The Complexity of Reasoning for Fragments of Autoepistemic Logic
Creignou, Nadia; Thomas, Michael; Vollmer, Heribert
2010-01-01
Autoepistemic logic extends propositional logic by the modal operator L. A formula that is preceded by an L is said to be "believed". The logic was introduced by Moore 1985 for modeling an ideally rational agent's behavior and reasoning about his own beliefs. In this paper we analyze all Boolean fragments of autoepistemic logic with respect to the computational complexity of the three most common decision problems expansion existence, brave reasoning and cautious reasoning. As a second contribution we classify the computational complexity of counting the number of stable expansions of a given knowledge base. To the best of our knowledge this is the first paper analyzing the counting problem for autoepistemic logic.
Reiter's Default Logic Is a Logic of Autoepistemic Reasoning And a Good One, Too
Denecker, Marc; Truszczynski, Miroslaw
2011-01-01
A fact apparently not observed earlier in the literature of nonmonotonic reasoning is that Reiter, in his default logic paper, did not directly formalize informal defaults. Instead, he translated a default into a certain natural language proposition and provided a formalization of the latter. A few years later, Moore noted that propositions like the one used by Reiter are fundamentally different than defaults and exhibit a certain autoepistemic nature. Thus, Reiter had developed his default logic as a formalization of autoepistemic propositions rather than of defaults. The first goal of this paper is to show that some problems of Reiter's default logic as a formal way to reason about informal defaults are directly attributable to the autoepistemic nature of default logic and to the mismatch between informal defaults and the Reiter's formal defaults, the latter being a formal expression of the autoepistemic propositions Reiter used as a representation of informal defaults. The second goal of our paper is to co...
Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D
2012-01-01
Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林作铨
1996-01-01
A modal nonmonotonic logic is presented based on an experiential modal semantics on typicality and exception.The syntactic and semantics of modal nonmonotonic logic are provided,and the completeness theorem and the theorems relating it to major nonmonotonic logics are proved.It directly formalizes the intuition of nonmonotonic reasoning.Among other things,it provides us a first-order extension of default logic and autoepistemic logic,and simultaneously has the capability of circumscription to infer universal statement.It has important applications in logic programming and deductive data base.As a result,it provides a uniform basis for various nonmonotonic logics,from which the correspondent relationship among major nonmonotonic logics can coincide.
Complexity of Non-Monotonic Logics
Thomas, Michael
2010-01-01
Over the past few decades, non-monotonic reasoning has developed to be one of the most important topics in computational logic and artificial intelligence. Different ways to introduce non-monotonic aspects to classical logic have been considered, e.g., extension with default rules, extension with modal belief operators, or modification of the semantics. In this survey we consider a logical formalism from each of the above possibilities, namely Reiter's default logic, Moore's autoepistemic logic and McCarthy's circumscription. Additionally, we consider abduction, where one is not interested in inferences from a given knowledge base but in computing possible explanations for an observation with respect to a given knowledge base. Complexity results for different reasoning tasks for propositional variants of these logics have been studied already in the nineties. In recent years, however, a renewed interest in complexity issues can be observed. One current focal approach is to consider parameterized problems and ...
Toward a ground-motion logic tree for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Europe
Delavaud, Elise; Cotton, Fabrice; Akkar, Sinan; Scherbaum, Frank; Danciu, Laurentiu; Beauval, Céline; Drouet, Stéphane; Douglas, John; Basili, Roberto; Sandikkaya, M. Abdullah; Segou, Margaret; Faccioli, Ezio; Theodoulidis, Nikos
2012-07-01
The Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe (SHARE) project, which began in June 2009, aims at establishing new standards for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in the Euro-Mediterranean region. In this context, a logic tree for ground-motion prediction in Europe has been constructed. Ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and weights have been determined so that the logic tree captures epistemic uncertainty in ground-motion prediction for six different tectonic regimes in Europe. Here we present the strategy that we adopted to build such a logic tree. This strategy has the particularity of combining two complementary and independent approaches: expert judgment and data testing. A set of six experts was asked to weight pre-selected GMPEs while the ability of these GMPEs to predict available data was evaluated with the method of Scherbaum et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 99:3234-3247, 2009). Results of both approaches were taken into account to commonly select the smallest set of GMPEs to capture the uncertainty in ground-motion prediction in Europe. For stable continental regions, two models, both from eastern North America, have been selected for shields, and three GMPEs from active shallow crustal regions have been added for continental crust. For subduction zones, four models, all non-European, have been chosen. Finally, for active shallow crustal regions, we selected four models, each of them from a different host region but only two of them were kept for long periods. In most cases, a common agreement has been also reached for the weights. In case of divergence, a sensitivity analysis of the weights on the seismic hazard has been conducted, showing that once the GMPEs have been selected, the associated set of weights has a smaller influence on the hazard.
The Logical Structure of Data in ATLAS.ti and its Advantage for Grounded Theory Studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agnes Mühlmeyer-Mentzel
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Qualitative data analysis software is quite similar regarding the fundamental steps and procedures of data analysis, but the way in which the results of the analysis are stored is different. This article focuses on the fit of grounded theory methodology (GTM and a network-like storage, as is used in ATLAS.ti. Using data from an ongoing research study as an example, a description is provided of how the analytical steps of GTM are implemented in ATLAS.ti and how results are stored as a net of nodes. This code net represents the developed "grounded theory" as structured conceptualized information. Exported as an XML file the code net can be used in other applications by other researchers. This has the potential to support data quality and scientific cooperation between qualitative researchers. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101325
Arthur Prior and medieval logic
Uckelman, S.L.
2012-01-01
Though Arthur Prior is now best known for his founding of modern temporal logic and hybrid logic, much of his early philosophical career was devoted to history of logic and historical logic. This interest laid the foundations for both of his ground-breaking innovations in the 1950s and 1960s. Becaus
Arthur Prior and medieval logic
2012-01-01
Though Arthur Prior is now best known for his founding of modern temporal logic and hybrid logic, much of his early philosophical career was devoted to history of logic and historical logic. This interest laid the foundations for both of his ground-breaking innovations in the 1950s and 1960s. Because of the important rôle played by Prior’s research in ancient and medieval logic in his development of temporal and hybrid logic, any student of Prior, temporal logic, or hybrid logic should be fam...
Andujar, J. M.; Aroba, J.; de Torre, M. L. La; Grande, J. A.
2006-01-01
This work aims at contrasting, by means of a set of fuzzy logic- and data mining-based algorithms, the functioning model of a detritic aquifer undergoing overexploitation and nitrate excess input coming from strawberry and citrus intensive crops in its recharge zone. To provide researchers unskilled in data mining techniques with an easy and intuitive interpretation, the authors have developed a computer tool based on fuzzy logic that allows immediate qualitative analysis of the data contained in a data mass from the water chemical analyses, and serves as a contrast to functioning models previously proposed with classical statistics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...
On Logical Ground of Justice of Judicial Judgment%司法裁判正义性的逻辑根据
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈伟
2015-01-01
The justice of judicial judgment is a very important issue for the rule of law.Then,what is the logical ground of the justice of judicial judgment?It is neither the reliability of the judge,nor the authoritativeness of law.Formal justice and material justice will promote the justice of judicial judg-ment,and could even be its contents,but not its ground.From a logical point of view,the justice of judicial judgment grounds the legitimacy of judicial procedure,the defeasibility of legal reasoning and the transsubjectivity of legal argumentation.%法治的一个重要方面是司法裁判的正义性。那么，司法裁判正义性的逻辑根据是什么？它既不是法官的可信赖性，也不是法律的权威性。形式正义的逻辑性和实质正义的可接受性有助于司法裁判的正义性，甚至是它的部分内容，但它们不是它的根据。从逻辑的视角来看，司法裁判正义性的根据在于裁判程序的正当性、法律推理的可废止性和法律论辩的超越主体性。
Understanding Social Media Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José van Dijck
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...
Smullyan, Raymond
2008-01-01
This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Sophie Grivaud; Brauner, Michel W.; Rety, Frederique [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Radiology, Bobigny (France); Kronek, Louis-Philippe; Brauner, Nadia [Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire G-SCOP, Grenoble (France); Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Pneumology, Bobigny (France); Brillet, Pierre-Yves [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Radiology, Bobigny (France); Hopital Avicenne, Service de Radiologie, Bobigny Cedex (France)
2010-06-15
We evaluated the performance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (CDILD) with predominant ground-glass pattern by using logical analysis of data (LAD). A total of 162 patients were classified into seven categories: sarcoidosis (n = 38), connective tissue disease (n = 32), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 18), drug-induced lung disease (n = 15), alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 10) and miscellaneous (n = 37). First, 40 CT attributes were investigated by the LAD to build up patterns characterising a category. From the association of patterns, LAD determined models specific to each CDILD. Second, data were recomputed by adding eight clinical attributes to the analysis. The 20 x 5 cross-folding method was used for validation. Models could be individualised for sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease and alveolar proteinosis. An additional model was individualised for drug-induced lung disease by adding clinical data. No model was demonstrated for idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and the miscellaneous category. The results showed that HRCT had a good sensitivity ({>=}64%) and specificity ({>=}78%) and a high negative predictive value ({>=}93%) for diseases with a model. Higher sensitivity ({>=}78%) and specificity ({>=}89%) were achieved by adding clinical data. The diagnostic performance of HRCT is high and can be increased by adding clinical data. (orig.)
Clément, C.; Baize, S.; Beauval, C.; Bonilla, L. F.; Scotti, O.
2003-04-01
The current French Nuclear Regulation for the evaluation of seismic hazard is deterministic. Nevertheless, in order to provide results to an ongoing Probabilistic Safety Assessment study that is being carried out at IRSN, we are developing a site-specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) for nuclear power plants in France. The methodology proposed in this study combines a logic tree structure with a Monte Carlo exploration. This allows an exhaustive quantification of the impact on the hazard level due to both epistemic and random uncertainties. The region of interest for this study is the South East of France where the knowledge of the seismic potential of the known structures is sparse. We explore uncertainties inherent in seismicity catalogues, source models, attenuation laws and definitions of the seismic source geometries. In particular we focus on fault sources for which we propose numerous scenarios that consider rupture on single and multiple segments. The purpose of the methodology developed in the framework of this study is to 1) calculate seismic hazard with probabilities as low as 10-7 2) quantify the variability of the hazard level 3) identify the most probable scenarios and compute the associated ground motions at the site of interest.
Kleene, Stephen Cole
2002-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore
1989-01-01
These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.
2014-10-03
that must be woven into proofs of security statements. 03-10-2014 Memorandum Report Logic System-on-a-Chip Distributed systems 9888 ASDR&EAssistant...can be removed without damaging the logic. For all propositional letters p, E1. p ⊃ [r] p From now on, a distributed logic contains at least the...a ∈ x iff 〈h〉 ∈ x. These same definitions work for the canonical relation R for r : h y k where now a ∈ MA(k), [r] a, 〈r〉 a ∈ MA(h), x ∈ CF(h), and
Lengyel, Florian
2012-01-01
We define Denial Logic DL, a system of justification logic that models an agent whose justified beliefs are false, who cannot avow his own propositional attitudes and who can believe contradictions but not tautologies of classical propositional logic. Using Artemov's natural semantics for justification logic JL, in which justifications are interpreted as sets of formulas, we provide an inductive construction of models of DL, and prove soundness and completeness results for DL. Some logical notions developed for JL, such as constant specifications and the internalization property, are inconsistent with DL. This leads us to define negative constant specifications for DL, which can be used to model agents with justified false beliefs. Denial logic can therefore be relevant to philosophical skepticism. We use DL with what we call coherent negative constant specifications to model a Putnamian brain in a vat with the justified false belief that it is not a brain in a vat, and derive a model of JL in which "I am a b...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongsheng QI; Daizhan CHENG
2008-01-01
This paper gives a matrix expression of logic. Under the matrix expression, a general description of the logical operators is proposed. Using the semi-tensor product of matrices, the proofs of logical equivalences, implications, etc., can be simplified a lot. Certain general properties are revealed. Then, based on matrix expression, the logical operators are extended to multi-valued logic, which provides a foundation for fuzzy logical inference. Finally, we propose a new type of logic, called mix-valued logic, and a new design technique, called logic-based fuzzy control. They provide a numerically computable framework for the application of fuzzy logic for the control of fuzzy systems.
Zadeh, Lofti A.
1988-01-01
The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林作铨; 李未
1995-01-01
Parametric logic is introduced. The language, semantics and axiom system of parametric logic are defined. Completeness theorem of parametric logic is provided. Parametric logic has formal ability powerful enough to capture a wide class of logic as its special cases, and therefore can be viewed as a uniform basis for modern logics.
Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas
2015-01-01
The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
小雨
2006-01-01
A teacher was giving her pu- pils a lesson on logic(逻辑)．“Here is the situation(情景),”she said,“a man is stand- ing up in a boat in the middle of a river,fishing．He loses his bal- ance(平衡),falls in,and begins splashing(泼水)and yelling(叫喊)for help．His wife hears the commotion(喧闹),knows that he can’t swim,and runs down to the bank (河岸)．Why did she run to the bank?” A girl raised her hand and asked,“To draw out(提取)all of his savings(存款)．”
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Eskolemization in intuitionistic logic
Baaz, Matthias; Iemhoff, R.
In [2] an alternative skolemization method called eskolemization was introduced that is sound and complete for existence logic with respect to existential quantifiers. Existence logic is a conservative extension of intuitionistic logic by an existence predicate. Therefore eskolemization provides a
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study.......In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Three-valued logics in modal logic
Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard
2013-01-01
Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume i...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence.......Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...
Probabilistic Dynamic Epistemic Logic
Kooi, B.P.
2003-01-01
In this paper I combine the dynamic epistemic logic of Gerbrandy (1999) with the probabilistic logic of Fagin and Halpern (1999). The result is a new probabilistic dynamic epistemic logic, a logic for reasoning about probability, information, and information change that takes higher order informatio
Metamathematics of fuzzy logic
Hájek, Petr
1998-01-01
This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Martin Mose
2014-01-01
A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning ar...... the benchmarks. Finally, possibilities for further research are indicated. In the appendix, decidability of the satisfiability of formulas is proved via a technique known from monadic First Order Logic....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic......Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics...
A Survey of Paraconsistent Logics
Middelburg, C A
2011-01-01
A survey of paraconsistent logics that are prominent representatives of the different approaches that have been followed to develop paraconsistent logics is provided. The paraconsistent logics that will be discussed are an enrichment of Priest's logic LP, the logic RM3 from the school of relevance logic, da Costa's logics Cn, Jaskowski's logic D2, and Subrahmanian's logics Ptau. A deontic logic based on the first of these logics will be discussed as well. Moreover, some proposed adaptations of the AGM theory of belief revision to paraconsistent logics will be mentioned.
Newton-Smith, WH
2003-01-01
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
Bolc, Leonard
1992-01-01
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
Yang, Fan; Väänänen, Jouko
2016-01-01
We consider team semantics for propositional logic, continuing our previous work (Yang & V\\"a\\"an\\"anen 2016). In team semantics the truth of a propositional formula is considered in a set of valuations, called a team, rather than in an individual valuation. This offers the possibility to give meaning to concepts such as dependence, independence and inclusion. We define an expressively maximal propositional team logic, called full propositional team logic. This requires going beyond the logic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aiello, Marco; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Bloch, Isabelle
2012-01-01
of mathematical tools developed to represent and work with space. Here we take a special look at this evolution by considering the perspective of Logic. From the initial axiomatic efforts of Euclid, we revisit the major milestones in the logical representation of space and investigate current trends. In doing so......, we do not only consider classical logic, but we indulge ourselves with modal logics. These present themselves naturally by providing simple axiomatizations of different geometries, topologies, space-time causality, and vector spaces....
Institutional Logics in Action
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
2013-01-01
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
Hierarchies in Dependence Logic
Durand, Arnaud
2011-01-01
We study fragments of dependence logic defined either by restricting the number k of universal quantifiers or the width of dependence atoms in formulas. We find the sublogics of existential second-order logic corresponding to these fragments of dependence logic. We also show that these both ways of defining fragments of dependence logic give rise to a hierarchy in expressive power with respect to k.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘叙华; 邓安生
1994-01-01
A new approach of operator fuzzy logic, Boolean operator fuzzy logic (BOFL) based on Boolean algebra, is presented. The resolution principle is also introduced into BOFL. BOFL is a natural generalization of classical logic and can be applied to the qualitative description of fuzzy knowledge.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2015-01-01
We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jantzen, Jan
1998-01-01
A logic based on the two truth values True and False is sometimes inadequate when describing human reasoning. Fuzzy logic uses the whole interval between 0 (False) and 1 (True) to describe human reasoning. As a result, fuzzy logic is being applied in rule based automatic controllers, and this paper...
Regular database update logics
Spruit, Paul; Wieringa, Roel; Meyer, John-Jules
2001-01-01
We study regular first-order update logic (FUL), which is a variant of regular dynamic logic in which updates to function symbols as well as to predicate symbols are possible. We fi1rst study FUL without making assumptions about atomic updates. Second, we look at relational algebra update logic (RAU
Uckelman, S.L.
2009-01-01
This dissertation is an exercise in conceptual archeology. Using the tools of contemporary logic we analyse texts in medieval logic and reconstruct their logical theories by creating a formal framework which models them. Our focus is medieval texts which deal with various modalities: the writings on
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2009-01-01
By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;
2014-01-01
Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....
The future of post-human mathematical logic
Baofu, Peter
2008-01-01
Why should mathematical logic be grounded on the basis of some formal requirements in the way that it has been developed since its classical emergence as a hybrid field of mathematics and logic in the 19th century or earlier? Contrary to conventional wi
Reliability concerns with logical constants in Xilinx FPGA designs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ostler, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Greg [JPL; Swift, Gary [XILINX; Tseng, Chen W [XILINX
2009-01-01
In Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays logical constants, which ground unused inputs and provide constants for designs, are implemented in SEU-susceptible logic. In the past, these logical constants have been shown to cause the user circuit to output bad data and were not resetable through off-line rcconfiguration. In the more recent devices, logical constants are less problematic, though mitigation should still be considered for high reliability applications. In conclusion, we have presented a number of reliability concerns with logical constants in the Xilinx Virtex family. There are two main categories of logical constants: implicit and explicit logical constants. In all of the Virtex devices, the implicit logical constants are implemented using half latches, which in the most recent devices are several orders of magnitudes smaller than configuration bit cells. Explicit logical constants are implemented exclusively using constant LUTs in the Virtex-I and Virtex-II, and use a combination of constant LUTs and architectural posts to the ground plane in the Virtex-4. We have also presented mitigation methods and options for these devices. While SEUs in implicit and some types of explicit logical constants can cause data corrupt, the chance of failure from these components is now much smaller than it was in the Virtex-I device. Therefore, for many cases, mitigation might not be necessary, except under extremely high reliability situations.
Dalen, Dirk
1983-01-01
A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...
Logical database design principles
Garmany, John; Clark, Terry
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint
2009-01-01
This dissertation is an exercise in conceptual archeology. Using the tools of contemporary logic we analyse texts in medieval logic and reconstruct their logical theories by creating a formal framework which models them. Our focus is medieval texts which deal with various modalities: the writings on alethic modalities by William of Sherwood, Pseudo-Aquinas, and St. Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, St. Anselm of Canterbury’s writings on facere and debere in the late 11th century; Lambert of...
Separation Logic and Concurrency
Bornat, Richard
Concurrent separation logic is a development of Hoare logic adapted to deal with pointers and concurrency. Since its inception, it has been enhanced with a treatment of permissions to enable sharing of data between threads, and a treatment of variables as resource alongside heap cells as resource. An introduction to the logic is given with several examples of proofs, culminating in a treatment of Simpson's 4-slot algorithm, an instance of racy non-blocking concurrency.
Embedding Description Logic Programs into Default Logic
Wang, Yisong; Yuan, Li Yan; Shen, Yi-Dong; Eiter, Thomas
2011-01-01
Description logic programs (dl-programs) under the answer set semantics formulated by Eiter {\\em et al.} have been considered as a prominent formalism for integrating rules and ontology knowledge bases. A question of interest has been whether dl-programs can be captured in a general formalism of nonmonotonic logic. In this paper, we study the possibility of embedding dl-programs into default logic. We show that dl-programs under the strong and weak answer set semantics can be embedded in default logic by combining two translations, one of which eliminates the constraint operator from nonmonotonic dl-atoms and the other translates a dl-program into a default theory. For dl-programs without nonmonotonic dl-atoms but with the negation-as-failure operator, our embedding is polynomial, faithful, and modular. In addition, our default logic encoding can be extended in a simple way to capture recently proposed weakly well-supported answer set semantics, for arbitrary dl-programs. These results reinforce the argument ...
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2015-01-01
The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
Ferrite logic reliability study
Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.
1973-01-01
Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service speciﬁcations. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a signiﬁcant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...
Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas T; López, Hugo A; 10.4204/EPTCS.69.3
2011-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Carbone
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Howard, Ayanna
2005-01-01
The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.
Reasoning about Minimal Belief and Negation as Failure
Rosati, R
2011-01-01
We investigate the problem of reasoning in the propositional fragment of MBNF, the logic of minimal belief and negation as failure introduced by Lifschitz, which can be considered as a unifying framework for several nonmonotonic formalisms, including default logic, autoepistemic logic, circumscription, epistemic queries, and logic programming. We characterize the complexity and provide algorithms for reasoning in propositional MBNF. In particular, we show that entailment in propositional MBNF lies at the third level of the polynomial hierarchy, hence it is harder than reasoning in all the above mentioned propositional formalisms for nonmonotonic reasoning. We also prove the exact correspondence between negation as failure in MBNF and negative introspection in Moore's autoepistemic logic.
Some non-classical logics seen from a variety of perspectives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Nuel; Belnap
2003-01-01
Logicians have worked with so many different logical systems that it is not possible even to esti-mate the number. Of these, many are best seen as extensions of classical logic, including both thoseof interest to mathematics and those of interest to philosophy and computer science. (Henceforth Iwill use the term "intelligent systems theory" for the common ground of philosophical logic and that
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates of the ...
Ponse, A.; Zwaag, M.B. van der
2002-01-01
We distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two different bases
S.L. Uckelman
2009-01-01
The origins of treating agency as a modal concept go back at least to the 11th century when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, provided a modal explication of the Latin facere ‘to do’, which can be formalized within the context of modern modal logic and neighborhood semantics. The agentive logic indu
Logic via Computer Programming.
Wieschenberg, Agnes A.
This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…
Boyd, Robert
1995-01-01
This article proposes that within the discipline of logic, college students can learn the important elements of persuasive writing. Characteristics of and distinctions between deductive and inductive logic are outlined, and the appropriateness and usefulness of each for different kinds of persuasion are discussed. (MSE)
Inductive Logic and Statistics
Romeijn, J. -W.
2009-01-01
This chapter concerns inductive logic in relation to mathematical statistics. I start by introducing a general notion of probabilistic induc- tive inference. Then I introduce Carnapian inductive logic, and I show that it can be related to Bayesian statistical inference via de Finetti's representatio
Logic of Algorithmic Knowledge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surowik Dariusz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the construction of a LAK system of temporal-epistemic logic which is used to formally describe algorithmic knowledge. We propose an axiom system of LAK and discuss the basic properties of this logic.
Programmable Logic Controllers.
Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen
This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…
Yopp, David
2010-01-01
Understanding logical necessity is an important component of proof and reasoning for teachers of grades K-8. The ability to determine exactly where young students' arguments are faulty offers teachers the chance to give youngsters feedback as they progress toward writing mathematically valid deductive proofs. As defined, logical necessity is the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evandro Agazzi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.
Blackburn, P.; Rijke, M. de
1995-01-01
Combining logics has become a rapidly expanding enterprise that is inspired mainly by concerns about modularity and the wish to join together tailored made logical tools into more powerful but still manageable ones. A natural question is whether it offers anything new over and above existing standar
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klarman, S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Durante Pereira Alves
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Analyzing the position of two philosophers whose views are recognizably divergent, W. O. Quine and M. Dummett, we intend to support a striking point of agreement between them: the idea that our logical principles constitute our principles about what there is, and therefore, that logic is metaphysics.
Daniel Durante Pereira Alves
2011-01-01
Analyzing the position of two philosophers whose views are recognizably divergent, W. O. Quine and M. Dummett, we intend to support a striking point of agreement between them: the idea that our logical principles constitute our principles about what there is, and therefore, that logic is metaphysics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-03-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus
2010-01-01
In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl......In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze...... the problems inhibiting separate checking and propose a class of logics that reconcile logic metaprogramming and separate checking. We have formalized the resulting module system and have proven the soundness of separate checking. We validate its feasibility by presenting the design and implementation...... of a specific logic that is able to express many metaprogramming examples from the literature....
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Heterogeneous logics of competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...
Malhas, Othman Qasim
1993-10-01
The concept of “abacus logic” has recently been developed by the author (Malhas, n.d.). In this paper the relation of abacus logic to the concept of fuzziness is explored. It is shown that if a certain “regularity” condition is met, concepts from fuzzy set theory arise naturally within abacus logics. In particular it is shown that every abacus logic then has a “pre-Zadeh orthocomplementation”. It is also shown that it is then possible to associate a fuzzy set with every proposition of abacus logic and that the collection of all such sets satisfies natural conditions expected in systems of fuzzy logic. Finally, the relevance to quantum mechanics is discussed.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.
2016-03-29
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Dynamic Logic with Trace Semantics
Beckert, Bernhard; Bruns, Daniel
2013-01-01
Dynamic logic is an established instrument for program verification and for reasoning about the semantics of programs and programming languages. In this paper, we define an extension of dynamic logic, called Dynamic Trace Logic (DTL), which combines the expressiveness of program logics such as dynamic logic with that of temporal logic. And we present a sound and relatively complete sequent calculus for proving validity of DTL formulae. Due to its expressiveness, DTL can serve as a basis for p...
Mathematical logic for computer science
Zhong Wan Lu
1998-01-01
Mathematical logic is essentially related to computer science. This book describes the aspects of mathematical logic that are closely related to each other, including classical logic, constructive logic, and modal logic. This book is intended to attend to both the peculiarities of logical systems and the requirements of computer science.In this edition, the revisions essentially involve rewriting the proofs, increasing the explanations, and adopting new terms and notations.
Bozzelli, Laura; French, Tim; Hales, James; Pinchinat, Sophie
2012-01-01
In this paper we present refinement modal logic. A refinement is like a bisimulation, except that from the three relational requirements only 'atoms' and 'back' need to be satisfied. Our logic contains a new operator 'forall' in additional to the standard modalities 'Box' for each agent. The operator 'forall' acts as a quantifier over the set of all refinements of a given model. We call it the refinement operator. As a variation on a bisimulation quantifier, it can be seen as a refinement quantifier over a variable not occurring in the formula bound by the operator. The logic combines the simplicity of multi-agent modal logic with some powers of monadic second order quantification. We present a sound and complete axiomatization of multiagent refinement modal logic. We also present an extension of the logic to the modal mu-calculus, and an axiomatization for the single-agent version of this logic. Examples and applications are also discussed: to software verification and design (the set of agents can also be s...
Metaphysics of Logical Realism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammadreza Abdollahnejad
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Despite the often false impression that the analytic philosophy as an anti-metaphysical movement has nothing to do with metaphysics, there can be found good reasons to grant the metaphysical dispositions of analytic philosophers, and thereby, to minimize the anti-metaphysical nature of analytic philosophy in its all phases. Since analytic philosophy is a historical movement the main nature of which developed through several stages, the very kinds of metaphysical dispositions within each one of its various stages can be easily portrayed. In the meantime, logical realism as the early stage of analytic philosophy contains plenty of metaphysical dispositions. Undoubtedly, one cannot say that analytic philosophy in this period was not committed to metaphysical theses about the plurality of entities, the ultimate nature of reality and the logical structure of the world. In this paper, then, after giving a relatively complete explanation of the logical realism, we claimed that although logical realists rejected the traditional speculative metaphysics of their predecessors, they also replaced it by the metaphysics of logic that pursues the metaphysical aims, this time, by logical means. So, we portrayed this kind of metaphysics as Bolzano’s Semantic Platonism, Frege’s and Russell’s Pluralistic Platonism, Russell’s Pluralistic Atomism, and Wittgenstein’s logical atomism.
Class Based Contextual Logic for DOOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JoseK.Raphel; SiuCheungHui; 等
1996-01-01
Cntextual logic provides a mechanism to reason about modules.In this paper,this theory of modules if modules is extended to a context theory of classes where class is in the true spirit of object-oriented databases.The logic,referred to as CLOG,is class-based.CLOG supports class,object identity,multiple role of object, monotonic and non-monotonic inheritance of data and method,method factoring,views,derived and query classes.Views and derived classes are queries in themselves.Objects are pure data terms representing the ground instances of facts in the class.Object identity is a first class term in the logic.Inheritance is handled through delegation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2012-01-01
We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...
Logic in elementary mathematics
Exner, Robert M
2011-01-01
This applications-related introductory treatment explores facets of modern symbolic logic useful in the exposition of elementary mathematics. The authors convey the material in a manner accessible to those trained in standard elementary mathematics but lacking any formal background in logic. Topics include the statement calculus, proof and demonstration, abstract mathematical systems, and the restricted predicate calculus. The final chapter draws upon the methods of logical reasoning covered in previous chapters to develop solutions of linear and quadratic equations, definitions of order and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...
Propositional Dynamic Logic as a Logic of Belief Revision
D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); Y. Wang (Yanjing)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractThis paper shows how propositional dynamic logic (PDL) can be interpreted as a logic for multi-agent belief revision. For that we revise and extend the logic of communication and change (LCC) of [9]. Like LCC, our logic uses PDL as a base epistemic language. Unlike LCC, we start out from
Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham
2000-01-01
Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schumann Andrew
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper considers main features of two groups of logics for biological devices, called Physarum Chips, based on the plasmodium. Let us recall that the plasmodium is a single cell with many diploid nuclei. It propagates networks by growing pseudopodia to connect scattered nutrients (pieces of food. As a result, we deal with a kind of computing. The first group of logics for Physarum Chips formalizes the plasmodium behaviour under conditions of nutrient-poor substrate. This group can be defined as standard storage modification machines. The second group of logics for Physarum Chips covers the plasmodium computing under conditions of nutrient-rich substrate. In this case the plasmodium behaves in a massively parallel manner and propagates in all possible directions. The logics of the second group are unconventional and deal with non-well-founded data such as infinite streams.
Dialectic operator fuzzy logic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程晓春; 姜云飞; 刘叙华
1996-01-01
Dialectic operator fuzzy logic (DOFL) is presented which is relevant,paraconsistent and nonmonotonic.DOFL can vividly describe the belief revision in the cognitive process and can infer reasonably well while the knowledge is inconsistent,imprecise or incomplete.
Heterogeneous logics of competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...
Geneves, Pierre
2008-01-01
This thesis describes the theoretical and practical foundations of a system for the static analysis of XML processing languages. The system relies on a fixpoint temporal logic with converse, derived from the mu-calculus, where models are finite trees. This calculus is expressive enough to capture regular tree types along with multi-directional navigation in trees, while having a single exponential time complexity. Specifically the decidability of the logic is proved in time 2^O(n) where n is the size of the input formula. Major XML concepts are linearly translated into the logic: XPath navigation and node selection semantics, and regular tree languages (which include DTDs and XML Schemas). Based on these embeddings, several problems of major importance in XML applications are reduced to satisfiability of the logic. These problems include XPath containment, emptiness, equivalence, overlap, coverage, in the presence or absence of regular tree type constraints, and the static type-checking of an annotated query....
Reasoning, logic, and psychology.
Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel
2011-09-01
We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Poul Houman
Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...
Tan, Yong
2013-01-01
In this paper, author uses set theory to construct a logic model of abstract figure from binary relation. Based on the uniform quantified structure, author gives two logic system for graph traversal and graph coloring respectively, moreover shows a new method of cutting graph. Around this model, there are six algorithms in this paper including exact graph traversal, Algebra calculation of natural number, graph partition and graph coloring.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
1999-01-01
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
Logic and declarative language
Downward, M
2004-01-01
Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Simon Mumford takes a more 'logical' view of gramm
2010-01-01
@@ Many people enjoy puzzles and solving prob lems,and the use of an element of logic can make grammar exercises more interesting.Exercises such as putting words in order and clozes can be consid ered forms of puzzles,but there are many more op portunities to challenge more logically-minded stu dents.Here are some language puzzles for students and teachers alike.
Yanushkevich, Svetlana N
2008-01-01
Preface Design Process and Technology Theory of logic design Analysis and synthesis Implementation technologies Predictable technologies Contemporary CAD of logic networks Number Systems Positional numbers Counting in a positional number system Basic arithmetic operations in various number systems Binary arithmetic Radix-complement representations Techniques for conversion of numbers in various radices Overflow Residue arithmetic Other binary codes Redundancy and reliability Graphical Data Structures Graphs in discrete devices and systems design Basic definitions T
Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
2015-01-01
In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....
The Logic of the Physics of Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph E. Brenner
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A consensus is emerging that the multiple forms, functions and properties of information cannot be captured by a simple categorization into classical and quantum information. Similarly, it is unlikely that the applicable physics of information is a single classical discipline, completely expressible in mathematical terms, but rather a complex, multi- and trans-disciplinary field involving deep philosophical questions about the underlying structure of the universe. This paper is an initial attempt to present the fundamental physics of non-quantum information in terms of a novel non-linguistic logic. Originally proposed by the Franco-Romanian thinker Stéphane Lupasco (1900–1988, this logic, grounded in quantum mechanics, can reflect the dual aspects of real processes and their evolution at biological, cognitive and social levels of reality. In my update of this logical system—Logic in Reality (LIR—a change in perspective is required on the familiar notions in science and philosophy of causality, continuity and discontinuity, time and space. I apply LIR as a critique of current approaches to the physical grounding of information, focusing on its qualitative dualistic aspects at non-quantum levels as a set of physical processes embedded in a physical world.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulsara, Adi R., E-mail: bulsara@spawar.navy.mil [SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Dari, Anna, E-mail: adari@asu.edu [Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-9309 (United States); Ditto, William L., E-mail: william.ditto@asu.edu [Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-9309 (United States); Murali, K., E-mail: kmurali@annauniv.edu [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Sinha, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna@imsc.res.in [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India); Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Transit Campus: MGSIPAP Complex, Sector 26 Chandigarh (India)
2010-10-05
In a recent publication it was shown that, when one drives a two-state system with two square waves as input, the response of the system mirrors a logical output (NOR/OR). The probability of obtaining the correct logic response is controlled by the interplay between the noise-floor and the nonlinearity. As one increases the noise intensity, the probability of the output reflecting a NOR/OR operation increases to unity and then decreases. Varying the nonlinearity (or the thresholds) of the system allows one to morph the output into another logic operation (NAND/AND) whose probability displays analogous behavior. Thus, the outcome of the interplay of nonlinearity and noise is a flexible logic gate with enhanced performance. Here we review this concept of 'Logical Stochastic Resonance' (LSR) and provide details of an electronic circuit system demonstrating LSR. Our proof-of-principle experiment involves a particularly simple realization of a two-state system realized by two adjustable thresholds. We also review CMOS implementations of a simple LSR circuit, and the concatenation of these LSR modules to emulate combinational logic, such as data flip-flop and full adder operations.
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Logical Varieties in Normative Reasoning
Burgin, Mark; Mestdagh, de Vey
2011-01-01
Although conventional logical systems based on logical calculi have been successfully used in mathematics and beyond, they have definite limitations that restrict their application in many cases. For instance, the principal condition for any logical calculus is its consistency. At the same time, knowledge about large object domains (in science or in practice) is essentially inconsistent. Logical prevarieties and varieties were introduced to eliminate these limitations in a logically correct way. In this paper, the Logic of Reasonable Inferences is described. This logic has been applied successfully to model legal reasoning with inconsistent knowledge. It is demonstrated that this logic is a logical variety and properties of logical varieties related to legal reasoning are developed.
Falsification or Confirmation: From Logic to Psychology
Lukyanenko, Roman
2015-01-01
Corroboration or confirmation is a prominent philosophical debate of the 20th century. Many philosophers have been involved in this debate most notably the proponents of confirmation led by Hempel and its most powerful criticism by the falsificationists led by Popper. In both cases however the debates were primarily based on the arguments from logic. In this paper we review these debates and suggest that a different perspective on falsification versus confirmation can be taken by grounding arguments in cognitive psychology.
Discourse Preferences in Dynamic Logic
Jaspars, J; Jaspars, Jan; Kameyama, Megumi
1997-01-01
In order to enrich dynamic semantic theories with a `pragmatic' capacity, we combine dynamic and nonmonotonic (preferential) logics in a modal logic setting. We extend a fragment of Van Benthem and De Rijke's dynamic modal logic with additional preferential operators in the underlying static logic, which enables us to define defeasible (pragmatic) entailments over a given piece of discourse. We will show how this setting can be used for a dynamic logical analysis of preferential resolutions of ambiguous pronouns in discourse.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad
2016-01-01
Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines......’ knowledge bases. I will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention to the philosophy...... of constructivism and constructivist models of knowing. This research constructs a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts in the common ground between humanistic and informatics sciences and in the context of human-machine interplays....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad
2016-01-01
Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines......’ knowledge bases. I will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention to the philosophy...... of constructivism and constructivist models of knowing. This research constructs a conceptual ground for expressing and analysing concepts in the common ground between humanistic and informatics sciences and in the context of human-machine interplays....
Non-logic devices in logic processes
Ma, Yanjun
2017-01-01
This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes. Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.
Logic and truth: Some logics without theorems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jayanta Sen
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Two types of logical consequence are compared: one, with respect to matrix and designated elements and the other with respect to ordering in a suitable algebraic structure. Particular emphasis is laid on algebraic structures in which there is no top-element relative to the ordering. The significance of this special condition is discussed. Sequent calculi for a number of such structures are developed. As a consequence it is re-established that the notion of truth as such, not to speak of tautologies, is inessential in order to define validity of an argument.
Characterising equilibrium logic and nested logic programs: Reductions and complexity
Pearce, David; Woltran, Stefan
2009-01-01
Equilibrium logic is an approach to nonmonotonic reasoning that extends the stable-model and answer-set semantics for logic programs. In particular, it includes the general case of nested logic programs, where arbitrary Boolean combinations are permitted in heads and bodies of rules, as special kinds of theories. In this paper, we present polynomial reductions of the main reasoning tasks associated with equilibrium logic and nested logic programs into quantified propositional logic, an extension of classical propositional logic where quantifications over atomic formulas are permitted. We provide reductions not only for decision problems, but also for the central semantical concepts of equilibrium logic and nested logic programs. In particular, our encodings map a given decision problem into some formula such that the latter is valid precisely in case the former holds. The basic tasks we deal with here are the consistency problem, brave reasoning, and skeptical reasoning. Additionally, we also provide encoding...
Diagnosable structured logic array
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Prakash, Manu; Gershenfeld, Neil
2007-02-09
We demonstrate universal computation in an all-fluidic two-phase microfluidic system. Nonlinearity is introduced into an otherwise linear, reversible, low-Reynolds number flow via bubble-to-bubble hydrodynamic interactions. A bubble traveling in a channel represents a bit, providing us with the capability to simultaneously transport materials and perform logical control operations. We demonstrate bubble logic AND/OR/NOT gates, a toggle flip-flop, a ripple counter, timing restoration, a ring oscillator, and an electro-bubble modulator. These show the nonlinearity, gain, bistability, synchronization, cascadability, feedback, and programmability required for scalable universal computation. With increasing complexity in large-scale microfluidic processors, bubble logic provides an on-chip process control mechanism integrating chemistry and computation.
Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert
2004-01-01
Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...
Giordano, Paolo
2009-01-01
We introduce the ring of Fermat reals, an extension of the real field containing nilpotent infinitesimals. The construction takes inspiration from Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis (SIA), but provides a powerful theory of actual infinitesimals without any need of a background in mathematical logic. In particular, on the contrary with respect to SIA, which admits models only in intuitionistic logic, the theory of Fermat reals is consistent with classical logic. We face the problem to decide if the product of powers of nilpotent infinitesimals is zero or not, the identity principle for polynomials, the definition and properties of the total order relation. The construction is highly constructive, and every Fermat real admits a clear and order preserving geometrical representation. Using nilpotent infinitesimals, every smooth functions becomes a polynomial because in Taylor's formulas the rest is now zero. Finally, we present several applications to informal classical calculations used in Physics: now all these calc...
Rushton, Andrew
2011-01-01
Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...
Logic Programming for Linguistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2010-01-01
This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...... a computer is, can follow the text. I cannot, of course, cover all aspects of logic programming in this text, and so we give references to other sources with more details. Students of linguistics must have a very good motivation to spend time on programming, and I show here how logic programming can be used...... for modelling different linguistic phenomena. When modelling language in this way, as opposed to using only paper and pencil, your models go live: you can run and test your models and you can use them as automatic language analyzers. This way you will get a better understanding of the dynamics of languages...
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2009-01-01
The Propositional CalculusPropositional Connectives. Truth TablesTautologies Adequate Sets of Connectives An Axiom System for the Propositional Calculus Independence. Many-Valued LogicsOther AxiomatizationsFirst-Order Logic and Model TheoryQuantifiersFirst-Order Languages and Their Interpretations. Satisfiability and Truth. ModelsFirst-Order TheoriesProperties of First-Order Theories Additional Metatheorems and Derived Rules Rule C Completeness Theorems First-Order Theories with EqualityDefinitions of New Function Letters and Individual Constants Prenex Normal Forms Isomorphism of Interpretati
Stoll, Robert R
1979-01-01
Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artifacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D-algebra....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....
Reactive standard deontic logic
Gabbay, Dov M.; Straßer, Christian
2015-01-01
We introduce a reactive variant of SDL (standard deontic logic): SDLR1 (reactive standard deontic logic). Given a Kripkean view on the semantics of SDL in terms of directed graphs where arrows -> represent the accessibility relation between worlds, reactive models add two elements: arrows -> are labelled as 'active' or 'inactive', and double arrows a dagger connect arrows, e.g. (x(1) -> x(2)) a dagger (x(3) -> x(4)). The idea is that passing through x(1) -> x(2) activates a switch represented...
Rebuschi, Manuel
2009-01-01
One of the highlights of recent informal epistemology is its growing theoretical emphasis upon various notions of context. The present paper addresses the connections between knowledge and context within a formal approach. To this end, a "contextual epistemic logic", CEL, is proposed, which consists of an extension of standard S5 epistemic modal logic with appropriate reduction axioms to deal with an extra contextual operator. We describe the axiomatics and supply both a Kripkean and a dialogical semantics for CEL. An illustration of how it may fruitfully be applied to informal epistemological matters is provided.
Evens, Aden
2015-01-01
Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo
Gibson, J
2013-01-01
Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate
Linear Logical Voting Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten
2012-01-01
. In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise......Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification...... implementations that closely correspond to their legal specification, thereby increasing trust....
From logic design to logic programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snyers, D.; Thayse, A.
1987-01-01
The main purpose of the present book is to show that in the same way as P-functions can lead to algorithmic or imperative implementations via the algorithmic state machine model or via the parallel program schema, they can also lead to a declarative type of implementation via the theorem proving model. As P-functions are used for synthesizing algorithms, the result of the synthesis can be interpreted in terms of implementation tools. To the hardware, microprogrammed and programmed (in an algorithmic or imperative programming environment using fortran-like or pascal-like languages) implementations the authors can thus add logic programmed implementation as a possible result of the P-function calculus.
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Greek, Indian and Arabic logic
Gabbay, Dov M
2004-01-01
Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...
Mapping Individual Logical Processes
Smetana, Frederick O.
1975-01-01
A technique to measure and describe concisely a certain class of individual mental reasoning processes has been developed. The measurement is achieved by recording the complete dialog between a large, varied computerized information system with a broad range of logical operations and options and a human information seeker. (Author/RC)
Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism
Symons, John
2008-01-01
Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
Welty, Gordon A.
The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…
Krötzsch, Markus; Horrocks, Ian
2012-01-01
This paper provides a self-contained first introduction to description logics (DLs). The main concepts and features are explained with examples before syntax and semantics of the DL SROIQ are defined in detail. Additional sections review light-weight DL languages, discuss the relationship to the Web Ontology Language OWL and give pointers to further reading.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2014-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation...
Nonmonotonic logics and algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHAKRABORTY Mihir Kr; GHOSH Sujata
2008-01-01
Several nonmonotonie logic systems together with their algebraic semantics are discussed. NM-algebra is defined.An elegant construction of an NM-algebra starting from a Boolean algebra is described which gives rise to a few interesting algebraic issues.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars
2012-01-01
, separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...
Logic Programming for Linguistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2010-01-01
This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...
LOGICAL SEMANTICS OF MODULARIZATION
DELAVALETTE, GRR
1992-01-01
An algebra of theories, signatures, renamings and the operations import and export is investigated. A normal form theorem for terms of this algebra is proved. Another algebraic approach and the relation with a fragment of second order logic are also considered.
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2010-01-01
Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of p
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Logical analysis of biological systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian
2005-01-01
R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....
Preferential reasoning for modal logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...
Grzegorczyk, Dawid; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward
In this article there are presented a few methods of proving that can be adopted for epistemic logic. Those methods are used for proving sample thesis in a certain considered epistemic logic also described briefly in this work.
Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic
2014-01-01
This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics. The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field. The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...
Finding Unity in Computational Logic
Miller, Dale
2010-01-01
International audience; While logic was once developed to serve philosophers and mathematicians, it is increasingly serving the varied needs of computer scientists. In fact, recent decades have witnessed the creation of the new discipline of Computational Logic. While Computation Logic can claim involvement in diverse areas of computing, little has been done to systematize the foundations of this new discipline. Here, we envision a unity for Computational Logic organized around the proof theo...
Nguyen, Hung T
2005-01-01
THE CONCEPT OF FUZZINESS Examples Mathematical modeling Some operations on fuzzy sets Fuzziness as uncertainty Exercises SOME ALGEBRA OF FUZZY SETS Boolean algebras and lattices Equivalence relations and partitions Composing mappings Isomorphisms and homomorphisms Alpha-cuts Images of alpha-level sets Exercises FUZZY QUANTITIES Fuzzy quantities Fuzzy numbers Fuzzy intervals Exercises LOGICAL ASPECTS OF FUZZY SETS Classical two-valued logic A three-valued logic Fuzzy logic Fuzzy and Lukasiewi
Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.
2002-01-01
We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-04-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke
combined with state funding through a taximeter scheme (pay per student). Secondly, party governance system involving labor market partners at both national and local level formalized through a national Council for Vocational Training and 50 local trade committees as well as local education committees......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges...
Franceschet, Massimo
2010-01-01
Networks are pervasive in the real world. Nature, society, economy, and technology are supported by ostensibly different networks that in fact share an amazing number of interesting structural properties. Network thinking exploded in the last decade, boosted by the availability of large databases on the topology of various real networks, mainly the Web and biological networks, and converged to the new discipline of network analysis - the holistic analysis of complex systems through the study of the network that wires their components. Physicists mainly drove the investigation, studying the structure and function of networks using methods and tools of statistical mechanics. Here, we give an alternative perspective on network analysis, proposing a logic for specifying general properties of networks and a modular algorithm for checking these properties. The logic borrows from two intertwined computing fields: XML databases and model checking.
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the 'regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both 'regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Delay modeling in logic simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acken, J. M.; Goldstein, L. H.
1980-01-01
As digital integrated circuit size and complexity increases, the need for accurate and efficient computer simulation increases. Logic simulators such as SALOGS (SAndia LOGic Simulator), which utilize transition states in addition to the normal stable states, provide more accurate analysis than is possible with traditional logic simulators. Furthermore, the computational complexity of this analysis is far lower than that of circuit simulation such as SPICE. An eight-value logic simulation environment allows the use of accurate delay models that incorporate both element response and transition times. Thus, timing simulation with an accuracy approaching that of circuit simulation can be accomplished with an efficiency comparable to that of logic simulation. 4 figures.
Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash
2013-01-01
In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a logic...... defined for arbitrary distributions. These logics are not compact so one needs infinitary rules in order to obtain strong completeness results. We propose a new infinitary rule that replaces the so-called Countable Additivity Rule (CAR) currently used in the literature to address the problem of proving...
Bisimulations, games, and logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian
1994-01-01
In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game-theoretically a......-theoretically and logically in a non-interleaving model. Our characterizations appear as surprisingly simple extensions of corresponding characterizations of interleaving bisimulation....
Magnetoresistive logic and biochip
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brueckl, Hubert E-mail: brueckl@physik.uni-bielefeld.de; Brzeska, Monika; Brinkmann, Dirk; Schotter, J.Joerg; Reiss, Guenter; Schepper, Willi; Kamp, P.-B.; Becker, Anke
2004-11-01
While some magnetoresistive devices based on giant magnetoresistance or spin-dependent tunneling are already commercialized, a new branch of development is evolving towards magnetoresistive logic with magnetic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the new magnetoelectronic effects show promising properties in magnetoresistive biochips, which are capable of detecting even single molecules (e.g. DNA) by functionalized magnetic markers. The unclear limits of this approach are discussed with two model systems.
Teslenko, Maxim
2008-01-01
This dissertation is in the area of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) of digital Integrated Circuits (ICs). Today's digital ICs, such as microprocessors, memories, digital signal processors (DSPs), etc., range from a few thousands to billions of logic gates, flip-flops, and other components, packed in a few millimeters of area. The creation of such highly complex systems would not be possible without the use of CAD tools. CAD tools play the key role in determining the area, speed and power consumpt...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudin, M.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas NV (United States); O`Brien, M.C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
1995-04-01
A planning and management tool was developed that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems to technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. Although the Technology Logic Diagram has been widely used within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, it can be modified for use during the planning of any waste management and environmental cleanup effort.
Probabilistic Logical Characterization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto;
2011-01-01
Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance model...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....
1986-12-01
determining the consequences of assumptions about the behavior of a system . If the space of behaviors is represented by an envisionment , many such...consequences can be represented by pruning states from the envisionment . This paper provides a formal logic of occurrence which justifies the...algorithms involved and provides a language for relating specific histories to envisionments . The concepts and axioms are general enough to be applicable to
Complexity of validity for propositional dependence logics
Jonni Virtema
2014-01-01
We study the validity problem for propositional dependence logic, modal dependence logic and extended modal dependence logic. We show that the validity problem for propositional dependence logic is NEXPTIME-complete. In addition, we establish that the corresponding problem for modal dependence logic and extended modal dependence logic is NEXPTIME-hard and in NEXPTIME^NP.
Dynamic Logics of Dynamical Systems
Platzer, André
2012-01-01
We survey dynamic logics for specifying and verifying properties of dynamical systems, including hybrid systems, distributed hybrid systems, and stochastic hybrid systems. A dynamic logic is a first-order modal logic with a pair of parametrized modal operators for each dynamical system to express necessary or possible properties of their transition behavior. Due to their full basis of first-order modal logic operators, dynamic logics can express a rich variety of system properties, including safety, controllability, reactivity, liveness, and quantified parametrized properties, even about relations between multiple dynamical systems. In this survey, we focus on some of the representatives of the family of differential dynamic logics, which share the ability to express properties of dynamical systems having continuous dynamics described by various forms of differential equations. We explain the dynamical system models, dynamic logics of dynamical systems, their semantics, their axiomatizations, and proof calcul...
Disjunctive logic and semantics of disjunctive logic programs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈一栋
1997-01-01
In common sense reasoning with incomplete knowledge bases, conclusions are made by defaultHowever, it is observed that when the negation-by-default operator not is defined as not provable , the disjunctive logic program { a V b, not a, not b} should be consistent because a being not provable and b being nor provable does not imply a V b being riot provable. Such an observation is significant for non-monotonic reasoning, but none of the major current semantics for disjunctive logic programs is able to support it because they are all based on classical first-order logic in which assuming not a and not b implies assuming no: (a V b) A new first-order logic (disjunctive logic ) is developed that fully complies with this observation and new semantics for disjunctive logic programs are established This theory is able to formalize and solve some paradoxical problems, such as the lottery paradox
Instantaneous noise-based logic
Kish, Laszlo B; Peper, Ferdinand
2010-01-01
We show two universal, Boolean, deterministic logic schemes based on binary noise timefunctions that can be realized without time averaging units. The first scheme is based on a new bipolar random telegraph wave scheme and the second one makes use of the recent noise-based logic which is conjectured to be the brain's method of logic operations [Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 2338-2342, arXiv:0902.2033]. For binary-valued logic operations, the two simple Boolean schemes presented in this paper use zero (no noise) for the logic Low (L) state. In the random telegraph wave-based scheme, for multi-valued logic operations, additive superpositions of logic states must be avoided, while multiplicative superpositions utilizing hyperspace base vectors can still be utilized. These modifications, while keeping the information richness of multi-valued (noise-based) logic, result in a significant speedup of logic operations for the same signal bandwidth. The logic hyperspace of the first scheme results random telegraph waves...
Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic
Epstein, Richard L
2011-01-01
In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo
T Atanassov, Krassimir
2017-01-01
The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.
Flexible programmable logic module
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Krötzsch, M
2010-01-01
Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary
Computability, complexity, logic
Börger, Egon
1989-01-01
The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an
Substructural Logical Specifications
2012-11-14
a more natural correspondence with our physical intuitions about consumable resources. Linear conjunction A ⊗ B (“A tensor B”) represents the...sketch a radically different, vaguely Feynman - diagram-inspired, way of presenting traces in Figure 4.14. Resources are the edges in the DAG and steps or...70th Birthday, volume 17 of Studies in Logic. College Publications, 2008. 3.3.3, 4.1.2, 4.7.3 [Pfe12a] Frank Pfenning. Lecture notes on backtracking
Bright, Liam Kofi
2017-07-10
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer
A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.
Generalized logic in experience thinking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何华灿; 刘永怀; 何大庆; 成华
1996-01-01
The thinking and mathematical background of raising GL is explained first,then the main definitions and basic features of GL are presented,and finally the relationship between GL and other logic and the GL family are discussed.Although the research of GL just began,it may become the logic of all other logic.GL will be one of the basic theories in AI research,and has promising application.
Methods in Logic Based Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC-design met......Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
Admissibility of logical inference rules
Rybakov, VV
1997-01-01
The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and
Optimization methods for logical inference
Chandru, Vijay
2011-01-01
Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in
Barriers in Concurrent Separation Logic
Hobor, Aquinas; Gherghina, Cristian
We develop and prove sound a concurrent separation logic for Pthreads-style barriers. Although Pthreads barriers are widely used in systems, and separation logic is widely used for verification, there has not been any effort to combine the two. Unlike locks and critical sections, Pthreads barriers enable simultaneous resource redistribution between multiple threads and are inherently stateful, leading to significant complications in the design of the logic and its soundness proof. We show how our logic can be applied to a specific example program in a modular way. Our proofs are machine-checked in Coq.
Popular lectures on mathematical logic
Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete
Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor
The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid in the constru...
Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic
Gauthier, Yvon
2015-01-01
This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...
2005-01-01
A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true
Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic
Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan
2017-01-01
In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schumann, Andrew [University of Information Technology and Management, Sucharskiego 2, Rzeszow, 35-225 (Poland)
2015-03-10
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.
A beginner's guide to mathematical logic
Smullyan, Raymond M
2014-01-01
Combining stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic, this new textbook for first courses in mathematical logic was written by the subject's creative master. Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts with creative explanations and unique problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, recursion theory, and other topics.
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
low crosstalk packaging design for Josephson logic circuits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aoki, K.; Tazoh, Y.; Yoshikiyo, H.
1985-03-01
Theoretical and experimental studies are accomplished for inductive crosstalk noise reductions at Josephson chip-to-card connectors. This noise is induced by large AC power and high switching speed signal currents. The crosstalk mechanism was analyzed using a Partial Element Equivalent Circuits Model. Ground inductance causes not only crosstalk noise between connectors but also ground fluctuation noise inside the chip. This ground noise is large enough to cause false logic operations. Test chips and cards with improved connectors were produced for an experimental evaluation. Power crosstalk noise was measured using Josephson sampling circuits fabricated on the chip. The crosstalk noise - signal level ratio was less than 2.5%, when 250 MHz, 50 mA power currents were supplied. Crosstalk noise between neighboring signal connectors was also reduced to negligible level, including the worst case. These results favorably agree with calculations. This low crosstalk packaging design can be applied to high speed Josephson logic systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker
2012-01-01
We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-eﬀect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number...... of interesting program transformations that rely on eﬀect annotations. In particular, we prove a Parallelization Theorem, which expresses when it is sound to run two expressions in parallel instead of sequentially. The conditions are expressed solely in terms of the types and eﬀects of the expressions....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita
2003-01-13
Miniaturization has been an essential ingredient in the outstanding progress of information technology over the past fifty years. The next, perhaps ultimate, limit of miniaturization is that of molecules, which are the smallest entities with definite size, shape, and properties. Recently, great effort has been devoted to design and investigate molecular-level systems that are capable of transferring, processing, and storing information in binary form. Some of these nanoscale devices can, in fact, perform logic operations of remarkable complexity. This research--although far from being transferred into technology--is attracting interest, as the nanometer realm seems to be out of reach for the "top-down" techniques currently available to microelectronics industry. Moreover, such studies introduce new concepts in the "old" field of chemistry and stimulate the ingenuity of researchers engaged in the "bottom-up" approach to nanotechnology.
Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen
2012-01-01
In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Lars Bang
The problematic this thesis investigates, through a specific kind of structuralism derived from a reading of Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu and Gilles Deleuze, concerns how the subject becomes a science subject and potentially a scientist, with interest and literacy in science. The Logic...... of Science – a vivisection of monsters is thus an exploration of Being and Becoming in relation to Science and its Education. The investigation has been derived from, in, and connected to the Youth-to-Youth Project, a regional bridge building project in Northern Jutland in Denmark. The Youth-to-Youth Project...... (2011-2015) attempts to facilitate contact and provide a different kind of counselling and guidance between youths and youths who are ‘one step ahead’ in their educational trajectory. The meetings between the youths are both social and science subject oriented, and the intention is to establish...
Logical Modelling of Physarum Polycephalum
Schumann, Andrew
2011-01-01
We propose a novel model of unconventional computing where a structural part of computation is presented by dynamics of plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a large single cell. We sketch a new logical approach combining conventional logic with process calculus to demonstrate how to employ formal methods in design of unconventional computing media presented by Physarum polycephalum.
Flat coalgebraic fixed point logics
Schröder, Lutz
2010-01-01
Fixed point logics have a wide range of applications in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the mu-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the mu-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard mu-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded mu-calculus and the alternating-time mu-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches EXPTIME upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic mu-calculus but avo...
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...
Sasao, Tsutomu
2011-01-01
This book describes the synthesis of logic functions using memories. It is useful to design field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) that contain both small-scale memories, called look-up tables (LUTs), and medium-scale memories, called embedded memories. This is a valuable reference for both FPGA system designers and CAD tool developers, concerned with logic synthesis for FPGAs.
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...
Simulated Laboratory in Digital Logic.
Cleaver, Thomas G.
Design of computer circuits used to be a pencil and paper task followed by laboratory tests, but logic circuit design can now be done in half the time as the engineer accesses a program which simulates the behavior of real digital circuits, and does all the wiring and testing on his computer screen. A simulated laboratory in digital logic has been…
Logical Modelling of Physarum Polycephalum
Schumann, Andrew; Adamatzky, Andrew
2011-01-01
We propose a novel model of unconventional computing where a structural part of computation is presented by dynamics of plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a large single cell. We sketch a new logical approach combining conventional logic with process calculus to demonstrate how to employ formal methods in design of unconventional computing media presented by Physarum polycephalum.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
修勤
1995-01-01
In the red corner, Aristotle. In the blue corner, Buddha.It’s the fight of the century, and it’s a grudge match. "Fuzzy theory is wrong, wrong, and pernicious. What we need is more logical thinking, not less," fulminates Professor William Kahan of Berkeley. "Fuzzy logic is the cocaine of science. "
Propositional inquisitive logic: a survey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivano Ciardelli
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a concise survey of a body of recent work on propositional inquisitive logic. We review the conceptual foundations of inquisitive semantics, introduce the propositional system, discuss its relations with classical, intuitionistic, and dependence logic, and describe an important feature of inquisitive proofs.
Logical Querying of Relational Databases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luminita Pistol
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the usefulness of formal logic and lambda calculus in database programming. After a short introduction in propositional and first order logic, we implement dynamically a small database and translate some SQL queries in filtered java 8 streams, enhanced with Tuples facilities from jOOλ library.
Methods in Logic Based Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
Two-Qubit Quantum Logic Gate in Molecular Magnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Jing-Min; TIAN Li-Jun; GE Mo-Lin
2005-01-01
@@ We propose a scheme to realize a controlled-NOT quantum logic gate in a dimer of exchange coupled singlemolecule magnets, [Mn4]2. We chosen the ground state and the three low-lying excited states of a dimer in a finite longitudinal magnetic field as the quantum computing bases and introduced a pulsed transverse magnetic field with a special frequency. The pulsed transverse magnetic field induces the transitions between the quantum computing bases so as to realize a controlled-NOT quantum logic gate. The transition rates between a pair of the four quantum computing bases and between the quantum computing bases and excited states are evaluated and analysed.
An Introduction to Logic for Students of Physics and Engineering
Kolecki, Joseph C.
2004-01-01
A physicist with an engineering background, the author presents a brief tutorial on logic. In his work at NASA and in his encounters with students, he has often found that a firm grounding in basic logic is lacking - perhaps because there are so many other demands on people that time simply cannot be taken to really examine the roots of human reasoning. This report provides an overview of this all-too-important subject with the dual hope that it will suffice insofar as it goes and that it will spur at least some to further study.
Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus
2012-01-01
The duties of companies' chief marketing officers (CMOs) seem incompatible. They are expected to ensure that their company's market assets are properly exploited and recorded, while simultaneously enacting a proactive role in the company's business development. This study shows that about one...... in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics...
Nucleic acid based logical systems.
Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong
2014-05-12
Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Takeuchi, N; Yamanashi, Y; Yoshikawa, N
2014-01-01
.... However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices...
The Logic of Practice in the Practice of Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raviola, Elena; Dubini, Paola
2016-01-01
of logics through a six months full-time ethnographic study at Il Sole-24 Ore, the largest Italian financial newspaper, between 2007 and 2008. An original conceptual framework is developed to analyse how the logic of journalism is enacted vis-à-vis that of advertising in a setting in which an old technology...... for news production – print newspaper – coexists with a new one – website – and thus encounters between new and old technological possibilities make workings of institutional logics particularly visible. The findings point out different mechanisms of institutional work dealing with actions that, made...
Probabilistic Logic Programming under Answer Sets Semantics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王洁; 鞠实儿
2003-01-01
Although traditional logic programming languages provide powerful tools for knowledge representation, they cannot deal with uncertainty information (e. g. probabilistic information). In this paper, we propose a probabilistic logic programming language by introduce probability into a general logic programming language. The work combines 4-valued logic with probability. Conditional probability can be easily represented in a probabilistic logic program. The semantics of such a probabilistic logic program i...
Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits
2015-11-20
and their switching delays do not accumulate. This is in contrast to conventional logic circuits where gate delays are cascaded, resulting in a...transistor logic circuits wherein gate delays are cascaded resulting in increased latencies with increased logic elements. Thus directed- logic ... reverse biased at -5 V ( logic ‘1’) and the transmission is high when the bias voltage is zero ( logic ‘0’). So the switch works in the block/pass mode
Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Aristotelian logic and its perspectives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Correia
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The legitimacy of Aristotelian logic was questioned in the twentieth century. As a result, the question of whether it should be replaced or restored remains unanswered. To resolve this dilemma there have been new findings that show that it is a theory with internal development, which is independent from the provisions of mathematical logic. In this article, I show how to restore its internal unity, development prospects and independence, through the use of three axioms or rules allowing to incorporate indefinite terms in classical categorical and hypothetical syllogistic, which gives it a capacity able to be compared to monadic first order logic.
Coherence in Linear Predicate Logic
Dosen, K
2007-01-01
Coherence with respect to Kelly-Mac Lane graphs is proved for categories that correspond to the multiplicative fragment without constant propositions of classical linear first-order predicate logic without or with mix. To obtain this result, coherence is first established for categories that correspond to the multiplicative conjunction-disjunction fragment with first-order quantifiers of classical linear logic, a fragment lacking negation. These results extend results published in previous two books by the authors, where coherence was established for categories of the corresponding fragments of propositional classical linear logic, which are related to proof nets, and which could be described as star-autonomous categories without unit objects.
Handling Pressures of Community Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral
2013-01-01
The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...
Kral, M J
1994-01-01
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic
1993-01-01
The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...
Logical Theories for Agent Introspection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas
2004-01-01
Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...
Impossible Worlds and Logical Omniscience
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup
2013-01-01
the use of impossible worlds where the truths of logic can be false. As we shall see, if we admit impossible worlds where “anything goes” in modal space, it is easy to model extremely non-ideal agents that are incapable of performing even the most elementary logical deductions. A much harder...... falsehoods, they are nevertheless able to rule out blatantly impossible worlds that verify obvious logical falsehoods. To model moderately ideal agents, I argue, the job is to construct a modal space that contains only possible and non-trivially impossible worlds where it is not the case that “anything goes......In this paper, I investigate whether we can use a world-involving framework to model the epistemic states of non-ideal agents. The standard possible-world framework falters in this respect because of a commitment to logical omniscience. A familiar attempt to overcome this problem centers around...
Logic Gates with Ion Transistors
Grebel, Haim
2016-01-01
Electronic logic gates are the basic building blocks of every computing and micro controlling system. Logic gates are made of switches, such as diodes and transistors. Ion-selective, ionic switches may emulate electronic switches [1-8]. If we ever want to create artificial bio-chemical circuitry, then we need to move a step further towards ion-logic circuitry. Here we demonstrate ion XOR and OR gates with electrochemical cells, and specifically, with two wet-cell batteries. In parallel to vacuum tubes, the batteries were modified to include a third, permeable and conductive mid electrode (the gate), which was placed between the anode and cathode in order to affect the ion flow through it. The key is to control the cell output with a much smaller biasing power, as demonstrated here. A successful demonstration points to self-powered ion logic gates.
Logical Theories for Agent Introspection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas
2004-01-01
Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...
A profile of mathematical logic
DeLong, Howard
2012-01-01
This introduction to mathematical logic explores philosophical issues and Gödel's Theorem. Its widespread influence extends to the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, whose Pulitzer Prize-winning book was inspired by this work.
Dependence logic theory and applications
Kontinen, Juha; Väänänen, Jouko; Vollmer, Heribert
2016-01-01
In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning ...
Flow Logics and Operational Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
1998-01-01
Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....
A logic generator and validator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szabo, J.; Cain, D.G.; Okrent, D.
1985-05-01
The on-line monitoring of a power plant (or any process plant) has three primary functions: data acquisition, data analysis, and data presentation. Relative to the second of these functions, advanced methods for generating reliable data analysis computer codes are presented. The results are illustrated for a safety parameter display system that provides operators with a computer-graphic summary of a nuclear power plant's safety status. In the conventional method of analysis code production, the systems analyst or designer generates rules by which the plant status is being evaluated, while the transcription of those rules to a computer code is done separately by a programmer. Subsequently, the analysis code produced by the programmer must be validated against the specifications prepared by the systems analyst. A logic generator and logic validator are presented to streamline these processes. The logic generator acquires the relevant specifications through a systematic dialogue with the designer and then translates them automatically into an efficient computer logic code, thus solvin the problem of a designer who is not a programmer interfacing with a programmer who is not a designer. The logic generator enhances code reliability in two ways. First, it encourages the systems analyst to produce more reliable and relevant specifications because of the logical structured order in which the interactive session is being conducted. Second, because of the mass production mode b which the logic codes are being generated, proving once the correctness of the code production process ensures the accuracy of all codes to be generated in the future. In the postproduction stage, a logic validator enhances code reliability by displaying a structura overview of the data analysis code, allowing the user an additional opportunity for code evaluation.
Structural completeness in propositional logics of dependence
Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan
2016-01-01
In this paper we prove that three of the main propositional logics of dependence (including propositional dependence logic and inquisitive logic), none of which is structural, are structurally complete with respect to a class of substitutions under which the logics are closed. We obtain an analogous
Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems
Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke
2006-01-01
We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a
On Structural Completeness of Tabular Superintuitionistic Logics
Citkin, Alexander
2015-01-01
As usual, the superintuitionistic (propositional) logics (that is, logics extending intuitionistic logic) are being studied “modulo derivability”, meaning such logics are viewed extensionally — they are identified with the set of formulae that are valid (derivable in the corresponding calculus) in
Mathematics of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic
Bede, Barnabas
2013-01-01
This book presents a mathematically-based introduction into the fascinating topic of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic and might be used as textbook at both undergraduate and graduate levels and also as reference guide for mathematician, scientists or engineers who would like to get an insight into Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy Sets have been introduced by Lotfi Zadeh in 1965 and since then, they have been used in many applications. As a consequence, there is a vast literature on the practical applications of fuzzy sets, while theory has a more modest coverage. The main purpose of the present book is to reduce this gap by providing a theoretical introduction into Fuzzy Sets based on Mathematical Analysis and Approximation Theory. Well-known applications, as for example fuzzy control, are also discussed in this book and placed on new ground, a theoretical foundation. Moreover, a few advanced chapters and several new results are included. These comprise, among others, a new systematic and constructive approach for fuzzy infer...
PSPACE Bounds for Rank-1 Modal Logics
Schröder, Lutz
2007-01-01
For lack of general algorithmic methods that apply to wide classes of logics, establishing a complexity bound for a given modal logic is often a laborious task. The present work is a step towards a general theory of the complexity of modal logics. Our main result is that all rank-1 logics enjoy a shallow model property and thus are, under mild assumptions on the format of their axiomatisation, in PSPACE. This leads to a unified derivation of tight PSPACE-bounds for a number of logics including K, KD, coalition logic, graded modal logic, majority logic, and probabilistic modal logic. Our generic algorithm moreover finds tableau proofs that witness pleasant proof-theoretic properties including a weak subformula property. This generality is made possible by a coalgebraic semantics, which conveniently abstracts from the details of a given model class and thus allows covering a broad range of logics in a uniform way.
Continuous first order logic and local stability
Yaacov, Itaï Ben
2008-01-01
We develop continuous first order logic, a variant of the logic described in \\cite{Chang-Keisler:ContinuousModelTheory}. We show that this logic has the same power of expression as the framework of open Hausdorff cats, and as such extends Henson's logic for Banach space structures. We conclude with the development of local stability, for which this logic is particularly well-suited.
Competencies assessment using fuzzy logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matej Jevšček
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Research Question: Competencies evaluation is complex. The question is how to evaluate a competency which was assessed with 360° feedback, in one result using fuzzy logic tools so the result represents an actual competency development in an individual. Purpose: The purpose and goal of the study is to determine a possible process of competency evaluation that would enable creating a single competency assessment using fuzzy logic methods. Method: The theoretical part examines the current state and terminology of competencies and fuzzy logic. The empirical part consists of a quantitative research study. Data from the survey questionnaire was used for model testing. Results: An example of an »Initiative« competency evaluation model is created and tested in the research study. Testing confirmed that evaluation using fuzzy logic is efficient. Organization: The study directly affects the development of the HR function in organizations. It enables an easier and more oriented competency evaluation. Society: The study enables easier orientation in competencies development that can improve the social order as well as social responsibility and the environment indirectly. Originality: The study presents a new competency evaluation model using fuzzy logic. Limitations/Future Research: The study is restricted to one competency and certain assessors. Further research could explore the model with several assessors of the same rank.
Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beni Majid Davoody
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The relationship between Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language (hereafter LSL ([1934] 1937 and Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP ([1921] 1922 has been interpreted in several ways during past decades. One of the interpretations has gained keen advocates among Carnap scholars. It was originally provoked by what Caranp said in LSL, and it consists of two parts. First, it indicates that in TLP the possibility of speaking about the logical form of a language within the same language (which happens to be the only language that there is had been foresworn by Wittgenstein, but Carnap proved him wrong by producing a book (LSL written exactly in the manner which had been proscribed by Wittgenstein. This is the debate about the possibility of speaking about logical form.
Sequential operators in computability logic
Japaridze, Giorgi
2007-01-01
Computability logic (CL) (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html) is a semantical platform and research program for redeveloping logic as a formal theory of computability, as opposed to the formal theory of truth which it has more traditionally been. Formulas in CL stand for (interactive) computational problems, understood as games between a machine and its environment; logical operators represent operations on such entities; and "truth" is understood as existence of an effective solution, i.e., of an algorithmic winning strategy. The formalism of CL is open-ended, and may undergo series of extensions as the study of the subject advances. The main groups of operators on which CL has been focused so far are the parallel, choice, branching, and blind operators. The present paper introduces a new important group of operators, called sequential. The latter come in the form of sequential conjunction and disjunction, sequential quantifiers, and sequential recurrences. As the name may suggest, the algorithmic ...
Modal Calculus of Illocutionary Logic
Schumann, Andrew
2011-01-01
The aim of illocutionary logic is to explain how context can affect the meaning of certain special kinds of performative utterances. Recall that performative utterances are understood as follows: a speaker performs the illocutionary act (e.g. act of assertion, of conjecture, of promise) with the illocutionary force (resp. assertion, conjecture, promise) named by an appropriate performative verb in the way of representing himself as performing that act. In the paper I proposed many-valued interpretation of illocutionary forces understood as modal operators. As a result, I built up a non-Archimedean valued logic for formalizing illocutionary acts. A formal many-valued approach to illocutionary logic was offered for the first time.
Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar
2013-01-01
have a tendency correctly to assess valid syllogisms as such more often than correctly assessing invalid syllogisms as such. It is also investigated to what extent the students have improved their skills in practical reasoning by attending the logic courses. Finally, some open questions regarding......This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy students...... and two groups of students of informatics. The skills of the students in syllogistic reasoning before and after the logic courses have been studied and are discussed. The empirical observations made with the program make it possible to identify syllogisms which are found difficult by the students...
Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry
Wernet, Mark P.
1993-01-01
Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.
Logic, probability, and human reasoning.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
2015-04-01
This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.
2014-09-01
Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage.
The logical foundations of mathematics
Hatcher, William S
1981-01-01
The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anatoly D. Plotnikov
2001-01-01
Full Text Available For an arbitrary undirected graph G, we are designing a logical model for the Hamiltonian Cycle Problem (HCP, using tools of Boolean algebra only. The obtained model is a logic formulation of the conditions for the existence of the Hamiltonian cycle, and uses m Boolean variables, where m is the number of the edges of a graph. This Boolean expression is true if and only if an initial graph is Hamiltonian. In general, the obtained Boolean expression may have an exponential length (the number of Boolean literals and may be used for construction of the solution algorithm.
Lectures on Logic and Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
foundational, introductory and advanced courses, as well as workshops, covering a wide variety of topics within the three areas of interest: Language and Computation, Language and Logic, and Logic and Computation. During two weeks, around 50 courses and 10 workshops are offered to the attendants, each of 1.......5 hours per day during a five days week, with up to seven parallel sessions. ESSLLI also includes a student session (papers and posters by students only, 1.5 hour per day during the two weeks) and four evening lectures by senior scientists in the covered areas. The 6 course notes were carefully reviewed...
Ruspini, Enrique H.
1991-01-01
Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.
Logic programming with social features
Buccafurri, Francesco
2008-01-01
In everyday life it happens that a person has to reason about what other people think and how they behave, in order to achieve his goals. In other words, an individual may be required to adapt his behaviour by reasoning about the others' mental state. In this paper we focus on a knowledge representation language derived from logic programming which both supports the representation of mental states of individual communities and provides each with the capability of reasoning about others' mental states and acting accordingly. The proposed semantics is shown to be translatable into stable model semantics of logic programs with aggregates.
Handbook of logic and language
van Benthem, Johan
2010-01-01
This is an expanding field and the logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary playing a role in disciplines such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. Completely revised and updated, this new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as providing a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised a
A Logical Approach to Entanglement
Das, Abhishek
2016-10-01
In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.
Challenging institutional logics in Gourmet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Scheuer, John Damm
2015-01-01
This paper focuses on the initial phase of an organizational transformation. More precisely the paper analyses the moment where an institutional entrepreneur produces ideas, which have the capacity to break with existing logics and thus produces the potential for change by challenging existing fi...... field logics. The empirical case is the gastronomic field in Denmark and in the Nordic countries - more specifically the paper discusses the cook and entrepreneur Claus Meyers ambitions to realize a food-political vision; The New Nordic Kitchen. The theoretical contribution of the paper...
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
Ontologies based on Description Logics (DLs) have proved to be effective in formally sharing knowledge across semantic technologies, e.g. Semantic Web, Natural Language Processing, Text Analytics, Business intelligence. Our main goal is analysing ontology construction considering vagueness. We have...
A detection method for logic functions suitable for dual-logic synthesis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yinshui Xia; Fei Sun; Keyi Mao
2009-01-01
Logic functions can be implemented in either AND/OR/NOT-based traditional Boolean (TB) logic or AND/XOR-based Reed-Mul-ler (RM) logic. To the majority of logic functions, it will be beneficial to be partially implemented in both TB logic and RM logic, called dual-logic. In this paper, a detection condition favoring dual-logic synthesis is proposed. A corresponding detection algorithm is devel-oped and implemented in C. The algorithm is applied to test a set of MCNC91 benchmarks for verifying the algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than published ones.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Asassfeh, Sahail M
2014-01-01
The label of 'logical connectors' (LCs) or 'conjunction' suggests that these expressions constitute an area where linguistic intelligence and logical/mathematical intelligence are likely to intersect...
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-10-20
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ostermann, Klaus
2008-01-01
Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....
Generic physical protection logic trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Fuzzy Logic Indoor Positioning System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto García Sánz
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The GPS system is not valid for positioning indoors, thus positioning systems are designed using Wi-Fi technology that allows location of a device inside buildings. The use of fuzzy logic is argued by the failure to find positioning systems based on this technology, which seeks toobserve how their use in this field
Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois
2011-01-01
Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…
Symmetric Structure in Logic Programming
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin-Zhao Wu; Harald Fecher
2004-01-01
It is argued that some symmetric structure in logic programs could be taken into account when implementing semantics in logic programming. This may enhance the declarative ability or expressive power of the semantics. The work presented here may be seen as representative examples along this line. The focus is on the derivation of negative information and some other classic semantic issues. We first define a permutation group associated with a given logic program. Since usually the canonical models used to reflect the common sense or intended meaning are minimal or completed models of the program, we expose the relationships between minimal models and completed models of the original program and its so-called G-reduced form newly-derived via the permutation group defined. By means of this G-reduced form, we introduce a rule to assume negative information termed G-CWA, which is actually a generalization of the GCWA. We also develop the notions of G-definite, G-hierarchical and G-stratified logic programs, which are more general than definite, hierarchical and stratified programs, and extend some well-known declarative and procedural semantics to them, respectively.
Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions
Needleman, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.
The Logic of Quantum Measurements
Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto
2013-07-01
We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.
Martin, Donald; Steel, John
1988-01-01
This is the fourth volume of the proceeding of the Caltech-UCLA Logic Seminar, based mainly on material which was presented and discussed in the period 1981-85, but containing also some very recent results. It includes research papers dealing with determinacy hypotheses and their consequences in descriptive set theory. An appendix contains the new Victoria Delfino Problems.
Handling Pressures of Community Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral
2013-01-01
The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social relat...
Logic Programming and Knowledge Maintenance.
1987-08-13
the literature , and became convinced that many of the advantages of frames and semantic nets can be captured in logic programming systems by a...consists of: needs(john,money). married_to(john,mary). loves(john,mary). (mary is the dead victim in this thriller .) The victim’s sister sara consists of
Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective
Dogan, Hamide
2016-01-01
Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olbright, G.R.; Bryan, R.P.; Brennan, T.M.; Lear, K.; Poirier, G.E.; Fu, W.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Jewell, J.L.; Lee, Y.H. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))
1990-10-31
We describe a new class of optical logic devices which consist of integrated phototransistors and surface-emitting lasers. The devices function as optical neurons having high gain and, as arrays, are ideal for neural networks, parallel optical signal processing and optical computing applications. 3 refs., 3 figs.
Model checking mobile stochastic logic.
De Nicola, Rocco; Katoen, Joost P.; Latella, Diego; Loreti, Michele; Massink, Mieke
2007-01-01
The Temporal Mobile Stochastic Logic (MOSL) has been introduced in previous work by the authors for formulating properties of systems specified in STOKLAIM, a Markovian extension of KLAIM. The main purpose of MOSL is to address key functional aspects of global computing such as distribution
Model checking mobile stochastic logic.
De Nicola, Rocco; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Latella, Diego; Loreti, Michele; Massink, Mieke
2007-01-01
The Temporal Mobile Stochastic Logic (MOSL) has been introduced in previous work by the authors for formulating properties of systems specified in STOKLAIM, a Markovian extension of KLAIM. The main purpose of MOSL is to address key functional aspects of global computing such as distribution awarenes
Fuzzy logic controllers on chip
Acosta, Nelson; Simonelli, Daniel Horacio
2002-01-01
This paper analyzes a fuzzy logic (FL) oriented instruction set (micro)controller and their implementations on FIPSOC1. VHDL code is synthesized using a small portion of FIPSOC FPGA2. This circuits are used from the mP8051 FIPSOC built-in microcontroller to provide efficient arithmetic operations such as multipliers, dividers, minimums and maximums.
Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy student...
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈理
1997-01-01
A fuzzy logic control VLSI chip,F100,for industry process real-time control has been designed and fabricated with 0.8μm CMOS technology.The chip has the features of simplicity,felexibility and generality.This paper presents the Fuzzy control inrerence method of the chip,its VLSI implementation,and testing esign consideration.
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Covering, Packing and Logical Inference
1993-10-01
of Operations Research 43 (1993). [34] *Hooker, J. N., Generalized resolution for 0-1 linear inequalities, Annals of Mathematics and A 16 271-286. [35...Hooker, J. N. and C. Fedjki, Branch-and-cut solution of inference prob- lems in propositional logic, Annals of Mathematics and AI 1 (1990) 123-140. [40
Mathematical Programming and Logical Inference
1990-12-01
solution of inference problems in propositional logic, to appear in Annals of Mathematics and Al. (271 Howard, R. A., and J. E. Matheson, Influence...1981). (281 Jeroslow, R., and J. Wang, Solving propositional satisfiability problems, to appear in Annals of Mathematics and Al. [29] Nilsson, N. J
PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Booth, R
2012-09-01
Full Text Available in which a formula holds. The semantics is in terms of ranked models as studied in KLM-style preferential reasoning. This allows us to show that rational consequence relations can be embedded in our logic. Moreover we show that we can define consequence...
Awodey, Steve
2010-01-01
From a logical point of view, Stone duality for Boolean algebras relates theories in classical propositional logic and their collections of models. The theories can be seen as presentations of Boolean algebras, and the collections of models can be topologized in such a way that the theory can be recovered from its space of models. The situation can be cast as a formal duality relating two categories of syntax and semantics, mediated by homming into a common dualizing object, in this case $2$. In the present work, we generalize the entire arrangement from propositional to first-order logic. Boolean algebras are replaced by Boolean categories presented by theories in first-order logic, and spaces of models are replaced by topological groupoids of models and their isomorphisms. A duality between the resulting categories of syntax and semantics, expressed first in the form of a contravariant adjunction, is established by homming into a common dualizing object, now $\\Sets$, regarded once as a boolean category, and...
Harris, Tina
2015-04-29
Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.
Learning fuzzy logic control system
Lung, Leung Kam
1994-01-01
The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the
A Game Theoretic Sensor Resource Allocation Using Fuzzy Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen C. Stubberud
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A sensor resource management system that employs fuzzy logic to provide the utility functions to a game theoretic approach is developed. The application looks at a virtual fence problem where several unattended ground sensors are placed in remote locations to act as virtual sentries. The goal of the approach is to maximize the battery life while tracking targets of interest. This research also considers the incorporation of uncertainty into the fuzzy membership functions. Both type-2 fuzzy logic and the use of conditional fuzzy membership function are employed. The type-2 fuzzy logic is employed in the case of acoustical sensor tracking accuracy degradation, while the condition-based membership functions are used to adapt to different conditions, such as environmental conditions and sensor performance degradation, over time. The resource management process uses fuzzy logic to determine which of the sensor systems on a sensor pod is used to provide initial classification of the target and which sensor or sensors are to be used in tracking and better classifying the target if it is determined to be of value to the mission. The three different approaches are compared to determine when the best times for the more complex approaches are warranted.
FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Gonul BALKIR
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Preface. Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schumann Andrew
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This volume contains the papers presented at the Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic Affiliated Workshop of Krakow Conference on History of Logic (KHL2016, held on October 27, 2016, in Krakow, Poland.
Logic functions and equations examples and exercises
Steinbach, Bernd
2009-01-01
With a free, downloadable software package available to help solve the exercises, this book focuses on practical and relevant problems that arise in the field of binary logics, with its two main applications - digital circuit design, and propositional logics.
Mathematical logic foundations for information science
Li, Wei
2010-01-01
This book presents the basic principles and formal calculus of mathematical logic. It covers core contents, extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, and it offers formal proofs and concrete examples for all theoretical results.
Process algebra with four-valued logic
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2000-01-01
We propose a combination of a fragment of four-valued logic and process algebra. We present an operational semantics in SOS-style, and a completeness result for ACP with conditionals and four-valued logic.
Towards practical defeasible reasoning for description logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Casini, G
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The formalisation of defeasible reasoning in automated systems is becoming increasingly important. Description Logics (DLs) are nowadays the main logical formalism in the field of formal ontologies. Our focus in this paper is to devise a practical...
A predicate spatial logic for mobile processes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Huimin
2004-01-01
A modal logic for describing temporal as well as spatial properties of mobile processes, expressed in the asynchronous π-calculus, is presented. The logic has recursive constructs built upon predicate-variables. The semantics of the logic is established and shown to be monotonic, thus guarantees the existence of fixpoints. An algorithm is developed to automatically check if a mobile process has properties described as formulas in the logic. The correctness of the algorithm is proved.
Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof
Agler, David
2012-01-01
Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Symbolic Logic: Syntax, Semantics, and Proof introduces students to the fundamental concepts, techniques, and topics involved in deductive reasoning. Agler guides students through the basics of symbolic logic by explaining the essentials of two classical systems, propositional and predicate logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into
A Logic for Diffusion in Social Networks
Christoff, Z.; Hansen, J.U.
2015-01-01
This paper introduces a general logical framework for reasoning about diffusion processes within social networks. The new "Logic for Diffusion in Social Networks" is a dynamic extension of standard hybrid logic, allowing to model complex phenomena involving several properties of agents. We provide a
Set Constraints and Logic Programming (Preprint)
2016-02-24
Assoc Comput Sci Logic Springer September A Aiken D Kozen and E Wimmers Decidability of systems of set constraints with negative...Extensions of Logic Programming ELP volume of Lect Notes Articial Intell pages Springer February J Englefriet Tree... Springer September D Kozen Set constraints and logic programming abstract In JP Jouannaud editor Proc First Conf Constraints in
Weak Completeness of Coalgebraic Dynamic Logics
Kupke, C.; Hansen, H.H.
2015-01-01
We present a coalgebraic generalisation of Fischer and Ladner’s Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL) and Parikh’s Game Logic (GL). In earlier work, we proved a generic strong completeness result for coalgebraic dynamic logics without iteration. The coalgebraic semantics of such programs is given by a m
Weak Completeness of Coalgebraic Dynamic Logics
Hansen, H.H.; Kupke, C.A.
2015-01-01
We present a coalgebraic generalisation of Fischer and Ladner's Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL) and Parikh's Game Logic (GL). In earlier work, we proved a generic strong completeness result for coalgebraic dynamic logics without iteration. The coalgebraic semantics of such programs is given by a m
Dialogues as a dynamic framework for logic
Rückert, Helge
2007-01-01
Dialogical logic is a game-theoretical approach to logic. Logic is studied with the help of certain games, which can be thought of as idealized argumentations. Two players, the Proponent, who puts forward the initial thesis and tries to defend it, and the Opponent, who tries to attack the
Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2010-01-01
In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Connecting Logics of Choice and Change
van Benthem, J.; Pacuit, E.; Müller, T.
2014-01-01
This chapter is an attempt at clarifying the current scene of sometimes competing action logics, looking for compatibilities and convergences. Current paradigms for deliberate action fall into two broad families: dynamic logics of events, and STIT logics of achieving specified effects. We compare th
An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
1998-01-01
This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic c...
Lakoff on Linguistics and Natural Logic.
Wilks, Yorick
This paper examines and criticizes Lakoff's notions of a natural logic and of a generative semantics described in terms of logic. The author argues that the relationship of these notions to logic as normally understood is unclear but suggests a number of possible interpretations of the thesis of generative semantics. Further, on these…
A Framed Temporal Logic Programming Language
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhen-Hua Duan; Maciej Koutny
2004-01-01
We discuss the projection temporal logic (PTL), based on a primitive projection operator, prj. A framing technique is also presented, using which a synchronization operator, await, is defined within the underlying logic. A framed temporal logic programming language (FTLL) is presented. To illustrate how to use both the language and framing technique, some examples are given.
The dynamic turn in quantum logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic
Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.
1998-01-01
Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.
Barsalou, Lawrence W
2008-01-01
Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.
Flow Logic for Process Calculi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik
2012-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction...... and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments...
Logic circuits from zero forcing
Burgarth, Daniel; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael
2011-01-01
We design logical circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity.
Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz
2014-01-01
, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...... normalisation, where all rules dual to standard ones are permuted up in the derivation. The result is a decomposition theorem having cut elimination and interpolation as corollaries.......We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus...
Programming Games for Logical Thinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Tsalapatas
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.
The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths
García Álvarez, Edgardo T.
The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.
Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2013-01-01
interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....
The logic of medical diagnosis.
Stanley, Donald E; Campos, Daniel G
2013-01-01
Establishing diagnoses is a crucial aspect of medical practice. However, this process has received comparatively little logical and pedagogical attention when compared to statistical methods for evaluating evidence. This article investigates the logic of medical diagnosis in order to fill this void. It is organized in three parts: the first attempts to explain why more attention ought to be paid to diagnosis, at least as much as to evidence; the second calls attention to the method of diagnosis by abductive reasoning developed in the 19th century by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914); and the third demonstrates the use and pervasiveness of abduction by any other name in clinical diagnosis. We examine six diagnostic strategies in common use that contain most, if not all, of Peirce's structure of inquiry in science.
Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction
Conradie, Willem
2015-01-01
A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy
Logical design for computers and control
Dodd, Kenneth N
1972-01-01
Logical Design for Computers and Control Logical Design for Computers and Control gives an introduction to the concepts and principles, applications, and advancements in the field of control logic. The text covers topics such as logic elements; high and low logic; kinds of flip-flops; binary counting and arithmetic; and Boolean algebra, Boolean laws, and De Morgan's theorem. Also covered are topics such as electrostatics and atomic theory; the integrated circuit and simple control systems; the conversion of analog to digital systems; and computer applications and control. The book is recommend
Parallel optical logic operations on reversible networks
Shamir, Joseph
2013-03-01
A generic optical network architecture is proposed for the implementation of programmable logic operations. Based on reversible optical gate elements the processor is highly energy efficient and intrinsically fast. In this architecture the whole logic operation is executed by light propagating through the system with no energy dissipation. Energy must be spent only at the input interface and at discrete locations where the logic operation results are to be detected. As a consequence, the theoretical lower limit for energy dissipation in logic operations must be reconsidered. The strength of this approach is demonstrated by examples showing the implementation of various lossless logic operations, including Half Adder and Full Adder.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林允清
2014-01-01
The notion of logical form plays a central role in the philosophy of language and in linguistics . But what logical form is has not been clear . In this paper I first survey the uses of logical form , and show that this notion has no well-defined meaning . I then discuss three main motivations behind invoking logical form , and argue that two of them are unwarranted , and the third can be satisfied by an approach to the logic of ordinary language that is based on the idea of sentence frames , rather than on the traditional idea of subject and predicate .
Functional Interpretations of Intuitionistic Linear Logic
Ferreira, Gilda
2010-01-01
We present three different functional interpretations of intuitionistic linear logic ILL and show how these correspond to well-known functional interpretations of intuitionistic logic IL via embeddings of IL into ILL. The main difference from previous work of the second author is that in intuitionistic linear logic (as opposed to classical linear logic) the interpretations of !A are simpler and simultaneous quantifiers are no longer needed for the characterisation of the interpretations. We then compare our approach in developing these three proof interpretations with the one of de Paiva around the Dialectica category model of linear logic.
Moot, Richard
2007-01-01
This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.
Logic, Probability, and Human Reasoning
2015-01-01
3–6] and they underlie mathematics , science, and tech- nology [7–10]. Plato claimed that emotions upset reason - ing. However, individuals in the grip...Press 10 Nickerson, R. (2011) Mathematical Reasoning : Patterns, Problems, Conjectures, and Proofs, Taylor & Francis 11 Blanchette, E. and Richards, A...Logic, probability, and human reasoning P.N. Johnson-Laird1,2, Sangeet S. Khemlani3, and Geoffrey P. Goodwin4 1 Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
Session Types in Abelian Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoichi Hirai
2013-12-01
Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.
Logical impossibilities in biological networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monendra Grover
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Biological networks are complex and involve several kinds of molecules. For proper biological function it is important for these biomolecules to act at an individual level and act at the level of interaction of these molecules. In this paper some of the logical impossibilities that may arise in the biological networks and their possible solutions are discussed. It may be important to understand these paradoxes and their possible solutions in order to develop a holistic view of biological function.
Anaesthesia monitoring using fuzzy logic.
Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Kouzani, Abbas; Harrison, Michael J
2011-10-01
Humans have a limited ability to accurately and continuously analyse large amount of data. In recent times, there has been a rapid growth in patient monitoring and medical data analysis using smart monitoring systems. Fuzzy logic-based expert systems, which can mimic human thought processes in complex circumstances, have indicated potential to improve clinicians' performance and accurately execute repetitive tasks to which humans are ill-suited. The main goal of this study is to develop a clinically useful diagnostic alarm system based on fuzzy logic for detecting critical events during anaesthesia administration. The proposed diagnostic alarm system called fuzzy logic monitoring system (FLMS) is presented. New diagnostic rules and membership functions (MFs) are developed. In addition, fuzzy inference system (FIS), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and clustering techniques are explored for developing the FLMS' diagnostic modules. The performance of FLMS which is based on fuzzy logic expert diagnostic systems is validated through a series of off-line tests. The training and testing data set are selected randomly from 30 sets of patients' data. The accuracy of diagnoses generated by the FLMS was validated by comparing the diagnostic information with the one provided by an anaesthetist for each patient. Kappa-analysis was used for measuring the level of agreement between the anaesthetist's and FLMS's diagnoses. When detecting hypovolaemia, a substantial level of agreement was observed between FLMS and the human expert (the anaesthetist) during surgical procedures. The diagnostic alarm system FLMS demonstrated that evidence-based expert diagnostic systems can diagnose hypovolaemia, with a substantial degree of accuracy, in anaesthetized patients and could be useful in delivering decision support to anaesthetists.
Conceptual Modeling via Logic Programming
1990-01-01
interfaces. nism which does not depend on Unix file The object-oriented nature of ProWIN- descriptors. One of the significant problems DOWS (which...Sweet, to CLOS. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, "Evaluating Alternative Air Defense 1988. Architectures," Signal, January 1987. Kernighan , B., and D...and sity of Waterloo, 1977. Sons, 1988. Robinson, J., "A Machine-Oriented Logic Unix Interface Overview. Mountain View, Based on the Resolution
Skelton, R M
1995-04-01
This paper introduces the reader to modern logic, more particularly the branch of logic called 'Model Theory', which is extensively used by Bion. Logic today is no longer described as the study of 'valid inference', but rather by the notion of consistency of beliefs. This central concern of the logician with consistency is also seen to be that of the psychoanalyst when he aims for eventual resolution of conflict between a patient's contradictory beliefs. Models are explained as the use of the already familiar to explain the unfamiliar, as when, for example, we invoke our familiar planetary system to understand the complex structure of the atom. In psychoanalysis we seek to find the old childhood models underpinning a patient's contemporary model of himself and others. Thus both Model Theory and psychoanalysis are interested in how we 'see the new in terms of the old'. Finally, the creation of models is assimilated to the integrative tendency of depressive activity and the dissolving or collapsing of models linked to paranoid-schizoid activity. As these two processes in the individual are linked by Bion we can see human beings as continually oscillating between creating and destroying models of their inner and outer worlds.
Cosmic logic: a computational model
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-02-01
We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.
Kramer, Simon
2012-01-01
We propose a logic of interactive proofs as the first and main step towards an intuitionistic foundation for interactive computation to be obtained via an interactive analog of the G\\"odel-Kolmogorov-Art\\"emov definition of intuitionistic logic as embedded into a classical modal logic of proofs, and of the Curry-Howard isomorphism between intuitionistic proofs and typed programs. Our interactive proofs effectuate a persistent epistemic impact in their intended communities of peer reviewers that consists in the induction of the (propositional) knowledge of their proof goal by means of the (individual) knowledge of the proof with the interpreting reviewer. That is, interactive proofs effectuate a transfer of propositional knowledge---(to-be-)known facts---via the transfer of certain individual knowledge---(to-be-)known proofs---in distributed and multi-agent systems. In other words, we as a community can have the formal common knowledge that a proof is that which if known to one of our peer members would induce...
MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation
Ilyas, Saad
2017-06-22
We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041
Interpolation Methods for Dunn Logics and Their Extensions
S. Wintein (Stefan); Muskens, R. (Reinhard)
2017-01-01
textabstractThe semantic valuations of classical logic, strong Kleene logic, the logic of paradox and the logic of first-degree entailment, all respect the Dunn conditions: we call them Dunn logics. In this paper, we study the interpolation properties of the Dunn logics and extensions of these
The open logic and its relation to circumscription
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林作铨; 李未
1999-01-01
The open logic is defined by model theory which can be viewed as a process-based nonmonotonic logic. Some new notions and results of open logic are introduced. The relation of open logic to circumscription is studied, and the relationship between open logic and other nonmonotonic logics is pointed out as well.
Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab
Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N
2006-01-01
Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.
All-photonic multifunctional molecular logic device.
Andréasson, Joakim; Pischel, Uwe; Straight, Stephen D; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens
2011-08-03
Photochromes are photoswitchable, bistable chromophores which, like transistors, can implement binary logic operations. When several photochromes are combined in one molecule, interactions between them such as energy and electron transfer allow design of simple Boolean logic gates and more complex logic devices with all-photonic inputs and outputs. Selective isomerization of individual photochromes can be achieved using light of different wavelengths, and logic outputs can employ absorption and emission properties at different wavelengths, thus allowing a single molecular species to perform several different functions, even simultaneously. Here, we report a molecule consisting of three linked photochromes that can be configured as AND, XOR, INH, half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer, encoder, decoder, keypad lock, and logically reversible transfer gate logic devices, all with a common initial state. The system demonstrates the advantages of light-responsive molecules as multifunctional, reconfigurable nanoscale logic devices that represent an approach to true molecular information processing units.
Strong Completeness of Coalgebraic Modal Logics
Schröder, Lutz
2009-01-01
Canonical models are of central importance in modal logic, in particular as they witness strong completeness and hence compactness. While the canonical model construction is well understood for Kripke semantics, non-normal modal logics often present subtle difficulties - up to the point that canonical models may fail to exist, as is the case e.g. in most probabilistic logics. Here, we present a generic canonical model construction in the semantic framework of coalgebraic modal logic, which pinpoints coherence conditions between syntax and semantics of modal logics that guarantee strong completeness. We apply this method to reconstruct canonical model theorems that are either known or folklore, and moreover instantiate our method to obtain new strong completeness results. In particular, we prove strong completeness of graded modal logic with finite multiplicities, and of the modal logic of exact probabilities.
Properties of Measure-based Fuzzy Logic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Measure-based fuzzy logic, which is constructed on the basis of eight axioms, is a seemingly powerful fuzzy logic. It possesses several remarkable properties. (1) It is an extended Boolean logic, satisfying all the properties of Boolean algebra, including the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction. (2) It is conditional. Conditional membership functions play an important role in this logic. (3) The negation operator is not independently defined with the conjunction and disjunction operators, but on the contrary, it is derived from them. (4) Zadehs fuzzy logic is included in it as a particular case. (5) It gives more hints to the relationship between fuzzy logic and probability logic.
Probabilistic Dynamic Logic of Phenomena and Cognition
Vityaev, Evgenii; Perlovsky, Leonid; Smerdov, Stanislav
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop further the main concepts of Phenomena Dynamic Logic (P-DL) and Cognitive Dynamic Logic (C-DL), presented in the previous paper. The specific character of these logics is in matching vagueness or fuzziness of similarity measures to the uncertainty of models. These logics are based on the following fundamental notions: generality relation, uncertainty relation, simplicity relation, similarity maximization problem with empirical content and enhancement (learning) operator. We develop these notions in terms of logic and probability and developed a Probabilistic Dynamic Logic of Phenomena and Cognition (P-DL-PC) that relates to the scope of probabilistic models of brain. In our research the effectiveness of suggested formalization is demonstrated by approximation of the expert model of breast cancer diagnostic decisions. The P-DL-PC logic was previously successfully applied to solving many practical tasks and also for modelling of some cognitive processes.
kLog: A Language for Logical and Relational Learning with Kernels
Frasconi, Paolo; De Raedt, Luc; De Grave, Kurt
2012-01-01
kLog is a logical and relational language for kernel-based learning. It allows users to specify logical and relational learning problems at a high level in a declarative way. It builds on simple but powerful concepts: learning from interpretations, entity/relationship data modeling, logic programming and deductive databases (Prolog and Datalog), and graph kernels. kLog is a statistical relational learning system but unlike other statistical relational learning models, it does not represent a probability distribution directly. It is rather a kernel-based approach to learning that employs features derived from a grounded entity/relationship diagram. These features are derived using a novel technique called graphicalization: first, relational representations are transformed into graph based representations; subsequently, graph kernels are employed for defining feature spaces. kLog can use numerical and symbolic data, background knowledge in the form of Prolog or Datalog programs (as in inductive logic programmin...
The logic of relations and the logic of management.
Buntinx, W
2008-07-01
Increasing emphasis on financial and administrative control processes is affecting service culture in support organisations for persons with intellectual disability. This phenomenon is currently obvious in Dutch service organisations that find themselves in transition towards more community care and at the same time under pressure from new administrative and funding managerial bureaucracy. As a result, the logic of management is becoming more dominant in direct support settings and risk to overshadow the logic of relationships between staff and clients. The article presents a reflection on this phenomenon, starting from a description of service team characteristics as found in the literature. Next, findings about direct support staff (DSS) continuity are summarised from four Dutch studies. Following up these findings, the concept of 'microsystems' is explored as a possible answer to the organisational challenges demonstrated in the studies. Team characteristics, especially team size and membership continuity for DSS, appear relevant factors for assuring supportive relationships and service quality in direct support teams. The structure of the primary support team shows to be of special interest. The organisational concept of 'microsystems' is explored with respect to transcending the present conflict between bureaucratic managerial pressure and the need for supportive relationships. Service organisations need to create structural conditions for the efficacy of direct support teams in terms of client relationships and relevant client outcomes. At the same time, the need for administrative and control processes can not be denied. The concept of 'microsystems', application of a Quality of Life framework and the use of new instruments, such as the Supports Intensity Scale, can contribute to an organisational solution for the present conflicting logic of relations and management.
Rethinking Service Companies’ Business Logic: Do We Need a Customer-Dominant Logic as a Guideline?
Heinonen, kristina; Strandvik, Tore; Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob; Edvardsson, Bo; Sundström, Erik; Andersson, Per
2009-01-01
Purpose –This paper explores and expands the roles of customers and companies in creating value by introducing a new a customer-based approach to service. The customer’s logic is examined as being the foundation of a customer-based marketing and business logic. Design/methodology/approach – The authors argue that both goods-dominant logics and service-dominant logics are provider-dominant. Contrasting the customer-dominant logic with provider-dominant logics, the paper examines the creation o...
Contributions to Logical Database Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitalie COTELEA
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper treats the problems arising at the stage of logical database design. It comprises a synthesis of the most common inference models of functional dependencies, deals with the problems of building covers for sets of functional dependencies, makes a synthesizes of normal forms, presents trends regarding normalization algorithms and provides a temporal complexity of those. In addition, it presents a summary of the most known keys’ search algorithms, deals with issues of analysis and testing of relational schemes. It also summarizes and compares the different features of recognition of acyclic database schemas.
Logical inferences in discourse analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘峰廷
2014-01-01
Cohesion and coherence are two important characteristics of discourses. Halliday and Hasan have pointed out that cohesion is the basis of coherence and coherence is the premise of forming discourse. The commonly used cohesive devices are: preference, ellipsis, substitution, etc. Discourse coherence is mainly manifested in sentences and paragraphs. However, in real discourse analysis environment, traditional methods on cohesion and coherence are not enough. This article talks about the conception of discourse analysis at the beginning. Then, we list some of the traditional cohesive devices and its uses. Following that, we make corpus analysis. Finally, we explore and find a new device in textual analysis:discourse logical inferences.
Universal Algebra and Mathematical Logic
Luo, Zhaohua
2011-01-01
In this paper, first-order logic is interpreted in the framework of universal algebra, using the clone theory developed in three previous papers. We first define the free clone T(L, C) of terms of a first order language L over a set C of parameters in a standard way. The free right algebra F(L, C) of formulas over T(L, C) is then generated by atomic formulas. Structures for L over C are represented as perfect valuations of F(L, C), and theories of L are represented as filters of F(L). Finally Godel's completeness theorem and first incompleteness theorem are stated as expected.
Klein, Moshe; Maimon, Oded
2016-11-01
We strive to understand, by using mathematical tools, the phenomena where the observer can interpret simultaneously opposite situations, such as the distinct interpretations of the Necker cube. In this study we present a new coordinate system that draws a distinction between -0 and +0. The central theorem presented here postulates that when divisions and multiplications of 0 are combined with real numbers, the Mobius strip provides a model for non-standard analysis. We also suggest that the axis 0 is the fifth dimension extension of the quaternions. We also propose to add the soft logic capability to humanoid type robots, as a way to overcome the Turing test.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...
5th World Congress of Paraconsistent Logic
Chakraborty, Mihir; Dutta, Soma
2015-01-01
The present book discusses all aspects of paraconsistent logic, including the latest findings, and its various systems. It includes papers by leading international researchers, which address the subject in many different ways: development of abstract paraconsistent systems and new theorems about them; studies of the connections between these systems and other non-classical logics, such as non-monotonic, many-valued, relevant, paracomplete and fuzzy logics; philosophical interpretations of these constructions; and applications to other sciences, in particular quantum physics and mathematics. Reasoning with contradictions is the challenge of paraconsistent logic. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in mathematical logic, computer science, philosophical logic, linguistics and physics.
A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg
A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....
Amortised Resource Analysis with Separation Logic
Atkey, Robert
2011-01-01
Type-based amortised resource analysis following Hofmann and Jost---where resources are associated with individual elements of data structures and doled out to the programmer under a linear typing discipline---have been successful in providing concrete resource bounds for functional programs, with good support for inference. In this work we translate the idea of amortised resource analysis to imperative pointer-manipulating languages by embedding a logic of resources, based on the affine intuitionistic Logic of Bunched Implications, within Separation Logic. The Separation Logic component allows us to assert the presence and shape of mutable data structures on the heap, while the resource component allows us to state the consumable resources associated with each member of the structure. We present the logic on a small imperative language, based on Java bytecode, with procedures and mutable heap. We have formalised the logic and its soundness property within the Coq proof assistant and extracted a certified ver...
Towards applied theories based on computability logic
Japaridze, Giorgi
2008-01-01
Computability logic (CL) (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html) is a recently launched program for redeveloping logic as a formal theory of computability, as opposed to the formal theory of truth that logic has more traditionally been. Formulas in it represent computational problems, "truth" means existence of an algorithmic solution, and proofs encode such solutions. Within the line of research devoted to finding axiomatizations for ever more expressive fragments of CL, the present paper introduces a new deductive system CL12 and proves its soundness and completeness with respect to the semantics of CL. Conservatively extending classical predicate calculus and offering considerable additional expressive and deductive power, CL12 presents a reasonable, computationally meaningful, constructive alternative to classical logic as a basis for applied theories. To obtain a model example of such theories, this paper rebuilds the traditional, classical-logic-based Peano arithmetic into a computability-logic-b...
Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2013-02-15
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.
[Continuity and transformation of body logic].
Bolens, Guillemette
2003-01-01
This article is concerned with two distinct corporeal logics. In the first, corporeality is founded on joints, tendons, and mobility; in the second, the envelope and its apertures are considered primordial. The first logic is extant in very few works. Although these texts (e.g. The Iliad, Beowulf) clearly share the same, very specific, conception of the body, they belong to different histories. The corporeal logic of the 'jointed body' (corps articulaire) cannot, therefore, be appraised in terms of longue durée. The texts represent, instead, a moment of transition between the psychodynamics of orality and literacy. A problem correlated to this fact is that readers (ancient and modern) no longer think using the same logic as that pertaining to the jointed body. They tend to translate information regarding the logic of the jointed body into data meaningful in their own logic.
Conflicting logics in Public Private Innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nissen, Helle Aarøe
The article explores the interplay between conflicting logics, when private firms interact with potential public customers, as the firms aim to commercialize welfare innovations developed through Public Private Innovation (PPI) projects. Commercialization of welfare innovations in healthcare may ...... as there is an expressed need for these within the healthcare system. As such, the article contributes to institutional logics theory by addressing the call for research in conflicting logics.......The article explores the interplay between conflicting logics, when private firms interact with potential public customers, as the firms aim to commercialize welfare innovations developed through Public Private Innovation (PPI) projects. Commercialization of welfare innovations in healthcare may...... that they are faced with a NIH logic which is in conflict with their own market logic involving intensions to commercialize broadly within the healthcare system. The firms experience difficulties in commercializing and thus diffusing welfare innovations, which, for them, seem to be counter intuitive...
Molecular processors: from qubits to fuzzy logic.
Gentili, Pier Luigi
2011-03-14
Single molecules or their assemblies are information processing devices. Herein it is demonstrated how it is possible to process different types of logic through molecules. As long as decoherent effects are maintained far away from a pure quantum mechanical system, quantum logic can be processed. If the collapse of superimposed or entangled wavefunctions is unavoidable, molecules can still be used to process either crisp (binary or multi-valued) or fuzzy logic. The way for implementing fuzzy inference engines is declared and it is supported by the examples of molecular fuzzy logic systems devised so far. Fuzzy logic is drawing attention in the field of artificial intelligence, because it models human reasoning quite well. This ability may be due to some structural analogies between a fuzzy logic system and the human nervous system. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Quantum Weak Values and Logic: An Uneasy Couple
Svensson, Bengt E. Y.
2017-03-01
Quantum mechanical weak values of projection operators have been used to answer which-way questions, e. g. to trace which arms in a multiple Mach-Zehnder setup a particle may have traversed from a given initial to a prescribed final state. I show that this procedure might lead to logical inconsistencies in the sense that different methods used to answer composite questions, like "Has the particle traversed the way X or the way Y?", may result in different answers depending on which methods are used to find the answer. I illustrate the problem by considering some examples: the "quantum pigeonhole" framework of Aharonov et al., the three-box problem, and Hardy's paradox. To prepare the ground for my main conclusion on the incompatibility in certain cases of weak values and logic, I study the corresponding situation for strong/projective measurements. In this case, no logical inconsistencies occur provided one is always careful in specifying exactly to which ensemble or sample space one refers. My results cast doubts on the utility of quantum weak values in treating cases like the examples mentioned.
Advanced Control Techniques with Fuzzy Logic
2014-06-01
AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2014-0175 ADVANCED CONTROL TECHNIQUES WITH FUZZY LOGIC James E. Combs Structural Validation Branch Aerospace Vehicles...TECHNIQUES WITH FUZZY LOGIC 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62201F 6. AUTHOR(S) James E. Combs...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES PA Case Number: 88ABW-2014-3281; Clearance Date: 09 Jul 2014. 14. ABSTRACT Research on the Fuzzy Logic control
Handbook of philosophical logic v.14
Wick, Manfred; Guenthner, Franz
2007-01-01
The fourteenth volume of the Second Edition covers central topics in philosophical logic that have been studied for thousands of years, since Aristotle: Inconsistency, Causality, Conditionals, and Quantifiers. These topics are central in many applications of logic in central disciplines such as computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and philosophy. This book is indispensable to any advanced student or researcher using logic in these areas. The chapters are comprehensive and written by major figures in the field.
The geometry of non-distributive logics
Restall, Greg; Paoli, Francesco
2005-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new natural deduction system for the logic of lattices, and a number of extensions of lattice logic with different negation connectives. We provide the class of natural deduction proofs with both a standard inductive definition and a global graph-theoretical criterion for correctness, and we show how normalisation in this system corresponds to cut elimination in the sequent calculus for lattice logic. This natural deduction system is inspired ...
Strong Completeness of Medium Logic System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pan Zhenghua; Zhu Wujia
2005-01-01
The strong completeness of medium logic system is discussed. The following results are proved: medium propositional logic system MP and its extension MP * are strong complete; medium predicate logic system MF and its extensions ( MF * and ME * ) are not strong complete; and generally, if a consistent formal system is not strong complete, then any consistent extensions of this formai system are not strong complete either.
Fault Analysis-based Logic Encryption (Preprint)
2013-11-01
design industry is making it easy for rogue elements in the supply chain to pirate ICs, overbuild ICs, and insert hardware trojans . Due to supply...TERMS Hardware Trojan , Reverse Engineering, Logic Reconfiguration, Logic Obfuscation, Logic Encryption 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...industry is making it easy for rogue elements in the supply chain to pirate ICs, overbuild ICs, and insert hardware trojans . Due to supply chain
Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Dai
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.
Logic circuits from zero forcing.
Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael
We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.
HDL to verification logic translator
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
HDL to verification logic translator
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
1992-01-01
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry.
Tserkovny, Alex
The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects "as if they were points." Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation "extended lines sameness" is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy "degree of indiscernibility" and "discernibility measure" of extended points.
Fuzzy logic based robotic controller
Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.
1994-01-01
Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.
Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry
2016-01-01
The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133
Interdisciplinarity, logic of uncertainty and fuzzy logic in primary school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciana Delli Rocili
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On the occasion of the 120th anniversary of Mathesis, this work wants to be a memory, a tribute to two great presidents of Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini. Both have pursued the idea of interdisciplinary teaching and research. Bruno de Finetti, with his books on The invention of truth, (1934, and on Logic and Intuitive Mathematics, (1959, and his very famous "Theory of probability", (1970, shows a rejection of formal education, comfortable, monodisciplinary, made of certainties, and chooses the impervious way of addressing the problems that are to the base of science. Angelo Fadini, with his papers and books on Theory of Fuzzy Sets, shows first in Italy several logical questions which puts as the basis for practical applications in Architecture. This paper is an attempt to experiment, in an interdisciplinary framework, the basic ideas of Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini in primary school, in the belief that in the Primary School are formed ideas and intuitions, while in the secondary school the attention is focused mainly on specific issues of Mathematics. We shows some results of a still ongoing experimentation. Interdisciplinarietà, logica dell'incerto e logica sfumata nella scuola primaria In occasione dei 120 anni della Mathesis, questo lavoro vuole essere un ricordo, un omaggio a due grandi Presidenti della Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti e Angelo Fadini. Entrambi hanno portato avanti l’idea della interdisciplinarietà nell’insegnamento e nella ricerca. Bruno de Finetti, con la sua “Matematica Logico Intuitiva” del 1959, e la sua “Teoria delle probabilità”, del 1970, e ancora prima, con “L’invenzione della verità”, del 1934, mostra un rifiuto dell’insegnamento formale, comodo, monodisciplinare, fatto di certezze, e sceglie la strada impervia dell’affrontare i problemi che sono alla base della scienza. Angelo Fadini, con la sua Teoria degli Insiemi Sfocati, mostra per primo in Italia varie questioni
USING LOGIC COMPONENTS FOR CONCEPTUAL DIE DESIGN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Logic components are used to support the conceptual design. Taking the stamping die structure as the research object,several logic components are defined for the conceptual die construction design. A new method-logic assembly modeling is presented to satisfy the characteristic of the top-down die design process. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic can provide a natural,intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about die construction design at the conceptual stage. This method can reflect the designer's thought clearly and provide the designer with a test bed for generating alternatives and performing reasoning work at the conceptual die design stage.
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2004-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
Fidelity enhancement by logical qubit encoding.
Henry, Michael K; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Hodges, Jonathan S; Ryan, Colm A; Ditty, Michael J; Laflamme, Raymond; Cory, David G
2007-11-30
We demonstrate coherent control of two logical qubits encoded in a decoherence free subspace (DFS) of four dipolar-coupled protons in an NMR quantum information processor. A pseudopure fiducial state is created in the DFS, and a unitary logical qubit entangling operator evolves the system to a logical Bell state. The four-spin molecule is partially aligned by a liquid crystal solvent, which introduces strong dipolar couplings among the spins. Although the system Hamiltonian is never fully specified, we demonstrate high fidelity control over the logical degrees of freedom. In fact, the DFS encoding leads to higher fidelity control than is available in the full four-spin Hilbert space.
Presuppositions, Logic, and Dynamics of Belief
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slavko Brkic
2004-12-01
Full Text Available In researching presuppositions dealing with logic and dynamic of belief we distinguish two related parts. The first part refers to presuppositions and logic, which is not necessarily involved with intentional operators. We are primarily concerned with classical, free and presuppositonal logic. Here, we practice a well known Strawson’s approach to the problem of presupposition in relation to classical logic. Further on in this work, free logic is used, especially Van Fraassen’s research of the role of presupposition in supervaluations logical systems. At the end of the first part, presuppositional logic, advocated by S.K. Thomason, is taken into consideration. The second part refers to the presuppositions in relation to the logic of the dynamics of belief. Here the logic of belief change is taken into consideration and other epistemic notions with immanent mechanism for the presentation of the dynamics. Three representative and dominant approaches are evaluated. First, we deal with new, less classical, situation semantics. Besides Strawson’s theory, the second theory is the theory of the belief change, developed by Alchourron, Gärdenfors, and Makinson (AGM theory. At the end, the oldest, universal, and dominant approach is used, recognized as Hintikka’s approach to the analysis of epistemic notions.
A History of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio eRiguzzi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP has seen significant advances in the last 20 years, with many proposals for languages that combine probability with logic programming. Since the start, the problem of learning probabilistic logic programs has been the focus of much attention. Learning these programs represents a whole subfield of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP. In Probabilistic ILP (PILP two problems are considered: learning the parameters of a program given the structure (the rules and learning both the structure and the parameters. Usually structure learning systems use parameter learning as a subroutine. In this article we present an overview of PILP and discuss the main results.
Agents and Lattice-valued Logic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Germanno Resconi
2006-01-01
In fuzzy set theory, instead of the underlying membership set being a two -valued set it is a multi-valued set that generally has the structure of a lattice L with a minimal element O and the maximal element I. Furthermore if ∧, ∨, → and (「) are defined in the set L, then we can use these operations to define, as in the ordinary set theory, operations on fuzzy subsets. In this paper we give a model of the Lattice-Valued Logic with set of agents.Any agents know the logic value of a sentence p. The logic value is compatible with all of the accessible conceptual models or worlds of p inside the agent. Agent can be rational or irrational in the use of the logic operation.Every agent of n agents can have the same set of conceptual models for p and know the same logic for p in this case the agents form a consistent group of agents.When agents have different conceptual models for p,different subgroup of agents know different logic value for p. In this case the n agents are inconsistent in the expression of the logic value for p. The valuation structure of set of agents can be used as a semantic model for the Lattice-valued Logic and fuzzy logic.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Kish, Laszlo B
2008-01-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also nonexistent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinu...
Classical Logic and Quantum Logic with Multiple and Common Lattice Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladen Pavičić
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a proper propositional quantum logic and show that it has multiple disjoint lattice models, only one of which is an orthomodular lattice (algebra underlying Hilbert (quantum space. We give an equivalent proof for the classical logic which turns out to have disjoint distributive and nondistributive ortholattices. In particular, we prove that both classical logic and quantum logic are sound and complete with respect to each of these lattices. We also show that there is one common nonorthomodular lattice that is a model of both quantum and classical logic. In technical terms, that enables us to run the same classical logic on both a digital (standard, two-subset, 0-1-bit computer and a nondigital (say, a six-subset computer (with appropriate chips and circuits. With quantum logic, the same six-element common lattice can serve us as a benchmark for an efficient evaluation of equations of bigger lattice models or theorems of the logic.
Design of Parity Preserving Logic Based Fault Tolerant Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakshith Saligram1
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementation in modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy .Fault Tolerant reversible logic is one class of reversible logic that maintain the parity of the input and the outputs. Significant contributions have been made in the literature towards the design of fault tolerant reversible logic gate structures and arithmetic units, however, there are not many efforts directed towards the design of fault tolerant reversible ALUs. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is the prime performing unit in any computing device and it has to be made fault tolerant. In this paper we aim to design one such fault tolerant reversible ALU that is constructed using parity preserving reversible logic gates. The designed ALU can generate up to seven Arithmetic operations and four logical operations
Design of Parity Preserving Logic Based Fault Tolerant Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakshith Saligram
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementationin modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy .FaultTolerant reversible logic is one class of reversible logic that maintain the parity of the input and theoutputs. Significant contributions have been made in the literature towards the design of fault tolerantreversible logic gate structures and arithmetic units, however, there are not many efforts directed towardsthe design of fault tolerant reversible ALUs. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is the prime performing unit inany computing device and it has to be made fault tolerant. In this paper we aim to design one such faulttolerant reversible ALU that is constructed using parity preserving reversible logic gates. The designedALU can generate up to seven Arithmetic operations and four logical operations.
Aschieri, Federico
2016-01-01
Dummett's logic LC is intuitionistic logic extended with Dummett's axiom: for every two statements the first implies the second or the second implies the first. We present a natural deduction and a Curry-Howard correspondence for first-order and second-order Dummett's logic. We add to the lambda calculus an operator which represents, from the viewpoint of programming, a mechanism for representing parallel computations and communication between them, and from the point of view logic, Dummett's...
Transcending logic: the difference between contradiction and antinomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniël Strauss
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Philosophy and all the academic disciplines are sensitive to the aim of sound reasoning – except for the dialectical tradition which sanctions contradictions and antinomies (Heraclitus, Nicolas of Cusa, Hegel, Marx, Vaihinger, Simmel, Rex, and Dahrendorf. A brief overview is presented of conflicting theoretical stances within the various academic disciplines before an assessment is given of the positive and negative meaning of ‘reductionism.’ Against the background of historical lines of development the multiple terms employed in this context are mentioned and eventually positioned within the context of the normativity holding for logical thinking. It is argued that the logical contrary between logical and illogical serves as the foundation of other normative contraries, such as legal and illegal and moral and immoral. Through the discovery of irrational numbers the initial Pythagorean conviction that everything is number reverted to a geometrical perspective that generated a static metaphysics of being which challenged the ideas of plurality and motion. This development uncovered the problem of primitive terms in scientific discourse as an alternative for those theoretical attempts aimed at reducing whatever there is to one single mode of explanation. Zeno’s paradoxes are used to demonstrate an alternative understanding of the difference between the potential and the actual infinite as well as the nature of (theoretical antinomies. It is argued that genuine antinomies are inter-modal in nature (such as is found in the attempt to reduce movement to static positions in space and therefore differ from logical contradictions (such as a ‘square circle’ which merely confuses two figures within one modal aspect. Although every antinomy does entail logical contradictions, the latter do not necessarily presuppose an antinomy. The implication is that logic itself has an ontic foundation – as is seen from the nature of the principle of
Logic Column 19: Symbolic Model Checking for Temporal-Epistemic Logics
Lomuscio, Alessio
2007-01-01
This article surveys some of the recent work in verification of temporal epistemic logic via symbolic model checking, focusing on OBDD-based and SAT-based approaches for epistemic logics built on discrete and real-time branching time temporal logics.
Probabilistic and fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis.
Licata, G
2007-06-01
In this study I have compared classic and fuzzy logic and their usefulness in clinical diagnosis. The theory of probability is often considered a device to protect the classical two-valued logic from the evidence of its inadequacy to understand and show the complexity of world [1]. This can be true, but it is not possible to discard the theory of probability. I will argue that the problems and the application fields of the theory of probability are very different from those of fuzzy logic. After the introduction on the theoretical bases of fuzzy approach to logic, I have reported some diagnostic argumentations employing fuzzy logic. The state of normality and the state of disease often fight their battle on scalar quantities of biological values and it is not hard to establish a correspondence between the biological values and the percent values of fuzzy logic. Accordingly, I have suggested some applications of fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis and in particular I have utilised a fuzzy curve to recognise subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal failure and liver disease. The comparison between classic and fuzzy logic findings seems to indicate that fuzzy logic is more adequate to study the development of biological events. In fact, fuzzy logic is useful when we have a lot of pieces of information and when we dispose to scalar quantities. In conclusion, increasingly the development of technology offers new instruments to measure pathological parameters through scalar quantities, thus it is reasonable to think that in the future fuzzy logic will be employed more in clinical diagnosis.
Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)
2014-07-10
Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.
Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong
2014-07-01
Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (Tp:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.
Linear Logic for Meaning Assembly
Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F C N; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay
1995-01-01
Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Meanings are often assumed to combine via function application, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. However, we believe that the functional structure of Lexical-Functional Grammar is best used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. It has been difficult, however, to reconcile this approach with the combination of meanings by function application. In contrast to compositional approaches, we present a deductive approach to assembling meanings, based on reasoning with constraints, which meshes well with the unordered nature of information in the functional structure. Our use of linear logic as a `glue' for assembling meanings allows for a coherent treatment of the LFG requ...
Models of transfinite provability logic
Fernández-Duque, David
2012-01-01
For any ordinal \\Lambda, we can define a polymodal logic GLP(\\Lambda), with a modality [\\xi] for each \\xi<\\Lambda. These represent provability predicates of increasing strength. Although GLP(\\Lambda) has no Kripke models, Ignatiev showed that indeed one can construct a Kripke model of the variable-free fragment with natural number modalities. Later, Icard defined a topological model for the same fragment which is very closely related to Ignatiev's. In this paper we show how to extend these constructions for arbitrary \\Lambda. More generally, for each \\Theta,\\Lambda we build a Kripke model I(\\Theta,\\Lambda) and a topological model T(\\Theta,\\Lambda), and show that the closed fragment of GLP(\\Lambda) is sound for both of these structures, as well as complete, provided \\Theta is large enough.
RAO Logic for Multiagent Framework
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Zhongzhi; TIAN Qijia; LI Yunfeng
1999-01-01
In this paper, we deal with how agentsreason about knowledge of others in multiagent system. We firstpresent a knowledge representation framework called reasoning aboutothers (RAO) which isdesigned specifically to represent concepts and rules used inreasoning about knowledge of others. From a class of sentences usuallytaken by people in daily life to reason about others, a rule called position exchange principle (PEP) is abstracted. PEP is described as anaxiom scheme in RAO and regarded as a basic rule for agents to reasonabout others, and further it has the similar formand role to modus ponens and (K) axiom of knowledge logic. Therelationship between speech acts and common sense is also discussedwhich is necessary for RAO. Based on ideas fromsituation calculus, this relationship is characterized by an axiomschema in RAO. Our theories are also demonstrated by an example.
Design of reconfigurable logic controllers
Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek
2016-01-01
This book presents the original concepts and modern techniques for specification, synthesis, optimisation and implementation of parallel logical control devices. It deals with essential problems of reconfigurable control systems like dependability, modularity and portability. Reconfigurable systems require a wider variety of design and verification options than the application-specific integrated circuits. The book presents a comprehensive selection of possible design techniques. The diversity of the modelling approaches covers Petri nets, state machines and activity diagrams. The preferences of the presented optimization and synthesis methods are not limited to increasing of the efficiency of resource use. One of the biggest advantages of the presented methods is the platform independence, the FPGA devices and single board computers are some of the examples of possible platforms. These issues and problems are illustrated with practical cases of complete control systems. If you expect a new look at the recon...
Moral Particularism and Deontic Logic
Parent, Xavier
The aim of this paper is to strengthen the point made by Horty about the relationship between reason holism and moral particularism. In the literature prima facie obligations have been considered as the only source of reason holism. I strengthen Horty's point in two ways. First, I show that contrary-to-duties provide another independent support for reason holism. Next I outline a formal theory that is able to capture these two sources of holism. While in simple settings the proposed account coincides with Horty's one, this is not true in more complicated or "realistic" settings in which more than two norms collide. My chosen formalism is so-called input/output logic.
Observation Predicates in Flow Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sun, Hongyan
2003-01-01
Motivated by the connection between strong and soft type systems we explore flow analyses with hard constraints on the admissible solutions. We show how to use observation predicates and formula rearrangements to map flow analyses with hard constraints into more traditional flow analyses in such ......Motivated by the connection between strong and soft type systems we explore flow analyses with hard constraints on the admissible solutions. We show how to use observation predicates and formula rearrangements to map flow analyses with hard constraints into more traditional flow analyses...... in such a way that the hard constraints are satisfi ed exactly when the observation predicates report no violations. The development is carried out in a large fragment of a first order logic with negation and also takes care of the transformations necessary in order to adhere to the stratification restrictions...
Towards bioelectronic logic (Conference Presentation)
Meredith, Paul; Mostert, Bernard; Sheliakina, Margarita; Carrad, Damon J.; Micolich, Adam P.
2016-09-01
One of the critical tasks in realising a bioelectronic interface is the transduction of ion and electron signals at high fidelity, and with appropriate speed, bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio [1]. This is a challenging task considering ions and electrons (or holes) have drastically different physics. For example, even the lightest ions (protons) have mobilities much smaller than electrons in the best semiconductors, effective masses are quite different, and at the most basic level, ions are `classical' entities and electrons `quantum mechanical'. These considerations dictate materials and device strategies for bioelectronic interfaces alongside practical aspects such as integration and biocompatibility [2]. In my talk I will detail these `differences in physics' that are pertinent to the ion-electron transduction challenge. From this analysis, I will summarise the basic categories of device architecture that are possibilities for transducing elements and give recent examples of their realisation. Ultimately, transducing elements need to be combined to create `bioelectronic logic' capable of signal processing at the interface level. In this regard, I will extend the discussion past the single element concept, and discuss our recent progress in delivering all-solids-state logic circuits based upon transducing interfaces. [1] "Ion bipolar junction transistors", K. Tybrandt, K.C. Larsson, A. Richter-Dahlfors and M. Berggren, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 107, 9929 (2010). [2] "Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature", P Meredith, C.J. Bettinger, M. Irimia-Vladu, A.B. Mostert and P.E. Schwenn, Reports on Progress in Physics, 76, 034501 (2013).
CRS and Guarded Logics: a fruitful contact
van Benthem, J.; Andréka, H.; Ferenczi, M.; Németi, I.
2013-01-01
Back and forth between algebra and model theory. Algebra and model theory are complementary stances in the history of logic, and their interaction continues to spawn new ideas, witness the interface of First-Order Logic and Cylindric Algebra. This chapter is about a more specialized contact: the flo
Sequence Semantics for Dynamic Predicate Logic
Vermeulen, C.F.M.
2008-01-01
In this paper a semantics for dynamic predicate logic is developed that uses sequence valued assignments. This semantics is compared with the usual relational semantics for dynamic predicate logic: it is shown that the most important intuitions of the usual semantics are preserved. Then it is shown
Dynamic logics for explicit and implicit information
Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.
2009-01-01
Classical Epistemic Logic (EL) is a compact and powerful framework for representing an agent’s information. In its dynamic versions (Dynamic Epistemic Logic), it also describes the information flow driven by observation and communication. Nevertheless, it makes a strong idealization: the agent’s inf
Extensionality of simply typed logic programs
M.A. Bezem
1999-01-01
textabstractWe set up a framework for the study of extensionality in the context of higher-order logic programming. For simply typed logic programs we propose a novel declarative semantics, consisting of a model class with a semi-computable initial model, and a notion of extensionality. We show that
Second-order logic and set theory
J. Väänänen
2015-01-01
Both second-order logic and set theory can be used as a foundation for mathematics, that is, as a formal language in which propositions of mathematics can be expressed and proved. We take it upon ourselves in this paper to compare the two approaches, second-order logic on one hand and set theory on
Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.
Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark
2013-02-07
Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.
Isomorphic Formulae in Classical Propositional Logic
Dosen, K
2009-01-01
Isomorphism between formulae is defined with respect to categories formalizing equality of deductions in classical propositional logic and in the multiplicative fragment of classical linear propositional logic caught by proof nets. This equality is motivated by generality of deductions. Characterizations are given for pairs of isomorphic formulae, which lead to decision procedures for this isomorphism.
Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal
2002-01-01
Real-time systems are computer systems which have to meet real-time constraints. To increase the confidence in such systems, formal methods and formal verification are utilized. The class of logics known as interval logics can be used for expressing properties and requirements of real-time system...
Neutrality and Many-Valued Logics
Schumann, Andrew
2007-01-01
In this book, we consider various many-valued logics: standard, linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, non-Archimedean, p-adic, interval, neutrosophic, etc. We survey also results which show the tree different proof-theoretic frameworks for many-valued logics, e.g. frameworks of the following deductive calculi: Hilbert's style, sequent, and hypersequent. We present a general way that allows to construct systematically analytic calculi for a large family of non-Archimedean many-valued logics: hyperrational-valued, hyperreal-valued, and p-adic valued logics characterized by a special format of semantics with an appropriate rejection of Archimedes' axiom. These logics are built as different extensions of standard many-valued logics (namely, Lukasiewicz's, Goedel's, Product, and Post's logics). The informal sense of Archimedes' axiom is that anything can be measured by a ruler. Also logical multiple-validity without Archimedes' axiom consists in that the set of truth values is infinite and it is not well-founded and well...
Axioms and Models of Linear Logic
Hesselink, Wim H.
1990-01-01
Girard's recent system of linear logic is presented in a way that avoids the two-level structure of formulae and sequents, and that minimises the number of primitive function symbols. A deduction theorem is proved concerning the classical implication as embedded in linear logic. The Hilbert-style ax
Computations in Fragments of Intuitionistic Propositional Logic
Jongh, Dick de; Hendriks, Lex; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.
1991-01-01
This article is a report on research in progress into the structure of finite diagrams of intuitionistic propositional logic with the aid of automated reasoning systems for larger calculations. A fragment of a propositional logic is the set of formulae built up from a finite number of propositional
Set Theory and Arithmetic in Fuzzy Logic
Běhounek, L. (Libor); Haniková, Z. (Zuzana)
2015-01-01
This chapter offers a review of Petr Hájek’s contributions to first-order axiomatic theories in fuzzy logic (in particular, ZF-style fuzzy set theories, arithmetic with a fuzzy truth predicate, and fuzzy set theory with unrestricted comprehension schema). Generalizations of Hájek’s results in these areas to MTL as the background logic are presented and discussed.
Proof theory of epistemic logic of programs
Maffezioli, Paolo; Naibo, Alberto
2014-01-01
A combination of epistemic logic and dynamic logic of programs is presented. Although rich enough to formalize some simple game-theoretic scenarios, its axiomatization is problematic as it leads to the paradoxical conclusion that agents are omniscient. A cut-free labelled Gentzen-style proof system
Bridging learning theory and dynamic epistemic logic
Gierasimczuk, N.
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the possibility of modelling inductive inference (Gold 1967) in dynamic epistemic logic (see e.g. van Ditmarsch et al. 2007). The general purpose is to propose a semantic basis for designing a modal logic for learning in the limit. First, we analyze a variety of epistemological
Positive Formulas in Intuitionistic and Minimal Logic
de Jongh, D.; Zhao, Z.; Aher, M.; Hole, D.; Jeřábek, E.; Kupke, C.
2015-01-01
In this article we investigate the positive, i.e. ¬,⊥-free formulas of intuitionistic propositional and predicate logic, IPC and IQC, and minimal logic, MPC and MQC. For each formula φ of IQC we define the positive formula φ+ that represents the positive content of φ. The formulas φ and φ+ exhibit t
A logical foundation for the semantic Web
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Zhongzhi; DONG Mingkai; JIANG Yuncheng; ZHANG Haijun
2005-01-01
The current research progresses and problems of the semantic Web are analyzed in this paper, and the insufficiency of using description logic to act as logical foundation for the semantic Web is analyzed too. According to the characteristics and requirement of the semantic Web, a kind of new dynamic description logic (DDL) framework is presented. The representation and reasoning of static knowledge and dynamic knowledge are integrated in this framework. Especially, a kind of action description method is proposed, and according to description logic theory, the action semantics is described, so DDL is a kind of formal logical framework which can process static knowledge and dynamic knowledge. The DDL has clear and formally defined semantics. It provides decidable reasoning services, and it can support effective representation and reasoning of the static knowledge, dynamic process and running mechanism (realization and subsumption relation of action). Therefore, the DDL provides reasonable logic foundation for the semantic Web, and overcomes the insufficiency of using description logic to act as logical foundation for the semantic Web.
Colligation or, The Logical Inference of Interconnection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franksen, Ole Immanuel; Falster, Peter
2000-01-01
laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in oure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...
Dualities for Logics of Transition Systems
Bonsangue, M.M.; Kurz, A.
2005-01-01
We present a general framework for logics of transition systems based on Stone duality. Transition systems are modelled as coalgebras for a functor T on a category X. The propositional logic used to reason about state spaces from X is modelled by the Stone dual A of X (e.g. if X is Stone spaces then
Defeasible inheritance-based description logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Casini, G
2013-01-01
Full Text Available these two approaches and define a new non-monotonic closure operation for propositional knowledge bases that combines the advantages of both. Then we redefine such a procedure for Description Logics (DLs), a family of logics well suited to model structured...
Dialectical Multivalued Logic and Probabilistic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Luis Usó Doménech
2017-02-01
Full Text Available There are two probabilistic algebras: one for classical probability and the other for quantum mechanics. Naturally, it is the relation to the object that decides, as in the case of logic, which algebra is to be used. From a paraconsistent multivalued logic therefore, one can derive a probability theory, adding the correspondence between truth value and fortuity.
Levin-Rozalis, Miri
2010-01-01
Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…
Levin-Rozalis, Miri
2010-01-01
Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…
Intersection Logic in sequent calculus style
Della Rocca, Simona Ronchi; Stavrinos, Yiorgos; Veneti, Anastasia; 10.4204/EPTCS.45.2
2011-01-01
The intersection type assignment system has been designed directly as deductive system for assigning formulae of the implicative and conjunctive fragment of the intuitionistic logic to terms of lambda-calculus. But its relation with the logic is not standard. Between all the logics that have been proposed as its foundation, we consider ISL, which gives a logical interpretation of the intersection by splitting the intuitionistic conjunction into two connectives, with a local and global behaviour respectively, being the intersection the local one. We think ISL is a logic interesting by itself, and in order to support this claim we give a sequent calculus formulation of it, and we prove that it enjoys the cut elimination property.
How Objects Shape Logics in Construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tryggestad, Kjell; Georg, Susse
2011-01-01
The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study...... of the construction of the skyscraper, ‘Turning Torso’, in Malmö city, shows how technical objects and actions implicated in the material practices of building construction shape logics and identities associated with professions, economy, market, science and design. We summarize our findings by theorizing logics...... and identities as emergent and contingent outcomes of the material practices of building construction. The argument is concluded by considering the building construction as a materially mediated meaning structure....
Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure
Garola, Claudio
2017-02-01
Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.
Design of Digital Adder Using Reversible Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gowthami P
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have promising applications in Quantum computing, Low power VLSI design, Nanotechnology, optical computing, DNA computing and Quantum dot cellular automata. In spite of them another main prominent application of reversible logic is Quantum computers where the quantum devices are essential which are ideally operated at ultra high speed with less power dissipation must be built from reversible logic components. This makes the reversible logic as a one of the most promising research areas in the past few decades. In VLSI design the delay is the one of the major issue along with area and power. This paper presents the implementation of Ripple Carry Adder (RCA circuits using reversible logic gates are discussed.
Focusing and Polarization in Intuitionistic Logic
Liang, Chuck
2007-01-01
A focused proof system provides a normal form to cut-free proofs that structures the application of invertible and non-invertible inference rules. The focused proof system of Andreoli for linear logic has been applied to both the proof search and the proof normalization approaches to computation. Various proof systems in literature exhibit characteristics of focusing to one degree or another. We present a new, focused proof system for intuitionistic logic, called LJF, and show how other proof systems can be mapped into the new system by inserting logical connectives that prematurely stop focusing. We also use LJF to design a focused proof system for classical logic. Our approach to the design and analysis of these systems is based on the completeness of focusing in linear logic and on the notion of polarity that appears in Girard's LC and LU proof systems.
Logic and Automata History and Perspectives
Gradel, Erich; Wilk, Thomas
2007-01-01
Mathematical logic and automata theory are two scientific disciplines with a fundamentally close relationship. The authors of Logic and Automata take the occasion of the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Thomas to present a tour d'horizon of automata theory and logic. The twenty papers in this volume cover many different facets of logic and automata theory, emphasizing the connections to other disciplines such as games, algorithms, and semigroup theory, as well as discussing current challenges in the field. Title: Logic and Automata : History and Perspectives Print ISBN: 9789053565766 Author(s): Flum, Jörg; Gr; del, Erich; Wilke, Thomas eISBN: 9789048501281 Publisher: Amsterdam University Press Dewey: 511.3 Publication Date: 01 Jan, 2007 Pages: 737 Category: Mathematics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:
First-order Logic: Modality and Intensionality
Majkic, Zoran
2011-01-01
Contemporary use of the term 'intension' derives from the traditional logical Frege-Russell's doctrine that an idea (logic formula) has both an extension and an intension. From the Montague's point of view, the meaning of an idea can be considered as particular extensions in different possible worlds. In this paper we analyze the minimal intensional semantic enrichment of the syntax of the FOL language, by unification of different views: Tarskian extensional semantics of the FOL, modal interpretation of quantifiers, and a derivation of the Tarskian theory of truth from unified semantic theory based on a single meaning relation. We show that not all modal predicate logics are intensional, and that an equivalent modal Kripke's interpretation of logic quantifiers in FOL results in a particular pure extensional modal predicate logic (as is the standard Tarskian semantics of the FOL). This minimal intensional enrichment is obtained by adopting the theory of properties, relations and propositions (PRP) as the unive...
Logical Form and Truth-Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Iacona
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This paper outlines a truth-conditional view of logical form, that is, a view according to which logical form is essentially a matter of truth-conditions. The main motivation for the view is a fact that seems crucial to logic. As §1 suggests, fundamental logical relations such as entailment or contradiction can formally be explained only if truth-conditions are formally represented.§2 spells out the view. §3 dwells on its anity with a conception of logical form that has been defended in the past. §§4-6 draw attention to its impact on three major issues that concern, respectively, the extension of the domain of formal explanation, the semantics of tensed discourse, and the analysis of quantication.
Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic devices
Lyle, Andrew Paul
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based technologies will hit their last generation on or near the 16 nm node, which we expect to reach by the year 2025. Thus future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by 'outside the box' designs and new physics, including molecular or DNA based computation, organics, magnonics, or spintronic. This dissertation investigates magnetic logic devices for post-CMOS computation. Three different architectures were studied, each relying on a different magnetic mechanism to compute logic functions. Each design has it benefits and challenges that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on pushing each design from the drawing board to a realistic logic technology. The first logic architecture is based on electrically connected magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) that allow direct communication between elements without intermediate sensing amplifiers. Two and three input logic gates, which consist of two and three MTJs connected in parallel, respectively were fabricated and are compared. The direct communication is realized by electrically connecting the output in series with the input and applying voltage across the series connections. The logic gates rely on the fact that a change in resistance at the input modulates the voltage that is needed to supply the critical current for spin transfer torque switching the output. The change in resistance at the input resulted in a voltage margin of 50--200 mV and 250--300 mV for the closest input states for the three and two input designs, respectively. The two input logic gate realizes the AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic functions. The three input logic function realizes the Majority, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic operations. The second logic architecture utilizes magnetostatically coupled nanomagnets to compute logic functions, which is the basis of
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...... of reducing modality to quantification is traced back to the philosophy of von Wright, and the approach is compared to that of related work on logic in design....
The Inverse Method Application for Non-Classical Logics
Pavlov, V.; Paky, V.
2015-01-01
Maslov’s inverse method is an automated theorem proving method: it can be used to develop computer programs that prove theorems automatically (such programs are called theorem provers). The inverse method can be applied to a wide range of logical calculi: propositional logic, ﬁrst-order logic, intuitionistic logic, modal logics etc. We give a brief historical background of the inverse method, then discuss existing modiﬁcations and implementations of the inverse method for non-classical logics...
Contribution of Warsaw Logicians to Computational Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damian Niwiński
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.
Philosophy and logic of quantum physics
Dapprich, Jan Philipp
2015-01-01
The book investigates the ontology and logic of quantum physics. The first part discusses the relationship of theory and observation and different views on the ontological status of scientific theories. It introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and some of its interpretations and their compatibility with various ontological positions. In the second part, implications of quantum mechanics on classical logic, especially on the distributive law and bivalence, as discussed by Garrett Birkhoff & John von Neumann (1936) and Hilary Putnam (1968), and their counterarguments are reconstructed and discussed. It is concluded that classical logic is sufficient for dealing with quantum mechanical propositions.
Mathematical aspects of logic programming semantics
Hitzler, Pascal
2010-01-01
Covering the authors' own state-of-the-art research results, Mathematical Aspects of Logic Programming Semantics presents a rigorous, modern account of the mathematical methods and tools required for the semantic analysis of logic programs. It significantly extends the tools and methods from traditional order theory to include nonconventional methods from mathematical analysis that depend on topology, domain theory, generalized distance functions, and associated fixed-point theory.The book covers topics spanning the period from the early days of logic programming to current times. It discusses
Evaluating logic functionality of cascaded fracturable LUTs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Zhenhong; LIN Yu; LI Tianyi; JIA Rui; GAO Tongqiang; YANG Haigang
2016-01-01
Look Up Tables(LUTs) are the key components of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays(FPGAs). Many LUT architectures have been studied; nevertheless, it is difficult to quantificationally evaluate an LUT based architecture. Traditionally, dedicated efforts on specific modifications to the technology mapping tools are required for LUT architecture evaluation. A more feasible evaluation method for logic functionality is strongly required for the design of LUT architecture. In this paper, a mathematical method for logic functionality calculation is proposed and conventional and fracturable LUT architectures are analyzed. Furthermore, a cascaded fracturable LUT architecture is presented, which achieves twice logic functionality compared with the conventional LUTs and fracturable LUTs.
Conference Cultures of Mathematics and Logic
Löwe, Benedikt; Müller, Thomas; Xie, Yun
2016-01-01
This book gathers the proceedings of the conference "Cultures of Mathematics and Logic," held in Guangzhou, China. The event was the third in a series of interdisciplinary, international conferences emphasizing the cultural components of philosophy of mathematics and logic. It brought together researchers from many disciplines whose work sheds new light on the diversity of mathematical and logical cultures and practices. In this context, the cultural diversity can be diachronical (different cultures in different historical periods), geographical (different cultures in different regions), or sociological in nature.
Philosophical, logical and scientific perspectives in engineering
Sen, Zekâi
2013-01-01
This book highlights and explains the significance of philosophical, logical, and scientific principles for engineering education/training and engineering works. In so doing, it aims to help to rectify the neglect of philosophy and logic in current education and training programs, which emphasize analytical and numerical methods at the expense of the innovative practical and creative abilities so important for engineering in the past. Individual chapters examine the relation of philosophy, logic, and science to engineering, drawing attention to, for example, the significance of ethics, the rel
Logic model needs for diverse facility types
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, J.R.
1995-10-01
This paper compares the characteristics of fault trees (where initiators are developed within the fault tree) vs. event trees (where the nodes are developed by fault trees). This comparison requires some additional discussion on the subtlety of initiators. Difficulties when analyzing various reactor-type and processing facilities are discussed to illustrate the particular characteristics of each type of logic. The intent is to allow probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analysts to be {open_quotes}bi-logical,{close_quotes} or equally comfortable with event-tree or fault-tree logic, knowing when to apply each.
Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof
2007-01-01
In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...
Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert L.;
The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive solutions has, however, shown to be highly intractable in logic programming. To avoid this intractability we present a new approach to logicbased abduction; through the geometrical view of data...... employed in array-based logic we embrace abduction in a simple structural operation. We argue that a theory of abduction on this form allows for an implementation which, at runtime, can perform abductive inference quite efficiently on arbitrary rules of logic representing knowledge of finite domains....
Temperature Control System Using Fuzzy Logic Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isizoh A N
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Fuzzy logic technique is an innovative technology used in designing solutions for multi-parameter and non-linear control models for the definition of a control strategy. As a result, it delivers solutions faster than the conventional control design techniques. This paper thus presents a fuzzy logic based-temperature control system, which consists of a microcontroller, temperature sensor, and operational amplifier, Analogue to Digital Converter, display interface circuit and output interface circuit. It contains a design approach that uses fuzzy logic technique to achieve a controlled temperature output function.
Scheduling By Using Fuzzy Logic in Manufacturing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miss. Ashwini. A. Mate
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper represents the scheduling process in furniture manufacturing unit. It gives the fuzzy logic application in flexible manufacturing system. Flexible manufacturing systems are production system in furniture manufacturing unit. FMS consist of same multipurpose numerically controlled machines. Here in this project the scheduling has been done in FMS by using fuzzy logic tool in Matlab software. The fuzzy logic based scheduling model in this paper will deals with the job and best alternative route selection with multi-criteria of machine. Here two criteria for job and sequencing and routing with rules. This model is applicable to the scheduling of any manufacturing industry.
Coordination Logic for Repulsive Resolution Maneuvers
Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.
Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedman, Joseph S., E-mail: joseph.friedman@u-psud.fr; Querlioz, Damien [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); Fadel, Eric R. [Department of Materials Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wessels, Bruce W. [Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sahakian, Alan V. [Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)
2015-11-15
A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.
Conditionals and Modularity in General Logics
Gabbay, Dov M
2011-01-01
This text centers around three main subjects. The first is the concept of modularity and independence in classical logic and nonmonotonic and other nonclassical logic, and the consequences on syntactic and semantical interpolation and language change. In particular, we will show the connection between interpolation for nonmonotonic logic and manipulation of an abstract notion of size. Modularity is essentially the ability to put partial results achieved independently together for a global result. The second aspect of the book is the authors' uniform picture of conditionals, including many-valu
Logic Circuit Design Selected Methods
Vingron, Shimon P
2012-01-01
In three main divisions the book covers combinational circuits, latches, and asynchronous sequential circuits. Combinational circuits have no memorising ability, while sequential circuits have such an ability to various degrees. Latches are the simplest sequential circuits, ones with the shortest memory. The presentation is decidedly non-standard. The design of combinational circuits is discussed in an orthodox manner using normal forms and in an unorthodox manner using set-theoretical evaluation formulas relying heavily on Karnaugh maps. The latter approach allows for a new design technique called composition. Latches are covered very extensively. Their memory functions are expressed mathematically in a time-independent manner allowing the use of (normal, non-temporal) Boolean logic in their calculation. The theory of latches is then used as the basis for calculating asynchronous circuits. Asynchronous circuits are specified in a tree-representation, eac...
Cosmic Logic: a Computational Model
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2015-01-01
We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or G{\\" o}del number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies...
Rhythms essential to logical communication
Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi
2011-05-01
In the context of quantum theory, recently we distinguished mathematics for expressing evidence from mathematics for explaining evidence. Here this distinction is made in spacetime physics. We offer a system of mathematical thought-or as termed in geodesy a reference system-for evidence, separated out from additional assumptions of a geometry in terms of which to explain that evidence. The offered reference system for evidence, free of any assumption of a particular explanatory geometry, whether Euclidean or general relativistic, amounts to a (theoretical) "assemblage of histories accumulated in the memories of parties to a synchronous communications network." The assemblage of histories gives voice to the known experimental finding, sometimes forgotten by theorists, that any memory device for recording logical symbols must be insensitive to variations in signals in which those symbols are carried. Out of acknowledging this insensitivity comes an appreciation of rhythms essential to the communication of digital symbols and of the need for analog measurements to maintain these rhythms. The separate reference system for evidence reconciles what otherwise is a conflict between the demand in quantum mechanics for repeatable experiments and the lack in spacetime metrics appropriate to the Global Positioning System of any exact symmetry, a lack that rules out an isometry between two spacetime regions for two occurrences of an experiment.
The Logic of Reflection: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "treatise on Logic"
Land, Janet Sanders
Though others discuss Coleridge's interest in science, light imagery, the phenomenon of reflection, and his references to Newton and Opticks,^1 this is the first study to examine Coleridge's art in terms of optics, its developing theories, and the nature-of-light debate. This study examines Coleridge's early predilection for visions, illusions, and the supernatural and demonstrates that he gradually shifts from the supernatural to the scientific aspects of "visions" and "illusions," concentrating on causes of illusions and the effects of their deceptive qualities rather than their mystical features. By the 1820's, his preoccupation with illusions had become an interest in optics, fueled, no doubt, by the increasing controversy of the nature-of-light debate and the number of advances in optics resulting from the efforts of its opponents to prove their theories. Tracing the development of the debate, its escalation in the early nineteenth century, and the formation of Coleridge's opinion concerning key issues of the debate, I outline the evolution of Coleridge's theory of reflection and examine the exposition of that theory in his treatise, Logic (1981). Finally, I analyze the relationship between the advances in optics and Coleridge's concepts of thought and knowledge and his notion of the mind as an instrument of knowledge. These ideas in turn, altered his opinions concerning the validity of knowledge resulting from philosophic debate, scientific experiment, and poetic exploration. ftn^1John Beer, "Coleridge and Wordsworth on Reflection," The Wordsworth Circle 20 (1989): 20-29; Coleridge the Visionary. London: Chatto and Windus, 1959; and Coleridge's Poetic Intelligence. London: Macmillan, 1977 and M. H. Abrams Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. New York: Norton, 1971; and "Coleridge's 'A Light in Sound': Science, Metascience, and Poetic Imagination." The Correspondent Breeze: Essays on English Romanticism. Eds. M. H. Abrams
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shefali Mamataj; Biswajit Das
2016-01-01
.... Reversible Logic is gaining significant consideration as the potential logic design style for implementation in modern nanotechnology and quantum computing with minimal impact on physical entropy...
Semantic interpretation of Compositional Logic in Instantiation Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU Kaile; XIAO Yinyin; CHEN Qingliang; LIN Han
2007-01-01
The formal methods for security protocols guarantee the security properties of protocols.Instantiation Space Logic is a new security protocol logic,which has a strong expressive power.Compositional Logic is also a useful security protocol logic.This paper analyzes the relationship between these two logics,and interprets the semantics of Compositional Logic in Instantiation Space model.Through our work,the interpreted Compositional Logic can be extended more easily.Moreover,those security protocols described in Compositional Logic can be automatically verified by the verifier of Instantiation Space.The paper also proves that the expressive power of Instantiation Space Logic,which can not be completely interpreted by Compositional Logic,is stronger than Compositional Logic.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Garbi
2012-01-01
play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...
Topoi the categorial analysis of logic
Goldblatt, Robert
2013-01-01
A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.
Emotion Detection from Text using Fuzzy Logic
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Saqib Qamar; Parvez Ahmad
2015-01-01
.... Fuzzy logic was developed to deal with concepts that do not have well-defined, sharp boundaries, which theoretically is ideal for emotion as no well-defined boundaries are defined for emotion categories (e. g...
Classical Boolean logic gates with quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Renaud, N; Joachim, C, E-mail: n-renaud@northwestern.edu [Nanoscience Group and MANA Satellite CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France)
2011-04-15
An analytical method is proposed to implement any classical Boolean function in a small quantum system by taking the advantage of its electronic transport properties. The logical input, {alpha} = {l_brace}{alpha}{sub 1}, ..., {alpha}{sub N}{r_brace}, is used to control well-identified parameters of the Hamiltonian of the system noted H{sub 0}({alpha}). The logical output is encoded in the tunneling current intensity passing through the quantum system when connected to conducting electrodes. It is demonstrated how to implement the six symmetric two-input/one-output Boolean functions in a quantum system. This system can be switched from one logic function to another by changing its structural parameters. The stability of the logic gates is discussed, perturbing the Hamiltonian with noise sources and studying the effect of decoherence.
A SELF-ORGANISING FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ES Obe
One major drawback of fuzzy logic controllers is the difficulty encountered in the construction of a ... an algorithm that allows a designer to initially specify a possibly inaccurate rule-base, which ... an adaptive FLC strategy based on these ideas.
Developing & Optimizing a Logical Sourcing Strategy
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lee S Scheible; Chris Bodurow; Karin Daun
2015-01-01
In order to optimize the benefit of the sourcing strategy and ensure delivery of the portfolio, a logical operational process flow must be developed and implemented consistently across all study...
Online Testable Decoder using Reversible Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hemalatha. K. N. Manjula B. B. Girija. S
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The project proposes to design and test 2 to 4 reversible Decoder circuit with arbitrary number of gates to an online testable reversible one and is independent of the type of reversible gate used. The constructed circuit can detect any single bit errors and to convert a decoder circuit that is designed by reversible gates to an online testable reversible decoder circuit. Conventional digital circuits dissipate a significant amount of energy because bits of information are erased during the logic operations. Thus if logic gates are designed such that the information bits are not destroyed, the power consumption can be reduced. The information bits are not lost in case of a reversible computation. Reversible logic can be used to implement any Boolean logic function.
CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY – A LOGICAL APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
EMIL DINGA
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve a definition of the concept of sustainability and of sustainable system from a logical perspective. In this respect, it introduces and defines (through the sufficiency predicates the concept of logically vivid system and, on this basis, are discussed a logical concept of sustainability, respectively of a sustainable system in general are discussed and built up. Sustainability is considered in light of identity preservation of the systems, as a static anchor, on one hand, and of the concept of automatic stabilizers as a dynamic anchor on the other side. Finally, the two sufficiency conditions for a logically vivid system be sustainable are identified: the presence of hyper-cycles, respectively the absence of positive feed-back.
Searching the Arcane Origins of Fuzzy Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2011-05-01
Full Text Available It is well-known that Artificial Intelligence requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is very necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as may be
Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic, and so on. When you are searching the possible precedent of such new ideas, we may found that they are not totally new, because some ancient thinkers have suggested many centuries ago similar concepts, certainly without adequate mathematical formulation, but in the same line: against the dogmatism and the dualistic vision of
the world: absolutely true vs. absolutely false, black vs. white, good or bad by nature, 0 vs.1, etc. We attempt to analyze here some of these greatly unexplored, and very interesting early origins.
Nursing and fuzzy logic: an integrative review.
Jensen, Rodrigo; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes
2011-01-01
This study conducted an integrative review investigating how fuzzy logic has been used in research with the participation of nurses. The article search was carried out in the CINAHL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline databases, with no limitation on time of publication. Articles written in Portuguese, English and Spanish with themes related to nursing and fuzzy logic with the authorship or participation of nurses were included. The final sample included 21 articles from eight countries. For the purpose of analysis, the articles were distributed into categories: theory, method and model. In nursing, fuzzy logic has significantly contributed to the understanding of subjects related to: imprecision or the need of an expert; as a research method; and in the development of models or decision support systems and hard technologies. The use of fuzzy logic in nursing has shown great potential and represents a vast field for research.
Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel E. Litvin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.
Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement.
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-07-05
Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network.
Construction of the Graphical Propositional Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Wang
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Mathematical logic is the logical basis of the modern computer. It is important for the development of the electronic computer. With the development of computer technology, especially the development of computer visualization technology, the two-dimensional objects, such as graph and table, are more and more frequently as the computer processing object. But, the traditional one-dimensional character grammar already can not process. Then graph grammars that based on the two-dimensional arise at the historic moment. In order to provide the visual logic reasoning mathematical foundation, this paper introduces the basic theory of graph grammars. Through the propositional calculus and propositional logic reasoning two aspects of graphical description, we use graph grammars to construct propositional calculus and propositional reasoning.
Semantic foundation for preferential description logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2011-12-01
Full Text Available that they refer to as concept models. They present representation results for the description logic ALC for both preferential and rational consequence relations. They argue that their semantics pave the way for extending preferential and rational consequence...
Reachability modules for the description logic SRIQ
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nortje, R
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate module extraction for the Description Logic SRIQ. We formulate modules in terms of the reachability problem for directed hypergraphs. Using inseperability relations, we investigate the module-theoretic properties...
Fuzzy logic applications in engineering science
Harris, J
2006-01-01
Fuzzy logic is a relatively new concept in science applications. Hitherto, fuzzy logic has been a conceptual process applied in the field of risk management. Its potential applicability is much wider than that, however, and its particular suitability for expanding our understanding of processes and information in science and engineering in our post-modern world is only just beginning to be appreciated. Written as a companion text to the author's earlier volume "An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Applications", the book is aimed at professional engineers and students and those with an interest in exploring the potential of fuzzy logic as an information processing kit with a wide variety of practical applications in the field of engineering science and develops themes and topics introduced in the author's earlier text.
Logical provenance in data-oriented workflows?
Ikeda, R.
2013-04-01
We consider the problem of defining, generating, and tracing provenance in data-oriented workflows, in which input data sets are processed by a graph of transformations to produce output results. We first give a new general definition of provenance for general transformations, introducing the notions of correctness, precision, and minimality. We then determine when properties such as correctness and minimality carry over from the individual transformations\\' provenance to the workflow provenance. We describe a simple logical-provenance specification language consisting of attribute mappings and filters. We provide an algorithm for provenance tracing in workflows where logical provenance for each transformation is specified using our language. We consider logical provenance in the relational setting, observing that for a class of Select-Project-Join (SPJ) transformations, logical provenance specifications encode minimal provenance. We have built a prototype system supporting the features and algorithms presented in the paper, and we report a few preliminary experimental results. © 2013 IEEE.
Magnetic Logic Circuits for Extreme Environments Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program aims to demonstrate a new genre of all-magnetic logic circuits which are radiation-tolerant and capable of reliable operation in extreme environmental...
Flowcharting the Meaning of Logic Formulas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabah Al-Fedaghi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In logic, representation of a domain (e.g., physical reality comprises the things its expressions (formulas refer to and their relationships. Recent research has examined the realm of nonsymbolic representations, especially diagrams. It is claimed that, in general, diagrams have advantages over linguistic descriptions. Current diagrammatic representations of logic formulas do not completely depict their underlying semantics, and they lack a basic static structure that incorporates elementary dynamic features, creating a conceptual gap that can lead to misinterpretation. This paper demonstrates a methodology for mapping the sense of a logic formula and producing diagrams that integrate linguistic conception, truth-values, and meaning and can be used in teaching, communication, and understanding, especially with students specializing in logic representation and reasoning.
A Graph Calculus for Predicate Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo A. S. Veloso
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We introduce a refutation graph calculus for classical first-order predicate logic, which is an extension of previous ones for binary relations. One reduces logical consequence to establishing that a constructed graph has empty extension, i. e. it represents bottom. Our calculus establishes that a graph has empty extension by converting it to a normal form, which is expanded to other graphs until we can recognize conflicting situations (equivalent to a formula and its negation.
Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors
Habiballa, Hashim
2016-06-01
The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.
Application of Fuzzy Logic in Servo Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shereen F. Abd-Alkarim
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this work the design and application of a fuzzy logic controller to DC-servomotor is investigated. The proposed strategy is intended to improve the performance of the original control system by use of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC as the motor load changes. Computer simulation demonstrates that FLC is effective in position control of a DC-servomotor comparing with conventional one.
Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving
Chang, Chin-Liang
1969-01-01
This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.
Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs
Chen, Y.; Lin, F.
2011-01-01
In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theorems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our discovered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between t...
The Logic of Resources and Capabilities
2016-01-01
This paper introduces the logic of resources and (agents') capabilities (LRC) as a logic designed to describe and reason about key aspects of social behaviour in organizations. The results of the present paper (soundness, completeness, canonicity, conservative analytic calculus with cut-elimination and subformula property) lay at the intersection of the algebraic theory of unified correspondence and the theory of multi-type calculi in structural proof theory. Case studies are discussed which ...
Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof
Agler, David
2012-01-01
Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into English and from English into formal language; how to use truth trees and truth tables to test propositions for logical properties; and how to construct and strategically use derivation rules in proofs.
Automatic Synthesis of Multilevel Combinational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anders C.; Madsen, Jan; Madsen, J.R.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a system for the synthesis of multilevel combinational logic, transforming functional description into mask layout. The system includes a logic synthesis part, partly consisting of tools developed at Eindhoven University of Technology, which has been interfaced to the layout...... synthesis part in the CATOE-system, developed at the DesignCenter of Electronics Institute. The various steps in the transformation are presented together with a complete design example, implementing a multi-output combinational decoder function....
Decidable extensions of Hennessy-Milner Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado
2006-01-01
R. Mardare, C. Priami. Decidable extensions of Hennessy-Milner Logic. In Proc. of the International Conference on Formal Methods for Networked and Distributed Systems (FORTE 2006), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4229:196-211, Springer, 2006......R. Mardare, C. Priami. Decidable extensions of Hennessy-Milner Logic. In Proc. of the International Conference on Formal Methods for Networked and Distributed Systems (FORTE 2006), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4229:196-211, Springer, 2006...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Zhou
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper develops an ultra-low power asynchronous circuit design methodology, called Multi-Threshold NULL Convention Logic (MTNCL, also known as Sleep Convention Logic (SCL, which combines Multi-Threshold CMOS (MTCMOS with NULL Convention Logic (NCL, to yield significant power reduction without any of the drawbacks of applying MTCMOS to synchronous circuits. In contrast to other power reduction techniques that usually result in large area overhead, MTNCL circuits are actually smaller than their original NCL versions. MTNCL utilizes high-Vt transistors to gate power and ground of a low-Vt logic block to provide for both fast switching and very low leakage power when idle. To demonstrate the advantages of MTNCL, a number of 32-bit IEEE single-precision floating-point co-processors were designed for comparison using the 1.2 V IBM 8RF-LM 130 nm CMOS process: original NCL, MTNCL with just combinational logic (C/L slept, Bit-Wise MTNCL (BWMTNCL, MTNCL with C/L and completion logic slept, MTNCL with C/L, completion logic, and registers slept, MTNCL with Safe Sleep architecture, and synchronous MTCMOS. These designs are compared in terms of throughput, area, dynamic energy, and idle power, showing the tradeoffs between the various MTNCL architectures, and that the best MTNCL design is much better than the original NCL design in all aspects, and much better than the synchronous MTCMOS design in terms of area, energy per operation, and idle power, although the synchronous design can operate faster.
Low Power Dynamic Logic Ripple Carry Adder Using Footed Diode Domino Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Krishna Karthik
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In recent electronic devices power saving has more importance than any other thing. Dynamic logic circuits are one of the basic power efficient circuits which comes into picture when dealt with low power. Dynamic logic circuits operate mainly in two phases, namely Pre-charge and evaluate phase. Domino logic circuits are more power efficient and cooperatively faster circuits which operate on the above two phases. For extremely low power applications footed diode domino logic is applied. This paper mainly deals with design of Dynamic logic circuit design based on footed diode domino logic with reduction in power and leakage current. In this proposed circuit we put a diode on the foot of domino logic circuit which results in power reduction as compared to reported and conventional domino logic. We are using NMOS as a diode and due to this extra diode (NMOS, in pre-charge period leakage current reduce due to stacking effect. Approximately 32% of power is saved using footed diode domino logic. For Simulation we are using tanner tool at 180nm technology.
Shimp, Charles P
2004-06-30
Research on categorization has changed over time, and some of these changes resemble how Wittgenstein's views changed from his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus to his Philosophical Investigations. Wittgenstein initially focused on unambiguous, abstract, parsimonious, logical propositions and rules, and on independent, static, "atomic facts." This approach subsequently influenced the development of logical positivism and thereby may have indirectly influenced method and theory in research on categorization: much animal research on categorization has focused on learning simple, static, logical rules unambiguously interrelating small numbers of independent features. He later rejected logical simplicity and rigor and focused instead on Gestalt ideas about figure-ground reversals and context, the ambiguity of family resemblance, and the function of details of everyday language. Contemporary contextualism has been influenced by this latter position, some features of which appear in contemporary empirical research on categorization. These developmental changes are illustrated by research on avian local and global levels of visual perceptual analysis, categorization of rectangles and moving objects, and artificial grammar learning. Implications are described for peer review of quantitative theory in which ambiguity, logical rigor, simplicity, or dynamics are designed to play important roles.
Nadiri, Ata Allah; Sedghi, Zahra; Khatibi, Rahman; Gharekhani, Maryam
2017-09-01
Driven by contamination risks, mapping Vulnerability Indices (VI) of multiple aquifers (both unconfined and confined) is investigated by integrating the basic DRASTIC framework with multiple models overarched by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The DRASTIC framework is a proactive tool to assess VI values using the data from the hydrosphere, lithosphere and anthroposphere. However, a research case arises for the application of multiple models on the ground of poor determination coefficients between the VI values and non-point anthropogenic contaminants. The paper formulates SCFL models, which are derived from the multiple model philosophy of Supervised Committee (SC) machines and Fuzzy Logic (FL) and hence SCFL as their integration. The Fuzzy Logic-based (FL) models include: Sugeno Fuzzy Logic (SFL), Mamdani Fuzzy Logic (MFL), Larsen Fuzzy Logic (LFL) models. The basic DRASTIC framework uses prescribed rating and weighting values based on expert judgment but the four FL-based models (SFL, MFL, LFL and SCFL) derive their values as per internal strategy within these models. The paper reports that FL and multiple models improve considerably on the correlation between the modeled vulnerability indices and observed nitrate-N values and as such it provides evidence that the SCFL multiple models can be an alternative to the basic framework even for multiple aquifers. The study area with multiple aquifers is in Varzeqan plain, East Azerbaijan, northwest Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Logic in the curricula of Computer Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margareth Quindeless
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the programs in Computer Science is to educate and train students to understand the problems and build systems that solve them. This process involves applying a special reasoning to model interactions, capabilities, and limitations of the components involved. A good curriculum must involve the use of tools to assist in these tasks, and one that could be considered as a fundamental is the logic, because with it students develop the necessary reasoning. Besides, software developers analyze the behavior of the program during the designed, the depuration, and testing; hardware designers perform minimization and equivalence verification of circuits; designers of operating systems validate routing protocols, programing, and synchronization; and formal logic underlying all these activities. Therefore, a strong background in applied logic would help students to develop or potentiate their ability to reason about complex systems. Unfortunately, few curricula formed and properly trained in logic. Most includes only one or two courses of Discrete Mathematics, which in a few weeks covered truth tables and the propositional calculus, and nothing more. This is not enough, and higher level courses in which they are applied and many other logical concepts are needed. In addition, students will not see the importance of logic in their careers and need to modify the curriculum committees or adapt the curriculum to reverse this situation.
Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.
Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo
2016-07-15
A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning.
On a temporal logic for object-based systems
Distefano, Dino; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Rensink, Arend
2000-01-01
This paper presents a logic, called BOTL (Object-Based Temporal Logic), that facilitates the specification of dynamic and static properties of object-based systems. The logic is based on the branching temporal logic CTL and the Object Constraint Language (OCL), an optional part of the UML standard f
On a Temporal Logic for Object-Based Systems
Distefano, Dino; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Rensink, Arend; Smith, Scott F.; Talcott, Carolyn L.
2000-01-01
This paper presents a logic, called BOTL (Object-Based Temporal Logic), that facilitates the specification of dynamic and static properties of object-based systems. The logic is based on the branching temporal logic CTL and the Object Constraint Language (OCL), an optional part of the UML standard f
Three 13th-century views of quantified modal logic
Uckelman, S.L.
2008-01-01
There are two reasons why medieval logic is of interest to modern logician: One is to see how similar it is to modern logic and the other is to see how different it is. We study three 13th-century works on modal logic and give two examples of how their views of modal logic differ from modern views o
Towards a Unified Framework of Syntax, Semantics and Logic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Francis; Yunqing; Lin
2003-01-01
1. IntroductionHumans have the ability (or competence) to think logically, and this is an undeniable fact. However,what this ability consists in is a difficult question. It might be said that logical ability consists in theknowledge of a set of logic rules. But what are those logic rules? For centuries logicians have devel-
Differences between Logics and Meaning-Variance : A Categorial Approach
Estrada Gonzalez, Luis; Pallares Vega, Ivonne Victoria
2011-01-01
We argue here that the meanings of logical connectives need not differ in different logics. treatment of the logical connectives, we argue against the well-known Quinean thesis that a difference between logics implies a difference in the meanings of connectives. We thus locate this change in the dif
Reasoning Biases, Non-Monotonic Logics, and Belief Revision
Dutilh Novaes, Catarina; Veluwenkamp, Herman
2017-01-01
A range of formal models of human reasoning have been proposed in a number of fields such as philosophy, logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, psychology, cognitive science etc.: various logics (epistemic logics; non-monotonic logics), probabilistic systems (most notably, but not exclusi
Querying Class-Relationship Logic in a Metalogic Framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
2011-01-01
We introduce a class relationship logic for stating various forms of logical relationships between classes. This logic is intended for ontologies and knowledge bases and combinations thereof. Reasoning and querying is conducted in the Datalog logical language, which serves as an embracing decidable...