been developed and utilized by the scientific community to describe the solar proton energy spectra and have been further applied to ascertain the radiation exposures to humans and radio-sensitive systems, namely electronics. In this paper 12 GLEs dating back to 1956 are discussed, and the three methods for describing the solar proton energy spectra are reviewed. The three spectral fitting methodologies are EXP [an exponential in proton rigidity (R)], WEIB [Weibull fit: an exponential in proton energy], and the Band function (BAND) [a double power law in proton rigidity]. The EXP and WEIB methods use low energy (MeV) GLE solar proton data and make extrapolations out to approx.1 GeV. On the other hand, the BAND method utilizes low- and medium-energy satellite solar proton data combined with high-energy solar proton data deduced from high-latitude neutron monitoring stations. Thus, the BAND method completely describes the entire proton energy spectrum based on actual solar proton observations out to 10 GeV. Using the differential spectra produced from each of the 12 selected GLEs for each of the three methods, radiation exposures are presented and discussed in detail. These radiation exposures are then compared with the current 30-day and annual crew exposure limits and the radiation effects to electronics.

  10. Theory of social organisations as the methodological basis of economic management of an enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligonenko Larysa O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the author’s interpretation of the “economic management of an enterprise” notion, which is offered to be considered as an integrating and co-ordinating type of management, the main goal of which is ensuring long-term viability of an enterprise. The article considers genesis of organisational theories with respect to necessity, principles, rules, recommendations and procedures of managerial activity. It justifies expediency of formation of the methodological base of economic management of an enterprise on the basis of use of the problem theory of social organisations of V. I. Franchuk. The article describes the author’s concept of the essential characteristics and the process of organisation of economic management of an enterprise. It justifies a necessity of replenishment of classical management functions with three new functions: problem management, development and economic security (risk tolerance. It characterises principles and organisation of functioning of the “social mechanism”, which should be envisaged in the system of economic management of an enterprise.

  11. Surviving a critical illness through mutually being there with each other: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vico C L

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to conduct a theoretical analysis of the critically ill patients' perceptions of the impact of informal support and care from their main family carer (MFC) during the time of their stay in the hospital (ICU) and thereafter (and vice versa). RESEARCH DESIGN AND SETTING: The grounded theory method was used to investigate the target phenomenon in the ICU of a large general hospital, and three months later in the community after the patients were discharged. Qualitative data were collected through participant observation and interviews for constant comparative analysis until theoretical saturation. A substantive theory emerged and it illustrated and described the dynamic actions and interactions between critically ill patients and their MFC during the process of recovery. Three categories, 1) being there with, 2) coping and 3) self-relying, comprise the essential components of this theory. The theory represents the core process of 'surviving a critical illness through mutually being there with each other' in which both the patients and their MFC are involved. Implications and recommendations were proposed to provide a basis for further research and nursing practice on the phenomenon of informal support and care of critically ill patients and their recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MODELING AND STRUCTURING OF ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM RESORT SPHERE BASED ON ELEMENTS OF NEURAL NETWORK THEORY: THE METHODOLOGICAL BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena R. Timirualeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methodology of modeling andstructuring of business networks theory. Accounting ofenvironmental factors mega-, macro- and mesolevels, theinternal state of the managed system and the error management command execution by control system implemented inthis. The proposed methodology can improve the quality of enterprise management of resort complex through a moreflexible response to changes in the parameters of the internaland external environments.

  13. CTE Teachers' Perspectives on the Process of CTE and Science Content Integration: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Matthew Kenneth

    The integration of career and technical education (CTE) and academic curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for CTE professionals. The research question that was used to guide the current study was: What are CTE teachers' perspectives of and experiences with the process of CTE and science content integration? And more specifically, to generate a grounded theory which explicates the process of CTE and science content integration from the perspective of CTE teachers. The CTE teachers expressed that the process of CTE and science content integration was a process of evolutionizing. From the perspective of the CTE teachers involved integrating CTE and science content resulted in their programs of study being adapted into something different than they were before the process of integration was begun. The CTE teachers revealed that the evolutions in their programs of study and themselves were associated with three other categories within the grounded theory: (a) connecting; (b) enacting; and (c) futuring. The process of CTE and science content integration represents a deep and complex episode for CTE teachers. The process of CTE and science content integration requires connecting to others, putting ideas into action, and an orienting towards the future.

  14. Women's self-management of chronic illnesses in the context of caregiving: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marcos, Mercedes; De la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Uncover how women self-manage their own chronic illness while taking care of a dependent relative. International policies place special emphasis in promoting interventions addressed to control, prevent and care for people with chronic health conditions. Self-management is a crucial part of this care. Caregivers are more prone to have chronic illness than non-caregivers. They are confronted with dilemmas about taking care of themselves while taking care of their dependent relative and the rest of their families. Caregivers articulate strategies to enable them to focus their energy on caring. Qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory. Thirty-nine women caregivers with a chronic illness participated in the study. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were carried out between April 2010-December 2011. Data were analysed using grounded theory procedures. Self-management helps women caregivers with a chronic illness to balance the demands of their own illness and those of the dependent relative. They self-manage their illness by self-regulating the treatment, by regulating their strength and by controlling their emotions. Women caregivers integrate effectively and creatively the management of their chronic illnesses within the complexities of family care. This renders their health needs invisible and reaffirms them as capable caregivers. Identifying self-management strategies of women caregivers allow health professionals to acknowledge and reinforce effective self-care measures and to deter those that are ineffective and lessen their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. This too shall pass: a grounded theory study of Filipino cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B; Jimenez, Benito Christian B; Jocson, Kathlyn P; Junio, Aileen R; Junio, Drazen E; Jurado, Jasper Benjamin N; Justiniano, Angela Bianca F

    2013-03-01

    Considering the paucity of studies dealing with the holistic aspect of the cancer experience, this grounded theory study seeks to conceptualize the process of cancer survivorship among Filipinos. Twenty-seven Filipino cancer survivors were purposively selected, and a two-part instrument, specifically robotfoto and focus group interviews, was used to gather data. The Glaserian method of grounded theory analysis was used, and extended texts were analyzed inductively via a dendrogram. Member checking and correspondence were observed to validate the surfacing stages, leading to the conceptualization of a theoretical model termed as the Ribbon of Cancer Survivorship. The said model describes the trifling (living before), transfusing (accepting the reality), transforming (being strong), and transcending (living beyond) phases of cancer survivorship. Ten interesting substages were also identified, namely: tainting, desolating, disrupting, and embracing for the transfusing phase; tormenting, distressing, awakening, and transfiguring for the transforming phase, and trembling and enlivening for the transcending phase. The resulting theoretical model has clearly and successfully described the entire process of cancer survivorship among Filipinos. It is hoped that the model be used as a reference for future studies about cancer survivorship and as a guide for nurses in providing a more empathetic care among cancer patients.

  16. ARTICULANDO A ETNOGRAFIA E A GROUNDED THEORY NA PESQUISA DO CONSUMIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Rezende Pinto

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo relatar a experiência de campo de um pesquisador que buscou articular em um mesmo desenho de pesquisa a utilização da grounded theory (em sua vertente construtivista e a etnografia. Para isso, buscou-se dividir o trabalho em três partes distintas. Na primeira parte, foram apresentadas de forma sucinta as duas metodologias de uma maneira ampla, introduzindo alguns dos seus princípios fundamentais. Na segunda parte, foram descritos os principais pontos do trabalho de campo que foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar a forma como os consumidores brasileiros oriundos das classes mais populares vivenciam suas experiências de consumo de produtos eletrônicos. Essa parte do artigo destaca algumas reflexões acerca das exigências práticas para a "operacionalização" de pesquisas comprometidas com "espírito" da etnografia e da grounded theory, explora os pontos de aderência, bem como joga luz sobre algumas questões desafiadoras que ainda exigem uma reflexão maior acerca da conjugação entre as duas metodologias. Por fim, de forma breve, tentou-se esboçar, à guisa de uma conclusão, as possíveis contribuições para a pesquisa do consumidor da articulação entre as metodologias.

  17. The value of grounded theory for disentangling inequalities in maternal-childhealthcare in contexts of diversity: A psycho-sociopolitical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernández Plaza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a psycho-sociopolitical approach, the present paper describes the results of a community-basedparticipatory needs assessment focusing on the perceived needs of women of reproductive age as users ofprimary healthcare in contexts of migration-driven diversity and socioeconomic vulnerability in theMetropolitan Area of Lisbon. The investigation comprised 64 in-depth interviews with women, includingnatives and immigrants to Portugal from the main origin countries in the context under study (Brazil, CapeVerde, and other Portuguese- speaking African countries and a survey of 125 women, again natives andimmigrants from these countries. The central role of qualitative methodology and grounded theory, in theframework of a multi-method research, allowed understanding the needs of women as embedded incontexts characterized by asymmetrical power relations, in terms of unequal opportunities and resources,at multiple interrelated ecological levels (personal, relational, organizational, community, socioeconomic,health system/policy, cultural/migration. The priority perceived needs of women were primarily related tosocioeconomic disadvantage, severely aggravated in the current contexts of crisis; and factors at the healthsystem level, mainly unequal access to family doctors, excessive waiting lists, and increases in the directcosts of healthcare. Results allow questioning the adequacy of cultural competence approaches for thereduction of inequalities in maternal-child healthcare in the context under study, showing the critical andinnovative value of qualitative methodology and grounded theory in research on social justice and healthin contexts of diversity characterized by unequal power dynamics.

  18. The Process of Parents' Decision-Making to Discharge Their Child against Medical Advice (DAMA: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Discharge against medical advice (DAMA refers to the phenomenon that patient or the patient’s surrogate decides to leave the hospital before the attending physician confirms the patient is discharged. Children are much more vulnerable to such discharges. This process occurs with different mechanisms that identifying them can be helpful in reducing this phenomenon. We aimed to explore the process of parents' decision-making to discharge their child against medical advice. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 fathers, 10 mothers, 6 nurses and 3 physician assistants and the data were collected to the point of saturation. Grounded theory methodology was adopted for data collection and analysis. The results of qualitative analysis in the field of the parents' decisionmaking on the DAMA revealed 4 main themes: "lack of family-centered care", "disruption of the parenting process", "distrust to the medical team and center" and "psychological strategy of shirk responsibility for child care and treatment ". By providing family-centered care, adopting measures to empowering the families, developing the trust of parents to the health care team and developing a discharge plan from the beginning of children hospitalization with the cooperation of health care team and parents and considering all factors such as child's special health condition and parent's health related perceptions and beliefs, children will not be discharged against medical advice and will experience better outcomes.

  19. A question of finding harmony: a grounded theory study of clinical psychologists' experience of addressing spiritual beliefs in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Jon P; Salter, Denis P

    2005-09-01

    In spite of the increasing emphasis upon spirituality in the psychological literature, research continues to highlight concerns that issues relating to spirituality are regularly overlooked within a therapeutic setting. The aim of the current study was to develop an account of the way in which clinical psychologists understand and address spirituality within therapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight clinical psychologists. The transcripts were analysed using the qualitative methodology of grounded theory, which also informed the data collection process. Two core categories were developed and termed spirituality as an elusive concept and finding harmony with spiritual beliefs. The diversity of meaning surrounding spirituality and the relative lack of engagement was found to create difficulty for constructing spirituality coherently as a concept. When specifically considering methods for identifying and addressing spiritual beliefs, contrasting approaches were identified. This diversity in understanding and approach has implications for the process and outcome of therapy, which are discussed in detail. Recommendations are suggested for developing spirituality as a more coherent and accessible concept, both within professional dialogue and the therapeutic context.

  20. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511

  1. Towards a Theory and View of Teaching Compressed and Abbreviated Research Methodology and Statistics Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Carifio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the highly questionable effects of educational reform and other curriculum reshaping factors at both the high school, post-secondary and graduate levels has been the shift to teaching compressed, pared-down or abbreviated courses in still needed or required subject-matter that became de-emphasized in the current educational reformation. Research methodology, particularly the highly quantitative and experimental kind and statistics, are two still needed to some degree subject matters that has been especially affected by this demotion and compression movement at the pre-service, in-service, professional development, undergraduate, continuing education and graduate levels, even though the professional areas of education, science, business, politics and most other areas (including history have become far more quantitative and objective research oriented than in the past. Until there are more enlightened policy shifts, effective means of teaching such compressed courses need to be devised and tested, if only to lessen the negative outcomes of such critical courses. This article, therefore, analyzes compressed courses from the point of view of cognitive learning and then describes 5 methods and approaches that were tested to improve the effectiveness of research methodology and statistics courses taught in these formats. Each of the formats helped to reduce student stress and anxiety about the content and its compressed presentation and improved understanding and achievement. The theory and view developed in this article is also applicable to similar compressed courses for scientific and/or technical content which are currently prevalent in allied health and biotechnology areas.

  2. Reconciling professional identity: A grounded theory of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L

    2017-09-05

    Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Therapeutic Nursing in Neurological (Early-)Rehabilitation: A Grounded Theory Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschläger, S

    2015-08-01

    What is therapeutic nursing? This question is gaining relevance in the context of the billing of services in the DRG system (DRG=Diagnosis-Related Groups), because in paragraph 8-552 of the operations and procedures coding system (OPS), it is explicitly stated that therapeutic care must be carried out by specially trained personnel. To date, empirical results on therapeutic nursing in neurological early rehabilitation are sparse. The objective of the study is to develop a theory of therapeutic care in neurological early rehabilitation. The study is based on the method of grounded theory. Open participatory observations (n=92) and episodic interviews (n=10) with nursing professionals and nursing auxiliaries were conducted in 5 inpatient rehabilitation clinics. The theory of therapeutic nursing includes 6 categories: (1) nursing care, (2) observation/perception, (3) communication, (4) autonomy and individual needs of patients and their relatives, (5) multi-professional team and (6) prerequisites. The results indicate which aspects are included in therapeutic nursing and the necessary prerequisites for delivering therapeutic nursing. Against this background, continuing education programs reveal conspicuous gaps in the area of knowledge transfer and application in practice. The results of the study should be taken into consideration and integrated in nursing education, both at the basic level and in continuing education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxegård, Gustaf; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development. PMID:27609793

  5. Occupational therapy students in the process of interprofessional collaborative learning: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.

  6. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Waxegård

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods: Using classic grounded theory (Glaser, we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results: The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions: The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development.

  7. Seniors’ self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration – A grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Källstrand Eriksson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling. Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving, adapting (by finding new ways, and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  8. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths.

  9. Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  10. Brain-grounded theory of temporal and spatial design in architecture and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    In this book, brain-grounded theory of temporal and spatial design in architecture and the environment is discussed. The author believes that it is a key to solving such global problems as environmental disorders and severe climate change as well as conflicts that are caused by the ill-conceived notion of “time is money”. There are three phases or aspects of a person’s life: the physical life, the spiritual or mental life, and the third stage of life, when a person moves from middle age into old age and can choose what he or she wishes to do instead of simply what must be done. This book describes the temporal design of the environment based on the theory of subjective preference, which could make it possible for an individual to realize a healthy life in all three phases. In his previously published work, the present author wrote that the theory of subjective preference has been established for the sound and visual fields based on neural evidence, and that subjective preference is an overall response o...

  11. Societal marketing concept and spirituality in the workplace theory: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Ferreira Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that there exist many theoretical linkages between the societal marketing concept (SMC and spirituality in the workplace (SWP theory. Thus, it is reviewed the literature of both SMC and the emerging field of SWP theory in order to find unexplored commonalities between them. As a result, it acknowledges that SMC broached a new perspective in marketing discipline regarding that it added sizeable social and ethical responsibility to the marketer's role. Most importantly, it posits that the common ground between SMC and SWP theory is, in large measure, the moral reasoning. Overall, this study expands McKee's work (2003 on theoretical intersections between marketing and the spirituality philosophy or paradigm. Rather, it proposes that there is a clear evidence of theoretical overlapping in some constructs, namely, employees, work, workplace, quality of life, ethics, corporate citizenship, and social responsibility. In addition, it is also proposed that SMC-driven organizations are poised to embrace an overall spiritual orientation - whether they have not already done it.

  12. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastjerdi Mahdieh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains

  13. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  14. Mechanisms which help explain implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care facilities: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso, Malcolm; McCarthy, Grace; Kitson, Alison

    2014-07-01

    The context for the study was a nation-wide programme in Australia to implement evidence-based practice in residential aged care, in nine areas of practice, using a wide range of implementation strategies and involving 108 facilities. The study drew on the experiences of those involved in the programme to answer the question: what mechanisms influence the implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care and how do those mechanisms interact? The methodology used grounded theory from a critical realist perspective, informed by a conceptual framework that differentiates between the context, process and content of change. People were purposively sampled and invited to participate in semi-structured interviews, resulting in 44 interviews involving 51 people during 2009 and 2010. Participants had direct experience of implementation in 87 facilities, across nine areas of practice, in diverse locations. Sampling continued until data saturation was reached. The quality of the research was assessed using four criteria for judging trustworthiness: credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Data analysis resulted in the identification of four mechanisms that accounted for what took place and participants' experiences. The core category that provided the greatest understanding of the data was the mechanism On Common Ground, comprising several constructs that formed a 'common ground' for change to occur. The mechanism Learning by Connecting recognised the ability to connect new knowledge with existing practice and knowledge, and make connections between actions and outcomes. Reconciling Competing Priorities was an ongoing mechanism whereby new practices had to compete with an existing set of constantly shifting priorities. Strategies for reconciling priorities ranged from structured approaches such as care planning to more informal arrangements such as conversations during daily work. The mechanism Exercising Agency bridged the gap between

  15. Integrating Social Activity Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multilayered Methodological Model for Examining Knowledge Mediation in Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Ayelet; Orland-Barak, Lily

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests an integrative qualitative methodological framework for capturing complexity in mentoring activity. Specifically, the model examines how historical developments of a discipline direct mentors' mediation of professional knowledge through the language that they use. The model integrates social activity theory and a framework of…

  16. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  17. Managing uncertainty: a grounded theory of stigma in transgender health care encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; German, Danielle; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was taken to this study of stigma in health care interactions. Between January and July 2011, fifty-five transgender people and twelve medical providers participated in one-time in-depth interviews about stigma, discrimination, and health care interactions between providers and transgender patients. Due to the social and institutional stigma against transgender people, their care is excluded from medical training. Therefore, providers approach medical encounters with transgender patients with ambivalence and uncertainty. Transgender people anticipate that providers will not know how to meet their needs. This uncertainty and ambivalence in the medical encounter upsets the normal balance of power in provider-patient relationships. Interpersonal stigma functions to reinforce the power and authority of the medical provider during these interactions. Functional theories of stigma posit that we hold stigmatizing attitudes because they serve specific psychological functions. However, these theories ignore how hierarchies of power in social relationships serve to maintain and reinforce inequalities. The findings of this study suggest that interpersonal stigma also functions to reinforce medical power and authority in the face of provider uncertainty. Within functional theories of stigma, it is important to acknowledge the role of power and to understand how stigmatizing attitudes function to maintain

  18. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough

    2012-03-01

    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age.

  19. Music Therapists’ Conceptualization of Clients’ Experience of Healing: Grounded Theory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Hwang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the meaning, distinctive features, and process of therapists’ perception of their clients’ experience related to healing in music therapy. Twenty Korean music therapists who work with a variety of clients were recruited to participate through purposive sampling. Corbin and Strauss’s (2008 grounded theory qualitative analysis method was used. Ten categories and nineteen subcategories were obtained. The central phenomenon was active participation in music therapy, which was influenced by client’s readiness. Clients’ experiences lead to healing through awareness of inner self, expression of emotions, and solving problems. These changes were related to the therapists’ interventions, professionalism and qualifications, and their use of music. It was concluded that the clients experienced four types of healing in their music therapy sessions: physical, emotional, social, and transformative.

  20. Developing a Taxonomy of Dark Triad Triggers at Work – A Grounded Theory Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nübold, Annika; Bader, Josef; Bozin, Nera; Depala, Romil; Eidast, Helena; Johannessen, Elisabeth A.; Prinz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In past years, research and corporate scandals have evidenced the destructive effects of the dark triad at work, consisting of narcissism (extreme self-centeredness), psychopathy (lack of empathy and remorse) and Machiavellianism (a sense of duplicity and manipulativeness). The dark triad dimensions have typically been conceptualized as stable personality traits, ignoring the accumulating evidence that momentary personality expressions – personality states – may change due to the characteristics of the situation. The present research protocol describes a qualitative study that aims to identify triggers of dark triad states at work by following a grounded theory approach using semi-structured interviews. By building a comprehensive categorization of dark triad triggers at work scholars may study these triggers in a parsimonious and structured way and organizations may derive more effective interventions to buffer or prevent the detrimental effects of dark personality at work. PMID:28326048

  1. Ground State Properties of Ds Isotopes Within the Relativistic Mean Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海飞; 张鸿飞; 李君清

    2012-01-01

    The ground state properties of Ds (Z=110) isotopes (N=151-195) are studied in the framework of the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with the effective interaction NL-Z2.The pairing correlation is treated within the conventional BCS approximation.The calculated binding energies are consistent with the results from finite-range droplet model (FRDM) and Macroscopic-microscopic method (MMM).The quadrupole deformation,α-decay energy,α-decay half-live,charge radius,two-neutron separation energy and single-particle spectra are analyzed for Ds isotopes to find new characteristics of superheavy nuclei (SHN).Among the calculated results it is rather distinct that the isotopic shift appears evidently at neutron number N=184.

  2. Diagrammatic perturbation theory - The ground state of the carbon monosulfide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory is employed in a study of the ground state of the carbon monosulfide molecule for bond lengths close to the equilibrium value. The calculations are complete through third order in the energy within the algebraic approximation. Two different zero-order Hamiltonians are considered, and all two-, three-, and four-body terms are determined for the corresponding perturbation expansions. Many-body effects are found to be very important. Pade approximants to the energy expansion are constructed, and upper bounds evaluated. Almost 53 percent of the estimated correlation energy is recovered. The variation of components of the correlation energy with nuclear separation is investigated. Spectroscopic constants are also calculated.

  3. Health psychology and discourse: personal accounts as social texts in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, K C; Hewison, J

    1998-07-01

    Traditional social psychology has largely located the origins of the social in the mental and emotional processes of individuals. Interview and questionnaire approaches have focused on the personal account as a route to cognitive processes and personality structures. In contrast, qualitative approaches like grounded theory have highlighted the importance of discourse in the constitution of the social world, and the function of talk and text in the construction of meaning. It is argued here that the use of such approaches, informed by insights from discourse analysis and current thinking on textuality, can enable analysts to read the personal account as a socially constructed, and constructing, text. This article uses examples from psychosocial oncology and from original research on the treatment experiences of a group of cancer patients to discuss new ways of reading personal accounts as social texts.

  4. Health effects of digital textbooks on school-age children: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner.

  5. Fascination and isolation: a grounded theory exploration of unusual sensory experiences in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard S; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant Messaging software. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory. A number of inter-related categories and focused codes were identified. The categories included heightened senses, sensory stress, the stress avalanche, moderating factors, coping strategies, other people, self-acceptance, fascination, and isolation. A model was constructed as to how these categories and codes interact. How these findings link with previous research into autism spectrum disorders is discussed. Implications for services and future research are also made.

  6. From Fantasy to Reality: A Grounded Theory of Experiences in the Swinging Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly, Claire; Hans, Jason D

    2015-11-23

    Swinger couples-committed couples who consensually engage in extra-relational sex for recreational purposes-are difficult for researchers to access due to the social stigma associated with swinging. This study builds upon the limited research on swinger couples by examining personal experiences with swinging. Specifically, 32 semi-structured interviews with swingers (16 husband-wife dyads, interviewed separately) were analyzed using grounded theory methods to understand the process of transitioning into and maintaining marital satisfaction in the swinging lifestyle. The model formed included (a) antecedent steps taken to enter into the lifestyle, (b) types of desires fulfilled, (c) stated benefits of being in the lifestyle, and (d) rules that guided couples throughout the process. Although variations were found across couples, the effective use of verbal and non-verbal communication to increase sexual and marital satisfaction within these non-monogamous couples was paramount to their experiences.

  7. Complementary medicines in medicine: Conceptualising terminology among Australian medical students using a constructivist grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    Terminology around the use of complementary medicines (CM) within medical discourse is ambiguous. Clear collective discourse within the medical context is required. This study reports the findings of a Constructivist Grounded Theory Method study used to explore medical students' conceptualisation of terminology and associated value components around CMs as evidenced within their discourse community. The results show that terminology surrounding CMs within medicine is politically charged and fraught with value judgements. Terms used to describe CMs were considered, many of which were deemed problematic. Categorisation of specific medicines was also deemed inappropriate in certain contexts. Conceptualisation of CM terminology, categorisation and value implications, discriminated between levels of evidence for CMs and provided insights into the social change of medicine towards emergence of an evidence-based integrative approach. The results show that terminology surrounding CM is a social construct consistent with fluid conceptualisation and operationalisation in different social contexts.

  8. A Grounded Theory of Sexual Minority Women and Transgender Individuals' Social Justice Activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Whitney B; Hoover, Stephanie M; Morrow, Susan L

    2017-08-21

    Psychosocial benefits of activism include increased empowerment, social connectedness, and resilience. Yet sexual minority women (SMW) and transgender individuals with multiple oppressed statuses and identities are especially prone to oppression-based experiences, even within minority activist communities. This study sought to develop an empirical model to explain the diverse meanings of social justice activism situated in SMW and transgender individuals' social identities, values, and experiences of oppression and privilege. Using a grounded theory design, 20 SMW and transgender individuals participated in initial, follow-up, and feedback interviews. The most frequent demographic identities were queer or bisexual, White, middle-class women with advanced degrees. The results indicated that social justice activism was intensely relational, replete with multiple benefits, yet rife with experiences of oppression from within and outside of activist communities. The empirically derived model shows the complexity of SMW and transgender individuals' experiences, meanings, and benefits of social justice activism.

  9. Minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery: A grounded theory on living with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillemor R.-M. Hallberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992. Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category. This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the “pain gaps” are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to “pain gaps”. This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of

  10. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  11. Effect of music therapy on oncologic staff bystanders: a substantive grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Magill, Lucanne

    2009-06-01

    Oncologic work can be satisfying but also stressful, as staff support patients and families through harsh treatment effects, uncertain illness trajectories, and occasional death. Although formal support programs are available, no research on the effects of staff witnessing patients' supportive therapies exists. This research examines staff responses to witnessing patient-focused music therapy (MT) programs in two comprehensive cancer centers. In Study 1, staff were invited to anonymously complete an open-ended questionnaire asking about the relevance of a music therapy program for patients and visitors (what it does; whether it helps). In Study 2, staff were theoretically sampled and interviewed regarding the personal effects of witnessing patient-centered music therapy. Data from each study were comparatively analyzed according to grounded theory procedures. Positive and negative cases were evident and data saturation arguably achieved. In Study 1, 38 staff unexpectedly described personally helpful emotional, cognitive, and team effects and consequent improved patient care. In Study 2, 62 staff described 197 multiple personal benefits and elicited patient care improvements. Respondents were mostly nursing (57) and medical (13) staff. Only three intrusive effects were reported: audibility, initial suspicion, and relaxation causing slowing of work pace. A substantive grounded theory emerged applicable to the two cancer centers: Staff witnessing MT can experience personally helpful emotions, moods, self-awarenesses, and teamwork and thus perceive improved patient care. Intrusive effects are uncommon. Music therapy's benefits for staff are attributed to the presence of live music, the human presence of the music therapist, and the observed positive effects in patients and families. Patient-centered oncologic music therapy in two cancer centers is an incidental supportive care modality for staff, which can reduce their stress and improve work environments and perceived

  12. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' - a constructivist grounded theory of surviving critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Susanne; Salisbury, Lisa G; Rattray, Janice; Walsh, Timothy S; Huby, Guro; Ramsay, Pamela

    2017-10-01

    To theorise intensive care unit survivorship after a critical illness based on longitudinal qualitative data. Increasingly, patients survive episodes of critical illness. However, the short- and long-term impact of critical illness includes physical, psychological, social and economic challenges long after hospital discharge. An appreciation is emerging that care needs to extend beyond critical illness to enable patients to reclaim their lives postdischarge with the term 'survivorship' being increasingly used in this context. What constitutes critical illness survivorship has, to date, not been theoretically explored. Longitudinal qualitative and constructivist grounded theory. Interviews (n = 46) with 17 participants were conducted at four time points: (1) before discharge from hospital, (2) four to six weeks postdischarge, (3) six months and (4) 12 months postdischarge across two adult intensive care unit setting. Individual face-to-face interviews. Data analysis followed the principles of Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' emerged as the core category and was theorised using concepts such as status passages, liminality and temporality to understand the various transitions participants made postcritical illness. Intensive care unit survivorship describes the unscheduled status passage of falling critically ill and being taken to the threshold of life and the journey to a life postcritical illness. Surviving critical illness goes beyond recovery; surviving means 'moving on' to life postcritical illness. 'Moving on' incorporates a redefinition of self that incorporates any lingering intensive care unit legacies and being in control of one's life again. For healthcare professionals and policymakers, it is important to realise that recovery and transitioning through to survivorship happen within an individual's time frame, not a schedule imposed by the healthcare system. Currently, there are no care pathways or policies in

  13. From Pathological Dependence to Healthy Independence: An emergent grounded theory of facilitating independent living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Jamieson, Ph.D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available People with mental disorder are admitted to high security hospitals because of perceived risk of serious harm to others. Outcome studies generally focus on adverse events, especially reoffending,reflecting public and government anxieties. There is no theoretical model to provide a better basis for measurement. There have been no studies examining discharge from the perspectives of those involved in the process. This paper begins to fill this gap by generating a grounded theory of the main concerns of those involved in decisions to discharge from such hospitals. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews with staff of various clinical and non-clinical disciplines, some with a primary duty of care to the patient, while mindful of public safety, and some with a primary duty to the public, while mindful of patients’ rights. The data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Their main concern was ‘pathological dependence’ and that was resolved through the process of‘facilitating independent living’. Clinicians and non-clinicians alike managed this by ‘paving the way’ and ‘testing out’. The former begins on hospital admission, intensifies during residency, and lessens after discharge. Testing out overlaps, but happens to a greater extent outside high security. Factors within the patient and/or within the external environment could be enhancers or barriers to movement along a dependence-independence continuum. A barrier appearing after some progress along the continuum and ending independence gained was called a‘terminator’. Bad outcomes were continuing or resumed dependency, with ‘terminators’, such as death, re-offending or readmission,modelled as explanations rather than outcomes per se. Good outcomes were attainment and maintenance of community living with unconstrained choice of professional and/or social supports. Although this work was done in relation to high security hospital patients, it is likely that

  14. Opening up to learning spiritual care of patients: a grounded theory study of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giske, Tove; Cone, Pamela H

    2012-07-01

    To determine undergraduate nursing students' perspectives on spiritual care and how they learn to assess and provide spiritual care to patients. Nursing is concerned with holistic care. Systematic teaching and supervision of students to prepare them to assist patients spiritually is a growing focus. However, there is limited consensus about the competences students need to develop and little is written related to students learning processes. Grounded theory was used to identify students' main concern and develop a substantive grounded theory. Data collected during semi-structured interviews at three Norwegian University Colleges in eight focus groups with 42 undergraduate nursing students were analysed through constant comparison of transcribed interviews until categories were saturated. The participants' main concern was 'How to create a professional relationship with patients and maintain rapport when spiritual concerns were recognised'. Participants resolved this by 'Opening up to learning spiritual care'. This basic social process has three iterative phases that develop as a spiral throughout the nursing programme: 'Preparing for connection', 'Connecting with and supporting patients' and 'Reflecting on experiences'. Nurses need a wide range of competences to fulfil the nursing focus on holistic patient care. Nursing education should prepare students to recognise and act on spiritual cues. A trusting relationship and respectful and sensitive communication assist students to discover what is important to patients. An educational focus on spiritual and existential themes throughout the nursing programme will assist students to integrate theoretical learning into clinical practice. Study participants reported seeing few role models in clinical settings. Making spiritual assessment and interventions more visible and explicit would facilitate student learning in clinical practice. Evaluative discussions in clinical settings that include spiritual concerns will

  15. Hartree-Fock Many-Body Perturbation Theory for Nuclear Ground-States

    CERN Document Server

    Tichai, Alexander; Binder, Sven; Roth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree-Fock solution to construct the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to, e.g., a harmonic oscillator basis. For larger model spaces and heavier nuclei, where a direct high-order MBPT calculation in not feasible, we perform third-order calculation and compare to advanced ab initio coupled-cluster calculations for the same interactions and model spaces. We demonstrate that third-order MBPT provides ground-state energies for nuclei up into tin isotopic chain that are in excellent agreement with the best available coupled-cluster results at a fraction of the computational cost.

  16. Methodological Interactionism : Theory and Application to the Firm and to the Building of Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent insights from the ‘embodied cognition’ perspective in cognitive science, supported by neural research, provide a basis for a ‘methodological interactionism’ that transcends both the methodological individualism of economics and the methodological collectivism of (some) sociology, and is consi

  17. Cross-Laboratory Comparative Study of the Impact of Experimental and Regression Methodologies on Salmonella Thermal Inactivation Parameters in Ground Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Juneja, Vijay K; Osoria, Marangeli; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal inactivation studies are commonly used to quantify thermal inactivation kinetics of bacteria. Meta-analyses and comparisons utilizing results from multiple sources have revealed large variations in reported thermal resistance parameters for Salmonella, even when in similar food materials. Different laboratory or regression methodologies likely are the source of methodology-specific artifacts influencing the estimated parameters; however, such effects have not been quantified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laboratory and regression methodologies on thermal inactivation data generation, interpretation, modeling, and inherent error, based on data generated in two independent laboratories. The overall experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison using two independent laboratories (Michigan State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center [ERRC] laboratories), both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies (55, 60, 62°C) in ground beef, and each using two methodologies reported in prior studies. Two primary models (log-linear and Weibull) with one secondary model (Bigelow) were fitted to the resultant data using three regression methodologies (two two-step regressions and a one-step regression). Results indicated that laboratory methodology impacted the estimated D60°C- and z-values (α = 0.05), with the ERRC methodology yielding parameter estimates ∼25% larger than the Michigan State University methodology, regardless of the laboratory. Regression methodology also impacted the model and parameter error estimates. Two-step regressions yielded root mean square error values on average 40% larger than the one-step regressions. The Akaike Information Criterion indicated the Weibull as the more correct model in most cases; however, caution should be used to confirm model robustness in application to real-world data. Overall, the

  18. Struggling with and for: A Grounded Theory of Parents Managing Life with Hard-to-Treat ADHD Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Støre Brinchmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a grounded theory of being a parent of hard-to- treat teenagers with the diagnosis of ADHD. Caretakers of 11 adolescents with ADHD were interviewed and analyzed according to the principles of classic grounded theory. The parents’ main concern was how to handle everyday challenges with the teenagers and how to get the help they needed and required. Struggling with and for is the core category in our findings. In addition, we identified four sub-categories: good “mothering”, advocating, seeking support, and giving up. The meeting with the helping services causes just as many problems as the relationship with the teenagers. Professionals should be able to identify family strengths and capabilities. In that way, professional support can be built upon coping strategies with which a family is already familiar. Keywords: ADHD, coping strategies, grounded theory, parents, professional services, teenagers

  19. The process of patient enablement in general practice nurse consultations: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Jane; Banfield, Michelle; Phillips, Christine; Mills, Jane

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the process of patient enablement in general practice nursing consultations. Enhanced roles for general practice nurses may benefit patients through a range of mechanisms, one of which may be increasing patient enablement. In studies with general practitioners enhanced patient enablement has been associated with increases in self-efficacy and skill development. This study used a constructivist grounded theory design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 general practice nurses and 23 patients from 21 general practices between September 2013 - March 2014. Data generation and analysis were conducted concurrently using constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling focussing on the process and outcomes of patient enablement. Use of the storyline technique supported theoretical coding and integration of the data into a theoretical model. A clearly defined social process that fostered and optimised patient enablement was constructed. The theory of 'developing enabling healthcare partnerships between nurses and patients in general practice' incorporates three stages: triggering enabling healthcare partnerships, tailoring care and the manifestation of patient enablement. Patient enablement was evidenced through: 1. Patients' understanding of their unique healthcare requirements informing their health seeking behaviours and choices; 2. Patients taking an increased lead in their partnership with a nurse and seeking choices in their care and 3. Patients getting health care that reflected their needs, preferences and goals. This theoretical model is in line with a patient-centred model of health care and is particularly suited to patients with chronic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Trust Testing in Care Pathways for Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Waxegard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building care pathways for the expansive, heterogeneous, and complex field of neurodevelopmental disorders (ND is challenging. This classic grounded theory study conceptualizes problems encountered and resolved by professionals in the unpacking—diagnosis and work up—of ND. A care pathway for ND in children and adolescents was observed for six years. Data include interviews, documentation of a dialogue-conference devoted to the ND care pathway, 100+ hours of participant observations, and coding of stakeholder actions. Trust testing explores whether professional unpacking collaboration can occur without being “stuck with the buck” and if other professionals can be approached to solve own unpacking priorities. ND complexity, scarce resources, and diverging stakeholder interests undermine the ability to make selfless collaborative professional choices in the care pathway. ND professionals and managers should pay as much attention to trust issues as they do to structures and patient flows. The trust testing theory may improve the understanding of ND care pathways further as a modified social dilemma framework.

  1. Making things right: nurses' experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Donna A; Demarco, Rosanna F; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A; Budin, Wendy C

    2012-01-01

    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.

  2. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Donna A.; DeMarco, Rosanna F.; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A.; Budin, Wendy C.

    2012-01-01

    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace. PMID:22567223

  3. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna A. Gaffney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.

  4. The isolating and insulating effects of hepatitis C: a substantive grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreaddie, May; Lyons, Imogen; Horsburgh, Dorothy; Miller, Margot; Frew, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C has a global prevalence of 3%, causing chronic infection in 75% of cases, and is currently the main cause of liver transplant in the United Kingdom. This study reviewed patients' and service providers' perspectives on hepatitis C as an enduring condition, using a constructivist grounded theory approach. A constant comparative approach to data collection and analyses incorporating a coding paradigm was applied to semistructured interviews, focus groups, and memos. Sixteen patients and three focus groups of staff (n = 17) were recruited via purposive theoretical sampling (February through August 2008). A negative synergistic relationship between the condition hepatitis C, patients, and service providers that creates isolating and insulating effects for the relevant parties emerged from the data as a middle-range theory. Stigma and contagion create a "real" or perceived sense of isolation for hepatitis C comorbid and itinerant patients, who require the right support at the right time. Healthcare staff adhere to professional demarcation lines to manage potentially untenable patient caseloads. In turn, patients and professionals perceive that a crisis may be required to bring about successful therapeutic intervention. A service that incorporates seamless outreach services and facilitates interdisciplinary working is needed to manage complex patients with this enduring condition.

  5. How Adolescent Girls Understand and Manage Depression Within Their Peer Group: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Logsdon, M Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Depression is prevalent among adolescent girls, but few receive mental health treatment. Adolescent girls often forgo needed mental health treatment because they fear responses of peers about depression. Understanding the processes of how adolescent girls respond to peers with depression is an important first step to improve access to mental health treatment. This qualitative study describes the knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adolescent girls about depression and mental health treatment within their peer group. The investigators conducted two focus groups, with adolescent girls (n=21), in a public high school in the southern U.S. Grounded theory methods were utilized to identify a beginning substantive theory about perceptions and behaviors of adolescent girls related to depression in their peers. Participants cognitively processed mental health concepts similarly to adults. However, their affective responses to peers with mental illness fluctuated between adult and child perspectives. Participants expressed concerns about individuals with depression that have previously been identified in adults, but expressed unique perspectives that reflect their transitional stage of development. Findings provide new information about how adolescent girls respond to peers with depression, define areas for further investigation, provide directions for constructing developmentally appropriate mental health educational interventions for adolescent girls, and elucidate the need to provide guidance to women with whom adolescent girls have sustained contact.

  6. Momentary fitting in a fluid environment: A grounded theory of triage nurse decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Gudrun; Rankin, James A; Then, Karen L

    2016-05-01

    Triage nurses control access to the Emergency Department (ED) and make decisions about patient acuity, patient priority, and placement of the patient in the ED. Understanding the processes and strategies that triage nurses use to make decisions is therefore vital for patient safety and the operation of the ED. The aim of the current study was to generate a substantive grounded theory (GT) of decision making by emergency triage Registered Nurses (RNs). Data collection consisted of seven observations of the triage environment at three tertiary care hospitals where RNs conducted triage and twelve interviews with triage RNs. The data were analyzed by constant comparison in accordance with the classical GT method. In the resultant theory, Momentary Fitting in a Fluid Environment, triage is conceptualized as a process consisting of four categories, determining acuity, anticipating needs, managing space, and creating space. The findings indicate that triage RNs continually strive to achieve fit, while simultaneously considering the individual patient and the ED as a whole entity. Triage RNs require appropriately designed triage environments and computer technology that enable them to secure real time knowledge of the ED to maintain situation awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Grounded Theory Approach in a Branding Context: Challenges and lessons learnt during the research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rindell, PhD.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss challenges and lessons learnt when conducting a classic grounded theory study in a marketing context. The paper focuses on two specific challenges that were met during a specific research process. The first challenge related to positioning the study, namely, specifying“what the study is a study of”. The second challenge concerned the choice between formal or substantive theory. Both challenges were accentuated as the emerged core category concerned a phenomenon that has caught less attention in marketing, that is, the temporal dimension in corporate images. By the temporal dimension in corporate images we mean that corporate images often have roots in earlier times through consumer memories. In other words, consumers are not tabula rasa, that is, blank sheets of paper on which communication messages can be printed. Rather, consumers have a pre-understanding of the company that works as an interpretation framework for company actions in the present. The lessons learnt from this research process can be summarized as “stay faithful to the data”, “write memos on issues you reflect upon although they might be in another substantial field” as they might become useful later, and, “look into thinking in other disciplines” as disciplines do not develop equally.

  8. The persistence of women in STEM: A constructivist grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Ryan

    Men and women have reached relative parity in most sectors of the United States workforce. Yet women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (AAUW, 2010). Underrepresentation persists despite several decades of research, legislation, and intervention focused on gender equality in STEM fields (Clewell, 2002). The underrepresentation or shortage of women in STEM fields is identifiable primarily in degree attainment, in workforce demographics, and in a gender wage gap. Situated in constructivist grounded theory, this study asks how do women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, particularly those in established career positions, persist when encountering personal and institutional barriers, resistance, and hostility? I use an interpretive-constructivist lens to conduct a grounded theory study exploring the experiences of women who persist in STEM fields, their relation to extant literature on this topic, and the connections to K-12 education practices, specifically curriculum. To understand the connections to curriculum I employ Pinar's (2012) method of currere. Pinar (2012) contends currere "provides a strategy for students of curriculum to study the relations between academic knowledge and life history in the interests of self-understanding and social reconstruction" (p.44). This qualitative study explored nine female STEM workers stories of persistence as each respondent works in STEM fields were gender parity has yet to be established. This study presents a substantive theory: As women persist in STEM fields they reframe themselves to be situated in the overlapping intersection of the social processes that correspond to "engagement" and "persistence." This reframing is possible by interpreting one's present day circumstances by independently removing oneself from current circumstances to understand the cumulative effect of both past and present. The findings highlight the importance

  9. Pendulating—A grounded theory explaining patients’ behavior shortly after having a leg amputated due to vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Riis Madsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the group of vascular leg amputated patients constitutes some of the most vulnerable and frail on the orthopedic wards, previous research of amputated patients has focused on patients attending gait training in rehabilitation facilities leaving the patient experience shortly after surgery unexplored. Understanding patients’ behavior shortly after amputation could inform health professionals in regard to how these vulnerable patients’ needs at hospital can be met as well as how to plan for care post-discharge. Aim: To construct a grounded theory (GT explaining patients’ behavior shortly after having a leg amputated as a result of vascular disease. Method: In line with constructivist GT methodology, data from ethnographic observations and interviews were simultaneously collected and analyzed using the constant comparative method covering the patients’ experiences during the first 4 weeks post-surgery. Data collection was guided by theoretical sampling and comprised 11 patients. A GT was constructed. Results: Patients went through a three-phased process as they realized they were experiencing a life-changing event. The first phase was “Losing control” and comprised the sub-categories “Being overwhelmed” and “Facing dependency.” The second phase was “Digesting the shock” and comprised the sub-categories “Swallowing the life-changing decision,” “Detecting the amputated body” and “Struggling dualism.” The third phase was “Regaining control” and comprised the sub-categories “Managing consequences” and “Building-up hope and self-motivation.” “Pendulating” was identified as the core category describing the general pattern of behavior and illustrated how patients were swinging both cognitively and emotionally throughout the process. Conclusion: The theory of “Pendulating” offers a tool to understand the amputated patients’ behavior and underlying concerns and to recognize

  10. Pendulating—A grounded theory explaining patients’ behavior shortly after having a leg amputated due to vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Hommel, Ami; Bååth, Carina; Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although the group of vascular leg amputated patients constitutes some of the most vulnerable and frail on the orthopedic wards, previous research of amputated patients has focused on patients attending gait training in rehabilitation facilities leaving the patient experience shortly after surgery unexplored. Understanding patients’ behavior shortly after amputation could inform health professionals in regard to how these vulnerable patients’ needs at hospital can be met as well as how to plan for care post-discharge. Aim To construct a grounded theory (GT) explaining patients’ behavior shortly after having a leg amputated as a result of vascular disease. Method In line with constructivist GT methodology, data from ethnographic observations and interviews were simultaneously collected and analyzed using the constant comparative method covering the patients’ experiences during the first 4 weeks post-surgery. Data collection was guided by theoretical sampling and comprised 11 patients. A GT was constructed. Results Patients went through a three-phased process as they realized they were experiencing a life-changing event. The first phase was “Losing control” and comprised the sub-categories “Being overwhelmed” and “Facing dependency.” The second phase was “Digesting the shock” and comprised the sub-categories “Swallowing the life-changing decision,” “Detecting the amputated body” and “Struggling dualism.” The third phase was “Regaining control” and comprised the sub-categories “Managing consequences” and “Building-up hope and self-motivation.” “Pendulating” was identified as the core category describing the general pattern of behavior and illustrated how patients were swinging both cognitively and emotionally throughout the process. Conclusion The theory of “Pendulating” offers a tool to understand the amputated patients’ behavior and underlying concerns and to recognize where they are in the

  11. Ground-state densities from the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and from density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaal, Simen; Helgaker, Trygve

    2015-11-14

    The relationship between the densities of ground-state wave functions (i.e., the minimizers of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle) and the ground-state densities in density-functional theory (i.e., the minimizers of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle) is studied within the framework of convex conjugation, in a generic setting covering molecular systems, solid-state systems, and more. Having introduced admissible density functionals as functionals that produce the exact ground-state energy for a given external potential by minimizing over densities in the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle, necessary and sufficient conditions on such functionals are established to ensure that the Rayleigh-Ritz ground-state densities and the Hohenberg-Kohn ground-state densities are identical. We apply the results to molecular systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For any given potential v ∈ L(3/2)(ℝ(3)) + L(∞)(ℝ(3)), we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the mixed ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the mixed ground-state densities of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle when the Lieb density-matrix constrained-search universal density functional is taken as the admissible functional. A similar one-to-one correspondence is established between the pure ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the pure ground-state densities obtained using the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle with the Levy-Lieb pure-state constrained-search functional. In other words, all physical ground-state densities (pure or mixed) are recovered with these functionals and no false densities (i.e., minimizing densities that are not physical) exist. The importance of topology (i.e., choice of Banach space of densities and potentials) is emphasized and illustrated. The relevance of these results for current-density-functional theory is examined.

  12. Navigating cancer using online communities: a grounded theory of survivor and family experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Lydia Jo; Beaver, Kinta; Dey, Paola; Choong, Kartina

    2017-05-03

    People affected by cancer often have unmet emotional and social support needs. Online cancer communities are a convenient channel for connecting cancer survivors, allowing them to support one another. However, it is unclear whether online community use makes a meaningful contribution to cancer survivorship, as little previous research has examined the experience of using contemporary cancer communities. We aimed to explore the experiences of visitors to online cancer communities. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with online cancer community visitors, including cancer survivors (n = 18), family members (n = 2), and individuals who were both a survivor and family member (n = 3). Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A theory developed explaining how individuals 'navigated' the experience of cancer using online cancer communities. Online advice and information led participants on a 'journey to become informed'. Online friendships normalised survivorship and cast participants on a 'journey to recreate identity'. Participants navigated a 'journey through different worlds' as they discovered relevant and hidden communities. This theory highlights virtual paths people affected by cancer can take to self-manage their experience of the disease. Online community experiences can be improved by promoting online evaluation skills and signposting visitors to bereavement support. Cancer survivors can benefit through both lurking and posting in online communities. However, individuals risk becoming distressed when they befriend individuals who may soon die. Additionally, people affected by rarer cancers can struggle to find shared experiences online and may need to look elsewhere for support.

  13. Further Simplification of the Simple Erosion Narrowing Score With Item Response Theory Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Schenk, Olga; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Bernelot Moens, Hein J; Boers, Maarten; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2016-08-01

    To further simplify the simple erosion narrowing score (SENS) by removing scored areas that contribute the least to its measurement precision according to analysis based on item response theory (IRT) and to compare the measurement performance of the simplified version to the original. Baseline and 18-month data of the Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial were modeled using longitudinal IRT methodology. Measurement precision was evaluated across different levels of structural damage. SENS was further simplified by omitting the least reliably scored areas. Discriminant validity of SENS and its simplification were studied by comparing their ability to differentiate between the COBRA and sulfasalazine arms. Responsiveness was studied by comparing standardized change scores between versions. SENS data showed good fit to the IRT model. Carpal and feet joints contributed the least statistical information to both erosion and joint space narrowing scores. Omitting the joints of the foot reduced measurement precision for the erosion score in cases with below-average levels of structural damage (relative efficiency compared with the original version ranged 35-59%). Omitting the carpal joints had minimal effect on precision (relative efficiency range 77-88%). Responsiveness of a simplified SENS without carpal joints closely approximated the original version (i.e., all Δ standardized change scores were ≤0.06). Discriminant validity was also similar between versions for both the erosion score (relative efficiency = 97%) and the SENS total score (relative efficiency = 84%). Our results show that the carpal joints may be omitted from the SENS without notable repercussion for its measurement performance. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Behaviour and Investment Actions within Fund Managers and their Markets - Developing and analysing a grounded theory of fund management

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, John

    2011-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-09 has raised questions concerning orthodox ideas of how financial markets operate and how financial institution firms (and their decision makers) behave in such market settings. The crisis has revealed the need for new thinking in these areas. This paper outlines a grounded theory of the fund management firm and investment decision making at the level of individuals and teams. The theory comprises the role of external and internal firm contexts on individual fund...

  15. Behaviour and Investment Actions within Fund Managers and their Markets - Developing and analysing a grounded theory of fund management

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, John

    2011-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-09 has raised questions concerning orthodox ideas of how financial markets operate and how financial institution firms (and their decision makers) behave in such market settings. The crisis has revealed the need for new thinking in these areas. This paper outlines a grounded theory of the fund management firm and investment decision making at the level of individuals and teams. The theory comprises the role of external and internal firm contexts on individual fund...

  16. A theory for modeling ground-water flow in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Construction of a ground-water model for a field area is not a straightforward process. Data are virtually never complete or detailed enough to allow substitution into the model equations and direct computation of the results of interest. Formal model calibration through optimization, statistical, and geostatistical methods is being applied to an increasing extent to deal with this problem and provide for quantitative evaluation and uncertainty analysis of the model. However, these approaches are hampered by two pervasive problems: 1) nonlinearity of the solution of the model equations with respect to some of the model (or hydrogeologic) input variables (termed in this report system characteristics) and 2) detailed and generally unknown spatial variability (heterogeneity) of some of the system characteristics such as log hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, recharge and discharge, and boundary conditions. A theory is developed in this report to address these problems. The theory allows construction and analysis of a ground-water model of flow (and, by extension, transport) in heterogeneous media using a small number of lumped or smoothed system characteristics (termed parameters). The theory fully addresses both nonlinearity and heterogeneity in such a way that the parameters are not assumed to be effective values. The ground-water flow system is assumed to be adequately characterized by a set of spatially and temporally distributed discrete values, ?, of the system characteristics. This set contains both small-scale variability that cannot be described in a model and large-scale variability that can. The spatial and temporal variability in ? are accounted for by imagining ? to be generated by a stochastic process wherein ? is normally distributed, although normality is not essential. Because ? has too large a dimension to be estimated using the data normally available, for modeling purposes ? is replaced by a smoothed or lumped approximation y?. (where y is a

  17. A Grounded Theory Study of the Mentoring Process Involved With Undergraduate Athletic Training Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A; Ehlers, Greg G

    2004-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight regarding the mentoring processes involving students enrolled in athletic training education programs and to create a mentoring model. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a grounded theory study with students and mentors currently affiliated with 1 of 2 of the athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen interviews were conducted, 13 with athletic training students and 3 with individuals identified as mentors. The students ranged in age from 20 to 24 years, with an average of 21.6 years. The mentors ranged from 24 to 38 years of age, with an average of 33.3 years. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. DATA ANALYSIS: The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Member checks, peer debriefings, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. RESULTS: Students who acknowledged having a mentor overwhelmingly identified their clinical instructor in this role. The open-coding procedures produced 3 categories: (1) mentoring prerequisites, (2) interpersonal foundations, and (3) educational dimensions. Mentoring prerequisites included accessibility, approachability, and protege initiative. Interpersonal foundations involved the mentor and protege having congruent values, trust, and a personal relationship. The educational dimensions category involved the mentor facilitating knowledge and skill development, encouraging professional perspectives, and individualizing learning. Although a student-certified athletic trainer relationship can be grounded in either interpersonal or educational aspects, the data support the occurrence of an authentic mentoring relationship when the dimensions coalesced. CONCLUSIONS: Potential mentors must not only be accessible but also approachable by a prospective protege. Mentoring takes initiative on behalf of a student and

  18. Conducting Indigenous Research in Western Knowledge Spaces: Aligning Theory and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Myra; Major, Jae

    2017-01-01

    Walking simultaneously in two worlds as an Indigenous researcher, navigating Indigenous and Western epistemologies/methodologies can have its challenges. Indigenous methodologies have become an important element of qualitative research and have been increasingly taken up by both Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers. Indigenous methodologies…

  19. Developing an Item Bank for Use in Testing in Africa: Theory and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtuna, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The author describes the steps taken by a research team, of which she was part, to develop a specific methodology for assessing student attainment in primary school, working with the Programme for the Analysis of Education Systems (PASEC) of the Conference of Ministers of Education of French-speaking Countries (CONFEMEN). This methodology provides…

  20. Conducting Indigenous Research in Western Knowledge Spaces: Aligning Theory and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Myra; Major, Jae

    2017-01-01

    Walking simultaneously in two worlds as an Indigenous researcher, navigating Indigenous and Western epistemologies/methodologies can have its challenges. Indigenous methodologies have become an important element of qualitative research and have been increasingly taken up by both Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers. Indigenous methodologies…