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Sample records for groundbreaking textbook thermodynamics

  1. Thermodynamics an advanced textbook for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Astarita, Gianni

    1989-01-01

    If a Writer would know how to behave himself with relation to Posterity; let him consider in old Books, what he finds, that he is glad to know; and what Omissions he most laments. Jonathan Swift This book emerges from a long story of teaching. I taught chemical engineering thermodynamics for about ten years at the University of Naples in the 1960s, and I still remember the awkwardness that I felt about any textbook I chose to consider-all of them seemed to be vague at best, and the standard of logical rigor seemed immensely inferior to what I could find in books on such other of the students in my first class subjects as calculus and fluid mechanics. One (who is now Prof. F. Gioia of the University of Naples) once asked me a question which I have used here as Example 4. 2-more than 20 years have gone by, and I am still waiting for a more intelligent question from one of my students. At the time, that question compelled me to answer in a way I didn't like, namely "I'll think about it, and I hope I'll have the ...

  2. The LEP groundbreaking ceremony

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    French President Francois Mitterand and Swiss President Pierre Aubert visiting CERN for the LEP ground-breaking ceremony on 13 September 1983. They are seen here with Emilio Picasso, LEP project director, and Herwig Schopper, CERN's then Director-General.

  3. NACA Groundbreaking Ceremony

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    The NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, had initially been subordinate to the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory near Hampton, Virginia, but as the flight research in the Mojave Desert increasingly proved its worth after 1946, it made sense to make the Flight Research Station a separate entity reporting directly to the headquarters of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. But an autonomous center required all the trappings of a major research facility, including good quarters. With the adoption of the Edwards 'Master Plan,' the Air Force had committed itself to moving from its old South Base to a new location midway between the South and North Bases. The NACA would have to move also--so why not take advantage of the situation and move into a full-blown research facility. The Air Force issued a lease to NACA for a location on the northwestern shore of the Roger Dry Lake. Construction started on the NACA station in early February 1953. On a windy day, January 27, 1953, at a groundbreaking ceremony stood left to right: Gerald Truszynski, Head of Instrumentation Division; Joseph Vensel, Head of the Operations Branch; Walter Williams, Head of the Station, scooping the first shovel full of dirt; Marion Kent, Head of Personnel; and California state official Arthur Samet.

  4. An Ontological and Epistemological Analysis of the Presentation of the First Law of Thermodynamics in School and University Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Joaquin Castillo; Rojas, Rocio Ogaz; Merino, Cristian; Quiroz, Waldo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the relevance of thermodynamics to the scientific discipline of chemistry and the curriculum of the Western school system, the philosophical system of Mario Bunge, particularly his ontology and epistemology, is used herein to analyze the presentation of the first law of thermodynamics in 15 school and university textbooks. The…

  5. Extreme thermodynamic conditions: novel stoichiometries, violations of textbook chemistry, and intriguing possibilities for the synthesis of new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Elissaios

    As evidenced by numerous experimental and theoretical studies, application of high pressure can dramatically modify the atomic arrangement and electronic structures of both elements and compounds. However, the great majority of research has been focused on the effect of pressure on compounds with constant stoichiometries (typically those stable under ambient conditions). Recent theoretical predictions, using advanced search algorithms, suggest that composition is another important variable in the search for stable compounds, i.e. that the more stable stoichiometry at elevated pressures is not a priory the same as that at ambient pressure. Indeed, thermodynamically stable compounds with novel compositions were theoretically predicted and experimentally verified even in relatively simple chemical systems including: Na-Cl, C-N, Li-H, Na-H, Cs-N, H-N, Na-He, Xe-Fe. These materials are stable due to the formation of novel chemical bonds that are absent, or even forbidden, at ambient conditions. Tuning the composition of the system thus represents another important, but poorly explored approach to the synthesis of novel materials. By varying the stoichiometry one can design novel materials with enhanced properties (e.g. high energy density, hardness, superconductivity etc.), that are metastable at ambient conditions and synthesized at thermodynamic conditions less extreme than that those required for known stoichiometries. Moreover, current outstanding questions, ``anomalies'' and ``paradoxes'' in geo- and planetary science (e.g. the Xenon paradox) could be addressed based on the stability of surprising, stoichiometries that challenge our traditional ``textbook'' picture. In this talk, I will briefly present recent results and highlight the need of close synergy between experimental and theoretical efforts to understand the challenging and complex field of variable stoichiometry under pressure. Finally, possible new routes for the synthesis of novel materials will be

  6. 'Groundbreaking' Research Offers Clues to Cause of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 'Groundbreaking' Research Offers Clues to Cause of Dyslexia Brain scans revealed that those with the reading ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with the reading disability dyslexia may have brain differences that are surprisingly wide- ...

  7. Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Enrico

    1956-01-01

    Indisputably, this is a modern classic of science. Based on a course of lectures delivered by the author at Columbia University, the text is elementary in treatment and remarkable for its clarity and organization. Although it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the fundamental facts of thermometry and calorimetry, no advanced mathematics beyond calculus is assumed.Partial contents: thermodynamic systems, the first law of thermodynamics (application, adiabatic transformations), the second law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle, absolute thermodynamic temperature, thermal engines), the entr

  8. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  9. Moving Metric: Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, George F.

    1981-01-01

    Lists engineering textbooks that use SI units. Includes author(s), title, publisher, year, and author's or publisher's comments on the use of the SI units. Books are categorized by topic, such as engineering mechanics, mechanics of materials, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, structural design, and hydrology. (CS)

  10. Textbook Troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    Recent reports criticize today's glitzy, coffee-table textbooks as shallow, dumbed-down products that waste taxpayers' money and students' learning potential. Districts should encourage more textbook research, clarify expectations, have someone read texts under consideration, refuse to purchase inferior textbooks, and watch for online…

  11. Textbook America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  12. Metaforer och analogier inom termodynamik i kemiläroböcker för gymnasietMetaphors and analogies in thermodynamics in upper secondary chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hedberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Science education research has long taken an interest in how we may make full use of analogies and metaphors in science teaching. Further, more recently, the role of implicit, conceptual metaphors in connecting abstract conceptual knowledge to concrete embodied experiences has been recognised. The textbook plays a central role in upper secondary teaching, as it is, together with the teacher, a source of knowledge for the students. We have analysed the use of analogies, and explicit and implicit metaphors in two Swedish upper secondary chemistry textbook, and interviewed two of the authors of the textbooks. Abstract states and processes were found to be construed by means of the Object-Event and Location-Event Structure metaphors. Explicit metaphors and analogies were presented, but the comparisons were not always elaborated sufficiently in order to guide the students’ interpretations and avoid possible misunderstandings.

  13. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  14. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  15. Textbook difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rune Bolding

    2015-01-01

    space. However, it also highlights how this schooling concomitantly extended a language of ‘anthropological’ and ‘ecological’ difference with which to organise and negotiate this space. Below the textbook surface of unity-in-diversity, remnants of imperial caste and racial hierarchies remained. And......, along with novel notions of national development, new hierarchies were introduced that separated developed centres from remote and backward peripheries. Through its engagement with Nepali history, the article thus contributes to our understanding of the continued interaction between the production...

  16. Cryogenics a textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thipse, S S

    2013-01-01

    A Textbook covers lucidly various cryogenic applications including cryogenic engines and space and electronic applications. Importance of cryogenic engines in space propulsion, complete thermodynamic analysis of cryogenic systems with special emphasis on cryogenic cycles, Dewar vessels used to store cryogenic fluids and their applications in various industries have also been discussed in detail. Explanation of Superconductivity and its applications with a description of various Cryocoolers used in industry has also been provided with extensive details. Further technical information on cryogens has been specified alongwith the vacuum technology which has been sufficiently described with examples. Science of Cryonics has been elaborated and all aspects of technology related to functioning of cryogenic plants and their construction including valves, pipes has been incorporated in this book.

  17. Comparative Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Siegfried

    1976-01-01

    Recalls the development of the International Textbook Institute whose main aim was to overcome prejudice and the outmoded values of the national state as contained in textbooks. Discusses the contributions of the Council of Europe and UNESCO in revising textbooks and suggests methods of textbook research. (Author/RK)

  18. Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica

  19. Modeling thermodynamic distance, curvature and fluctuations a geometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook aims to briefly outline the main directions in which the geometrization of thermodynamics has been developed in the last decades. The textbook is accessible to people trained in thermal sciences but not necessarily with solid formation in mathematics. For this, in the first chapters a summary of the main mathematical concepts is made. In some sense, this makes the textbook self-consistent. The rest of the textbook consists of a collection of results previously obtained in this young branch of thermodynamics. The manner of presentation used throughout the textbook is adapted for ease of access of readers with education in natural and technical sciences.

  20. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  1. Sociocultural approach to textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural mediation of development and then, its operationalization through the concept of cultural-supportive tools. The transfer from theory to practice is presented through the most important practical implications, such as defining the genre specificities of textbook and principles of educational design of textbooks. As a distinctive issue, we also consider the way this approach to textbook (theoretical articulation, analytical concepts, and practical implications contributes to development of socio-cultural paradigm in psychology.

  2. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Mário J

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...

  3. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Mário J

    2013-01-01

    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions.  These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This textbo...

  4. Chemical thermodynamics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keszei, Ernoe [Budapest Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Eminently suitable as a required textbook comprising complete material for or an undergraduate chemistry major course in chemical thermodynamics. Clearly explains details of formal derivations that students can easily follow and so master applied mathematical operations. Offers problems and solutions at the end of each chapter for self-test and self- or group study. This course-derived undergraduate textbook provides a concise explanation of the key concepts and calculations of chemical thermodynamics. Instead of the usual 'classical' introduction, this text adopts a straightforward postulatory approach that introduces thermodynamic potentials such as entropy and energy more directly and transparently. Structured around several features to assist students' understanding, Chemical Thermodynamics: - Develops applications and methods for the ready treatment of equilibria on a sound quantitative basis. - Requires minimal background in calculus to understand the text and presents formal derivations to the student in a detailed but understandable way. - Offers end-of-chapter problems (and answers) for self-testing and review and reinforcement, of use for self- or group study. This book is suitable as essential reading for courses in a bachelor and master chemistry program and is also valuable as a reference or textbook for students of physics, biochemistry and materials science.

  5. Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...

  6. Management Textbooks as Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kim S.; Ireland, R. Duane; Lussier, Robert N.; New, J. Randolph; Robbins, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    Four management textbook authors react to the metaphor of textbooks as propaganda. All write to support managerial ideology and are aware of the market, but believe their role in shaping the field is limited. Includes two responses: "Propaganda, Trusteeship, and Artifact" (Daniel R. Gilbert) and "The Hegemonic Discourse of…

  7. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallo, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the…

  8. Textbooks, Contexts, and Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhontova, T.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a recent pedagogical experience of using the U.S.-based English for academic purposes textbook "Academic Writing for Graduate Students" in the Ukrainian classroom. Focus is on the intellectual and emotional reactions of the students toward a quite new kind of textbook and corresponding course. (Author/VWL)

  9. Physics That Textbook Writers Usually Get Wrong: II. Heat and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines problems that occur with the vocabulary used in physics textbooks related to heat and energy. Discusses the concepts of thermal energy and temperature, conservation of energy laws, and the first law of thermodynamics. (MDH)

  10. Thermodynamics on the Molality Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Maheswaran, M.

    2013-01-01

    For physical measurements, the compositions of solutions, especially electrolyte solutions, are expressed in terms of molality rather than mole fractions. The development of the necessary thermodynamic equations directly in terms of molality is not common in textbooks, and the treatment in the literature is not very systematic. We develop a…

  11. Recommended Textbooks (Booksearch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates four textbooks recommended by junior high and high school teachers for teaching writing and literature: "Enjoying Literature" (published by Macmillan, 1985); "Exposition: Critical Writing and Thinking" (Robert J. Gula); "Situational Writing" (Gene Krupa); and "Double Exposure: Composing through Writing…

  12. Problem discourse of textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with various reasons for treating the problematisation of textbook discourse as an important aspect of its educational design. These reasons are derived from: the nature of learning process, the nature of scientific knowledge and both motivational and cognitive saint achieved through a problematisation of learning material. Implications drawn from these considerations, along with textbook genre possibilities and constrains, lead us to define some basic strategies of textbook discourse problematisation. They refer to: way of presenting knowledge (problem structuring of text, presenting the history of knowledge and different perspectives; use of specific questions and tasks; metacognitive support of the learning process and specific type of textbook language (dialogical problem focused, language of thinking.

  13. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palló, Gábor

    2006-11-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the students. Encyclopedias adequately expressed this vision. Some of these professors, including Johannes Alsted, were invited to Hungary, Transylvania, to introduce the encyclopedic spirit to the local schools. This act fostered the first textbook in Hungarian language written by János Apáczai Csere. This book was an encyclopedia born mostly in the Netherlands where the author studied. The Cartesian philosophy combined with a Ramist system served as the basis of the book. Its history shows how the local conditions influence the content of knowledge incorporated into a textbook.

  14. Textbook of fish health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Post, George

    1987-01-01

    Written to fill the great need for a fish disease textbook for college students, this new edition contains the latest information and important discoveries related to those fish diseases that affect man economically...

  15. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...

  16. Some Perceptions of English Geography Textbook Authors on Writing Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Catling, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There has been much research into the nature and uses of school geography textbooks as teaching resources, yet the perceptions of their authors have been neglected. This study investigated the perspectives of a sample of authors of English primary and secondary school geography textbooks on their experiences as textbook authors. It enquired into…

  17. Qualitative and quantitative reasoning about thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorstad, Gordon; Forbus, Ken

    1989-01-01

    One goal of qualitative physics is to capture the tacit knowledge of engineers and scientists. It is shown how Qualitative Process theory can be used to express concepts of engineering thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown how to integrate qualitative and quantitative knowledge to solve textbook problems involving thermodynamic cycles, such as gas turbine plants and steam power plants. These ideas were implemented in a program called SCHISM. Its analysis of a sample textbook problem is described and plans for future work are discussed.

  18. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  19. Chemical thermodynamics: principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, J. Bevan; Boerio-Goates, Juliana [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Chemical Thermodynamics: Principles and Applications presents a thorough development of the principles of thermodynamics--an old science to which the authors include the most modem applications, along with those of importance in developing the science and those of historical interest. The text is written in an informal but rigorous style, including anecdotes about some of the great thermodynamicists (with some of whom the authors have had a personal relationship), and focuses on 'real' systems in the discussion and figures, in contrast to the generic examples that are often used in other textbooks. The book provides a basic review of thermodynamic principles, equations, and applications of broad interest. It covers the development of thermodynamics as one of the pre-eminent examples of an exact science. A discussion of the standard state that emphasizes its significance and usefulness is also included, as well as a more rigorous and indepth treatment of thermodynamics. Outlines the development of the principles of thermodynamics, including the most modem applications along with those of importance in developing the science and those of historical interest . Provides a basic review of thermodynamic principles, equations, and applications of broad interest. Treats thermodynamics as one of the preeminent examples of an exact science. Provides a more rigorous and indepth treatment of thermodynamics and discussion of a wider variety of applications than are found in more broadly based physical chemistry undergraduate textbooks. Includes examples in the text and exercises and problems at the end of each chapter to assist the student in learning the subject. (Author)

  20. The "Global" Formulation of Thermodynamics and the First Law: 50 Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, Henry Bent published his groundbreaking article in this "Journal" introducing the "global" formulation of thermodynamics. In the following years, the global formulation was elaborated by Bent and by one of the present authors. The global formulation of the first law focuses on conservation of energy and the recognition that…

  1. Sixteen Textbook Authors Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The articles on textbook publication written by Sheryl Fullerton and Franklin C. Graham were responded to by: John Hewitt, Henry Tischler, George Ritzer, Paul Baker, Erich Goode, D. Stanley Eitzen, Jon Shepard, Richard Schaefer, Caroline Persell, Beth Hess, Paul Zopf, Jr., Jeanne Ballantine, Duane Monette, Mary Ann Lamanna, John Macionis, and…

  2. Digital Textbooks. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Despite their growing popularity, digital alternatives to conventional textbooks are stirring up controversy. With the introduction of tablet computers, and the growing trend toward "cloud computing" and "open source" software, the trend is accelerating because costs are coming down and free or inexpensive materials are becoming more available.…

  3. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  4. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  5. Chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book, suitable as an introductory text for undergraduates, presents temperature, internal energy, and entropy with a minimum of mathematics. The basic mathematical models of classical chemical thermodynamics are developed later in the text. Includes numerous problems at the end of each chapter, an appendix giving thermodynamic data for common substances, a short list of references, answers to selected problems, and a subject index. Contents, abridged: Energy and the first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic functions. The third law of thermodynamics and absolute entropies. Thermodynamics of chemical reactions. Phase equilibria: the activity function. Thermodynamics of ions in solution. Statistical thermodynamics. Appendices. Index.

  6. Mechanics and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This introduction to classical mechanics and thermodynamics provides an accessible and clear treatment of the fundamentals. Starting with particle mechanics and an early introduction to special relativity this textbooks enables the reader to understand the basics in mechanics. The text is written from the experimental physics point of view, giving numerous real life examples and applications of classical mechanics in technology. This highly motivating presentation deepens the knowledge in a very accessible way. The second part of the text gives a concise introduction to rotational motion, an expansion to rigid bodies, fluids and gases. Finally, an extensive chapter on thermodynamics and a short introduction to nonlinear dynamics with some instructive examples intensify the knowledge of more advanced topics. Numerous problems with detailed solutions are perfect for self study.

  7. Thermodynamics, entropy and waterwheels

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In textbooks, it is often repeated that Carnot arrived to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics without knowing the first, using the caloric theory. In fact, in his book, R\\'eflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu, he often repeats that the "fall" of the caloric through a heat engine is equivalent to the fall of the water through a water wheel. Actually, one can play the analogy between thermal and hydraulic machines all the way down, and discover, with the help of the first principle and introducing the concept of the absolute height, what really "falls" through a waterwheel, i.e., the entropy. Adding a bit of relativity it is possible to extend the analogy to real machines and also to introduce the analogous of third law of thermodynamics.

  8. Textbook language: Incentive or obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The criticism of the current language in school textbooks indicates the gravity of this problem in our environment and the need to solve it. The first step in approaching this problem is studying the reception of primary school textbooks. In the first part of the paper we discuss all primary school textbooks from the fifth to the eighth grade with regard to the frequency of textbook usage and the perception of the difficulty of textbook language. In the second part of the paper there is an additional analysis of history, geography, biology, physics and chemistry textbooks from the fifth to the eighth grade with regard to the reasons for which pupils find them difficult. This preliminary research comprised in total 120 pupils from an urban school, thirty from each fifth to eighth grade. We analyzed the textbooks of the Institute for Textbook Publishing and Teaching Aids, which are used most frequently in our educational practice, and hence can represent the general situation of the problem. Bearing in mind the limited size of the sample of pupils, the results are used only as an illustration and should encourage new studies on a more extensive sample. Textbook language is often difficult since it is mostly insufficiently comprehensible, longwinded and with many data. In natural sciences, physics and chemistry, pupils give up studying from the textbook. The textbooks in narrative subjects lead the way with respect to their usage, among which everybody finds history textbooks most difficult. Geography and biology textbooks were evaluated differently, depending on the grade and success of the pupils declaring themselves. The results present a guideline to the current and new writers of our textbooks, critics and publishing houses.

  9. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerance, Herbert H

    1997-03-01

    The dedication of this volume states:To the physicians and nurses who care for children in many different circumstances throughout the world and who, by their efforts and commitment, make the world a better place for children.I have used the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics since its third edition. It remains a source of amazement to me, as I witness the evolution of the book and of the knowledge that dictates its scope. From the days when a textbook was written by 1 or 2 authors, we have progressed to the point where this would be impossible. Three editors preside over this volume; they are also counted among the 212 contributors that lend special expertise to the work, continuing the volume as one of the traditions of pediatrics.The tremendous and rapid explosion in the amount of knowledge in pediatrics made a revision of the total material and even of.

  10. Electronic Geometry Textbook: A Geometric Textbook Knowledge Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Electronic Geometry Textbook is a knowledge management system that manages geometric textbook knowledge to enable users to construct and share dynamic geometry textbooks interactively and efficiently. Based on a knowledge base organizing and storing the knowledge represented in specific languages, the system implements interfaces for maintaining the data representing that knowledge as well as relations among those data, for automatically generating readable documents for viewing or printing, and for automatically discovering the relations among knowledge data. An interface has been developed for users to create geometry textbooks with automatic checking, in real time, of the consistency of the structure of each resulting textbook. By integrating an external geometric theorem prover and an external dynamic geometry software package, the system offers the facilities for automatically proving theorems and generating dynamic figures in the created textbooks. This paper provides a comprehensive account of the curr...

  11. Thermodynamics for Chemists, Physicists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hołyst, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamics is an essential part of chemical physics and is of fundamental importance in physics, chemistry and engineering courses. This textbook takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject and is therefore suitable for undergraduates in all those courses. The book is an introduction to phenomenological thermodynamics and its applications to phase transitions and chemical reactions, with some references to statistical mechanics. It strikes the balance between the rigorousness of the Callen text and phenomenological approach of the Atkins text. The book is divided in three parts. The first introduces the postulates and laws of thermodynamics and complements these initial explanations with practical examples. The second part is devoted to applications of thermodynamics to phase transitions in pure substances and mixtures. The third part covers thermodynamic systems in which chemical reactions take place. There are some sections on more advanced topics such as thermodynamic potentials, natural variabl...

  12. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Senegačnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  13. Electronic versus Traditional Textbooks: A Comparison of College Textbook Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenbruner, J.

    2011-01-01

    The author's quasi-experimental study compares undergraduate students' academic performance and experiences as a function of using electronic (n = 117) versus traditional (n = 116) textbooks in a developmental psychology course. Student exam scores did not differ significantly as a function of textbook format. Students who used the traditional…

  14. Electronic versus Traditional Textbooks: A Comparison of College Textbook Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenbruner, J.

    2011-01-01

    The author's quasi-experimental study compares undergraduate students' academic performance and experiences as a function of using electronic (n = 117) versus traditional (n = 116) textbooks in a developmental psychology course. Student exam scores did not differ significantly as a function of textbook format. Students who used the traditional…

  15. Textbooks: Dull Is Null, Spice Is Nice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Bill

    1979-01-01

    The issue of readability vs academic standards in college textbooks is addressed. Problems in balancing both needs and other problems involving textbooks and the publishing industry, including textbook resales and routine revisions of texts, are discussed. (JMD)

  16. Provocative Opinion: Elephantiasis of the Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the growing size of college organic chemistry textbooks. Notes that at the current rate of growth, average textbooks will be 1544 pages long in year 2000. Suggests methods to reduce textbook size. (ML)

  17. Elementary topology problem textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M

    2008-01-01

    This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr

  18. A Textbook of Textbooks: Elements of Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Cristtus Portela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze, from a semiotic perspective, José Luiz Fiorin's book Elementos de Análise do Discurso [Elements of Discourse Analysis] as a "textbook of textbooks," i.e., a textbook that gathers prototypical characteristics of teaching activities in undergraduate textbooks. Besides, it establishes a way to think and to teach the semiotics of discourse in Brazil. Starting from the analysis of the texts pertaining to the publishing activity, such as the book title, its cover, and the author's presentation, I came to an inventory and an analysis of the textual segments related to teaching that were conceived by the textbook enunciator, such as theoretical exemplification and explanation. The reading suggested here seeks to put in evidence and to understand the originality and the contemporaneity of the book, which turned 26 years old in 2015 and has played a strategic education role for many generations of semioticians and discourse analysts.

  19. Family Textbooks Twelve Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.

    2009-01-01

    In 1996 the author conducted an intensive study of twenty current family textbooks published in the United States, the results of which appeared in an academic journal article and a nonacademic report in 1997. The study included practical "functionalist" marriage and family textbooks and more academic sociology of the family books; these…

  20. Genocide in World History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)

  1. Thermodynamics a complete undergraduate course

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    This is an undergraduate textbook in thermodynamics—the science of heat, work, temperature, and entropy. The text presents thermodynamics in and of itself, as an elegant and powerful set of ideas and methods. These methods open the way to understanding a very wide range of phenomena in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. Starting out from an introduction of concepts at first year undergraduate level, the roles of temperature, internal energy, and entropy are explained via the laws of thermodynamics. The text employs a combination of examples, exercises, and careful discussion, with a view to conveying the feel of the subject as well as avoiding common misunderstandings. The Feynman–Smuluchowski ratchet, Szilard’s engine, and Maxwell’s daemon are used to elucidate entropy and the second law. Free energy and thermodynamic potentials are discussed at length, with applications to solids as well as fluids and flow processes. Thermal radiation is discussed, and the main ideas significant to global...

  2. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  3. Chemical Energy and Exergy. An Introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics for Engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Norio [NS electrochemical Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2004-03-01

    This book is a beginners introduction to chemical thermodynamics for engineers. In the textbook efforts have been made to visualize as clearly as possible the main concepts of thermodynamic quantities such as enthalpy and entropy, thus making them more perceivable. Furthermore, intricate formulae in thermodynamics have been discussed as functionally unified sets of formulae to understand their meaning rather than to mathematically derive them in detail. In this textbook, the affinity of irreversible processes, defined by the second law of thermodynamics, has been treated as the main subject, rather than the equilibrium of chemical reactions. The concept of affinity is applicable in general not only to the processes of chemical reactions but also to all kinds of irreversible processes. This textbook also includes electrochemical thermodynamics in which, instead of the classical phenomenological approach, molecular science provides an advanced understanding of the reactions of charged particles such as ions and electrons at the electrodes. Recently, engineering thermodynamics has introduced a new thermodynamic potential called exergy, which essentially is related to the concept of the affinity of irreversible processes. This textbook discusses the relation between exergy and affinity and explains the exergy balance diagram and exergy vector diagram applicable to exergy analyses in chemical manufacturing processes. This textbook is written in the hope that the readers understand in a broad way the fundamental concepts of energy and exergy from chemical thermodynamics in practical applications. Finishing this book, the readers may easily step forward further into an advanced text of their specified line.

  4. English language teaching textbooks content, consumption, production

    CERN Document Server

    Harwood, N

    2013-01-01

    English language teaching textbooks (or coursebooks) play a central role in the life of a classroom. This edited volume contains research-informed chapters focusing on: analysis of textbook content; how textbooks are used in the classroom; and textbook writers' accounts of the materials writing, design, and publishing process.

  5. Students' Intentions to Purchase Electronic Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert W.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks have played an important role in education for decades. Given the significant number of technology applications in education, it is not surprising that at least one such application is the electronic textbook (e-textbook). There are a variety of motivations to adopt an e-textbook, including frequent content updates and low costs. The…

  6. English language teaching textbooks content, consumption, production

    CERN Document Server

    Harwood, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    English language teaching textbooks (or coursebooks) play a central role in the life of a classroom. This edited volume contains research-informed chapters focusing on: analysis of textbook content; how textbooks are used in the classroom; and textbook writers' accounts of the materials writing, design, and publishing process.

  7. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  8. How to Use a Textbook Effectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洛玲

    2004-01-01

    No textbook can be exactly designed for students; teachers should manage to use a textbook effectively. There are two facets to understand how to use a textbook: one is to go inside the textbook; the other is the context, the students, and the teacher. A framework will do some help when using a new textbook and we'll have to adapt in some ways.

  9. Communicative Textbooks: English Language Textbooks in Iranian Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahmardeh, Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available English language teaching materials (textbooks play an important role in many language classrooms, but recently there have been a lot of debates within the English language teaching profession based on the actual role that materials play in teaching English as a foreign language. Arguments have encompassed both the potential and the limitations of materials used for 'guiding' students through the learning processes and curriculum as well as the needs and preferences of teachers who are using the textbooks that are available. Other issues that have arisen in recent years include textbook design and practicality, methodological validity, the role of textbooks in innovation, the authenticity of materials in terms of their representation of language, communicative textbooks, and balance in presenting the language skills as well as cultural components.The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a study carried out in 2006 into how Iranian textbooks could be made more communicative. The textbooks referred to are three English language textbooks, which are currently used in Iranian Secondary Schools. Although the work has been done within Iranian context, many suggestions could be applied to other foreign/second language situations.I will start my discussion by presenting an overview about the English language teaching in Iran, before and after the revolution. This will be followed by presenting the findings of this research that would include the Iranian ELT curriculum, the questionnaire survey (author's and teachers' perspectives as well as their discomfort will be addressed as well as introducing the English language coursebooks for secondary schools in Iran (topic, progression, structure of the lessons, types of exercises etc.. I will then present a discussion on findings of this research which would be a detailed exemplary criticism and suggestions for changes to make the materials communicative.The findings of this explanatory case

  10. General thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Olander, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The book’s methodology is unified, concise, and multidisciplinary, allowing students to understand how the principles of thermodynamics apply to all technical fields that touch upon this most fundamental of scientific theories. It also offers a rigorous approach to the quantitative aspects of thermodynamics, accompanied by clear explanations to help students transition smoothly from the physical concepts to their mathematical representations

  11. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  12. Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of presenting thermodynamics in as simple and as unified a form as possible, this textbook starts with an introduction to the first and second laws and then promptly addresses the complete set of the potentials in a subsequent chapter and as a central theme throughout. Before discussing modern laboratory measurements, the book shows that the fundamental quantities sought in the laboratory are those which are required for determining the potentials. Since the subjects of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are a seamless whole, statistical mechanics is treated as integral part of the text. Other key topics such as irreversibility, the ideas of Ilya Prigogine, chemical reaction rates, equilibrium of heterogeneous systems, and transition-state theory serve to round out this modern treatment. An additional chapter covers quantum statistical mechanics due to active current research in Bose-Einstein condensation. End-of-chapter exercises, chapter summaries, and an appendix reviewing fundamental pr...

  13. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroney, O J E

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  14. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    This textbook brings together the fundamentals of the macroscopic and microscopic aspects of thermal physics by presenting thermodynamics and statistical mechanics as complementary theories based on small numbers of postulates. The book is designed to give the instructor flexibility in structuring courses for advanced undergraduates and/or beginning graduate students and is written on the principle that a good text should also be a good reference. The presentation of thermodynamics follows the logic of Clausius and Kelvin while relating the concepts involved to familiar phenomena and the mod

  15. Thermodynamics. Using Affinities to define reversible processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ritacco, Hernán A

    2016-01-01

    In this article a definition of reversible processes in terms of differences in intensive Thermodynamics properties (Affinities) is proposed. This definition makes it possible to both define reversible processes before introducing the concept of entropy and avoid the circularity problem that follows from the Clausius definition of entropy changes. The convenience of this new definition compared to those commonly found in textbooks is demonstrated with examples.

  16. Mathematical textbook of deformable neuroanatomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U

    1993-12-15

    Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features.

  17. Queering high school biology textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Vicky L.; Broadway, Francis S.

    2004-08-01

    As teachers committed to educating all students, we need to learn more about how instructional materials shape representations of sexuality and gender. Through its insistent deconstruction of the norms that structure practice and belief, queer theory offers perspectives from which science educators can question assumptions embedded in textbooks. This article applies queer theory to analyze eight biology textbooks used in the United States. Specifically, we ask how biology textbooks address sexuality outside the heterosexual norm and if they propagate heteronormative attitudes. The textbooks examined offer deafening silences, antiseptic factoids, socially sanitized concepts, and politically correct binary-gendered illustrations. In these textbooks, the term homosexuality was used only in the context of AIDS where, along with iv drug users, they were identified as an affected group. The pervasive acceptance of heteronormative behavior privileges students that fit the heterosexual norm, and oppresses through omission and silence those who do not. We offer implications for practice to help science educators broaden their perspectives on the constructs of sexuality and gender to construct new ways of knowing and understanding differences in science classrooms and the natural world.

  18. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. An Author's Philosophy of Physiology Textbook Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the factors that have determined the author's approach to writing medical physiology textbooks. Reviews the author's career and the events surrounding the development of each textbook. Explains the motivation behind critical decisions made during the authoring process. (DDR)

  20. Green Engineering Textbook and Training Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Engineering textbook, Green Engineering: Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, is a college senior-to-graduate-level engineering textbook. The primary authors are Dr. David Allen and Dr. David Shonnard.

  1. Textbook Publishing: The Political and Economic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    This article focuses on the political and economic realities surrounding textbook publishing. A discussion of the publishing industry includes an examination of industry decision makers and the influence of profit. State textbook adoption policies are also explored. (IAH)

  2. Misconceptions in Halliday, Resnick and Walker's textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S

    2005-01-01

    Eleven misconceptions involving Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology are exposed, that appeared in the textbook: Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition, by Halliday, Resnick and Walker, Willey, New York (2005), or other companion textbooks.

  3. An Author's Philosophy of Physiology Textbook Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the factors that have determined the author's approach to writing medical physiology textbooks. Reviews the author's career and the events surrounding the development of each textbook. Explains the motivation behind critical decisions made during the authoring process. (DDR)

  4. Textbooks on the Move: Transforming a Textbook Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Yoko Inagi; Riley-Reid, Trevar

    2017-01-01

    Recently, The City College of New York (CCNY) libraries engaged in a collaborative project to transfer the bibliographic holdings for textbook course reserves to a new module when their integrated library systems, the Ex Libris Aleph Integrated Library System, underwent a system upgrade. In this article, the Chief of Circulation and the Chief of…

  5. E-Books or Textbooks: Students Prefer Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, William Douglas; Daniel, David B.; Baker, Crystal A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the experience of reading e-books is not equivalent to reading textbooks. This study examines factors influencing preference for e-books as well as reported use of e-book content. Although the present student cohort is the most technologically savvy to ever enter universities, students do not prefer e-books…

  6. "World Religions" in Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…

  7. Introductory Psychology Textbooks: An Objective Analysis Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    It has been 13 years since the last objective analysis of full-length introductory psychology textbooks was published and 15 years since the textbook copyright period used in that study, 1995-1997. Given the importance of informed textbook evaluation and selection to the introductory course but the difficulty of this task because of the large…

  8. A Framework for Open Textbooks Analytics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Deepak; Totaram, Rajneel; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, open textbook development has picked up dramatically due both to the expense of commercially published textbooks and the increasing availability of high-quality OER alternatives. While this offers a tremendous benefit in terms of lowering student textbook costs, the question remains, to what extent (if any) do open textbooks…

  9. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  10. "World Religions" in Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…

  11. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  12. Textbook Graphics and Maps: Keys to Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how social studies pupils can use an awareness of textbook design to become better students. Suggestions include reproducing the collage on an American history textbook as a large poster for classroom use and directing students to design a graphic unit opener in the same style as the ones in their textbooks. (DB)

  13. The Evolution of International Business Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagafi-nejad, Tagi; Limaye, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    As a field of study, international business (IB) has evolved with accelerated tempo in the last four decades. The subject has brought with it an increasing plethora of textbooks. We analyze the contents of major textbooks, both classic and new, to find the extent to which these textbooks cover the various components of the common body of knowledge…

  14. Do E-Textbooks Impact Learning Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David; Fike, Renea

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to determine if student learning outcomes in an undergraduate Statistics course differed based upon the type of textbook used (e-textbook or hardcopy). Fifty-six students enrolled in the course were allowed to choose textbook type. After controlling for student demographics and academic preparedness, student…

  15. Pd-mediated rapid cross-couplings using [(11) C]methyl iodide: groundbreaking labeling methods in (11) C radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    Prof. Bengt Långström is a pioneer in the field of chemistry-driven positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. He has developed a variety of excellent radiolabeling methodologies using the methods of organic chemistry, with the aim of widening the potential of PET in the study of life. Among his groundbreaking achievements in (11) C radiochemistry, there is the discovery of the Pd-mediated rapid cross-coupling reaction using [(11) C]methyl iodide. It was first reported by his Uppsala group in 1994-1995 and was further investigated by his and other groups with a view of enhancing its generality and practicability. This reaction is currently considered one of the basic methods for (11) C-labeling of low-weight organic compounds. This paper presents a short summary of the background and the development of Pd-mediated rapid cross-couplings of [(11) C]methyl iodide, with a focus not only on organostannanes, but also on organoboranes, organozincs, and terminal acetylene compounds. All these reactions have proven to be dependable (11) C-labeling methodologies that use chemically reliable carbon-carbon bond formation reactions.

  16. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  17. Watergate and American Government Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksterowicz, Anthony J.; Cline, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the Watergate scandal during the 1972 presidential election altered the U.S. government and the very mood of the United States. Presents a content analysis of 5 middle school, 5 secondary, and 12 college-level textbooks. Finds that the texts exhibit weak historical discussion or analysis of Watergate. (CFR)

  18. Banal Nationalism in ESL Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Despite repeating claims that Canadians are less nationalistic than members of other nations, English as a second language (ESL) textbooks often participate in banal repetitions of nation-ness and nationalism. This banal nationalism takes the form of the marking of nation through flags, maps, routine deixis, and nationalized symbols. This study…

  19. Psychology Textbooks: Examining Their Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Faye B.; Ham, K. Whitfield, II

    2008-01-01

    Sales figures and recollections of psychologists indicate textbooks play a central role in psychology students' education, yet instructors typically must select texts under time pressure and with incomplete information. Although selection aids are available, none adequately address the accuracy of texts. We describe a technique for sampling…

  20. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  1. The physical basis of thermodynamics with applications to chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Richet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    Given that thermodynamics books are not a rarity on the market, why would an additional one be useful? The answer is simple: at any level, thermodynamics is usually taught as a somewhat abstruse discipline where many students get lost in a maze of difficult concepts. However, thermodynamics is not as intricate a subject as most people feel. This book fills a niche between elementary textbooks and mathematically oriented treatises, and provides readers with a distinct approach to the subject. As indicated by the title, this book explains thermodynamic phenomena and concepts in physical terms before proceeding to focus on the requisite mathematical aspects. It focuses on the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on thermodynamic properties and places emphasis on rapidly evolving fields such as amorphous materials, metastable phases, numerical simulations of microsystems and high-pressure thermodynamics. Topics like redox reactions are dealt with in less depth, due to the fact that there is a...

  2. Stochastic thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response

  3. Teaching Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions: An Entropy-Based Approach to Help Students Better Understand and Appreciate the Subtleties of Solution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, J. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic formalism of ideal solutions is developed in most of the textbooks postulating a form for the chemical potential of a generic component, which is adapted from the thermodynamics of ideal gas mixtures. From this basis, the rest of useful thermodynamic properties can be derived straightforwardly without further hypothesis. Although…

  4. Teaching Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions: An Entropy-Based Approach to Help Students Better Understand and Appreciate the Subtleties of Solution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, J. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic formalism of ideal solutions is developed in most of the textbooks postulating a form for the chemical potential of a generic component, which is adapted from the thermodynamics of ideal gas mixtures. From this basis, the rest of useful thermodynamic properties can be derived straightforwardly without further hypothesis. Although…

  5. A Timely Shift from Shotgun to Targeted Proteomics and How It Can Be Groundbreaking for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Sara S; Morris, Carlos F M; Silva, Adriano R; Fonseca, Micaella P; Forget, Patrice; Castro, Mariana S; Fontes, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    The fact that cancer is a leading cause of death all around the world has naturally sparked major efforts in the pursuit of novel and more efficient biomarkers that could better serve as diagnostic tools, prognostic predictors, or therapeutical targets in the battle against this type of disease. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has proven itself as a robust and logical alternative to the immuno-based methods that once dominated the field. Nevertheless, intrinsic limitations of classic proteomic approaches such as the natural gap between shotgun discovery-based methods and clinically applicable results have called for the implementation of more direct, hypothesis-based studies such as those made available through targeted approaches, that might be able to streamline biomarker discovery and validation as a means to increase survivability of affected patients. In fact, the paradigm shifting potential of modern targeted proteomics applied to cancer research can be demonstrated by the large number of advancements and increasing examples of new and more useful biomarkers found during the course of this review in different aspects of cancer research. Out of the many studies dedicated to cancer biomarker discovery, we were able to devise some clear trends, such as the fact that breast cancer is the most common type of tumor studied and that most of the research for any given type of cancer is focused on the discovery diagnostic biomarkers, with the exception of those that rely on samples other than plasma and serum, which are generally aimed toward prognostic markers. Interestingly, the most common type of targeted approach is based on stable isotope dilution-selected reaction monitoring protocols for quantification of the target molecules. Overall, this reinforces that notion that targeted proteomics has already started to fulfill its role as a groundbreaking strategy that may enable researchers to catapult the number of viable, effective, and validated biomarkers in

  6. A thermodynamic cycle for the solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Jenkins, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    A solar cell is a heat engine, but textbook treatments are not wholly satisfactory from a thermodynamic standpoint, since they present solar cells as directly converting the energy of light into electricity, and the current in the circuit as maintained by an electrostatic potential. We propose a thermodynamic cycle in which the gas of electrons in the p phase serves as the working substance. The interface between the p and n phases acts as a self-oscillating piston that modulates the absorption of heat from the photons so that it may perform a net positive work during a complete cycle of its motion, in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics. We draw a simple hydrodynamical analogy between this model and the ;putt-putt; engine of toy boats, in which the interface between the water's liquid and gas phases serves as the piston. We point out some testable consequences of this model.

  7. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  8. Electronic Textbook of Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida et al.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching university courses, which deal with the phenomena of theelectromagnetic (EM substantiality and their applications, is ratherdifficult due to their abstract nature. Therefore, teaching has to beaccompanied by clear explanations and by simulations illustrating theexamined topics. This is why an electronic textbook (ET of EM wavesand applications was developed. The ET presents theoreticaldescriptions of selected EM phenomena on two levels - on a bachelor'sone and a master's one. Descriptive parts of the ET are completed bycomputer programs, which enable the reader to simulate the studiedphenomena. Moreover, the ET explains the practical implementation ofsimulation routines in MATLAB, which helps students to understand arelationship between rather complicated mathematics and a relativelysimple source code of its software implementation. Since the ET isfreely accessible on the web, students can use it whenever as aclassical textbook, a handbook or a software package. This factpositively influences the students' knowledge and understanding asproven by our experience.

  9. Design in the digital textbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    reorganization of the publishing company, web based user interfaces, and ultimately the branding, that market these new digital objects, are building powerful discourses around the product. Thus it is suggested that the design process of the iBog-case can be understood in a model of database-based publishing......Building on a preliminary case study of the Danish educational publisher, Systime A/S, and its flagship product, the web based ‘iBog’ {Systime 2014}, this paper explores how digital textbooks can be understood as design. The shaping of digital books is seen as intertwined in a wider circuit...... with multiple levels. In the final analysis, the iBog is much more than a product and a technology. It is a brand that goes beyond what can be studied by looking at the digital textbook as a singular artefact....

  10. Teaching of Literature through Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    This paper represents an interest in texbooks as an educational tool in the teaching of literature in lower secondary school in Denmark. Four influential and representative textbooks from different decades are analyzed with concepts from discourse analysis, positioning theory and theory about...... literature teaching. Some of the key questions are: Which discourses are connected to literature? Which types of literature and genres are included? How are the pupils positioned as readers and interpreters?...

  11. Textbook of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, B S; Raj, Baldev; Rath, B B; Murday, James

    2013-01-01

    This book is meant to serve as a textbook for beginners in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can also be used as additional reading in this multifaceted area. It covers the entire spectrum of nanoscience and technology: introduction, terminology, historical perspectives of this domain of science, unique and widely differing properties, advances in the various synthesis, consolidation and characterization techniques, applications of nanoscience and technology and emerging materials and technologies.

  12. Teaching NMR Using Online Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Hornak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy has almost become an essential analytical tool for the chemist. High-resolution one- and multi-dimensional NMR, timedomain NMR, and NMR microscopy are but a few of the NMR techniques at a chemist's disposal to determine chemical structure and dynamics. Consequently, even small chemistry departments are finding it necessary to provide students with NMR training and experience in at least some of these techniques. The hands-on experience is readily provided with access to state-of-the-art commercial spectrometers. Instruction in the principles of NMR is more difficult to achieve as most instructors try to teach NMR using single organic or analytical chemistry book chapters with static figures. This paper describes an online textbook on NMR spectroscopy called The Basics of NMR (http://www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/nmr/ suitable for use in teaching the principles of NMR spectroscopy. The book utilizes hypertext and animations to present the principles of NMR spectroscopy. The book can be used as a textbook associated with a lecture or as a stand-alone teaching tool. Conference participants are encouraged to review the textbook and evaluate its suitability for us in teaching NMR spectroscopy to undergraduate chemistry majors.

  13. (Chemical thermodynamics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesmer, R.E.

    1990-09-12

    The purpose of this travel was for the traveler to participate in the 11th IUPAC International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and to present a paper of which he is co-author entitled The Transition from Strong-to-Weak Electrolyte Behavior Near the Critical Point of Water'' in the session on Solutions. The conference brought together nearly 500 scientists from around the world to discuss broad aspects of experimental thermodynamics and theoretical modeling. The traveler also visited the University of Karlsruhe to discuss current research with E.U. Franck and his collaborators. This institution has been for many years one of the leading centers for experimental studies on phase equilibrium and physical chemical studies especially on pure substances under the direction of Franck.

  14. Solvation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with a subject that has been studied since the beginning of physical chemistry. Despite the thousands of articles and scores of books devoted to solvation thermodynamics, I feel that some fundamen­ tal and well-established concepts underlying the traditional approach to this subject are not satisfactory and need revision. The main reason for this need is that solvation thermodynamics has traditionally been treated in the context of classical (macroscopic) ther­ modynamics alone. However, solvation is inherently a molecular pro­ cess, dependent upon local rather than macroscopic properties of the system. Therefore, the starting point should be based on statistical mechanical methods. For many years it has been believed that certain thermodynamic quantities, such as the standard free energy (or enthalpy or entropy) of solution, may be used as measures of the corresponding functions of solvation of a given solute in a given solvent. I first challenged this notion in a paper published in 1978 b...

  15. Teacher and Textbook: Using Textbooks in English Language Classes at Secondary School Level

    OpenAIRE

    ŠINDELKOVÁ, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The presented diploma thesis entitled "Teacher and textbook: using textbooks in English language classes at Secondary school level" deals, in its theoretical part, with the general role of teacher and textbook within the education process with a focus on specific features of English language teaching at primary school level. The introductory chapter deals with the definition of textbook and its differentiation from other material resources used by teachers in lessons. The chapter also include...

  16. Evaluation of WorldView Textbooks; Textbooks Taught at a Military University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Masoud; Jodai, Hojat

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to evaluate the WorldView series textbooks of English learning, which are being taught at an Iranian military university foreign language center. No textbook evaluation had been conducted by the university administration prior to the introduction of the textbooks to the language program. Theorists in the field of ELT textbook…

  17. Back to the Future with Textbooks: Using Textbook Passages from the Past to Help Teach Historiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Old textbooks are one resource for teaching about the evolution of historical interpretation. Some libraries contain collections of U.S. history textbooks spanning multiple years and some schools even keep older textbooks used in past years. Recently, the author used a book by Kyle Ward entitled "History in the Making: An Absorbing Look at How…

  18. What Makes a Top-Selling Textbook? Comparing Characteristics of AIS Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badua, Frank; Sharifi, Mohsen; Mendez Mediavilla, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The factors involved in the selection of accounting textbooks are under-investigated, and most of the research is survey-based, largely ignoring the information that could be analyzed by direct inspection of textbook content and its impact on textbook selection. In this study the authors fill this lacuna by deploying content analysis of the…

  19. What Makes a Top-Selling Textbook? Comparing Characteristics of AIS Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badua, Frank; Sharifi, Mohsen; Mendez Mediavilla, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The factors involved in the selection of accounting textbooks are under-investigated, and most of the research is survey-based, largely ignoring the information that could be analyzed by direct inspection of textbook content and its impact on textbook selection. In this study the authors fill this lacuna by deploying content analysis of the…

  20. Nanoscopic Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weihong

    2016-09-20

    Conventional thermodynamics for bulk substances encounters challenges when one considers materials on the nanometer scale. Quantities such as entropy, enthalpy, free energy, melting temperature, ordering temperature, Debye temperature, and specific heat no longer remain constant but change with the crystal dimension, size, and morphology. Often, one phenomenon is associated with a variety of theories from different perspectives. Still, a model that can reconcile the size and shape dependence of the thermal properties of the nanoscaled substances remains one of the goals of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This Account highlights the nanoscopic thermodynamics for nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms, with particular emphasis on the bond energy model. The central idea is that the atomic cohesive energy determines the thermodynamic performance of a substance and the cohesive energy varies with the atomic coordination environment. It is the cohesive energy difference between the core and the shell that dictates the nanoscopic thermodynamics. This bond energy model rationalizes the following: (i) how the surface dangling bonds depress the melting temperature, entropy, and enthalpy; (ii) how the order-disorder transition of the nanoparticles depends on particle size and how their stability may vary when they are embedded in an appropriate matrix; (iii) predictions of the existence of face-centered cubic structures of Ti, Zr, and Hf at small size; (iv) how two elements that are immiscible in the bulk can form an alloy on the nanoscale, where the critical size can be predicted. The model has enabled us to reproduce the size and shape dependence of a number of physical properties, such as melting temperature, melting entropy, melting enthalpy, ordering temperature, Gibbs free energy, and formation heat, among others, for materials such as Pd, Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Sn, Pb, In, Bi, Al, Ti, Zr, Hf, In-Al, Ag-Ni, Co-Pt, Cu-Ag, Cu-Ni, Au-Ni, Ag-Pt, and Au-Pt on the nanometer scale

  1. Undergraduate topology a working textbook

    CERN Document Server

    McCluskey, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    This textbook offers an accessible, modern introduction at undergraduate level to an area known variously as general topology, point-set topology or analytic topology with a particular focus on helping students to build theory for themselves. It is the result of several years of the authors' combined university teaching experience stimulated by sustained interest in advanced mathematical thinking and learning, alongside established research careers in analytic topology. Point-set topology is a discipline that needs relatively little background knowledge, but sufficient determination to grasp i

  2. Challenges to Public School Reading Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Frances R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes five cases related to challenges to public school textbooks. Five different U.S. Courts of Appeal have considered the objections of parents to textbooks, and all five found for the defendant school districts. Reveals that what began as a grassroots parental movement evolved into a nationwide crusade that has embroiled communities. (129…

  3. Textbooks for Responsible Data Analysis in Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    With 27 million users, Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Seattle, WA) is the most common business data analysis software. However, audits show that almost all complex spreadsheets have errors. The author examined textbooks to understand why responsible data analysis is taught. A purposeful sample of 10 textbooks was coded, and then compared against…

  4. Needed: A Single Electronic Source for Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Students still obtain most educational content through textbooks and other printed materials. But as technology has changed, they are able to gain access to more of that content digitally, and often illegally. As textbook costs have increased, students have begun scanning and illegally sharing books over peer-to-peer file-sharing networks to save…

  5. "Essential Principles of Economics:" A Hypermedia Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an electronic textbook called "Essential Principles of Economics." Explains that economic concepts are found by following links from the table of contents, while each chapter includes both expository information and interactive material including online multiple-choice drill questions. States that the textbook is a "work…

  6. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's…

  7. Curriculum and Textbooks: A Happy Marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Allan S.

    1994-01-01

    Many classroom teachers and administrators ignore state education departments' curriculum guides and depend heavily on textbooks. Curriculum committees should devote considerable time to textbook review so that teachers have opportunity to examine books from many publishers or create their own units. Principals and supervisors must share…

  8. Educators Weigh E-Textbook Cost Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2012-01-01

    During the first-ever Digital Learning Day, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan and Federal Communications Commission chief Julius Genachowski unveiled an ambitious plan earlier this year to get schools to switch from print to digital textbooks by 2017. Dubbed the Digital Textbook Playbook, it's a recommendation for how schools could transform…

  9. E-Textbooks and Students' Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Flores, Javier; Tanguma, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of the e-textbooks can be enormous considering their additional supporting features, but adoption has not crystallized yet. This study examines the relevant experiences of college students in terms of how the use of e-textbooks may enhance their learning. A survey study was conducted to measure the perceptions of each student on…

  10. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's…

  11. Humanizing the Writing in Cultural Geography Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, Ann E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how cultural geography textbooks can be written to improve the portrayal of people and cultures. Author's criticism is based on a study of cultural and human geography textbooks current in 1976 which revealed a predominance of male images and an abstract style of presentation. (Author/AV)

  12. Phrasal Verbs in Malaysian ESL Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, Abdolvahed; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    It is often claimed that ELT textbook materials are mostly unwittingly intuitively- rather than empirically-based and that this bookish form of language is far from reflecting the real language use. The present study, by adopting a corpus-based approach, tends to shed light on the extent of agreement between the Malaysian ESL textbooks and the…

  13. Textbooks for Responsible Data Analysis in Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    With 27 million users, Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Seattle, WA) is the most common business data analysis software. However, audits show that almost all complex spreadsheets have errors. The author examined textbooks to understand why responsible data analysis is taught. A purposeful sample of 10 textbooks was coded, and then compared against…

  14. "Essential Principles of Economics:" A Hypermedia Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an electronic textbook called "Essential Principles of Economics." Explains that economic concepts are found by following links from the table of contents, while each chapter includes both expository information and interactive material including online multiple-choice drill questions. States that the textbook is a "work…

  15. A First Course in Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, Phillip

    2009-08-01

    It is not uncommon to find textbooks that have been written with the intention of catering to a broad spectrum of readers. Often, though not always, the result is a book appropriate for neither advanced nor beginning students. However, Grant Petty had a very specific target audience in mind when he wrote A First Course in Atmospheric Thermodynamics. The book is clearly gauged for atmospheric science and meteorology students who have had introductory courses in physics and calculus but who have not necessarily established a firm foundation in analytic problem solving.

  16. Thermodynamics of Fluids Under Flow Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David; Criado-Sancho, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This is the second edition of the book “Thermodynamics of Fluids under Flow,” which was published in 2000 and has now been corrected, expanded and updated. This is a companion book to our other title Extended irreversible thermodynamics (D. Jou, J. Casas-Vázquez and G. Lebon, Springer, 4th edition 2010), and of the textbook Understanding non-equilibrium thermodynamics (G. Lebon, D. Jou and J. Casas-Vázquez, Springer, 2008. The present book is more specialized than its counterpart, as it focuses its attention on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of flowing fluids, incorporating non-trivial thermodynamic contributions of the flow, going beyond local equilibrium theories, i.e., including the effects of internal variables and of external forcing due to the flow. Whereas the book's first edition was much more focused on polymer solutions, with brief glimpses into ideal and real gases, the present edition covers a much wider variety of systems, such as: diluted and concentrated polymer solutions, polymer ble...

  17. Teaching the third law of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    This work gives a brief summary of major formulations of the third law of thermodynamics and their implications, including the impossibility of perpetual motion of the third kind. The last sections of this work review more advanced applications of the third law to systems with negative temperatures and negative heat capacities. The relevance of the third law to protecting the arrow of time in general relativity is also discussed. Additional information, which may useful in analysis of the third law, is given in the Appendices. This short review is written to assist lecturers in selecting a strategy for teaching the third law of thermodynamics to engineering and science students. The paper provides a good summary of the various issues associated with the third law, which are typically scattered over numerous research publications and not discussed in standard textbooks.

  18. Color stabilizes textbook visual processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Orlovska, Madara; Bluss, Kristaps

    2011-05-01

    We report that pages with color illustrations elicit more homogeneous duration of fixations in 12 elementary school children. For six first graders, we compared the reading of the color cover and a greyscale illustrated text page of an abcbook. For six second grade pupils, we demonstrated a color and a greyscale fairytale book page. The fixations we recorded are concordant with the duration for preschoolers reported elsewhere. Average duration of fixations on a page with color elements are shorter than on greyscale ones, 425 (SE=13.4) and 461 (18.3) ms, respectively. The correlation analysis lends support that a color page is processed differently than its greyscale version. Fixation duration for color and greyscale condition was correlated neither for text (r=.567, p=.241) nor for images (r=.517, p=.294) for the second graders. Our research suggests that color elements on textbook pages encourage emergent readers to perform better in acquisition.

  19. The institution as e-textbook publisher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing students with sufficient copies of core textbooks is an increasing challenge in an age of ever higher fees, economic realities and heightened student expectations regarding provision of library resources. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Liverpool Library and Liverpool University Press (LUP, which has progressed from the creation of a library advisory board to the co-creation of two bespoke and open access (OA e-textbooks as part of a Jisc-funded project. It tells the story of why we have gone down this route at Liverpool and what we hope to gain from the creation of these e-textbooks.

  20. Methods of Use of an Online Economics Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon R.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The rising cost of college textbooks over the last decade provides an opportunity for alternatives. Electronic or online textbooks are an effective substitute to the traditional paper-based textbooks, although students have been slow to transition to the new method. A custom, professor-written online textbook not only addresses the reduction in…

  1. Teachers' Use of Textbooks: Practice in Namibian Science Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Kasanda, Choshi; Kapenda, Hileni; Gaoseb, Noah; Kandjeo-Marenga, Utji

    2003-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that focused on incidences of prescribed textbook usage in Namibian science classrooms. Indicates teacher dominated textbook use and restricted range of textbook references per lesson. States that the teachers used textbooks for diagrams and data and to verify factual information. (CMK)

  2. Effectiveness of Electronic Textbooks with Embedded Activities on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Paula L.

    2010-01-01

    Current versions of electronic textbooks mimic the format and structure of printed textbooks; however, the electronic capabilities of these new versions of textbooks offer the potential of embedding interactive features of web-based learning within the context of a textbook. This dissertation research study was conducted to determine if student…

  3. Teachers' Use of Textbooks: Practice in Namibian Science Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Kasanda, Choshi; Kapenda, Hileni; Gaoseb, Noah; Kandjeo-Marenga, Utji

    2003-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that focused on incidences of prescribed textbook usage in Namibian science classrooms. Indicates teacher dominated textbook use and restricted range of textbook references per lesson. States that the teachers used textbooks for diagrams and data and to verify factual information. (CMK)

  4. A Role for Language Analysis in Mathematics Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Lisa; O'Donoghue, John

    2015-01-01

    In current textbook analysis research, there is a strong focus on the content, structure and expectation presented by the textbook as elements for analysis. This research moves beyond such foci and proposes a framework for textbook language analysis which is intended to be integrated into an overall framework for mathematics textbook analysis. The…

  5. Effects of E-Textbook Instructor Annotations on Learner Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alan R.; Abaci, Serdar; Morrone, Anastasia S.; Plaskoff, Joshua; McNamara, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    With additional features and increasing cost advantages, e-textbooks are becoming a viable alternative to paper textbooks. One important feature offered by enhanced e-textbooks (e-textbooks with interactive functionality) is the ability for instructors to annotate passages with additional insights. This paper describes a pilot study that examines…

  6. Thermodynamic interpolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, D E

    1998-10-01

    A method for constructing bicubic interpolation polynomials for the pressure P and internal energy E that are thermodynamically consistent at the mesh ponts and continuous across mesh boundaries is presented. The slope boundary conditions for the pressure and energy are derived from finite differences of the data and from Maxwell's consistency relation. Monotonicity of the sound speed and the specific heat is obtained by a bilinear interpolation of the slopes of the tabulated data. Monotonicity of the functions near steep gradients may be achieved by mesh refinement or by using a non-consistent bilinear to the data. Mesh refinement is very efficient for uniform-linear or uniform-logarithmic spaced data because a direct table lookup can be used. The direct method was compared to binary search and was 37 percent faster for logarithmic-spaced data and 106 percent faster for linear-spaced data. This improvement in speed is very important in the radiation-transport opacity-lookup part of the calculation. Interpolation in P-E space, with mesh refinement, can be made simple, robust, and conserve energy. In the final analysis the interpolation of the free energy and entropy (Maiden and Cook) remains a competitor.

  7. Holostar thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, M

    2003-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic model for the final state of a collapsed, spherically symmetric star is presented. It is assumed, that the star's interior at the endpoint of the collapse consists of an ideal gas of ultra-relativistic fermions and bosons in thermal equilibrium and that the metric approaches the static metric of the so called holostar-solution of general relativity. The final configuration has a radius slightly exceeding the gravitational radius of the star. The radial coordinate difference between gravitational and actual radius is of order of the Planck length. The total number of ultra-relativistic particles within the star is proportional its proper surface-area, measured in units of the Planck-area. This is first direct evidence for the microscopic-statistical nature of the Hawking entropy and indicates, that the holographic principle is valid for compact self gravitating objects of any size. A "Stephan-Boltzmann-type" relation between the surface temperature and the surface area of the star is der...

  8. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  9. Sex Bias in Primary Social Studies Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Richard W.

    1973-01-01

    This study was undertaken to see if pictures in primary social studies textbooks (the elementary subject preparing citizens for effective lives in a democracy) are sexually discriminating in role distinctions (the concern of the American Sociological Association). (Author)

  10. Evaluation of Malaysian English Language Teaching Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakaran Mukundan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in materials evaluation has been an important focus in ELT since the 1980s. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the general attributes of the textbooks and to evaluate the learning-teaching content. In this study, 944 male and female English teachers (Year 1 to Year 6 & Form 1 to Form 5 evaluated the English books using a valid and reliable checklist. In terms of general attributes and learning-teaching content of the textbooks, the results showed that Year 1 to Year 6 teachers reported that the current textbooks are ‘highly useful’ to the students, whereas Form 1 to Form 5 teachers contended that the school books are only ‘moderately useful’. The findings of this study can be useful for curricula designers and Ministry of Education as a reference for improving or modifying the textbooks.

  11. Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn

  12. How current are leading evidence-based medical textbooks? An analytic survey of four online textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Rebecca; Navarro, Tamara; Lokker, Cynthia; Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Farjou, George

    2012-12-10

    The consistency of treatment recommendations of evidence-based medical textbooks with more recently published evidence has not been investigated to date. Inconsistencies could affect the quality of medical care. To determine the frequency with which topics in leading online evidence-based medical textbooks report treatment recommendations consistent with more recently published research evidence. Summarized treatment recommendations in 200 clinical topics (ie, disease states) covered in four evidence-based textbooks--UpToDate, Physicians' Information Education Resource (PIER), DynaMed, and Best Practice--were compared with articles identified in an evidence rating service (McMaster Premium Literature Service, PLUS) since the date of the most recent topic updates in each textbook. Textbook treatment recommendations were compared with article results to determine if the articles provided different, new conclusions. From these findings, the proportion of topics which potentially require updating in each textbook was calculated. 478 clinical topics were assessed for inclusion to find 200 topics that were addressed by all four textbooks. The proportion of topics for which there was 1 or more recently published articles found in PLUS with evidence that differed from the textbooks' treatment recommendations was 23% (95% CI 17-29%) for DynaMed, 52% (95% CI 45-59%) for UpToDate, 55% (95% CI 48-61%) for PIER, and 60% (95% CI 53-66%) for Best Practice (χ(2) (3)=65.3, P<.001). The time since the last update for each textbook averaged from 170 days (range 131-209) for DynaMed, to 488 days (range 423-554) for PIER (P<.001 across all textbooks). In online evidence-based textbooks, the proportion of topics with potentially outdated treatment recommendations varies substantially.

  13. Textbook readability and ESL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kasule

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports activities (as part of a university course in language teacher education on teaching reading in which primary school student teachers (all ESL in-service teacher trainees explored their own skills of determining textbook readability using an online software tool and a cloze test completed by two hundred and seventy-eight Grade Seven primary school pupils. Findings from the online tool were that the text was difficult. The cloze test confirmed this when it showed that only eighteen pupils could read the text unassisted while the rest were frustrated by it. The paper uses these findings to describe the challenges pupils face and how readability research is beneficial to the reading development of ESL learners if reading of academic texts is approached from the principles of the interactive view of reading; of cognitive learning theory; and of second language acquisition theory. It is concluded that teachers’ awareness of readability issues is helpful for effective reading instruction during the critical formative years of school.

  14. Thermodynamic tables to accompany Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    This booklet is provided at no extra charge with new copies of Balmer's Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. It contains two appendices. Appendix C contains 40 thermodynamic tables, and Appendix D consists of 6 thermodynamic charts. These charts and tables are provided in a separate booklet to give instructors the flexibility of allowing students to bring the tables into exams. The booklet may be purchased separately if needed.

  15. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  16. High Textbook Reading Rates When Using an Interactive Textbook for a Material and Energy Balances Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Textbooks are experiencing a 21st century makeover. The author has created a web-based electronic textbook, Material and Energy Balances zyBook, that records students' interactions. Animations and question sets create interactive and scaffolded content. The interactive format is adopted successfully in other engineering disciplines and is now…

  17. Ideal thermodynamic processes of oscillatory-flow regenerative engines will go to ideal stirling cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ercang

    2012-06-01

    This paper analyzes the thermodynamic cycle of oscillating-flow regenerative machines. Unlike the classical analysis of thermodynamic textbooks, the assumptions for pistons' movement limitations are not needed and only ideal flowing and heat transfer should be maintained in our present analysis. Under such simple assumptions, the meso-scale thermodynamic cycles of each gas parcel in typical locations of a regenerator are analyzed. It is observed that the gas parcels in the regenerator undergo Lorentz cycle in different temperature levels, whereas the locus of all gas parcels inside the regenerator is the Ericson-like thermodynamic cycle. Based on this new finding, the author argued that ideal oscillating-flow machines without heat transfer and flowing losses is not the Stirling cycle. However, this new thermodynamic cycle can still achieve the same efficiency of the Carnot heat engine and can be considered a new reversible thermodynamic cycle under two constant-temperature heat sinks.

  18. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  19. The necessity of do needs analysis in textbook compilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茂

    2014-01-01

    <正>Needs analysis plays an important role in textbook compilation.Compile an excellent textbook need to meet a lot of conditions,but the starting point of any textbook should be meet the needs of users.So do need analysis in order to understand users’need,to make textbook to better reflect the correlation and the practicability.Only textbook writers to fully understand the users’(students,teachers,education department managers)actual demands of teaching textbook,they would be able to write out the applicable materials.

  20. Chemical thermodynamics: plenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, B., Jr.

    1990-05-01

    The invited and contributed papers dealing with the applications of chemical thermodynamics to planetary atmospheres research are briefly reviewed. The key areas for future applications of chemical thermodynamics research to planetary atmospheres are also described.

  1. Studying Colonialism in Spanish History Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    in classrooms in the 19th Century has aimed at transmitting a shared past in order to encourage subjects to identify with their nation. In psychology different studies have focused on history textbooks as cultural tools for memory and identity, drawing attention to their role in conveying a social......The interwoven dynamics underpinning national identity and collective memory have received growing interest from different disciplines in light of an increasingly globalized and multicultural world. In this context, history textbooks play an important role inasmuch as the introduction of history...... representation of the nation’s historical past. Along these lines, this paper aims to examine the representation of an especially controversial past, such as colonialism, in Spanish secondary history textbooks in two different periods, in late 70’-early 80’ (just after the loss of the last Spanish colonies...

  2. THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH AND TEXTBOOK READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengJianfeng

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970s. the Communicative Approach has been introduced into the field of EFL in China. From then on. EFL experts, teacher trainers and textbook compilers have made enormous effort to reform ELT in areas such as teacher training,course development and classroom practice.For a while.Communicative Approach has been regarded as the only best method to language teaching because of its proposals and principles like authentic material, learner-centeredness and taskbased teaching model. However. nowadays, there are still some traditional textbooks used in many colleges and universities.Many of the contents are not authentic and the exercises are not aimed to develop students' competence to use language for communication. Does it mean that we can't adopt the Communicative Approach to deal with the traditional material?Through the author's own experience, it can be concluded that the Communicative Approach is also applicable to the teaching of reading course even with the traditional textbooks.

  3. Textbook Errors, 136: The Reducing Action of Sodium Borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, David

    1979-01-01

    This column generally relates errors which have been discovered in textbooks. The error discussed in this issue is the prevalence of erroneous ideas in organic chemistry textbooks, related to the chemistry of sodium borohydride. (Author/SA)

  4. Textbook Selection: How to Get What You Want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Margaret; Hood, Susan

    1981-01-01

    Recognizing that textbook adoption procedures and evaluation criteria vary from state to state or district to district, the authors present some general guidelines on screening and evaluation that should prove helpful to any elementary textbook adoption committee. (Author/SJL)

  5. Physics that Textbook Writers Usually Get Wrong: III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines inconsistencies in science textbook discussions of vector quantities and force. Provides illustrations of textbook inconsistencies related to Newton's laws of motion and the concepts of centrifugal and coriolis force. (MDH)

  6. Conjunctions in Malaysian Secondary School English Language Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Philip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to investigate the distribution pattern of conjunctions and their ranking in two different corpora, namely the Malaysian school English language Textbook Corpus (Textbook Corpus and the British National Corpus (BNC. An additional objective of the study was to find out how conjunctions had been presented in the Malaysian school English language textbooks (Forms 1-5. The method applied was qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that coordinating conjunctions were the most frequent conjunctions that occurred in the five textbooks followed by subordinating and correlative conjunctions. The ranking of the different types of conjunctions in the Textbook Corpus was similar to that of the reference corpus, BNC. The results also indicated that the textbooks failed to present conjunctions effectively. The findings are expected to help textbook developers or language teachers in developing or adapting learning materials. Keywords: Conjunctions, Textbook evaluation, Distribution patterns

  7. Thermodynamics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pauken, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Take some heat off the complexity of thermodynamics Does the mere thought of thermodynamics make you sweat? It doesn't have to! This hands-on guide helps you score your highest in a thermodynamics course by offering easily understood, plain-English explanations of how energy is used in things like automobiles, airplanes, air conditioners, and electric power plants. Thermodynamics 101 - take a look at some examples of both natural and man-made thermodynamic systems and get a handle on how energy can be used to perform work Turn up the heat - discover how to use the firs

  8. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  9. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  10. Dominant Traditions in International Textbook Research and Revision

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    History textbooks have been a ubiquitous feature of educational practice in schools systems across the world for many centuries. Textbooks, however, do not stand as neutral entities espousing agreed or accepted “historical truths”. To the contrary, textbooks appear as powerful cultural artefacts because they contain the ideas, values, and knowledge that influential elements in society expect students to know and embrace. As Apple (1993: 46) rightly acknowledges, “Textbooks are…conceived, desi...

  11. TEXTBOOK ANALYSIS IN THE SERVICE OF CHEMISTRY TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Ahtineva

    2005-01-01

    The authors of textbooks have their own visions of contents and teaching methods, which should lead to a high level of scientific thinking. However, the textbook alone does not guarantee good results because the personal and social relationships between the teacher and students have a major influence on teaching and learning. Therefore, the teacher’s study of the textbook before teaching facilitates the teaching process. This paper suggests one method of textbook analysis. In the analysis, on...

  12. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  13. Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class in Introductory Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Jennifer; Gougherty, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We update Ferree and Hall’s (1996) examination of the stratification systems of gender, race, and class in introductory textbooks. Using a sample of textbooks from 2003 through 2010, we explore 24 introductory sociology textbooks to determine the relationship between categories of gender, race, and class and levels of analysis. Previous research…

  14. It Takes a Consortium to Support Open Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Judy

    2009-01-01

    If the Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) has its way, expensive textbooks may go the way of typewriters and carbon paper. Ideally, Internet access for all students would allow educators to replace commercially printed textbooks with interactive digital textbooks and personal learning environments. However, until…

  15. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

    2016-01-01

    Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

  16. Contemporary Issues in Language Education: Teacher Education and Textbooks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京

    2015-01-01

    There are several common but important components in second and foreign language classrooms such as teachers,learners and textbooks.This essay will compare and contrast the two issues:textbooks and teacher education.It will explore the relationship between the textbooks and teacher education.

  17. The Determinants of Electronic Textbook Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon R.; Nutting, Andrew W.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Electronic books are a fast-growing component of the publishing industry. Sales of electronic textbooks (e-textbooks) are growing, but at a slower rate. In this research we use data from an undergraduate student survey to estimate the determinants of e-textbook use. We find that students who are younger, lower-income, and from larger high schools…

  18. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

    2016-01-01

    Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

  19. The Influence and Impact of Textbooks on Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Presents six papers that were presented at a one-day symposium dealing with the influence of textbooks on chemical education. Specific topics include textbooks in inorganic, organic, analytical, and physical chemistry, and the history of chemistry textbooks in the United States. (MLH)

  20. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia…

  1. Australia in German Geography Textbooks for Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Berta

    2007-01-01

    German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia…

  2. A Student-Created, Open Access, Living Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Sualyneth; Perry, Sarah; Peyton, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    Textbooks are expensive, updated infrequently, and rarely used effectively by students. We discuss here a way for students to create the textbook for the course, helping them feel ownership over the course material. This Wiki-based, student-created textbook is online free for use, widely accessible by all, and editable during the course of and as…

  3. Contemporary Issues in Language Education:Teacher Education and Textbooks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京

    2015-01-01

    There are several common but important components in second and foreign language classrooms such as teachers,learners and textbooks.This essay will compare and contrast the two issues:textbooks and teacher education.It will explore the relationship between the textbooks and teacher education.

  4. On the Web, a Textbook Proliferation of Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Book publishers are stepping up efforts to stop college students from downloading illegal copies of textbooks online. One Web site, Textbook Torrents, promises more than 5,000 textbooks for download in PDF format, complete with the original books' layouts and full-color illustrations. Users must simply set up a free account and download a free…

  5. Islam in the Classroom: What The Textbooks Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2008-01-01

    This review samples ten of the nation's most widely used junior and senior high school history textbooks comparing what respected historians say about Islam in authoritative histories to what is being said in textbooks. It assesses how today's history textbooks characterize Islam's foundations and creeds; changes and additions that have occurred…

  6. The Determinants of Electronic Textbook Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon R.; Nutting, Andrew W.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Electronic books are a fast-growing component of the publishing industry. Sales of electronic textbooks (e-textbooks) are growing, but at a slower rate. In this research we use data from an undergraduate student survey to estimate the determinants of e-textbook use. We find that students who are younger, lower-income, and from larger high schools…

  7. Textbook Censorship and Secular Humanism in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the activities of the New Christian Right (NCR) related to teaching evolution in the public schools. Describes the effects of legislation and court litigation on the NCR's efforts to eliminate secular humanism from textbooks. Provides an NCR definition of secular humanism. (LS)

  8. The intercultural component in Business English textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Lario de Oñate

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between culture and business is crucial; therefore, in an international business context Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC is essential for effectively dealing with other cultures. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages highlights the relevance of intercultural language education in developing effective communication across linguistic and cultural boundaries (Council of Europe, 2001. Thus, in recent years, whereas there has been an increasing interest in Intercultural Business Communication (IBC, relatively little attention has been paid to the study of the intercultural component in texts used for the teaching of English for Business, despite the fact that textbooks are a key resource for language instructors. This paper aims to examine the role that the intercultural component has played in Business English textbooks since the 1960s. It explores whether and to what extent those textbooks have promoted the acquisition of ICC, at the same time it reviews the development of ICC as a concept and the ways in which it has been taught over the years. A selection of 67 general Business English textbooks published between 1963 and 2009 are analysed.

  9. The Readability of Principles of Macroeconomics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Sarah; Woods, James

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated principles of macroeconomics textbooks for readability using Coh-Metrix, a computational linguistics tool. Additionally, they conducted an experiment on Amazon's Mechanical Turk Web site in which participants ranked the readability of text samples. There was a wide range of scores on readability indexes both among…

  10. Socialism in High School Social Studies Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…

  11. Anthropology in the Marketplace: Some Textbook Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael F., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews 16 successful, college-level anthropology textbooks, examining content, clarity, readability, audience level, scholarship, and focus. Advocates greater coverage of topics such as applied anthropology and suggests attention be given to alternatives to the standard cultural institutions of marriage, religion, etc. States that the scientific…

  12. A Textbook of Modern Western Armenian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakjian, Kevork B.; Thomson, Robert W.

    This textbook is designed as a first-year course at the undergraduate level. It is specifically aimed at students with no prior knowledge of Armenian, and emphasis has been placed on the numerous subtleties and nuances of Armenian which might seem strange or difficult to English speakers. In the text, stress has been put on explaining the grammar…

  13. Toward a Vygotskian theory of textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plut Dijana L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to place the problem of textbook theory into a new frame of reference provided by cultural-historical theory of development, using the idea about cultural-historical mediation of individual development and concept of CST as a basic analytical concepts. The new frame of reference introduces a new language on textbooks, opening a range of new research problems, while dealing with the old ones in a new and more complex way. Textbook is shifted from the usual pedagogic-didactic setting and placed in a more basic and cultural context. The paper is an attempt to bring the concept of cultural tools to a completely operational level, as well as to test the actual power of that concept by identifying CST in textbooks. Furthermore, this paper is an attempt elaborate the forms of social assistance that constitute the zone of proximal development, seen as the characteristics of joint activities of the child and a more competent participant (which is "hidden”, i.e., indirectly present, in this case. Vygotsky never specified the forms of social assistance, but rather gave general prescriptions (Moll, 1990, thus presenting one of the central theoretical and practical tasks for the followers of his ideas.

  14. The Readability of Principles of Macroeconomics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Sarah; Woods, James

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated principles of macroeconomics textbooks for readability using Coh-Metrix, a computational linguistics tool. Additionally, they conducted an experiment on Amazon's Mechanical Turk Web site in which participants ranked the readability of text samples. There was a wide range of scores on readability indexes both among…

  15. Primary School Teachers' Opinion on Digital Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana; Drîngu, Maria-Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports of Romania through order no. 3654/29.03.2012 approved the Framework Plan for Primary Education, Preparatory Grade, First and Second Grades. New subjects and syllabuses were introduced. In 2014-2015 school year appeared new school textbooks for first and second grade. Unlike the previous textbooks…

  16. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  17. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  18. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  19. Textbooks: Expectations vs. Reality: The DNA story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2006-01-01

    A history of the search for the structure of DNA, as revealed in the evolution of biochemistry and genetics textbooks, reveals that they are unacceptably tardy in presenting the current (or even the recent) state of knowledge. This problem places an extra burden on biology teachers to supplement these texts.

  20. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  1. Textbook Websites: User Technology Acceptance Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Gregory A.; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2011-01-01

    Compared with course management software (e.g. Blackboard and WebCT), the content and technology offered by a textbook website (TBW) is relatively costless to universities and professors, and is a potentially valuable tool that can be leveraged to help students learn course material. The present study uses the extended Technology Acceptance Model…

  2. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  3. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  4. The TEXTBOOK - Directives, Regulations, Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    The TEXTBOOK is a collection of carefully selected directives, regulations, and judgments. Whether you are a student, a scholar, or a practitioner of law, this book is a supplemental tool in your work with European business law. It is recommended that you have this book within your reach when you...

  5. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  6. The textbook as classroom context variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krammer, Hein P.M.

    1985-01-01

    To explore the role of the textbook as a context variable in process—product relationships, data on teaching practices and learning outcomes from the IEA Classroom Environment Study in The Netherlands were used. The sample consisted of 50 secondary school mathematics classes and their teachers. Thre

  7. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  8. Developing an English Language Textbook Evaluation Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Hajimohammadi, Reza; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the considerations that were taken into account in the development of a tentative English language textbook evaluation checklist. A brief review of the related literature precedes the crucial issues that should be considered in developing checklists. In the light of the previous evaluation checklists the developers created a…

  9. Uncovering Racial Bias in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…

  10. Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

  11. Textbook Religion and Lived Religion: A Comparison of the Christian Faith as Expressed in Textbooks and by Young Church Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestøl, Jon Magne

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives from sociocultural theory, this article investigates how Christian denominations are represented in Norwegian textbooks of religious education and by young believers. The main finding is that textbooks and young adherents present religion in substantially different ways. While textbooks relate religion to global and…

  12. Textbook Religion and Lived Religion: A Comparison of the Christian Faith as Expressed in Textbooks and by Young Church Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestøl, Jon Magne

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives from sociocultural theory, this article investigates how Christian denominations are represented in Norwegian textbooks of religious education and by young believers. The main finding is that textbooks and young adherents present religion in substantially different ways. While textbooks relate religion to global and…

  13. Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.

  14. An introduction to equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morrill, Bernard; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics discusses classical thermodynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. It introduces the laws of thermodynamics and the connection between statistical concepts and observable macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system. Chapter 1 discusses the first law of thermodynamics while Chapters 2 through 4 deal with statistical concepts. The succeeding chapters describe the link between entropy and the reversible heat process concept of entropy; the second law of thermodynamics; Legendre transformations and Jacobian algebra. Finally, Chapter 10 provides a

  15. Thermodynamics of radiation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Eduardo; De la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, PO Box 55 534, Mexico, D F, 09340 (Mexico)], E-mail: pge@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: tere@xanum.uam.mx

    2010-03-15

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the frequencies. One equation relating frequency and volume is used to define the thermodynamics of one mode, and to explain the mystery of the frequency-dependent quantities having a similar behaviour to the non-frequency-dependent quantities for some thermodynamic equations and different behaviour for others. Besides, this frequency-volume relation is used to count the number of modes in a band of frequency.

  16. Sociology of health textbooks and narratives: historical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2016-03-01

    This article has as its starting point two central ideas: textbooks as a means of production and dissemination of knowledge and narrative as an approach. After a brief review of studies on health/medical sociology textbooks, I analyze a few of these textbooks from the 1900-2012 period, produced in the United States and England. I have selected eleven textbooks which I thought were representative. In addition to a content analysis, the textbooks are located within the process of constitution of the health/medical sociology with brief references to the biographies of the authors. The textbooks analyzed were classified according to the main narrative features: doctor-centered; interdisciplinary; pedagogical; analytical; almost autobiographical; critical; and synthetic-reflective. In the final remarks, some points about the textbooks, limits and possibilities are presented.

  17. Do You Always Need a Textbook to Teach Astro 101?

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, Alexander L

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of interactive learning strategies in Astro 101 classrooms has led some instructors to consider the usefulness of a textbook in such classes. These strategies provide students a learning modality very different from the traditional lecture supplemented by reading a textbook and homework, and raises the question of whether the learning that takes place during such interactive activities is enough by itself to teach students what we wish them to know about astronomy. To address this question, assessment data is presented from an interactive class, which was first taught with a required textbook, and then with the textbook being optional. Comparison of test scores before and after this change shows no statistical difference in student achievement whether a textbook is required or not. In addition, comparison of test scores of students who purchased the textbook to those who did not, after the textbook became optional, also show no statistical difference between the two groups. The Light and Sp...

  18. Thermodynamic Stability of Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadi, S N

    2016-01-01

    In the context of GR, we study the thermodynamic stability of evolving Lorentzian wormholes at the apparent horizon. The average pressure of the anisotrropic components is considered as the pressure of the wormhole. According to the requirements of stable equilibrium in conventional thermodynamics, we calculate the heat capacity at constant pressure and Gibbs free energy and analyze the local and global thermodynamic stability of the wormhole.

  19. Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldt, Sebastian; Seifert, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from those data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyze the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency η ≤1 . We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyze Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.

  20. Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goldt, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from that data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyse the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency $\\eta\\le1$. We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyse Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.

  1. Methods of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m

  2. The Slovenian Art History Textbook in Comparison to Polish Textbooks: Authorship and Content, Didactic Structure and Publishing Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Dolšina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses two concepts of art history textbooks for secondary schools. It discusses their role in the learning and teaching process of art history and related school subjects within the formal educational programmes in Slovenia and their didactic structure. The comparison between one Slovenian and two Polish textbooks might contribute to better understanding of the present situation regarding art history textbook production in Slovenia, which is a result of several factors: the historical continuity of textbook writing and research in textbook didactics, the current school policy and financial competition on the textbook market. Its intention is also to clarify the idea of didactic transformation of the art history contents from the challenging scientific texts to a form suitable for secondary school students who are textbooks' main target audience.

  3. Thermodynamic and Quantum Thermodynamic Analyses of Brownian Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Gyftopoulos, Elias P.

    2006-01-01

    Thermodynamic and quantum thermodynamic analyses of Brownian movement of a solvent and a colloid passing through neutral thermodynamic equilibrium states only. It is shown that Brownian motors and E. coli do not represent Brownian movement.

  4. Uncovering racial bias in nursing fundamentals textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M M

    2001-01-01

    This article describes research that sought to identify and critique selected content areas from three nursing fundamentals textbooks for the presence or absence of racial bias embedded in the portrayal of African Americans. The analyzed content areas were the history of nursing, cultural content, and physical assessment/hygiene parameters. A researcher-developed guide was used for data collection and analysis of textual language, illustrations, linguistics, and references. A thematic analysis resulted in I I themes reflecting the portrayal of African Americans in these sampled textbooks. An interpretive analysis with a lens of Sadker and Sadker's categories of bias, along with other literary and theoretical contexts, were used to explore for the presence or absence of racial bias. Recommendations for nursing education are provided.

  5. Corpus-based Studies on Nursing Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Fairus Nor Mohamad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available English for Specific Purposes (ESP educators often face dilemma in deciding what lexical items to teach their students. In the field of English for Nursing Purposes (ENP, there is no exception on this issue as well. Only by analyzing the nursing corpus made up of essential core textbooks that can provide better insights and guide to both nursing students and educators. This research aims to highlight the 2,000 most frequently used nursing words across the core textbooks of nursing and to profile the types of ‘low frequency’ lexis which comprise the nursing corpus in terms of the General Service List (GSL and Academic Word List (AWL lexis coverage. By knowing the frequently used nursing words would further reduce students’ reading deficiency if the students use the 2000-word list.

  6. An alternative model for textbook formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston-Smith, Helen

    1993-12-01

    My Masters research project is a discourse analysis of physics textbooks. I am using the term ‘discourse’ in its sociological sense rather than its linguistic sense. I have interpreted my endeavours to date as showing that there is a basic confusion underlying the writing of textbooks. Whilst authors believe that they are revealing the universe to the student/reader, they understand tacitly that more is required than just revelation. I wish to argue that the ‘more that is required’ would be more readily constructed by authors if they understood that what they are doing is arguing a case: a case that scientific knowledge is an effective and appropriate way of interpreting the world.

  7. Textbook Error: Short Circuiting an Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

    2007-04-01

    Sometimes errors in electrochemistry discussions are not in the text but in the figures. Many errors in the electrochemical chapters of general chemistry textbooks have been reported previously, yet we found a serious error in the diagrams in eight, 21st century texts. The figures in them show many of the cells shorted out with a wire. Since a shorted electrochemical cell produces no measurable voltage it is unreasonable to ask students to calculate the voltage produced by such a cell. Depending upon the pedagogical context, these diagrams are either seriously wrong or reflect a poor choice of a load for the cell. We offer suggestions as to what loads might be appropriately shown in textbook diagrams within different electrochemical contexts. We also offer an analogy to electrical potential energy and include a diagram to clarify the interrelationships between electromotive force E , reaction quotient Q , and Gibbs free energy G (an EQG diagram).

  8. Review of A Textbook of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存娟

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,firstly,we are lack of original transla-tion books;secondly,there are more and more graduate students who are studying translation.Thus,we need to import foreign translation study books,like A Textbook of Translation,in order to have better understanding of this book and Peter Newmark’ideas of translation, there is a need to conduct a brief review of this book.

  9. The TEXTBOOK - Directives, Regulations, Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    The TEXTBOOK is a collection of carefully selected directives, regulations, and judgments. Whether you are a student, a scholar, or a practitioner of law, this book is a supplemental tool in your work with European business law. It is recommended that you have this book within your reach when you...... read Business Law, Europe ( 978-87-996778-2-5) - the book on some essential issues of European business law....

  10. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamics is an exciting and fascinating subject that deals with energy, which is essential for sustenance of life, and Thermodynamics has long been an essential part of Engineering Curricula all over the world. It has a broad application area ranging from Microscopic Organisms to common Household Appliances, Transportation Vehicles, and Power Generation Systems.

  11. The first American textbook of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W Roy

    2003-04-01

    The first systematic textbook of surgery written in the United States, The Elements of Surgery, was completed in 1813 by John Syng Dorsey, a University of Pennsylvania surgeon. The work thoroughly covered all major clinical areas of surgery of that time in a two-volume, 797-page text. Subsequent editions were published in 1818, 1823, and 1831. It became the standard surgical textbook in this country during that era and was the first American medical text exported abroad for use at the more established European centers of medical education. The reasons for writing the text included a desire to put into print the teachings of Philip Syng Physick (first Chair of the Department of Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania, and Dorsey's uncle), the new American nationalism, and socioeconomic pressures forced on the American publishing industry by the War of 1812 and preceding trade embargoes. In addition to extensive exposure to Physick, Dorsey was also uniquely qualified to write and illustrate this text, as he exhibited an unusually succinct style and was a remarkable medical artist. The book was the forerunner to William Gibson's The Institutes and Practice of Surgery and all American surgical textbooks to follow.

  12. Designing a Tool for History Textbook Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Eszter Morgan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process by which a five-dimensional tool for history textbook analysis was conceptualized and developed in three stages. The first stage consisted of a grounded theory approach to code the content of the sampled chapters of the books inductively. After that the findings from this coding process were combined with principles of text analysis as derived from the literature, specifically focusing on the notion of semiotic mediation as theorized by Lev VYGOTSKY. We explain how we then entered the third stage of the development of the tool, comprising five dimensions. Towards the end of the article we show how the tool could be adapted to serve other disciplines as well. The argument we forward in the article is for systematic and well theorized tools with which to investigate textbooks as semiotic mediators in education. By implication, textbook authors can also use these as guidelines. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130170

  13. SOCIOLINGUISTICS AND TEXTBOOK: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhak RAZKY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the treatment of linguistic variation in Brazilian Portuguese textbooks for High School and prompts a debate about concepts like right and wrong, language variation, language change and language prejudice. In this sense, it considers whether the textbook discusses the linguistic variation, understanding it as a result of a variety of sociocultural factors of a linguistic community. Our corpus consists of a collection of Portuguese Language for High School, prepared by Carlos Alberto Faraco, approved by the National Textbook Program (PNLD 2015. The research is part of the dialogue between Sociolinguistics and mother tongue teaching, more specifically, in theoretical and methodological studies of Bortoni-Ricardo (2004, Faraco (2004, Alkmim (2005, Labov (2008, among others, in addition to the National Curriculum Parameters of High School Portuguese Language – PCN (BRASIL, 2000. The methodology is based on descriptive, bibliographical and documentary research and a qualitative approach. The results show, that the current development, in that collection highlights a concern to incorporate linguistic studies in the heterogeneity and linguistic diversity from sociolinguistic perspective.

  14. Automatic Caption Generation for Electronics Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Thakur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic or semi-automatic approaches for developing Technology Supported Learning Systems (TSLS are required to lighten their development cost. The main objective of this paper is to automate the generation of a caption module; it aims at reproducing the way teachers prepare their lessons and the learning material they will use throughout the course. Teachers tend to choose one or more textbooks that cover the contents of their subjects, determine the topics to be addressed, and identify the parts of the textbooks which may be helpful for the students it describes the entities, attributes, role and their relationship plus the constraints that govern the problem domain. The caption model is created in order to represent the vocabulary and key concepts of the problem domain. The caption model also identifies the relationships among all the entities within the scope of the problem domain, and commonly identifies their attributes. It defines a vocabulary and is helpful as a communication tool. DOM-Sortze, a framework that enables the semi-automatic generation of the Caption Module for technology supported learning system (TSLS from electronic textbooks. The semiautomatic generation of the Caption Module entails the identification and elicitation of knowledge from the documents to which end Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques are combined with ontologies and heuristic reasoning.

  15. Analogies in biology textbooks in zoology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Cézar Seiffert Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The biologic structures of living creatures are of difficult understanding for students, because they are usually unknown by those, in needs of strategic didactics in order to facilitate the student understanding. There are several strategies and methods for teaching, such as, analogies, metaphors, descriptions, among others. In this article we aim to identify, assess and classify the analogies used in the Higher School Biology textbooks, commonly used in Public State Schools of Manaus – AM, related to the zoology theme. The methodological procedure includes: a analysis of the whole zoological content of the most used textbooks in the public state network of Amazonas throughout the year; b three didactic textbooks have been specifically analyzed in order to specify the class taxon of “Fish” for the comparison of possible variations of types and quantities of analogies. The adopted classification of analogies was of Curtis & Reigeluth (1984 and the model of enriching analysis was according to the TWA Glynn model (Harrison & Treagust, 1993. It has been concluded that the use of analogies is greater in the content of invertebrates than that of vertebrates. Most Analogies are presented in a simple and direct manner, comparing structures, concrete to concrete, and of verbal mediation, almost nothing is presented in a diverse and heuristic manner of Zoology content on the LD. The development of limits of comparison and reflexion about the analogies was rare, only the presentation of the analogue and the target of analogy occurred.

  16. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  17. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  18. Queering animal sexual behavior in biology textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biology is instrumental in establishing and perpetuating societal norms of gender and sexuality, owing to its afforded authoritative role in formulating beliefs about what is "natural". However, philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science have shown how conceptions of gender and sexuality pervade the supposedly objective knowledge produced by the natural sciences. For example, in describing animal relationships, biologists sometimes use the metaphor of marriage, which brings with it conceptions of both cuckoldry and male ownership of female partners. These conceptions have often led researchers to overlook female behavior and adaptations, such as female initiation of mating. Such social norms and ideologies influence both theories and research in biology. Social norms of gender and sexuality also influence school cultures. Although awareness of gender issues has had a major impact in Sweden during recent years, the interventions conducted have been based on a heteronormative understanding of sex; this has rendered sexual norms a non-prioritized issue and thereby rendered non-heterosexuals invisible in teaching and textbooks. Since this research was published in 2007 and 2009, norm critical pedagogics have been included in the Swedish National Agency for Education's guidelines for teaching. This inclusion represents one way to tackle the recurring problem of heterosexuality being described as a naturalized "normal" behavior and homosexuals, bisexuals and transsexuals being described from a heteronormative perspective. In this paper, I employ gender and queer perspectives to scrutinize how animal sexual behavior is described and explained in Swedish biology textbooks. The analysis is based in gender and queer theory, feminist science studies, and evolutionary biology. The article begins with an outline a discussion of my theoretical framework, relating gender and queer perspectives on evolutionary biology to a discussion of queer

  19. Revision Cycles for Economics Textbooks: An Application of the Theory of Durable Goods Monopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study economics textbook markets as an example of durable goods monopoly. Textbooks are protected by copyrights, and from a student's point of view, different textbooks are not good substitutes because students wish to use the textbook adopted by their instructors. Therefore sellers have market power. Textbooks can be…

  20. Content Area Textbooks as Sources for Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential of content area textbooks as a lexical environment for incidental vocabulary learning. The two questions proposed are how many rarely-used words content area textbooks contain within a particular number of words, and how different or similar the frequency of rarely-used words is in the linguistic studies and non-linguistic studies textbooks. This study concludes that content area textbooks contain a relatively high frequency of words within Nat3 and Nat4 levels. The high percentage of rarely-used words indicates that content area textbooks are rich sources for vocabulary learning. The findings also suggest that different kinds of textbooks in the content courses can be rich lexical environments for the study of second language vocabulary

  1. Evaluating White Space of a Malaysian Secondary ELT Textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Yu Jin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Students are believed to learn at optimum level with materials with a lot of white space since the existence of vast number of words and limited amount of whitespace, especially in textbooks may contribute to the increase in anxiety among learners (Tomlinson, 1998. This study evaluates the amount of white space in terms of pixels in the Malaysian KBSM Form 2 English textbook using MATLAB 7.5. The findings reveal the inadequacy of white space in terms of pixels in our local textbooks. Not many pages have the percentage of white space exceeding 90 percent which is believed to be the ideal on a page. Hence, this method of evaluation can aid textbooks writers or evaluators to create textbooks that are less threatening so that learning a language with textbooks might just be productive to both learners and educators.

  2. Contextualization and technologies in the Biology and Chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozana Gomes de Abreu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Biology and Chemistry school textbooks to understand how conceptions of contextualization and technologies are overtaken and hybridized. We consider that textbooks produce meanings (senses and signifieds in curricular policies. These are cultural productions that were hybridized and recontextualized according to Basil Bernstein and Stephen Ball. We argue that the focus on contextualization and technologies expressed in those textbooks are hybridized from several influences and they do not represent a consensus about those conceptions.

  3. An Evaluation of Chemistry I Textbook by Chemistry Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AYDIN

    2010-01-01

    Textbooks are one of the most consulted sources in the processes of teaching- learning and assessment. It is indispensable to prepare textbooks in accordance with the curriculum to ensure effective teaching and learning. “Teacher evaluation questionnaire” consistingof 20 questions has been prepared to evaluate secondary level IXth class chemistry textbook in terms of its content. This questionnaire was carried out with 31 secondary level chemistry teachers who work in the public schools and 1...

  4. The Spanish Language textbook in Chile and Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Ayzum Echeverría

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the content of textbook of Language and Communication (Spanish in Cuba considering the indispensable tasks for fostering a developmental learning. A comparative analysis of fourth year Cuban and Chilean textbook contents was carried following certain criteria that normally promote good learning practices. Once the textbooks were compared, the findings suggest that school textbooks should be selected on the basis of the criteria taken as reference, in the meantime, such criteria may lead teacher to design complementary tasks.

  5. E-textbooks and digital reading: where do we stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nardi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to digital reading and their implications for learning processes are currently the subject of intense debate. Although there is no scientific evidence to support the widespread implementation of digital textbooks, governments are investing substantial resources in textbook digitization. Increasingly, both in Italy and abroad, schools are abandoning printed textbooks for electronic textbooks. The aim of this paper is to take stock of the indications emerging from major studies and experiments on these issues, and to draw some provisional conclusions.

  6. Misrepresentations of evolutionary psychology in sex and gender textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegard, Benjamin M; Winegard, Bo M; Deaner, Robert O

    2014-05-20

    Evolutionary psychology has provoked controversy, especially when applied to human sex differences. We hypothesize that this is partly due to misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology that are perpetuated by undergraduate sex and gender textbooks. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we develop a catalog of eight types of errors and document their occurrence in 15 widely used sex and gender textbooks. Consistent with our hypothesis, of the 12 textbooks that discussed evolutionary psychology, all contained at least one error, and the median number of errors was five. The most common types of errors were "Straw Man," "Biological Determinism," and "Species Selection." We conclude by suggesting improvements to undergraduate sex and gender textbooks.

  7. An Evaluation of Chemistry I Textbook by Chemistry Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah AYDIN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks are one of the most consulted sources in the processes of teaching- learning and assessment. It is indispensable to prepare textbooks in accordance with the curriculum to ensure effective teaching and learning. “Teacher evaluation questionnaire” consistingof 20 questions has been prepared to evaluate secondary level IXth class chemistry textbook in terms of its content. This questionnaire was carried out with 31 secondary level chemistry teachers who work in the public schools and 19 chemistry teachers who work in the private courses. According to the results obtained, chemistry teachers think that there are some deficiencies and obstacles in the application of this textbook.

  8. Multimedia search system for a textbook of urology in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y; Yamashita, Y; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    A search system for the textbook of urology has been developed and evaluated. The textbook is written in Japanese with 1.4 megabytes of text and has about 1000 pictures. The contents of the textbook can be seen with English or Japanese medical terms. The system contains a dictionary of Japanese medical terms. The dictionary has a network structure based on Japanese ideographic characters. Such a search system is useful for physicians because of its speed and the widely spread medical knowledge of many authors of the textbook.

  9. Evaluation of the Textbook New Era Interactive English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红

    2013-01-01

      Evaluation of teaching materials is necessary and very important for teachers. It can help teachers choose an appropriate textbook, realize the advantage and disadvantage of a textbook and adjust their teaching procedures according to different situations and learners. It makes teaching and learning more effective and efficient. The importance of evaluating teaching materials is emphasized in this paper and then the textbook New Era Interactive English is chosen as an example to further illustrate the problem. This textbook is to be analyzed and evaluated from the following angles:overview, internal and external.

  10. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds

    1984-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  11. Advanced thermodynamics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Jog, Milind A

    2011-01-01

    Thermolab Excel-Based Software for Thermodynamic Properties and Flame Temperatures of Fuels IntroductionImportance, Significance and LimitationsReview of ThermodynamicsMathematical BackgroundOverview of Microscopic/NanothermodynamicsSummaryAppendix: Stokes and Gauss Theorems First Law of ThermodynamicsZeroth LawFirst Law for a Closed SystemQuasi Equilibrium (QE) and Nonquasi-equilibrium (NQE) ProcessesEnthalpy and First LawAdiabatic Reversible Process for Ideal Gas with Constant Specific HeatsFirst Law for an Open SystemApplications of First Law for an Open SystemIntegral and Differential Form

  12. Thermodynamics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics I includes review of properties and states of a pure substance, work and heat, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics

  13. The Trend in Compiling Physical Chemistry Textbooks%物理化学教材建设的趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍浩波; 高盘良

    2011-01-01

    According to the contents of Structural Chemistry,textbooks of Physical Chemistry can be divided into two categories.By comparing the proportion of each part content of different Physical Chemistry textbooks in different times,we can explore the trends in compiling Physical Chemistry textbooks.In Physical Chemistry textbooks which contain Structural Chemistry,the proportion of Equilibrium to Structure to Rate is approximately 4: 4: 2;and in Physical Chemistry textbooks which do not contain Structural Chemistry,the proportion of Thermodynamics to Dynamics to Electrochemistry to Colloids and Interface is approximately 0.50: 0.25: 0.15: 0.10.%根据是否包含有结构化学内容为判断依据,物理化学教材有"大物化"与"小物化"之分。对比不同年代"大物化"教材与"小物化"教材各部分内容之间的比例,我们探索了物理化学教材建设的趋势。现行主流"大物化"教材三部分内容之间的比例为平衡:结构:速率≈4:4:2,而"小物化"教材各部分内容之间的比例为热力学:动力学:电化学:胶体与界面≈0.50:0.25:0.15:0.10。

  14. Worked problems in heat, thermodynamics and kinetic theory for physics students

    CERN Document Server

    Pincherle, L; Green, L L

    2013-01-01

    Worked Problems in Heat, Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory for Physics Students is a complementary to textbooks in physics. This book is a collection of exercise problems that have been part of tutorial classes in heat and thermodynamics at the University of London. This collection of exercise problems, with answers that are fully worked out, deals with various topics. This book poses problems covering the definition of temperature such as calculating the assigned value of the temperature of boiling water under specific conditions. This text also gives example of problems dealing with the fir

  15. The Slovenian Art History Textbook in Comparison to Polish Textbooks: Authorship and Content, Didactic Structure and Publishing Circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Marjana Dolšina

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses two concepts of art history textbooks for secondary schools. It discusses their role in the learning and teaching process of art history and related school subjects within the formal educational programmes in Slovenia and their didactic structure. The comparison between one Slovenian and two Polish textbooks might contribute to better understanding of the present situation regarding art history textbook production in Slovenia, which is a result of several factors: the histo...

  16. Elements of statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2006-01-01

    Encompassing essentially all aspects of statistical mechanics that appear in undergraduate texts, this concise, elementary treatment shows how an atomic-molecular perspective yields new insights into macroscopic thermodynamics. 1974 edition.

  17. Workshop on Teaching Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to arrange a meeting of teachers of thermodynamics in the United Kingdom, a meeting held in the pleasant surroundings of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in Sept~mber, 1984. This volume records the ideas put forward by authors, the discussion generated and an account of the action that discussion has initiated. Emphasis was placed on the Teaching of Thermodynamics to degree-level students in their first and second years. The meeting, a workshop for practitioners in which all were expected to take part, was remarkably well supported. This was notable in the representation of essentially every UK university and polytechnic engaged in teaching engineering thermodynamics and has led to a stimulating spread of ideas. By intention, the emphasis for attendance was put on teachers of engineering concerned with thermodynamics, both mechanical and chemical engineering disciplines. Attendance from others was encouraged but limited as follows: non-engineering acad­ emics, 10%, industrialists, 10%. The ...

  18. Polyelectrolytes thermodynamics and rheology

    CERN Document Server

    P M, Visakh; Picó, Guillermo Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses current development of theoretical models and experimental findings on the thermodynamics of polyelectrolytes. Particular emphasis is placed on the rheological description of polyelectrolyte solutions and hydrogels.

  19. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  20. Constructor Theory of Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Marletto, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics, powerful for countless purposes, are not exact: both their phenomenological and their statistical-mechanical versions are valid only at 'macroscopic scales', which are never defined. Here I propose a new, exact and scale-independent formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, using the principles and tools of the recently proposed constructor theory. Specifically, I improve upon the axiomatic formulations of thermodynamics (Carath\\'eodory, 1909; Lieb and Yngvason, 1999) by proposing an exact and more general formulation of 'adiabatic accessibility'. This work provides an exact distinction between work and heat; it reveals an unexpected connection between information theory and the first law of thermodynamics (not just the second); it resolves the clash between the irreversibility of the 'cycle'-based second law and time-reversal symmetric dynamical laws. It also achieves the long-sought unification of the axiomatic version of the second law with Kelvin's.

  1. Thermodynamics of primary photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, D

    2013-10-01

    The thermodynamics of photosynthesis has been much discussed, but recent articles have pointed to some confusion on the subject. The aim of this review is to clarify a limited part of this state of affairs.

  2. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    Thermodynamics has always been a remarkable science in that it studies macroscopic properties that are only partially determined by the properties of individual molecules. Entropy and free energy only exist in constellations of more than a single molecule (degree of freedom). They are the so......-called emergent properties. Tendency towards increased entropy is an essential determinant for the behaviour of ideal gas mixtures, showing that even in the simplest physical/chemical systems, (dys)organisation of components is crucial for the behaviour of systems. This presentation aims at illustrating...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...

  3. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  4. Elements of chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2005-01-01

    This survey of purely thermal data in calculating the position of equilibrium in a chemical reaction highlights the physical content of thermodynamics, as distinct from purely mathematical aspects. 1970 edition.

  5. Elementary chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahan, Bruce H

    1963-01-01

    This text introduces thermodynamic principles in a straightforward manner. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it emphasizes chemical applications and physical interpretations and simplifies mathematical development. 1964 edition.

  6. Is it time for wider acceptance of e-textbooks? An examination of student reactions to e-textbooks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziming; LIU

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:This paper attempts to examine perceived benefits,barriers,and students’reactions towards e-textbooks.Design/methodology/approach:This study is based on a survey of 105 undergraduate students in California.Undergraduate students were selected as the subjects of this study,because they are heavy users of textbooks for their course work.Findings:E-textbooks will complement our existing choices rather than substitute printed textbooks.While e-textbooks offer a number of benefits,they also produce many unanticipated challenges.A number of critical hurdles need to be solved before wider acceptance.Research limitations:This study attempts to explore students’reactions to e-textbooks by targeting undergraduate students in California.Future studies can focus on the long-term effects on learning.Practical implications:Considerable attention should be paid to designing features to ensure e-textbooks augment learning rather than detract from it.Originality/value:This paper also looks at the extent to which e-reader users and none e-reader users differ in their preferences for traditional textbooks and e-textbooks.

  7. Learning History through Textbooks: Are Mexican and Spanish Students Taught the Same Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Mario; Jacott, Liliana; Lopez-Manjon, Asuncion

    2002-01-01

    Studied the representation of historical events in 1492 in elementary and junior high school textbooks in Mexico (five textbooks) and Spain (four textbooks). Findings show very different representations of the same events in these two countries. (SLD)

  8. General Education Oral Communication Assessment and Student Preferences for Learning: E-Textbook versus Paper Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen Kangas; Davidson, Marlina M.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a yearly university mandated assessment of a large basic communication course that fulfills the oral communication general education requirement, this study examined student preferences for textbooks, reading, and learning. Specifically, basic course students ("N"=321) at a large state university in the Midwest were asked to…

  9. Morphemic Analysis as Imagined by Developmental Reading Textbooks: A Content Analysis of a Textbook Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Although vocabulary instruction is a pressing need for postsecondary reading instructors, a minimal amount of current postsecondary scholarship addresses this need, and almost no current scholarship addresses the textbook tradition of morphemic analysis (MA). The present article reviews the literature on MA instruction and argues for teaching MA…

  10. Management by Textbook: The Role of Textbooks in Developing Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, Alison; Bubna-Litic, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely regarded as a crucial capability for competent management and also for any leadership role in society. In this article, we ask, "How do textbooks play a role in the weakness of many management graduates' critical thinking skills?" Management teachers can find plentiful advice about best teaching practices, yet…

  11. Morphemic Analysis as Imagined by Developmental Reading Textbooks: A Content Analysis of a Textbook Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Although vocabulary instruction is a pressing need for postsecondary reading instructors, a minimal amount of current postsecondary scholarship addresses this need, and almost no current scholarship addresses the textbook tradition of morphemic analysis (MA). The present article reviews the literature on MA instruction and argues for teaching MA…

  12. Textbooks vs. techbooks: Effectiveness of digital textbooks on elementary student motivation for learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Auna

    This action research project investigated fourth grade students¡¦ motivation to learn science using a digital science techbook. Participants in the study included 29 fourth grade students in two different classrooms. One classroom of 16 students used a digital science techbook to learn science while the other classroom of 13 students used a traditional paper science textbook to learn science. Students in both classrooms answered five sets of questions regarding their experience using a digital science techbook and a paper science techbook to understand science, find science information, solve science problems, learn science, and assess learning science was fun. Results were compiled and coded based on positive and negative responses to conditions. A chi-square was used to analyze the ordinal data. Overall differences between techbooks vs. textbook were significant, X2 (1, N = 29) = 23.84, p = .000, justifying further examination of individual survey items. Three items had statistically significant difference for finding science information, solving science problems, and learning science. A gender difference was also found in one item. Females preferred to use paper science textbooks to understand science, while males preferred digital techbooks to learn science. The fourth graders in this study indicated that digital techbooks were a powerful learning tool for increasing interest, excitement and learning science. Even though students reported paper science textbooks as easy to use, they found using digital science techbooks a far more appealing way to learn science.

  13. THE PRESENCE OF BIOCHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS IN TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E.S. Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Being present in high school in chemistry and biology disciplines, biochemistry is to explain the chemical and biological reactions in cells. His concepts are seen as abstract and difficult to understand and can be contextualized through experimentation. Experimentation is used in the classroom to allow students to view the applicability of the contents through observation, creating hypotheses, discussion and conclusions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of experimentation in biochemistry content  in high school books. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this way, it was analyzed the presence of experimental activities in the textbooks approved by the National Textbook Plan 2015 "Biology 1", authored by César da Silva Junior, Sezar Sasson and Nelson Caldini Junior, and in the book " Chemistry - Volume 3 "by Martha Reis. RESULTS: At the end of the unit where the biochemical concepts are covered in the book "Biology 1" is presented an interdisciplinary project called "Enzymes - chemical tools of life" that proposes four experiments on catalase, pH and contact surface enzyme-substrate. They are easy activities to be implemented with affordable materials. Already at the Chemistry book, when addressing the biochemistry there is only one proposal for experimental activity called "Glycolic Extract of milk proteins". In this case, we need materials like food processor and enameled pots, which can hinder your performance in virtual classes, however, the experiment is easy to perform. Both books contain questions after the experimental proposals enhancing the questioning of the activities and understanding the contents addressed. CONCLUSIONS: The present experimental activities in the textbooks are mostly easy to apply and is not required sophisticated equipment of Sciences laboratories. It also allows the contextualization of theory and practice enhancing the process of teaching and learning with the proposals made.

  14. Mechanical engineering capstone senior design textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Rolin Farrar, Jr.

    This textbook is intended to bridge the gap between mechanical engineering equations and mechanical engineering design. To that end, real-world examples are used throughout the book. Also, the material is presented in an order that follows the chronological sequence of coursework that must be performed by a student in the typical capstone senior design course in mechanical engineering. In the process of writing this book, the author surveyed the fifty largest engineering schools (as ranked by the American Society of Engineering Education, or ASEE) to determine what engineering instructors are looking for in a textbook. The survey results revealed a clear need for a textbook written expressly for the capstone senior design course as taught throughout the nation. This book is designed to meet that need. This text was written using an organizational method that the author calls the General Topics Format. The format gives the student reader rapid access to the information contained in the text. All manufacturing methods, and some other material presented in this text, have been presented using the General Topics Format. The text uses examples to explain the importance of understanding the environment in which the product will be used and to discuss product abuse. The safety content contained in this text is unique. The Safety chapter teaches engineering ethics and includes a step-by-step guide to resolving ethical conflicts. The chapter includes explanations of rules, recommendations, standards, consensus standards, key safety concepts, and the legal implications of product failure. Key design principles have been listed and explained. The text provides easy-to-follow design steps, helpful for both the student and new engineer. Prototyping is presented as consisting of three phases: organization, building, and refining. A chapter on common manufacturing methods is included for reference.

  15. Differential geometry and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, H

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present the first steps of a new approach to the study of thermodynamics in the context of differential geometry. We introduce a fundamental differential 1-form and a metric on a pseudo-Euclidean manifold coordinatized by means of the extensive thermodynamic variables. The study of the connection and the curvature of these objects is initialized in this work by using Cartan structure equations. (Author)

  16. Information theory and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kafri, Oded

    2006-01-01

    A communication theory for a transmitter broadcasting to many receivers is presented. In this case energetic considerations cannot be neglected as in Shannon theory. It is shown that, when energy is assigned to the information bit, information theory complies with classical thermodynamic and is part of it. To provide a thermodynamic theory of communication it is necessary to define equilibrium for informatics systems that are not in thermal equilibrium and to calculate temperature, heat, and ...

  17. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  18. Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, M.J.; Shapiro, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides a thorough development of the second law of thermodynamics (featuring the entropy-production concept), an up-to-date discussion of availability analysis (including an introduction to chemical availability), and a sound description of the application areas. Topics covered include control volume energy analysis, vapor power systems, gas power systems, thermodynamic relations for simple compressible substances, nonreacting ideal gas mixtures and psycrometrics, reacting mixtures and combustion, and chemical and phase equilibrium.

  19. Chemical thermodynamics of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaia Sandino, M.C.; Oesthols, E. [eds.] [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency NEA, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1999-07-01

    This volume on technetium is the third volume in a series of critical reviews of the chemical thermodynamic properties of elements of special importance to modelling efforts for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems, and is the only one concerned with a fission product element. The first two volumes were reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of uranium and americium. Thermochemical data for neptunium and plutonium are being reviewed for a later volume. refs.

  20. A readability analysis of elementary-level science textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Robyn

    Given both the unprecedented attention to the importance of providing children with the best possible science textbooks and the overwhelming evidence that students in the United States are severely lacking the most basic science knowledge, the decline in the number of students pursuing science degrees is alarming. In spite of all the efforts being made, a disparity still exists between (1) the wealth of science information available, (2) the apparent ease of access to scientific information, and (3) the lack of scientific academic progress being made in classrooms across the United States. A literature review was conducted which included the areas of textbook analysis and textbook readability levels, the fields of textbook analysis and readability, and findings from recently published books about textbook readability. The majority of the literature reflected an urgent need for science textbooks to be revised. Based on the information gathered during the literature review, the study examined the readability levels of elementary level science textbooks that were published by six textbook publishers. Results from the study revealed that when used properly, readability formulas provide an objective look at textbooks. After applying these formulas to the selected elementary level science textbooks, it became clear that very few changes were implemented between the most recent previous editions and the current editions. The textbooks remain too difficult for the students using them. The findings from this study will help science textbook publishers and textbook writers see that some changes need to be made in the way their textbooks are written. In order to maintain a competitive edge in the global marketplace, more students need to pursue science. In order for more students to do that, they need to pursue science degrees, but in order for them to pursue science degrees, they need to have a certain degree of confidence and level of interest in the subject matter. For

  1. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B

    1962-01-01

    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  2. Examining the Reuse of Open Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hilton III

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An important element of open educational resources (OER is the permission to use the materials in new ways, including revising and remixing them. Prior research has shown that the revision and remix rates for OER are relatively low. In this study we examined the extent to which the openly licensed Flat World Knowledge textbooks were being revised and remixed. We found that the levels of revision and remix were similar to those of other OER collections. We discuss the possible significance and implication of these findings.

  3. Evaluating Junior Secondary Science Textbook Usage in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine V.

    2016-08-01

    A large body of research has drawn attention to the importance of providing engaging learning experiences in junior secondary science classes, in an attempt to attract more students into post-compulsory science courses. The reality of time and resource constraints, and the high proportion of non-specialist science teachers teaching science, has resulted in an overreliance on more transmissive pedagogical tools, such as textbooks. This study sought to evaluate the usage of junior secondary science textbooks in Australian schools. Data were collected via surveys from 486 schools teaching junior secondary (years 7-10), representing all Australian states and territories. Results indicated that most Australian schools use a science textbook in the junior secondary years, and textbooks are used in the majority of science lessons. The most highly cited reason influencing choice of textbook was layout/colour/illustrations, and electronic technologies were found to be the dominant curricula material utilised, in addition to textbooks, in junior secondary science classes. Interestingly, the majority of respondents expressed high levels of satisfaction with their textbooks, although many were keen to stress the subsidiary role of textbooks in the classroom, emphasising the textbook was `one' component of their teaching repertoire. Importantly, respondents were also keen to stress the benefits of textbooks in supporting substitute teachers, beginning teachers, and non-specialist science teachers; in addition to facilitating continuity of programming and staff support in schools with high staff turnover. Implications from this study highlight the need for high quality textbooks to support teaching and learning in Australian junior secondary science classes.

  4. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lavenda, Bernard H

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Bernard H. Lavenda has written A New Perspective on Thermodynamics to combine an old look at thermodynamics with a new foundation. The book presents a historical perspective, which unravels the current presentation of thermodynamics found in standard texts, and which emphasizes the fundamental role that Carnot played in the development of thermodynamics. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics will: Chronologically unravel the development of the principles of thermodynamics and how they were conceived by their discoverers Bring the theory of thermodynamics up to the present time and indicate areas of further development with the union of information theory and the theory of means and their inequalities. New areas include nonextensive thermodynamics, the thermodynamics of coding theory, multifractals, and strange attractors. Reintroduce important, yet nearly forgotten, teachings of N.L. Sardi Carnot Highlight conceptual flaws in timely topics such as endoreversible engines, finite-time thermodynamics, geometri...

  5. Gravity as a thermodynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Moustos, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The analogy between the laws of black hole mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics led Bekenstein and Hawking to argue that black holes should be considered as real thermodynamic systems that are characterised by entropy and temperature. Black hole thermodynamics indicates a deeper connection between thermodynamics and gravity. We review and examine in detail the arguments that suggest an interpretation of gravity itself as a thermodynamic theory.

  6. First-Year University Chemistry Textbooks' Misrepresentation of Gibbs Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the misrepresentation of Gibbs energy by college chemistry textbooks. The article reports the way first-year university chemistry textbooks handle the concepts of spontaneity and equilibrium. Problems with terminology are found; confusion arises in the meaning given to [delta]G, [delta][subscript r]G, [delta]G[degrees], and…

  7. Human Rights and Peace Education in the Lebanese Civics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuayb, Maha

    2015-01-01

    In 1997 the Lebanese government published its newly developed curriculum and textbooks following a long and fierce civil war, which started in 1975. The new curriculum emphasized nation building, reconciliation and citizenship. This study aims to examine how the civics textbooks in Lebanon addressed human rights and peace education, both of which…

  8. China Once Again Demands Japan Correct Mistakes in Textbook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐长英

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese side has once again demanded that the Japanese government take effective measures to correct its serious mistaikes in the history textbook fabricated by rightist scholars. An offieial from the Chinese Foreign Ministry called in an official of the Japanese embassy here Wednesday at the request of the Chinese government, and handed a memorandum on the textbook issue.

  9. The Portrayal of Intelligence in Introductory Educational Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Danielle L.; Jones, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the importance of students' and teachers' implicit beliefs about intelligence, we designed a study to determine: (a) How is intelligence defined--as a malleable or fixed entity--in introductory educational psychology textbooks? and (b) To what extent are classroom applications of intelligence topics included in the textbooks? We…

  10. Coverage of Milgram's Obedience Experiments in Social Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III

    2015-01-01

    Past studies of the treatment of Milgram's obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks from the 1960s to the 1990s discovered an evolving "Milgram-friendly" coverage style (dealing with criticisms of his experiments either summarily, in a pro-Milgram manner, or not at all). We examined 10 current social textbooks to determine…

  11. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Iranian Textbooks: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taase, Yoones

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…

  12. Globalisation and Citizenship Education: Diversity in South Korean Civics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Rennie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how textbooks in the Republic of Korea incorporate liberal, Western notions of diversity and multiculturalism. Through a systematic analysis of 60 civics textbooks over time, this study shows that ideas of multiculturalism and diversity have dramatically increased in the South Korean intended curriculum. While in the past,…

  13. Disability in Physical Education Textbooks: An Analysis of Image Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboas-Pais, Maria Ines; Rey-Cao, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how images of disability are portrayed in physical education textbooks for secondary schools in Spain. The sample was composed of 3,316 images published in 36 textbooks by 10 publishing houses. A content analysis was carried out using a coding scheme based on categories employed in other similar studies and adapted…

  14. Open Textbooks and Increased Student Access and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Andrew; Martin, Mirta; Hudson, Amy; Warren, Kiara; Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David

    2012-01-01

    This study reports findings from a year-long pilot study during which 991 students in 9 core courses in the Virginia State University School of Business replaced traditional textbooks with openly licensed books and other digital content. The university made a deliberate decision to use open textbooks that were copyrighted under the Creative…

  15. A Consumer's Guide to High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Diane

    2004-01-01

    This document reviews a dozen history textbooks. The following American History textbooks are reviewed: (1) Joyce Appleby, Alan Brinkley, and James M. McPherson, The American Journey: Building a Nation (Glencoe, 2003), and Joyce Appleby, Alan Brinkley, Albert S. Broussard, James M. McPherson, and Donald A. Ritchie, The American Republic Since 1877…

  16. Astronomy Textbook Images: Do They Really Help Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Italo; Leccia, Silivo; Puddu, Emanuella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a study on the difficulties secondary school students experience in interpreting textbook images of elementary astronomical phenomena, namely, the changing of the seasons, Sun and lunar eclipses and Moon phases. Six images from a commonly used textbook in Italian secondary schools were selected. Interviews of 45 min about…

  17. An Analysis of the Readability of Financial Accounting Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Flesch formula was used to calculate the readability of 15 financial accounting textbooks. The 15 textbooks represented introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels and also were classified by five different publishers. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis revealed some significant differences. (Author/CT)

  18. Human Rights and Peace Education in the Lebanese Civics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuayb, Maha

    2015-01-01

    In 1997 the Lebanese government published its newly developed curriculum and textbooks following a long and fierce civil war, which started in 1975. The new curriculum emphasized nation building, reconciliation and citizenship. This study aims to examine how the civics textbooks in Lebanon addressed human rights and peace education, both of which…

  19. A Thorough Scrutiny of ELT Textbook Evaluations: A Review Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Gholami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is thoroughly agreed that English language textbooks stand amongst the foremost components in any language classrooms worldwide, being referred to as valid, beneficial and labor-saving tools to fulfill an extensive range of needs. An ELT textbook is not merely a set of sheets of paper fastened together to hinge at one side, but is the beating heart of any education system whereupon the whole learning revolves. Notwithstanding their interminable benefits, it is admitted that still the compiled textbooks, especially the ones prescribed in Educational systems have to be evaluated and assessed to confirm whether they fulfil the objectives they are meant for or not, as it is said no perfect textbook exists. Having dealt with evaluation in general, this research meticulously elaborates on textbook evaluation more specifically concluding that there is a dearth of inquiry on textbook selection and evaluation. Afterwards, this research introduces the most common approaches for evaluating ELT textbooks and materials. The paper culminates with concluding remarks and implications, hoping to shed light on how textbook evaluation is practiced worldwide.

  20. Process Analysis and Level Measurement of Textbooks Use by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanzhe; Shi, Ningzhong

    2009-01-01

    Teachers and textbooks are two important elements in curriculum implementation. Based on Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), a curriculum implementation measurement model designed by G. Hall and S. M. Hord, this paper analyzes the general process of curriculum implementation in terms of textbook use, establishes a model that gauges the level of…

  1. History of College Zoology Textbooks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Margaret Crespo

    Studied were the characteristics and changes of textbooks used in college zoology instruction in the United States and the relationship of these findings to the development of college zoology instruction. The authors' professional backgrounds, the textbook audience, and the status of zoology and college education at the time each book was written…

  2. Astronomy Textbook Images: Do They Really Help Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Italo; Leccia, Silivo; Puddu, Emanuella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a study on the difficulties secondary school students experience in interpreting textbook images of elementary astronomical phenomena, namely, the changing of the seasons, Sun and lunar eclipses and Moon phases. Six images from a commonly used textbook in Italian secondary schools were selected. Interviews of 45 min about…

  3. Analysis of the Chemical Representations in Secondary Lebanese Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Saadeddine Salim; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the requirements that chemical representations should meet in textbooks in order to enhance conceptual understanding. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical representations that are present in 7 secondary Lebanese chemistry textbooks. To achieve the latter purpose, an instrument adapted from…

  4. Applying a Patriotism Textbook-Rating Device: An Indonesian Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    1990-01-01

    A rating device was used to assess the ability of four moral education textbooks used in Indonesia to engender a sense of patriotism in students. Results from the three-part rating form allow ranking of the books based on several standards and suggest means of supplementing the preferred textbook's value. (TJH)

  5. How Financial Innovation Has Made Textbook Monetary Theory Obsolete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbody, John

    1988-01-01

    Argues that much of the monetary theory in economics textbooks has not changed in accordance with the facts of monetary history. Contends that by neglecting institutional changes in the monetary system in the 50 years since the publication of Keynes' General Theory, many textbooks are now in danger of seriously misleading their readers. (GEA)

  6. The Development of Evaluation Theories for Foreign Language Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to carry out a theoretical survey on the development of evaluation theories for foreign language textbooks. This study also focuses on recognizing the importance of textbook development in the field of not only teaching English as a foreign language, but also teaching Korean as a foreign language. Recently, the field of teaching…

  7. Evaluation Study for Secondary Stage EFL Textbook: EFL Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harbi, Abdullah Abdul Muhsen

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating EFL textbook for secondary stage in Saudi Public schools. Participants consisted of (100) male teachers and (73) female teachers teaching secondary stage students in two cities: Madinah and Dowadmi. The tool of the study designed to cover five dimensions: layout and design, the objectives of the textbook, teaching…

  8. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  9. Analyzing Science Textbook Materials to Determine How "Persuasive" They Are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Marilyn J.

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates the difference between typical textbook fare and textbook material designed to be comprehensive and built upon the reader's understanding, arguing that the hallmark of persuasion and learning must include comprehensibility and understandability. A taxonomy of text types is presented, examining the argument and explanation patterns and…

  10. Twentieth-Century Spanish Textbooks: A Generational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardinas-Barnes, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Examines the evolution of Spanish textbooks qualitatively using computerized pedagogical data. Results show distinct generational text style trends from 1860 to 1998 which chronicle a common engine of change and conflict in standardization movements and the production of generational text styles. Summarizes 20th-century textbook generations and…

  11. Exploring Plant and Animal Content in Elementary Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.

    2010-01-01

    Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…

  12. Evaluation of Textbook Series "Life" in Terms of Cultural Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcü, Ayça Berna; Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify elements related to "intercultural communicative competence" in the textbook series "Life" at A1 and A2 level published by "National Geographic Learning" which incorporates plentiful photographic content. Activities in the textbooks, based on the four skills and visuals, were analyzed…

  13. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  14. What Can We Learn from Mainstream Education Textbook Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an ever-growing volume of research focused on TESOL textbooks (or coursebooks, as they are sometimes known), I argue that the TESOL research community should pay more attention to textbook research in mainstream education, that is, to the work of those scholars who focus on L1 rather than L2 education, given that there is a rich,…

  15. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  16. Japanese Politics and the History Textbook Controversy, 1982-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiko

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a good deal of media and academic interest in the ways in which Japanese history textbooks represent Japan's wartime past. However, the discussion has tended to revolve primarily around a number of symbolic textbook issues, such as government censorship of the term "aggression," without much consideration…

  17. Issues in Language Textbook Development: The Case of Western Apache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Reuse, Willem J.

    Two experimental language-learning textbooks were developed in collaboration with Apache-speaking scholars from the San Carlos and White Mountain Reservations. One was written in the grammar-translation tradition and modeled after successful textbooks for Navajo and Papago. While the text's main purpose is to teach elementary conversational…

  18. Textbook Images: How Do They Invite Students into Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungum, Berit

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of images in Norwegian physics textbooks for upper secondary school, and how they invite students into physics by means of visual communication. The concept of "framing" is used to investigate how the perspective in the image provides a sense of participation. It is found that older textbooks, where objects…

  19. An Analysis and Critique of Selected Social Studies Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannangelo, Duane M.; Kaplan, Mary Bene

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate four social studies textbooks recently under consideration for use by the Memphis (Tennessee) City Public Schools. The textbooks, chosen at random, are: "World Geography: A Physical and Cultural Study" (de Blij and others, Scott Foresman, 1989); "A History of the United States" (Boorstin…

  20. New Textbook Publishing Model for the Internet Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaria, Frank

    2012-01-01

    College students living at or below the poverty line often have difficult choices to make: buy groceries, pay rent, or purchase textbooks. To Eric Frank, cofounder of Flat World Knowledge, this is not really a choice. When it comes to eating or buying a textbook, most will choose to eat. According to Frank, the biggest barrier to learning on scale…

  1. Topic Sequence and Emphasis Variability of Selected Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, Justin B.

    2010-01-01

    Textbook choice has a significant effect upon course success. Among the factors that influence this decision, two of the most important are material organization and emphasis. This paper examines the sequencing of 19 organic chemistry topics, 21 concepts and skills, and 7 biological topics within nine of the currently available organic textbooks.…

  2. The Impact of Open Textbooks on Secondary Science Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Jared; Fischer, Lane; Wiley, David; Hilton, John, III

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing costs associated with commercial textbooks and decreasing financial support of public schools, it is important to better understand the impacts of open educational resources on student outcomes. The purpose of this quantitative study is to analyze whether the adoption of open science textbooks significantly affects science…

  3. First-Year University Chemistry Textbooks' Misrepresentation of Gibbs Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the misrepresentation of Gibbs energy by college chemistry textbooks. The article reports the way first-year university chemistry textbooks handle the concepts of spontaneity and equilibrium. Problems with terminology are found; confusion arises in the meaning given to [delta]G, [delta][subscript r]G, [delta]G[degrees], and…

  4. TEXTBOOK ANALYSIS IN THE SERVICE OF CHEMISTRY TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Ahtineva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors of textbooks have their own visions of contents and teaching methods, which should lead to a high level of scientific thinking. However, the textbook alone does not guarantee good results because the personal and social relationships between the teacher and students have a major influence on teaching and learning. Therefore, the teacher’s study of the textbook before teaching facilitates the teaching process. This paper suggests one method of textbook analysis. In the analysis, one upper secondary level course of chemistry instruction involved the use of a learning strategy: classification of the central concepts and a classification of activities based on task difficulty. The study also attempted to find out the goodness of fit between the national curriculum and the textbook chemistry course. The national objectives concerned the content of knowledge, social significance, emphasis on experimental chemistry, and inspiring students for further study. The majority of the textbook tasks fall into higher order categories characterized by knowledge structures assuming application of knowledge or making inferences. Good textbook activities also have social significance, and a number of experimental tasks are included. The textbook quality is further enhanced by up-to-date content. All of the above qualities are related to high study motivation.

  5. Human Evolution in Science Textbooks from Twelve Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…

  6. A Comparison of Textbooks' Presentation of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jo A.; Hodges, Thomas E.; Collins, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, fractions are an important part of the middle school curriculum, yet many middle school students struggle with fraction concepts. Teachers also have difficulty with the conceptual understanding needed to teach fractions and rely on textbooks when making instructional decisions. This reliance on textbooks, the idea that…

  7. Japan in Our Textbooks: The Need for Alternative Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Based on premise that knowledge of other peoples and places is no longer a luxury but rather a pragmatic life tool, article focuses on the image of Japan in textbooks used in social studies classes throughout the United States. Suggests that U.S. textbooks get high marks on factual information but score low in context, analysis, and perspective.…

  8. The Continuing Saga of Little Albert in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Inaccuracies, especially concerning the stimulus generalization findings, in textbook descriptions of the Little Albert study have been well documented since the 1970s. However, there has not been a systematic examination of introductory psychology textbooks since the 1980s to determine whether such inaccuracies still persist. This study filled…

  9. Textbook Images: How Do They Invite Students into Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungum, Berit

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of images in Norwegian physics textbooks for upper secondary school, and how they invite students into physics by means of visual communication. The concept of "framing" is used to investigate how the perspective in the image provides a sense of participation. It is found that older textbooks, where objects…

  10. The Financial Crisis and Principles of Economics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    How have authors of widely used U.S. introductory economics textbooks responded to the traumatizing financial crisis? The answer interests textbook authors as well as the users. An encompassing quantitative and qualitative text analysis that applies new methods demonstrates that in general, the f...

  11. Gender Representation in Elementary Level, African Language Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Folarin Schleicher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learners' perceptions and understanding of a target culture(s are affected by the infonnation presented by their teacher(s, textbooks and other instructional materials. This paper focuses on an analysis of gender representation in elementary level, African language textbooks, with a specific concentration on Hausa, Swahili, Yoruba, and Zulu textbooks. Although the study of gender representation in textbooks is not new (see Blankenship, 1984; Clausen, 1982; Neussel, 1977 and others, relatively few authors have focused on gender representation in foreign language textbooks (Graci, 1989; Rifkin, 1998. This study seeks to extend the work of these scholars into the field of African languages. As a result, the present analysis focuses on (1 establishing criteria for evaluating African language textbooks for gender representation; (2 applying these criteria to seventeen different, elementary level, African language textbooks to create a basis for a comparative case study; (3 presenting the findings of a detailed analysis; and ( 4 utilizing the findings to formulate guidelines for future textbook writers.

  12. Aging Education in Elementary School Textbooks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of an aging society, the older population is gradually increasing and people are living longer than ever before. However, older people are often portrayed in school textbooks as insignificant, unhealthy, sad, passive, and dependent. That is, ageism emerges in school textbooks in subtle ways. Under this circumstance, children may…

  13. Thinking Levels of Questions in Christian Reading Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    If Christian schools desire students to achieve higher-level thinking, then the textbooks that teachers use should reflect such thinking. Using Risner's (1987) methodology, raters classified questions from two Christian publishers' fifth grade reading textbooks based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2001). The questions in the A…

  14. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  15. The Representation of Foreign Cultures in English Textbooks%The Representation of Foreign Cultures in English Textbooks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka-Ming Yuen

    2011-01-01

    A case study of the foreign cultures represented in two English language textbooks used by Hong Kong secondary schools was conducted. Its aim was to investigate whether the representation of foreign cultures in these textbooks reflected the status of English as an international language.

  16. How Do Elementary Textbooks Address Fractions? A Review of Mathematics Textbooks in the USA, Japan, and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, Amal Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Textbooks play an important part in the design of instruction. This study analyzed the presentation of fractions in textbooks designed for the elementary grades in Kuwait, Japan, and the USA. The analysis focused on the physical characteristics of the books, the structure of the lessons, and the nature of the mathematical problems presented.…

  17. Ideological Management in Textbooks: A Study of the Changing Image of the United States in China's Geography Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that decisions regarding textbook content China are political and determined by the central government. Reports on a study of 15 elementary and secondary geography textbooks published between 1948 and 1991. Finds that the image of the United States portrayed in these books has changed dramatically. (CFR)

  18. Evolution in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    This review covers two aspects of "evolution" in thermodynamics. First, with the constructal law, thermodynamics is becoming the domain of physics that accounts for the phenomenon of evolution in nature, in general. Second, thermodynamics (and science generally) is the evolving add-on that empowers humans to predict the future and move more easily on earth, farther and longer in time. The part of nature that thermodynamics represents is this: nothing moves by itself unless it is driven by power, which is then destroyed (dissipated) during movement. Nothing evolves unless it flows and has the freedom to change its architecture such that it provides greater and easier access to the available space. Thermodynamics is the modern science of heat and work and their usefulness, which comes from converting the work (power) into movement (life) in flow architectures that evolve over time to facilitate movement. I also review the rich history of the science, and I clarify misconceptions regarding the second law, entropy, disorder, and the arrow of time, and the supposed analogy between heat and work.

  19. Thermodynamics of Fractal Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sheykhi, Ahmad; Wang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamical properties of the apparent horizon in a fractal universe. We find that one can always rewrite the Friedmann equation of the fractal universe in the form of the entropy balance relation $ \\delta Q=TdS+Td\\tilde{S}$, where $ \\delta Q $ and $ T $ are the energy flux and Unruh temperature seen by an accelerated observer just inside the apparent horizon, and $d\\tilde{S}$ is the entropy production term due to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of fractal universe. This shows that in a fractal universe, a treatment with nonequilibrium thermodynamics of spacetime may be needed. We also study the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the framework of fractal universe. When the temperature of the apparent horizon and the matter fields inside the horizon are equal, i.e. $T=T_h$, the generalized second law of thermodynamics can be fulfilled provided the deceleration and the equation of state parameters ranges either as $-1 \\leq q < 0 $, $- 1 \\leq w < - 1/3$ or as $q<-1$, $w<...

  20. Textbook Forum. Thermodynamics of "Mixing" of Ideal Gases: A Persistent Pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edwin F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the misconceptions commonly held suggesting that mixing ideal gases causes an increase in entropy. Argues that the combining processes and resulting total pressure have absolutely nothing to do with the mixing itself. (TW)

  1. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  2. Thermodynamics "beyond" local equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Jose; Rubi, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics has shown its applicability in a wide variety of different situations pertaining to fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. As successful as it is, however, its current formulation considers only systems close to equilibrium, those satisfying the so-called local equilibrium hypothesis. Here we show that diffusion processes that occur far away from equilibrium can be viewed as at local equilibrium in a space that includes all the relevant variables in addition to the spatial coordinate. In this way, nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be used and the difficulties and ambiguities associated with the lack of a thermodynamic description disappear. We analyze explicitly the inertial effects in diffusion and outline how the main ideas can be applied to other situations. [J.M.G. Vilar and J.M. Rubi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11081-11084 (2001)].

  3. Statistical thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Gokcen, N A

    1986-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists, researchers, and graduate students interested in solutions in general, and solutions of metals in particular. Readers are assumed to have a good background in thermodynamics, presented in such books as those cited at the end of Chapter 1, "Thermo­ dynamic Background." The contents of the book are limited to the solutions of metals + metals, and metals + metalloids, but the results are also appli­ cable to numerous other types of solutions encountered by metallurgists, materials scientists, geologists, ceramists, and chemists. Attempts have been made to cover each topic in depth with numerical examples whenever necessary. Chapter 2 presents phase equilibria and phase diagrams as related to the thermodynamics of solutions. The emphasis is on the binary diagrams since the ternary diagrams can be understood in terms of the binary diagrams coupled with the phase rule, and the Gibbs energies of mixing. The cal­ culation of thermodynamic properties from the phase diagrams is ...

  4. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  5. Discrete Thermodynamics of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper offers a discrete thermodynamic model of lasers. Laser is an open system; its equilibrium is based on a balance of two thermodynamic forces, one related to the incoming pumping power and another to the emitted light. The basic expression for such equilibrium is a logistic map, graphical solutions to which are pitchfork bifurcation diagrams. As pumping force increases, the relative populations on the ground and lasing branches tend to zero and unity correspondingly. An interesting feature of this model is the line spectrum of the up and down transitions between the branches beyond bifurcation point. Even in a simple case of 2-level laser with only 2 possible transition types (up and down), the spectra look like sets of the line packets, starting well before the population inversion. This effect is an independent confirmation of the Einstein's prohibition on practical realization of 2-level laser. Multilevel lasers may be approached by employing the idea of thermodynamic activity for the emitting atom...

  6. Thermodynamics and Thermoeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia M. El-Sayed

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising the efficiency of an energy system is within the domain of thermodynamics. Raising the efficiency cost-effectively (Thermoeconomics is a multi-disciplinary problem in which thermodynamics interfaces other disciplines of knowledge which in this particular case are design, manufacture and economics. This paper deals with a communication/optimization strategy, via the concept of costing equations, whereby the system can be analyzed and optimized for minimum cost within the domain of thermodynamics. The communication/optimization strategy is explained. The generation of costing equations is demonstrated. A gas turbine power system and seawater distillation process system are used as examples for improved design point and improved configuration. The results of their optimized design points for configurations in order of increasing complexity are displayed on cost-efficiency coordinates.

  7. Thermodynamics of Nonadditive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Ruffo, Stefano

    2015-06-12

    The usual formulation of thermodynamics is based on the additivity of macroscopic systems. However, there are numerous examples of macroscopic systems that are not additive, due to the long-range character of the interaction among the constituents. We present here an approach in which nonadditive systems can be described within a purely thermodynamics formalism. The basic concept is to consider a large ensemble of replicas of the system where the standard formulation of thermodynamics can be naturally applied and the properties of a single system can be consequently inferred. After presenting the approach, we show its implementation in systems where the interaction decays as 1/r(α) in the interparticle distance r, with α smaller than the embedding dimension d, and in the Thirring model for gravitational systems.

  8. Visualizing Geoscience Concepts Through Textbook Art (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many, if not most, college students taking an introductory geoscience course purchase, borrow, download, or rent one of several commercial textbooks currently available. Art used in such books has evolved significantly over the past three decades. Concepts once conveyed only by black-and-white line drawings, drawn by hand in ink, have gradually been replaced by full-color images produced digitally. Multiple high-end graphics programs, when used in combination, can yield images with super-realistic textures and palettes so that, in effect, anything that a book author wants to be drawn can be drawn. Because of the time and skill level involved in producing the art, the process commonly involves professional artists. In order to produce high-quality geoscience art that can help students (who are, by definition, non-experts) understand concepts, develop geoscience intuition, and hone their spatial-visualization skills, an author must address two problems. First, design a figure which can convey complex concepts through visual elements that resonate with students. Second, communicate the concepts to a professional artist who does not necessarily have personal expertise in geoscience, so that the figure rendered is both technically correct and visually engaging. The ultimate goal of geoscience art in textbooks is to produce an image that avoids unnecessary complexity that could distract from the art's theme, includes sufficient realism for a non-expert to relate the image to the real world, provides a personal context in which to interpret the figure, and has a layout that conveys relationships among multiple components of the art so that the art tells a coherent story. To accomplish this goal, a chain of choices--about perspective, sizes, colors, texture, labeling, captioning, line widths, and fonts--must be made in collaboration between the author and artist. In the new world of computer-aided learning, figures must also be able to work both on the computer screen and

  9. Thermodynamics of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century has brought a lot of new results related to graphene. Apparently, graphene has been characterized from all points of view except surface science and, especially, surface thermodynamics. This report aims to close this gap. Since graphene is the first real two-dimensional solid, a general formulation of the thermodynamics of two-dimensional solid bodies is given. The two-dimensional chemical potential tensor coupled with stress tensor is introduced, and fundamental equations are derived for energy, free energy, grand thermodynamic potential (in the classical and hybrid forms), enthalpy, and Gibbs energy. The fundamentals of linear boundary phenomena are formulated with explaining the concept of a dividing line, the mechanical and thermodynamic line tensions, line energy and other linear properties with necessary thermodynamic equations. The one-dimensional analogs of the Gibbs adsorption equation and Shuttleworth-Herring relation are presented. The general thermodynamic relationships are illustrated with calculations based on molecular theory. To make the reader sensible of the harmony of chemical and van der Waals forces in graphene, the remake of the classical graphite theory is presented with additional variable combinations of graphene sheets. The calculation of the line energy of graphene is exhibited including contributions both from chemical bonds and van der Waals forces (expectedly, the latter are considerably smaller than the former). The problem of graphene holes originating from migrating vacancies is discussed on the basis of the Gibbs-Curie principle. An important aspect of line tension is the planar sheet/nanotube transition where line tension acts as a driving force. Using the bending stiffness of graphene, the possible radius range is estimated for achiral (zigzag and armchair) nanotubes.

  10. Concise chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, APH

    2010-01-01

    EnergyThe Realm of ThermodynamicsEnergy BookkeepingNature's Driving ForcesSetting the Scene: Basic IdeasSystem and SurroundingsFunctions of StateMechanical Work and Expanding GasesThe Absolute Temperature Scale Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion Forms of Renewable Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy Hydroelectric Power Geothermal Energy Biomass Energy References ProblemsThe First Law of Thermodynamics Statement of the First Law Reversible Expansion of an Ideal GasConstant-Volume ProcessesConstant-Pressure ProcessesA New Function: EnthalpyRelationship between ?H and ?UUses and Conventions of

  11. Introductory statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Nils; Golubovic, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Introductory Statistical Thermodynamics is a text for an introductory one-semester course in statistical thermodynamics for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in physics and engineering. The book offers a high level of detail in derivations of all equations and results. This information is necessary for students to grasp difficult concepts in physics that are needed to move on to higher level courses. The text is elementary, self contained, and mathematically well-founded, containing a number of problems with detailed solutions to help students to grasp the more difficult

  12. Thermodynamics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  13. Thermodynamics of ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun C; Han, Lei; Zhao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters form the largest of all transporter families, and their structural study has made tremendous progress over recent years. However, despite such advances, the precise mechanisms that determine the energy-coupling between ATP hydrolysis and the conformational changes following substrate binding remain to be elucidated. Here, we present our thermodynamic analysis for both ABC importers and exporters, and introduce the two new concepts of differential-binding energy and elastic conformational energy into the discussion. We hope that the structural analysis of ABC transporters will henceforth take thermodynamic aspects of transport mechanisms into account as well.

  14. Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

  15. Mechanics, Waves and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Jain, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Figures; Preface; Acknowledgement; 1. Energy, mass, momentum; 2. Kinematics, Newton's laws of motion; 3. Circular motion; 4. The principle of least action; 5. Work and energy; 6. Mechanics of a system of particles; 7. Friction; 8. Impulse and collisions; 9. Central forces; 10. Dimensional analysis; 11. Oscillations; 12. Waves; 13. Sound of music; 14. Fluid mechanics; 15. Water waves; 16. The kinetic theory of gases; 17. Concepts and laws of thermodynamics; 18. Some applications of thermodynamics; 19. Basic ideas of statistical mechanics; Bibliography; Index.

  16. Components in Chemical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical equations are actually matrix equations, and this has important implications for their thermodynamic treatment. The fundamental equation for chemical thermodynamics for a chemical reaction system can be written in terms of species, but at chemical equilibrium, it has to be written in terms of components. The number of components is equal to the number of species minus the number of independent chemical reactions. The fundamental equation for the Gibbs energy of a system containing ethylene, methane, ethane, and propane is discussed. At chemical equilibrium there are two components, which can be taken to be carbon and hydrogen or ethylene and methane. There are advantages in using matrix notation.

  17. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  18. Evaluation of ESP textbooks: Evidence from ESP textbook of computer engineering major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Danaye Tous

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate ESP textbook on “English for the students of computer engineering” taught at Payame Noor University in Astane (Guilan province, Iran. It was a mixed method research. The research instrument consisted of a researcher-made questionnaire which was designed on the basis of eight checklist references. Sample of this study consisted of 49 junior students majoring in computer engineering, who were selected through convenience sampling method. The textbook was evaluated in terms of six criteria of aims and approaches, design and organization, skills and strategies, topics, practical considerations and illustrations, language content and exercises. Data was collected through a five-point Likert scale questionnaire consisting of 22 items. Descriptive statistics including percentage, mean, and standard deviation were calculated for each item. Findings indicated that despite having pedagogical values, the textbook was not very good according to design and organization, language content and exercises, skills and strategies, practical considerations and illustrations. Finally, the pedagogical implication of findings for teaching grammatical items, listening materials, recycling and revision, writing activities and illustrations would be discussed.

  19. Algebra II textbook for students of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gorodentsev, Alexey L

    2017-01-01

    This book is the second volume of an intensive “Russian-style” two-year undergraduate course in abstract algebra, and introduces readers to the basic algebraic structures – fields, rings, modules, algebras, groups, and categories – and explains the main principles of and methods for working with them. The course covers substantial areas of advanced combinatorics, geometry, linear and multilinear algebra, representation theory, category theory, commutative algebra, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry – topics that are often overlooked in standard undergraduate courses. This textbook is based on courses the author has conducted at the Independent University of Moscow and at the Faculty of Mathematics in the Higher School of Economics. The main content is complemented by a wealth of exercises for class discussion, some of which include comments and hints, as well as problems for independent study.

  20. Teacher Reviews of Widely Used Physics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Holt Physics (Serway & Faughn), Physics Principles and Problems (Zitzewitz), Conceptual Physics (Hewitt), and Physics: Principles with Applications (Giancoli) were the most widely used textbooks for regular high school physics courses during the 2008-09 academic year. Holt Physics and Zitzewitz were each used by about one-third of the teachers responding to our Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Hewitt's text was used by approximately one-fourth of the teachers who responded, and 6% of the respondents reported using Giancoli. We also asked the respondents to tell us how well the text worked for the course. The good news is that well over 80% of the teachers find that all four of these texts work quite well or somewhat well for teaching regular physics.

  1. Algebra I textbook for students of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gorodentsev, Alexey L

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first volume of an intensive “Russian-style” two-year undergraduate course in abstract algebra, and introduces readers to the basic algebraic structures – fields, rings, modules, algebras, groups, and categories – and explains the main principles of and methods for working with them. The course covers substantial areas of advanced combinatorics, geometry, linear and multilinear algebra, representation theory, category theory, commutative algebra, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry – topics that are often overlooked in standard undergraduate courses. This textbook is based on courses the author has conducted at the Independent University of Moscow and at the Faculty of Mathematics in the Higher School of Economics. The main content is complemented by a wealth of exercises for class discussion, some of which include comments and hints, as well as problems for independent study.

  2. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  3. Pragmatic Content in Global and Local ELT Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Meihami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to explore the frequency of pragmatic content occurrence represented as three speech acts of requesting, refusing, and apologizing in global and local English Language Teaching (ELT textbooks. Three global elementary ELT textbooks, namely Interchange, Top Notch, and American English File along with the local elementary textbooks of Iran Language Institute (ILI Series, were examined for their pragmatic content. To analyze the pragmatic content of these textbooks, the researchers used three different frameworks. The results indicated that while both global and local ELT textbooks shared a sufficient number of speech acts of request and refusal, they failed to pay enough attention to the speech act of apology regarding its frequency and the strategies through which it is performed. To sum, the findings of this study highlight the differences in the frequency of different speech acts and the strategies used to perform them in global and local elementary ELT textbooks, which bear some implications for ELT textbook developers and language instructors.

  4. [Misleading information on smoking in German medical textbooks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, T; Bätzing, S; Wiebel, F; Andreas, S

    2007-02-09

    Smoking is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and lung cancer. While nicotine causes addiction, heart and lung diseases are caused by other substances contained in tobacco smoke. This study assessed whether these facts are adequately portrayed in German medical textbooks. The sections on cardiovascular and lung cancer risk factors in 28 German textbooks of internal medicine, available in two bookstores as well as the library of Göttingen University (Germany), were scanned for the words "smoking" and "nicotine" as risk factors for coronary artery disease and lung cancer. In 12 of the 25 textbooks covering cardiovascular disease, smoking was mentioned as a risk factor for coronary artery disease; another 12 textbooks listed nicotine or nicotine addiction. In one textbook both terms were used. While smoking was referred to in all 21 textbooks that also discussed risk factors for lung cancer, nicotine was not mentioned in this context. Many German textbooks of internal medicine contain misleading terms for the health effects of smoking, which may influence the thoughts and possibly also the behaviour of their readers. The use of the words "smoking" and "nicotine" as synonymous within the context of cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting a causal relationship between nicotine and coronary heart disease, is incorrect and should be removed from the specialist medical literature.

  5. Secondary-school chemistry textbooks in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Vesna D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of chemistry in Serbia as a separate subject dates from 1874. The first secondary-school chemistry textbooks appeared in the second half of the 19th century. The aim of this paper is to gain insight, by analysing two secondary-school chemistry textbooks, written by Sima Lozanić (1895 and Mita Petrović (1892, into what amount of scientific knowledge from the sphere of chemistry was presented to secondary school students in Serbia in the second half of the 19th century, and what principles textbooks written at the time were based on. Within the framework of the research conducted, we defined the criteria for assessing the quality of secondary-school chemistry textbooks in the context of the time they were written in. The most important difference between the two textbooks under analysis that we found pertained to the way in which their contents were organized. Sima Lozanić’s textbook is characterized by a greater degree of systematicness when it comes to the manner of presenting its contents and consistency of approach throughout the book. In both textbooks one can perceive the authors’ attempts to link chemistry-related subjects to everyday life, and to point out the practical significance of various substances, as well as their toxicness.

  6. Black Hole Thermodynamics in an Undergraduate Thermodynamics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Barry R.; McLeod, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy, which has been drawn between black hole physics and thermodynamics, is mathematically broadened in this article. Equations similar to the standard partial differential relations of thermodynamics are found for black holes. The results can be used to supplement an undergraduate thermodynamics course. (Author/SK)

  7. Correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics: connection with Hill nanothermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir [Departament de Termodinamica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)]. E-mail: vladimir.garcia@uv.es; Cervera, Javier [Departament de Termodinamica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Pellicer, Julio [Departament de Termodinamica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2005-02-28

    The equivalence between Tsallis thermodynamics and Hill's nanothermodynamics is established. The correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics are pointed out. Through this connection we also find a general expression for the entropic index q which we illustrate with two physical examples, allowing in both cases to relate q to the underlying dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems.

  8. Playing the game: Psychology textbooks speak out about love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Marga

    2012-03-01

    Starting in 1958, Harry Harlow published numerous research papers analyzing the emotional and social development of rhesus monkeys. This essay examines the presentation of Harlow's work in introductory psychology textbooks from 1958 to 1975, focusing on whether the textbooks erased the process of research, presented results without hedging, and provided a uniform account of Harlow's work and results. It argues that many textbooks were not passive vehicles of knowledge transmission; instead, they played a role similar to articles of meta-analysis and literature reviews.

  9. Analysis of science textbook recommendations provided for students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, R S; Cawley, J F

    1993-05-01

    Teachers' manuals from three major elementary science textbook series were analyzed. These textbooks provided specific instructional recommendations for students with disabilities in mainstream classes. Findings reveal that (a) the textbooks did not provide recommendations for all categories of disabilities as defined in Public Law 94-142; (b) many recommendations did not specifically address the learning needs of the students for whom they were intended; and (c) there were no consistency in the nature of recommendations provided for any given category of disability. Results indicate that special education and mainstream teachers should monitor the usefulness of published materials that claim to meet the needs of students with disabilities.

  10. The Necessity of Variety of Textbook in Course Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐键

    2006-01-01

    @@ The existing textbook used in Intensive Reading class in English Department is not satisfactory according to an investigation made by the authors. Some investigations show: the texts are too easy, and monotonous both in content and style. Due to this, teachers also have the difficulty to teach this course in an interesting way. So suggestions should be made both on the change of textbook and teaching methods. Now we have to confront with an urging task: prosperity of textbooks is necessary and significant in course design and teaching reform.

  11. THE AMERICAN CULTURE WARS AND AMERICAN LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJingqiong

    2004-01-01

    The American Culture Wars have had a great impact on gender and racial relations in the US and have triggered the transformation of its literary canon. American literature textbooks in China. however, are not reaping the fruits of the US cultural debates, a conclusion based on a survey of eight popular textbooks recently published by prestigious publishing houses.Given the significance of the US sociopolitical base in shaping the canon and the lecturers' dependence on the textbooks, they need immediate and drastic improvement. The paper is rounded off with some cues on what to improve.

  12. Identifying and Combating Sexism in EFL Textbooks--With a Case Study into China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Baiqiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores methodologies of identifying and combating sexism in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) textbooks. The writer of this paper has found out there exists sexism or gender inequality in the Chinese high school EFL textbooks. The writer hopes that future EFL curriculum designers, EFL textbook writers, textbook censors in textbook…

  13. The Adoption of Mark-Up Tools in an Interactive e-Textbook Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Sam; Russell, Jae-eun; Schuh, Kathy L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have more often examined whether students prefer using an e-textbook over a paper textbook or whether e-textbooks provide a better resource for learning than paper textbooks, but students' adoption of mark-up tools has remained relatively unexamined. Drawing on the concept of Innovation Diffusion Theory, we used educational data mining…

  14. Usability of PDF based Digital Textbooks to the Physically Disabled University Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Hidehisa; Matsubara, Kayoko; Booka, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Digital textbooks have been expected for providing multimedia information that the print textbooks could not handle. The original digital textbook can be fabricated relatively easily by using Epub or DAISY. Print textbooks are, however, employed as textbooks in the most of lectures in universities. Therefore, it is considered necessary to convert the content of the print textbook to the digital textbook simply and in a short time. In this paper, the digital textbook using PDF files of the print textbook was suggested as one of simple and practical solution to provide an alternative textbook for the physically disabled university student who has difficulty handling the print textbook. Then usability of the suggested method was evaluated experimentally from the point of workload. Result of the experiment indicates that the digital textbook fabricated as the alternative one for the print textbook by the suggested method has a potential to reduce workload for the physically disabled university students. In addition, the digital textbook with larger LCD display needs less workload than the print textbook. Then, there are not so much difference in the workload between the print book which is smaller than the print textbook and the digital book made from the print book.

  15. A Survey of Professor Acceptance and Use of E-Textbooks in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Randy

    2013-01-01

    As electronic books (e-books) have continued to gain in popularity, more and more books are becoming available in electronic format. Textbooks are no exception. More and more publishers are making textbooks available in electronic format (e-textbooks). There have been many devices specifically designed to use e-books and e-textbooks with many more…

  16. Didactics Textbooks in Germany and the USA: A Comparative Study of Eclecticism, Selection and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparison of didactics textbooks in two countries: on the one hand it examines a textbook in the tradition of German Didaktik, and, on the other hand, a textbook in the tradition of "Instructional Design" from the USA. The main research question is: How do authors write didactics textbooks? Is it possible to…

  17. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiotti@uel.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86051-990, Londrina-PR (Brazil); Fresneda, R., E-mail: rodrigo.fresneda@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados 5001, 09210-580, Santo André-SP (Brazil); Molina, C., E-mail: cmolina@usp.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Arlindo Bettio 1000, CEP 03828-000, São Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed on top of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases. - Highlights: • A strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics is proposed. • Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. • Thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. • Thermodynamic potentials are related by canonical transformations.

  18. Thermodynamic stabilization of colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given of the conditions necessary for obtaining a thermodynamically stable dispersion (TSD) of solid particles in a continuous aqueous solution phase. The role of the adsorption of potential-determining ions at the planar interface in lowering the interfacial free energy (γ) to promot

  19. Thermodynamics of liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnirenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a liquid metal based on quantum-mechanical models of the crystal, electronic, and nuclear structures of the metal are derived in this paper. The models are based on such formulations as the Bohr radius, the Boltzmann constant, the Planck Law, the Fermi surface, and the Pauli principle.

  20. Thermodynamically Stable Pickering Emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacanna, S.; Kegel, W.K.; Philipse, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    We show that under appropriate conditions, mixtures of oil, water, and nanoparticles form thermodynamically stable oil-in-water emulsions with monodisperse droplet diameters in the range of 30–150 nm. This observation challenges current wisdom that so-called Pickering emulsions are at most metastabl

  1. Thermodynamical Arguments against Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The argument that the second law of thermodynamics contradicts the theory of evolution has recently been revived by anti-evolutionists. In its basic form, the argument asserts that whereas evolution implies that there has been an increase in biological complexity over time, the second law, a fundamental principle of physics, shows this to be…

  2. On Teaching Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbasch, F.

    2011-01-01

    The logical structure of classical thermodynamics is presented in a modern, geometrical manner. The first and second law receive clear, operatively oriented statements and the Gibbs free energy extremum principle is fully discussed. Applications relevant to chemistry, such as phase transitions, dilute solutions theory and, in particular, the law…

  3. The thermodynamics of portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Edward W. Piotrowski; Jan Sladkowski

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new method of valuation of portfolios and their respective investing strategies. To this end we define a canonical ensemble of portfolios that allows to use the formalism of thermodynamics. (final version published in Acta Phys.Pol.B,32(2001)597-604)

  4. On Teaching Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbasch, F.

    2011-01-01

    The logical structure of classical thermodynamics is presented in a modern, geometrical manner. The first and second law receive clear, operatively oriented statements and the Gibbs free energy extremum principle is fully discussed. Applications relevant to chemistry, such as phase transitions, dilute solutions theory and, in particular, the law…

  5. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, Peter T

    1990-01-01

    Exceptionally articulate treatment combines precise mathematical style with strong physical intuition. Wide range of applications includes negative temperatures, negative heat capacities, special and general relativistic effects, black hole thermodynamics, gravitational collapse, more. Over 100 problems with worked solutions. Advanced undergraduate, graduate level. Table of applications. Useful formulas and other data.

  6. Thermodynamics in dynamical spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    We derive a general formulation of the laws of irreversible thermodynamics in the presence of electromagnetism and gravity. For the handling of macroscopic material media, we use as a guide the field equations and the Noether identities of fundamental matter as deduced in the framework of gauge theories of the Poincar\\'e$\\otimes U(1)$ group.

  7. Thermodynamics for the practicing engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis; Vanvliet, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This book concentrates specifically on the applications of thermodynamics, rather than the theory. It addresses both technical and pragmatic problems in the field, and covers such topics as enthalpy effects, equilibrium thermodynamics, non-ideal thermodynamics and energy conversion applications. Providing the reader with a working knowledge of the principles of thermodynamics, as well as experience in their application, it stands alone as an easy-to-follow self-teaching aid to practical applications and contains worked examples.

  8. 晚清中小学生物教科书及其出版机构举隅%An Exploration on Primary and Secondary School Biology Textbooks Published in the Late Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雷

    2014-01-01

    近代西方生物学知识随着传教士的大量涌入而传入中国。为了适应教会兴办的学堂需要,传教士编写了最早的一批生物教科书。清政府实行壬寅—癸卯学制之后,全国建立了大量的新式中小学堂,清政府及各级官办机构、民间书坊和部分学堂都出版了不少中小学生物教科书,这些教科书大部分是根据日本教科书翻译而来。相对于官办机构,民间书坊占据了清末中小学教科书的主阵地。清末的中小学生物教科书虽然尚不成熟,但对后来生物教科书的编写与出版起到了奠基作用。%Modern biology knowledge was transferred into China with the influx of western missionaries. In order to adapt to the needs of the schools set up by churches, the missionaries compiled the earliest biology textbooks. A number of new primary and secondary schools were established after the Renyin-Kuimao Educational System was put into practice by the Qing government. A large number of biology textbooks were published by the Qing government,government-run institutions of all levels,civil bookstores and some schools,most of which were translated from Japanese textbooks. Compared with the government-run institutions, civil bookstores occupied the main market of school textbooks. Although not yet mature, primary and secondary school biology textbooks in the late Qing Dynasty played a groundbreaking role for the later compilation and publication of biology textbook.

  9. Appropriateness of textbooks used in elementary schools in terms of students' levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yapıcı

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, students in the Subject Area Textbook Examination Course I was teaching in the Department of Elementary Education. Usak Collage of Education, reviewed textbooks, using hcrmcncutic and content analysis technique. Prc-scrvice teachers' views on textbooks were"researched by examining their review reports.In the research study, answers of the following questions were determined: Whether first level elementary textbooks arc appropriate for students' cognitive and affective level, and whether those textbooks have appropriate format.Pie-service teachers did not think that textbooks had appropriate format, and they found that there were problems in die cognitive and affective levels of textbooks.

  10. IUPAC conference on chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The 39th Calorimetry Conference includes papers on the following typics: thermodynamic properties of various compounds and materials; measuring methods and equipment for determination of thermodynamic quantities; calculation of thermodynamic quantities. Fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, electrochemistry, photochemistry, and biochemistry are areas of applications which are emphasized.

  11. An Investigation of the Communicative Approach Teaching in Primary English Textbooks in Hong Kong and Malaysia: A Search into Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Textbooks, and How CLT Is Applied in Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, it will be shown how grammar activities in textbooks still retain the structural method of teaching grammar. The results found by previous scholars' research will be covered, and illustrated by excerpts of textbooks, including comparison of Hong Kong and Malaysian textbooks. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)…

  12. A comparative analysis of mathematics textbooks from Kosovo and Albania based on the topic of fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Vula, Eda; Kingji-Kastrati , Jeta; Podvorica, Fitore

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This study analyses the presentation of fractions in Kosovar and Albanian mathematics textbooks designed for students of one to fifth-grade. Physical characteristics of the selected textbooks, the presentation of fractions and the nature of the problems were analysed as well. Findings showed that Albanian mathematics textbooks covered more lessons on fractions than Kosovar textbooks. Textbooks from both countries focus mostly on part whole and operator construction. Al...

  13. An Overall Review of English Textbook Evaluation at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辰

    2014-01-01

    Textbook evaluation is very important in both teaching and learning. The research of the English textbook evaluation in China develops relatively late, so study of the textbook evaluation theory is very important for the present college English teaching in China. The present study introduces some Influential textbook evaluation system and their theoretical characteristics at home and abroad, and points out researchers can detail the textbook evaluation theory in order to evaluate some special areas in English.

  14. A Survey of Textbooks for Industrial Organization and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Daniel O.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys eleven currently available undergraduate textbooks on industrial organization. Concludes that some texts have an economics emphasis and others a policy emphasis. Rates the content of each text according to established criteria. (JDH)

  15. Critical analysis of science textbooks evaluating instructional effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The critical analysis of science textbooks is vital in improving teaching and learning at all levels in the subject, and this volume sets out a range of academic perspectives on how that analysis should be done. Each chapter focuses on an aspect of science textbook appraisal, with coverage of everything from theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, methodological issues, and conceptual frameworks for critical analysis, to practical techniques for evaluation. Contributions from many of the most distinguished scholars in the field give this collection its sure-footed contemporary relevance, reflecting the international standards of UNESCO as well as leading research organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (whose Project 2061 is an influential waypoint in developing protocols for textbook analysis). Thus the book shows how to gauge aspects of textbooks such as their treatment of controversial issues, graphical depictions, scientific historiography, vocabulary usage, acc...

  16. The Treatment of Wealth Distribution by High School Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an investigation of the treatment of wealth distribution by high school economics textbooks. The eight leading high school economics texts in the United States were examined.

  17. Selecting Anatomy and Physiology Textbooks for Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Annie K.; Carline, Jan D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the criteria used for textbook selection or rejection, how the criteria differ depending on the level of students, and how the criteria differ according to the instructor's training. Discusses results and implications for students, instructors, and publishers. (CW)

  18. Historical Evolution of the Field View and Textbook Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocovi, M. Cecilia; Finley, Fred N.

    We analyzed how two basic electromagnetism textbooks approach the concept of electric field. We limited our study to the reasons given in these textbooks for the introduction of the field representation and to how accurate, coherent, and complete these reasons are. Because many times historical reasons are intertwined with textbooks' explanations of physical phenomena, we used the historical evolution of the field representation to guide our analysis. The analysis shows that one textbook mixes up the historical and pedagogical reasons for the introduction of the concept of field. The other one presents a sketch that might lead students to understand the field and the action-at-a-distance views as supplementing each other.

  19. Ethics Content in Introductory Accounting Textbooks: An Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Robert M.; Urbancic, Frank R.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage of ethics in 24 introductory accounting textbooks showed that, in response to past criticisms, many authors now integrate ethical issues and include reinforcing assignments and case materials. (SK)

  20. Social and Abnormal Psychology Textbooks: An Objective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Griggs, Richard A.; Hagans, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides feature and content analyses of 14 social and 17 abnormal psychology full-length textbooks from 1995-98 that are available for undergraduate psychology courses. Provides instructors of these courses a means for more informed text selection. (CMK)

  1. History Textbook Reform in Allied Occupation Japan, 1945-52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yoko H.

    1995-01-01

    Observes that, although textbook reform in occupied Japan originally supported democratic principles of openness and competition, it later became a mechanism for anticommunist censorship. Maintains that interpretations of Japan's military conduct remain highly politicized and controversial. (MJP)

  2. 40 CFR 5.455 - Textbooks and curricular material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.455 Textbooks...

  3. 22 CFR 229.455 - Textbooks and curricular material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.455 Textbooks and curricular...

  4. Research in progress: the institution as e-textbook publisher

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vivien Ward

    2016-01-01

    ...) in its disruption of commercial textbook publishing. However, universities are under increasing pressure to provide students with all the resources they need for their courses, without further cost to the student...

  5. Evolution of quasi-history in a Physics Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim, in teaching physics, is that the student should gain an understanding of the principles of physics and how to apply them to different problems. A secondary aim is to allow the students to appreciate the scientific approach and significance of it in the evolution of science and society. One approach for the second aim has been to include 'historical material' in physics textbooks. The quantity of the historical material included is quite diverse, from textbooks with a very str...

  6. Reflection of Learning Theories in Iranian ELT Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Hashem Neghad

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT English textbooks were evaluated in terms of instructional strategies and techniques cited in the related literature for each learning theory. The ana...

  7. Evolution of quasi-history in a Physics Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim, in teaching physics, is that the student should gain an understanding of the principles of physics and how to apply them to different problems. A secondary aim is to allow the students to appreciate the scientific approach and significance of it in the evolution of science and society. One approach for the second aim has been to include 'historical material' in physics textbooks. The quantity of the historical material included is quite diverse, from textbooks with a very str...

  8. The Textbook of the Future: What Will It Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry L.; Finkelstein, N.; McCray, D.; Mac Low, M.; Zollman, D.

    2006-12-01

    In May 2006, a group of scientists, publishers, technology gurus, National Science Foundation officers, and other interested parties met for a few days to think collectively about the future of the textbook. We met because: -The Web and search engines like Google change the relationship between students and information. If the textbook no longer needs to be encyclopedic, then what is its role? --Knowing information is not enough. Our students, whether they follow academic or other careers, will need to know how to get information, evaluate it, and use it to solve real world problems. How can a textbook help students in these environments? --The static, comprehensive narrative of a textbook does not always lend itself well to inquiry learning, which is strongly encouraged by science education research and by national science k-12 education standards. How can textbooks support active, student-centered learning and support new faculty as they adopt it? The workshop generated partial and uncertain answers to these questions, providing some ideas for the future, though not a complete roadmap. A metaphor that generated considerable support among the group was the idea of a textbook as a compact travel guide, like the Lonely Planet guides. It should be adaptable, and thus web-based, but it might still exist in paper form. The participants discussed barriers on the path ahead. How will peer review, which many workshop participants value, be incorporated? What incentives could motivate textbook authors and publishers to produce truly innovative products? How will new technologies such as computer simulations & animations, electronic readers, and widely accessible databases reshape the role of the textbook in education? Many workshop participants including this paper’s authors acknowledge support from the NSF Distinguished Teaching Scholars Program and the NSF CAREER awards program.

  9. The Inclusion of Life Skills in English Textbooks in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Masri, Amaal; Smadi, Mona; Aqel, Amal; Hamed, Wafaa'

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing Action Pack English textbooks' texts based on the availability of life skills for 5th, 6th and 7th grades, and to determine the frequencies and percentages of the life skills present in each text. The sample of the study was English language textbooks for Action Pack series for the 5th, 6th, and 7th grades. The life…

  10. Motivating students to read the textbook before class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Rachel E.

    2016-11-01

    Many faculty in STEM courses assign textbook reading in advance of lecture, yet evidence shows few students actually read the textbook. Those students that do read often do so only after the material has been presented in class. Preparing for class by reading the textbook beforehand improves student learning and is particularly critical for classes that employ active engagement strategies. Here I present strategies I have used to successfully motivate my students to read the textbook before class in physics classes ranging from introductory algebra-based physics to advanced courses for physics majors. In the introductory course, I used pre-class reading quizzes, a common strategy that has been shown effective in previous studies, but one that is somewhat time-consuming to implement. In my more advanced courses I used reading reflections, which required considerably less time. While it was typical for less than 25% of students to read the textbook before I implemented reading quizzes or reflections, after implementing these strategies 70-90% of students reported reading the textbook before class most of the time. Students also report finding both the readings themselves and the quizzes and reflections valuable for their learning.

  11. Twentieth-Century Leaders in the Moldovan History Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Musteata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research question of this paper is How the twentieth century leaders are treated in the History textbooks published within the last decade in the Republic of Moldova? The textbooks are a reflection of the History curriculum. Therefore, the analysis starts with the discussion of this document and its content concerning leaders and heroes. The main research sources are the History textbooks published in Moldova during the last decade that debate the events of the twentieth century. The paper analyses how the national, European and world leaders are treated in Moldovan textbooks, and how the discourse and the paradigm get changed depending on political regimes. Based on quantitative and qualitative methods, some conclusions have been made about various leaders, such as Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Antonescu or leaders from the Cold War era. At the end, the leaders of independent Moldova are briefly presented too. As a result of this analysis we could see how the leaders are presented in the Moldovan textbooks and could conclude that the policy makers, textbook authors and publishers have to pay more attention to this topic.

  12. Thermodynamic Function of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants ...

  13. A commentary on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Day, William Alan

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this book is to comment on, and clarify, the mathematical aspects of the theory of thermodynamics. The standard presentations of the subject are often beset by a number of obscurities associated with the words "state", "reversible", "irreversible", and "quasi-static". This book is written in the belief that such obscurities are best removed not by the formal axiomatization of thermodynamics, but by setting the theory in the wider context of a genuine field theory which incorporates the effects of heat conduction and intertia, and proving appropriate results about the governing differential equations of this field theory. Even in the simplest one-dimensional case it is a nontrivial task to carry through the details of this program, and many challenging problems remain open.

  14. Chemical thermodynamics of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.J. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Bidoglio, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Environment Inst.; Rand, M.H. [Wintershill Consultancy, Dry Sandford, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Robouch, P.B. [Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements; Wanner, H. [MBT Environmental Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland); Puigdomenech, I. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1995-09-01

    This is the second volume in a series of critical reviews of the chemical thermodynamic data of those elements of particular importance in the safety assessment modeling of high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities. The objective of these reviews is to provide a set of reliable thermodynamic data that can be used to describe the behaviour of these elements under conditions relevant for radioactive waste disposal systems and the geochemical environments. The present volume is a review of experimental data reported in the literature for americium. On a few occasions, where no data existed, comparisons and estimates were made based on experimental data on analog lanthanide elements. The basic philosophy was to develop a minimum set of solid phases and solution species of americium that would fit all experimental data being reviewed. 15 figs., 32 tabs., 485 refs., 4 appendices

  15. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed  theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...

  16. Textbooks evaluations in the National Textbook Commission: the school knowledge conformation in the 1940’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Miranda Filgueiras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the textbooks evaluations, performed during the 1940’s, and the relationship with the school knowledge conformation. The schoolbook policy was promulgated by Law n. 1.006/38, which created the National Textbook Commission (CNLD, responsible for examining and authorizing the textbooks to be adopted across the country. We tried to discuss the Commission constitution, understand who its members were and the work those people developed, focusing on the study of the textbooks evaluations. The analysis highlighted the conflicts between the people involved in those evaluations, who were trying to update the contents and teaching methods in accordance with the official programs and scientific research areas, as well as seeking an official spelling conform for the whole country.

  17. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelian, K.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Life, as are all irreversible processes, is contingent on entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the tendency of Nature to explore available microstates. The most important irreversible process generating entropy in the biosphere, and thus facilitating this exploration, is the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat. Here we hypothesize that life began, and persists today, as...

  18. Thermodynamics and emergent universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Saumya

    2016-01-01

    We show that in the isentropic scenario the first order thermodynamical particle creation model gives an emergent universe solution even when the chemical potential is non-zero. However there exists no emergent universe scenario in the second order non-equilibrium theory for the particle creation model. We then point out a correspondence between the particle creation model with barotropic equation of state and the equation of state giving rise to an emergent universe without particle creation in spatially flat FRW cosmology.

  19. Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    General Techniques for Combustion of Liquid/Soli. Organic Compounds by Oxygen Bomb Calorimetry by Arthur J. Head, William D. Good, and Ccrnelius...Mosselman, Chap. 8; Combustion of Liquid/Solid Organic Compounds with Non-Metallic Hetero-Atoms by Arthur J. Head and William D. Good, Chap. 9; in...0 Box 95085 Washington, DC 20234 Los Angeles, CA 90045 National Bureau of Standards CINDAS Chemical Thermodynamics Division Purdue University

  20. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  1. Unit 5. Thermodynamics (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Summary of the "Unit 5. Thermodynamics" of course "Physical Foundations of Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image Engineering, in Telecommunications. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante Resumen del "Tema 5. Termodinámica" de la asignatura "Fundamentos Físicos de la Ingeniería I". Grado en Ingeniería en Sonido e Imagen en Telecomunicaciones. Escuela Politécnica Superior. Universidad de Alicante.

  2. Thermodynamical Arguments Against Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2017-02-01

    The argument that the second law of thermodynamics contradicts the theory of evolution has recently been revived by anti-evolutionists. In its basic form, the argument asserts that whereas evolution implies that there has been an increase in biological complexity over time, the second law, a fundamental principle of physics, shows this to be impossible. Scientists have responded primarily by noting that the second law does not rule out increases in complexity in open systems, and since the Earth receives energy from the Sun, it is an open system. This reply is correct as far as it goes, and it adequately rebuts the most crude versions of the second law argument. However, it is insufficient against more sophisticated versions, and it leaves many relevant aspects of thermodynamics unexplained. We shall consider the history of the argument, explain the nuances various anti-evolution writers have brought to it, and offer thorough explanations for why the argument is fallacious. We shall emphasize in particular that the second law is best viewed as a mathematical statement. Since anti-evolutionists never make use of the mathematical structure of thermodynamics, invocations of the second law never contribute anything substantive to their discourse.

  3. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, M., E-mail: marco.schweizer@math.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Department of Materials, Polymer Physics, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Sagis, L. M. C., E-mail: leonard.sagis@wur.nl [ETH Zurich, Department of Materials, Polymer Physics, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Food Physics Group, Wageningen University, Bornse Weilanden, 6708 WG Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2014-12-14

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects.

  4. [The early medical textbooks in Korea: medical textbooks published at Je Joong Won-Severance Hospital Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H W

    1998-01-01

    Kwang Hye Won(Je Joong Won), the first western hospital in Korea, was founded in 1885. The first western Medical School in Korea was open in 1886 under the hospital management. Dr. O. R. Avison, who came to Korea in 1893, resumed the medical education there, which was interrupted for some time before his arrival in Korea. He inaugurated translating and publishing medical textbooks with the help of Kim Pil Soon who later became one of the first seven graduates in Severance Hospital Medical School. The first western medical textbook translated into Korean was Henry Gray's Anatomy. However, these twice-translated manuscripts were never to be published on account of being lost and burnt down. The existing early anatomy textbooks, the editions of 1906 and 1909, are not the translation of Gray's Anatomy, but that of Japanese anatomy textbook of Gonda. The remaining oldest medical textbook in Korean is Inorganic Materia Medica published in 1905. This book is unique among its kind that O. R. Avison is the only translator of the book and it contains the prefaces of O. R. Avison and Kim Pil Soon. The publication of medical textbook was animated by the participation of other medical students, such as Hong Suk Hoo and Hong Jong Eun. The list of medical textbooks published includes almost all the field of medicine. The medical textbooks in actual existence are as follows: Inorganic Materia Medica (1905), Inorganic Chemistry (1906), Anatomy I (1906), Physiology (1906), Diagnostics I (1906), Diagnostics II (1907), Obstetrics (1908), Organic Chemistry (1909), Anatomy (1909), and Surgery (1910).

  5. Electronic versus Print Textbooks: The Influence of Textbook Format on University Students' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Motivation, and Text Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Wendt, Jillian; Lunde, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Because a majority of university students do not regularly read course textbooks, a study was conducted to determine if portable electronic textbooks (e-textbooks) would increase university student motivation to read by enhancing cognitive learning strategies and self-regulation of learning. The participants included 538 university students who…

  6. Practical textbook of cardiac CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Tae-Hwan (ed.) [ASAN Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Guide to the interpretation of cardiac CT and MRI for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. Emphasis on applications in a wide range of real clinical situations. Numerous informative illustrations. Summarizing sections permitting rapid retrieval of information. QR codes allowing access to references, additional figures, and motion pictures from the internet. This up-to-date textbook comprehensively reviews all aspects of cardiac CT and MRI and demonstrates the value of these techniques in clinical practice. A wide range of applications are considered, including imaging of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, coronary revascularization, ischemic heart disease, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, cardiac tumors, and pericardial disease. The numerous high-quality images illustrate how to interpret cardiac CT and MRI correctly for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. Helpful summarizing sections in every chapter will facilitate rapid retrieval of information. This book will be of great value to radiologists and cardiologists seeking a reliable guide to the optimal use of cardiac CT and MRI in real clinical situations.

  7. Need for a contamination control textbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Guntrum, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Since the authors have become associated with contamination control technology they have repeatedly found themselves searching for technical information that was either never documented and therefore never reached a technical journal or was too specific to appear in a technical article. On countless occasions they have found other workers frustrated over the same lack of concise and up to date information in the relatively broad and interdisciplinary field of surface science, surface cleaning, and clean room operation and design. It is for these reasons that the authors wish to suggest formally that those engineers, chemists, technicians, and surface scientists working in this field collectively create a textbook that they may use as their first reference and teaching book. The text of this paper suggests a topical outline for a book and gives examples of the kinds of information that it should contain and the types of questions it should address. Included is an extensive bibliography recently collected showing the diversity of disciplines that those working in contamination control must be knowledgeable of and the variety of publications and journals in which these reports and articles are generally found.

  8. An Investigation of the Communicative Approach Teaching in Primary English Textbooks in Hong Kong and Malaysia: A Search into Communicative Language Teaching (CLT Textbooks, And How CLT is Applied in Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, it will be shown how grammar activities in textbooks still retain the structural method of teaching grammar. The results found by previous scholars’ research will be covered, and illustrated by excerpts of textbooks, including comparison of Hong Kong and Malaysian textbooks. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT materialized in the West in the 1960s, and has extended to the Eastern countries over the last 20 years (Chung, 2005: 33. Since the introduction of CLT, many English textbooks have been published to incorporate communicative activities, authentic material and personalized contexts, however, most of the learning and teaching of grammar in textbooks do not fully reflect CLT principles (ibid.. The paper is written to show concerns over textbook designing issues and hence provide recommendations in changing the design of the modern English language textbooks. In the end of the paper, this research will suggest methods of designing more communicative grammar activities in English language textbooks for future textbook designers having guidelines in compiling the CLT English language textbooks. Besides, some approaches of communicative teaching with the CLT textbooks will be recommended to the pre- and in-service English language teachers in order to lead them to the current trend of CLT.

  9. Quantum theory and statistical thermodynamics principles and worked examples

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents a concise yet detailed introduction to quantum physics. Concise, because it condenses the essentials to a few principles. Detailed, because these few principles –  necessarily rather abstract – are illustrated by several telling examples. A fairly complete overview of the conventional quantum mechanics curriculum is the primary focus, but the huge field of statistical thermodynamics is covered as well. The text explains why a few key discoveries shattered the prevailing broadly accepted classical view of physics. First, matter appears to consist of particles which, when propagating, resemble waves. Consequently, some observable properties cannot be measured simultaneously with arbitrary precision. Second, events with single particles are not determined, but are more or less probable. The essence of this is that the observable properties of a physical system are to be represented by non-commuting mathematical objects instead of real numbers.  Chapters on exceptionally simple, but h...

  10. TRACES OF CULTURES IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Hermawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The inseparability of language and culture has become a rich source of investigation in the field of English Language Teaching. Possible topics may be focused among others, on how culture is packaged and presented, whose culture is disseminated, is there, if any, local culture preserved and disseminated in textbooks which often serve as the main English language learning material. Learning material can often carry cultural content (see McGrath: 2002 which can refer to Source Cultures, Target Culture, or International Target Culture (Cortazzi and Jin 1999. Culture is often about wisdoms and worldview of the country and textbooks can be a good source for students to learn and adopt these wisdoms and worldview, and develop their cultural awareness and identity. Relying on this, the present study investigates whose culture the textbooks investigated disseminate, how culture is disseminated in the textbooks, and whether local culture is also preserved and disseminated. The study is descriptive qualitative in nature. It employs a systematic technique for analyzing message content and message handling. Element of quantitative in the form of how the data are recorded in percentages has also been used. The data for this study are collected from three English textbooks for primary schools entitled “Grow with English”, book four to six published by Erlangga. The data for the study are in the form of written texts and illustrations that may accompany the reading passages. The reading passages are categorized and analyzed based on the framework of Culture in Four Senses proposed by Adaskou, Britten, and Fahsi (1990. The study finds that Target Culture is more salient and disseminated in the textbooks, while Local Culture when present is presented in the form of, among others, names chosen for the characters, places and locations discussed in reading passage, and rituals.   Kata kunci: Culture, Cultural awareness and identity, Four sense of

  11. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R.

    2016-11-01

    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U(1)-U(0). The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as `real' thermodynamic variables. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  12. The postulates of gravitational thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, E A

    1996-01-01

    The general principles and logical structure of a thermodynamic formalism that incorporates strongly self-gravitating systems are presented. This framework generalizes and simplifies the formulation of thermodynamics developed by Callen. The definition of extensive variables, the homogeneity properties of intensive parameters, and the fundamental problem of gravitational thermodynamics are discussed in detail. In particular, extensive parameters include quasilocal quantities and are naturally incorporated into a set of basic general postulates for thermodynamics. These include additivity of entropies (Massieu functions) and the generalized second law. Fundamental equations are no longer homogeneous first-order functions of their extensive variables. It is shown that the postulates lead to a formal resolution of the fundamental problem despite non-additivity of extensive parameters and thermodynamic potentials. Therefore, all the results of (gravitational) thermodynamics are an outgrowth of these postulates. T...

  13. Thermodynamics of Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Jeff W.

    One challenge facing society is the responsible use of our energy resources. Increasing the efficiency of energy generation provides one path to solving this challenge. One commonality among most current energy generation methods is that waste heat is generated during the generation process. Thermoelectrics can provide a solution to increasing the efficiency of power generation and automotive systems by converting waste heat directly to electricity. The current barrier to implementation of thermoelectric systems is the low efficiencies of underlying thermoelectric materials. The efficiency of a thermoelectric material depends on the electronic and thermal transport properties of the material; a good thermoelectric material should be an electronic conductor and a thermal insulator, traits which generally oppose one another. The thermal properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by forming nanoscale precipitates with the material which scatter phonons, reducing the thermal conductivity. The electronic properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by doping the material to increase the electronic conductivity or by alloying the material to favorably alter its band structure. The ability of these chemical modifications to affect the thermoelectric efficiency of material are ultimately governed by the chemical thermodynamics of the system. PbTe is a prototypical thermoelectric material: Alloying PbTe with PbS (or other materials) creates nanostructures which scatter phonons and reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Doping PbTe with Na increases the hole concentration, increasing the electronic conductivity. In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of PbTe and similar systems using first principles to understand the underlying mechanisms controlling the formation of nanostructures and the amount of doping allowed in these systems. In this work we: 1) investigate the thermodynamics of pseudo-binary alloys of IV--VI systems to identify the

  14. Research on the educational reform and textbook in Amami of the postwar period

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 裕久

    2007-01-01

    Amami was separated from Japan,from1946 to 1953. Because, Amami was occupied by GHQ. But the original textbook was not edited in Amami after World War II like Okinawa.In this paper, the following things are mainly clarified. 1. Inked-out textbook and Stop-gap textbook were used in Amami.2. Teacher made the textbook by mimeographing printing. 3. The law of new education and textbook is brought to Amami by secret passage.4. New educational system and new textbook is used from 1948, a year behin...

  15. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  16. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  17. Chemical thermodynamics of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenthe, I.; Fuger, J.; Lemire, R.J.; Muller, A.B.; Nguyen-Trung Cregu, C.; Wanner, H.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive overview on the chemical thermodynamics of those elements that are of particular importance in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems is provided. This is the first volume in a series of critical reviews to be published on this subject. The book provides an extensive compilation of chemical thermodynamic data for uranium. A description of procedures for activity corrections and uncertainty estimates is given. A critical discussion of data needed for nuclear waste management assessments, including areas where significant gaps of knowledge exist is presented. A detailed inventory of chemical thermodynamic data for inorganic compounds and complexes of uranium is listed. Data and their uncertainty limits are recommended for 74 aqueous complexes and 199 solid and 31 gaseous compounds containing uranium, and on 52 aqueous and 17 solid auxiliary species containing no uranium. The data are internally consistent and compatible with the CODATA Key Values. The book contains a detailed discussion of procedures used for activity factor corrections in aqueous solution, as well as including methods for making uncertainty estimates. The recommended data have been prepared for use in environmental geochemistry. Containing contributions written by experts the chapters cover various subject areas such a s: oxide and hydroxide compounds and complexes, the uranium nitrides, the solid uranium nitrates and the arsenic-containing uranium compounds, uranates, procedures for consistent estimation of entropies, gaseous and solid uranium halides, gaseous uranium oxides, solid phosphorous-containing uranium compounds, alkali metal uranates, uncertainties, standards and conventions, aqueous complexes, uranium minerals dealing with solubility products and ionic strength corrections. The book is intended for nuclear research establishments and consulting firms dealing with uranium mining and nuclear waste disposal, as well as academic and research institutes.

  18. Thermodynamics of irreversible physicochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, N. K.; Lundin, A. B.

    The main principles of the phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes are expounded in close relation to concepts of classical phenomenological thermodynamics, and the most important thermodynamic equations of state are presented. These principles are then used in describing various physicochemical processes, including chemical transformations, structural relaxation, heat conduction, electrical conductivity, diffusion, and sedimentation in homogeneous, continuous, and discontinuous systems. Other processes discussed include filtration, electrical osmosis, heat transfer, and the mechanocaloric effect.

  19. Thermodynamic aspects of rock friction

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsui, Noa

    2013-01-01

    Rate- and state-dependent friction law for velocity-step tests is analyzed from a thermodynamic point of view. A simple macroscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamic model with a single internal variable reproduces instantaneous jump and relaxation. Velocity weakening appears as a consequence of a plasticity related nonlinear coefficient. Permanent part of displacement corresponds to plastic strain, and relaxation effects are analogous to creep in thermodynamic rheology.

  20. Practical Chemical Thermodynamics for Geoscientists

    CERN Document Server

    Fegley, Jr, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Practical Chemical Thermodynamics for Geoscientists covers classical chemical thermodynamics and focuses on applications to practical problems in the geosciences, environmental sciences, and planetary sciences. This book will provide a strong theoretical foundation for students, while also proving beneficial for earth and planetary scientists seeking a review of thermodynamic principles and their application to a specific problem. Strong theoretical foundation and emphasis on applicationsNumerous worked examples in each chapterBrief historical summaries and biographies of key thermodynamicist

  1. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  2. Thermodynamics of Rubber Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, J.; Manzanares, J. A.; Zúñiga, J.; Utrillas, P.; Fernández, J.

    2001-02-01

    A thermodynamic study of an isotropic rubber band under uniaxial stress is presented on the basis of its equation of state. The behavior of the rubber band is compared with both that of an ideal elastomer and that of an ideal gas, considering the generalized Joule's law as the ideality criterion. First, the thermal expansion of rubber at constant stress and the change in the stress with temperature at constant length are described. Thermoelastic inversion is then considered, and the experimental observations are easily rationalized. Finally, the temperature changes observed in the adiabatic stretching of a rubber band are evaluated from the decrease of entropy with length.

  3. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  4. Time and Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is vital to the health and welfare of all living beings, and Earth's temperature varies considerably from place to place. Early humans could only live in warm areas such as the tropics. Although modern humans have the technology to keep their houses and offices warm even in cold environments, the growth and development of civilization has created unintentional effects. Cities are warmer than their surrounding regions, and on a global scale, Earth is experiencing rising temperatures. Thus, the science of thermodynamics offers an important tool to study these effects. "Time and

  5. Interfacial solvation thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the interplay of cavity formation, polarizability, desolvation, and surface capillary waves in driving the interfacial adsorptions of ions and molecules at air-water interfaces. Here we revisit these questions by combining exact potential distribution results with linear response theory and other physically motivated approximations. The results highlight both exact and approximate compensation relations pertaining to direct (solute-solvent) and indirect (solvent-solvent) contributions to adsorption thermodynamics, of relevance to solvation at air-water interfaces, as well as a broader class of processes linked to the mean force potential between ions, molecules, nanoparticles, proteins, and biological assemblies.

  6. Thermodynamic Stability of Nanobubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Attard, Phil

    2015-01-01

    The observed stability of nanobubbles contradicts the well-known result in classical nucleation theory, that the critical radius is both microscopic and thermodynamically unstable. Here nanoscopic stability is shown to be the combined result of two non-classical mechanisms. It is shown that the surface tension decreases with increasing supersaturation, and that this gives a nanoscopic critical radius. Whilst neither a free spherical bubble nor a hemispherical bubble mobile on an hydrophobic surface are stable, it is shown that an immobilized hemispherical bubble with a pinned contact rim is stable and that the total entropy is a maximum at the critical radius.

  7. End-of-life care in medical textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, A T; Lynn, J; Keaney, P

    1999-01-05

    Improvement in end-of-life care has become a demand of the public and a priority for health care professionals. Medical textbooks could support this improvement by functioning as educational resources and as reference material. In this paper, four widely used general medical textbooks are assessed for their coverage of nine content domains for 12 illnesses that often cause death; each domain in each disease and in each text was graded for presence and helpfulness of advice. Helpful information was rare, and only prognostication and medical treatments to alter the course of the disease were usually mentioned. Harrison's Textbook of Medicine, The Merck Manual, and Scientific American Medicine often mentioned at least a few of the domains in each disease, although not often in a way that would guide a clinician. Manual of Medical Therapeutics (The Washington Manual) includes little information about end-of-life care. Improvement seems possible. Short additions of information on end-of-life care would probably be effective. Many chapters discussed at length certain topics that are clearly optional; other textbooks addressed these topics only briefly. When dealing with end-of-life care, physicians should seek guidance from other sources and textbook authors and editors should improve the utility and completeness of their texts.

  8. Science textbooks for elementary school: chemical education and PNLD influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cava Mori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses experiments involving chemical transformations proposed in science textbooks for elementary school. The textbooks chosen were the 37 collections evaluated in Brazilian National Program of Textbooks (PNLD/2007 and used at the schools between 2007 and 2010. The analysis disclosed the presence of 403 proposals for activities, which were classified according to the degree of participation required of the students and its contributions to an elementary teaching of Chemistry. The results indicate a scanty presence of activities that require more than assembly of instrumental apparatus, observation/data collect and conclusions drawing up. Also, the most of textbooks do not integrates these activities to an elementary teaching of Chemistry, not deepening in the specificities of this science as grades advances. In spite of that, collections approved in PNLD/2007 (12 of 37 showed better results in both of aspects researched. Considering that this official program of textbooks has limitations, we stress the necessity of critical usage, by teachers, of such materials in classroom.

  9. SEXISM IN EFL TEXTBOOKS USED IN INDONESIAN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifuddin Syarifuddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since English is a compulsory subject in Indonesian schools where students have to use certain EFL textbooks, examining sexism in these textbooks is important. This study examined sexism in three of the most widely used EFL textbooks in Indonesian schools. Six criteria of sexism were used in analysing the data, namely: generic he; generic man; titles, labels and names; occupational roles both in texts and pictures/ illustrations; omission, the number of females and males both in texts and pictures/ illustrations; and firstness, the order of mention. The analysis was based on the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE’s ‘Guidelines for gender-fair use of Language’ (2002 and Porecca’s study (1984. In all criteria of sexism, there is evidence that sexism is present in the EFL textbooks used in Indonesian schools. The most unbalanced and the worst finding is the firstness (the order of mentions with the ratio 10:1 in favour of male gendered words that appear first. This study suggests that there should be improvement in the production of the EFL textbooks used in Indonesian schools.

  10. Teachers' selection and enactment of mathematical problems from textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Ok-Kyeong

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate how teachers' use of textbooks creates different kinds of opportunities for student learning, this study focused on teachers' selection and enactment of problems and tasks from the textbooks and their influence on the cognitive demand placed on students. By drawing on data from three elementary teachers in the USA, two of which used a reform-oriented textbook— Math Trailblazers and one a commercially developed textbook—this study examined kinds of problems the teachers chose and ways in which they enacted those problems in relation to the cognitive demand of the problems. In particular, we attended to the kinds of questions the teachers asked in enacting the problems and ways in which those questions influenced the cognitive demand of the textbook problems. This study also identified critical issues involved in teacher decision-making on task selection and enactment, such as the match between teachers' goals and those of the textbooks, and teachers' perception of textbook problems. Based on the results of the study, we discuss implications for teacher education and professional development.

  11. Genetic determinism in the Finnish upper secondary school biology textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Aivelo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is a fast-developing field and it has been argued that genetics education is lagging behind. Genetics education has, for example, been suspected of indoctrinating strong genetic determinism. As the updating of the national upper secondary school curricula is about to start, we decided to study how the current curriculum manifests in Finnish biology textbooks. We studied the main four textbooks for historical gene models and definitions of genes using content analysis. Hybrid models were pervasive in textbooks. The textbooks expressed sometimes even strong genetic determinism, which might be linked to the dominance of older historical models in the textbooks. We also found instances of determinism which we call ‘weak determinism’: genes were depicted as more important factor than environment in relation to the expressed properties. Subsequently, there were no modern gene models found. We suggest gene models should be presented explicitly to reduce misconceptions about genes. We argue that genetics education needs to take more into account than environmental effects and there needs to be more emphasis on the temporal and developmental aspect of genotype-phenotype link. Specifically in Finland this could be done by a more explicit formulation of the national curriculum.

  12. Changing Text: A Social Semiotic Analysis of Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Bezemer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a multimodal account of historical changes in secondary school textbooks in England and their social significance. Adopting a social semiotic approach to text and text making we review learning resources across core subjects of the English national curriculum, English, Science and Mathematics. Comparing textbooks from the 1930s, 1980s and 2000s, we show that a all modes operating in textbooks -typography, image, writing and layout- contribute to meaning and potential for learning b that the use of these modes has changed between 1930 and now, in ways significant for social relations between and across makers and users of textbooks. Designers and readers / learners now take responsibility for coherence, which was previously the exclusive domain of authors. Where previously reading paths were fixed by makers it may now be left to learners to establish these according to their interests. For users of textbooks the changes in design demand new forms of ‘literacy’; a fluency not only in ‘reading’ writing, image, typography and layout jointly, but in the overall design of learning environments. We place these changes against the backdrop of wider social changes and features of the contemporary media landscape, recognizing a shift from stability, canonicity and vertical power structures to ‘horizontal’, more open, participatory relations in the production of knowledge.

  13. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  14. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-01-01

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  15. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karo Michaelian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic and thermodynamic properties of nanoclusters are studied in two different environments: the canonical and microcanonical ensembles. A comparison is made to thermodynamic properties of the bulk. It is shown that consistent and reproducible results on nanoclusters can only be obtained in the canonical ensemble. Nanoclusters in the microcanonical ensemble are trapped systems, and inconsistencies will be found if thermodynamic formalism is applied. An analytical model is given for the energy dependence of the phase space volume of nanoclusters, which allows the prediction of both dynamical and thermodynamical properties.

  16. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Appels, Michael; Kubiznak, David

    2016-01-01

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of a charged accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon -- even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability and phase structure of these black holes.

  17. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; KubizÅák, David

    2016-09-01

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon—even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  18. Thermodynamics. 5. enl. ed.; Thermodynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, C.; Kroemer, H.

    2001-07-01

    This textbook covers the following topics: States in a model system, entropy and temperature, Boltzmann distribution and free energy, thermal radiation and Planck distribution, chemical potential and Gibbs distribution, the ideal gas, Fermi and Bose gases, heat, free enthalpy and chemical reactions, phase transitions, binary mixtures, low-temperature technique, semiconductor statistics, kinetic gas theory (WL).

  19. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  20. Physics textbooks from the viewpoint of network structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králiková, Petra; Teleki, Aba

    2017-01-01

    We can observe self-organized networks all around us. These networks are, in general, scale invariant networks described by the Bianconi-Barabasi model. The self-organized networks (networks formed naturally when feedback acts on the system) show certain universality. These networks, in simplified models, have scale invariant distribution (Pareto distribution type I) and parameter α has value between 2 and 5. The textbooks are extremely important in the learning process and from this reason we studied physics textbook at the level of sentences and physics terms (bipartite network). The nodes represent physics terms, sentences, and pictures, tables, connected by links (by physics terms and transitional words and transitional phrases). We suppose that learning process are more robust and goes faster and easier if the physics textbook has a structure similar to structures of self-organized networks.

  1. Cultural education through the high school level English textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ookawa Kouki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It cannot be denied that intercultural understanding is crucial in the process of learning English at elementary school, junior high school, high school, and beyond. This paper analyzes the high school English textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan from the perspective of intercultural understanding. First, it elucidates the types of articles, the countries materials deal with, and the purposes of the materials used in the books. Then it considers important elements of intercultural education. The result of the research shows that the materials contain various kinds of categories, and many concern English-speaking countries. Furthermore, an important fact is that many materials concerning Japan, aimed at understanding its own culture, are shown in the textbooks as well. Finally, the paper suggests future direction for the use of materials in the textbooks in order to facilitate intercultural understanding.

  2. Popular Science: Introductory Physics Textbooks for Home Economics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    For many decades now there has been an ongoing debate about the way and extent to which physics ought to be popularized by appealing to a student's every day experience. Part of this debate has focused on how textbooks, a major factor shaping students' education, ought to be written and presented. I examine the background, passages, and problems of two examples drawn from the special genre of ``Household Physics'' textbooks which were published largely between 1910 and 1940. The pedagogy of applying or relating physics to the everyday experience engenders values defining how and by whom science is to be applied. These books are particularly evocative, as well, of the extent to which gender can be tied to differing everyday experiences and the consequences therefore of using experiential examples. Using popular science textbooks can alienate students by drawing an implicit division between the reader and the practicing scientist.

  3. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation Of Contexts Appeared In 9th Grade Physics Textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Şevki Ayvacı

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness and the representation levels of daily life of contexts appeared in 9th grade physics textbook. The study is carried out in the form of a case study. Semi-constructed interviews are used to collect data. The sample group consists of 12 physics teachers in MNE (Ministry of National Education who teach in 9th grades. It is found that almost half of the teachers do not have enough information about context-based approach. One-third of the teachers does not use textbooks, but the majority of the teachers shows sufficient information about the contexts in the textbook and also they think that contexts represent daily life events. Because it is observed that teachers are insufficient at creating contexts, in-service education courses based on practical work are suggested.

  5. Misconception and miseducation: Presentations of radical behaviorism in psychology textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, James T.; Morris, Edward K.

    1983-01-01

    Behavior analysts have recently expressed concern about what appear to be misrepresentations of behaviorism in psychology textbooks. This paper presents an analysis of currently used textbooks in the areas of introductory, social, cognitive, personality, and developmental psychology that confirms this. Topics on which behavior analysis is most often misrepresented relate to the role of animal learning research, environmentalism, the “empty organism,” language, and the overall utility of the approach. Because textbooks are often a major medium of interaction between the public and behaviorism, behavior analysts must work to correct these errors and to prevent possible negative consequences of widespread misunderstanding. Several potential solutions to these problems are presented that take into account current publishing practices and the monetary contingencies which support them. PMID:22478585

  6. TRACES OF CULTURES IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Hermawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inseparability of language and culture has become a rich source of investigation in the field of English Language Teaching. Possible topics may be focused among others, on how culture is packaged and presented, whose culture is disseminated, is there, if any, local culture preserved and disseminated in textbooks which often serve as the main English language learning material. Learning material can often carry cultural content (see McGrath: 2002 which can refer to Source Cultures, Target Culture, or International Target Culture (Cortazzi and Jin 1999. Culture is often about wisdoms and worldview of the country and textbooks can be a good source for students to learn and adopt these wisdoms and worldview, and develop their cultural awareness and identity. Relying on this, the present study investigates whose culture the textbooks investigated disseminate, how culture is disseminated in the textbooks, and whether local culture is also preserved and disseminated. The study is descriptive qualitative in nature. It employs a systematic technique for analyzing message content and message handling. Element of quantitative in the form of how the data are recorded in percentages has also been used. The data for this study are collected from three English textbooks for primary schools entitled “Grow with English”, book four to six published by Erlangga. The data for the study are in the form of written texts and illustrations that may accompany the reading passages. The reading passages are categorized and analyzed based on the framework of Culture in Four Senses proposed by Adaskou, Britten, and Fahsi (1990. The study finds that Target Culture is more salient and disseminated in the textbooks, while Local Culture when present is presented in the form of, among others, names chosen for the characters, places and locations discussed in reading passage, and rituals.

  7. INSTRUCTIONAL MANUALS OF BOUNDARY‐WORK: PSYCHOLOGY TEXTBOOKS, STUDENT SUBJECTIVITIES, AND DISCIPLINARY HISTORIOGRAPHIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLIS, IVAN

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the historiography of psychology textbooks. In the overview, I identify and describe in detail two strands of writing histories of introductory textbooks of psychology and juxtapose them to provide an integrated historiography of textbooks in psychology. One strand is developed by teachers of psychology—first as a general approach for investigating textbooks in a pedagogical setting, and then later upgraded into a full history of psychology textbooks in America. The other strand follows a more familiar perspective of historians of science and historians of psychology who build on various post‐Kuhnian and post‐Foucauldian perspectives on textbooks. I make an argument for integrating these two views for a more comprehensive historiography of textbooks in psychology, recasting textbooks as objects of research and sources that are interesting sui generis for historians of psychology in their investigations. PMID:27152736

  8. Public Finance, Public Economics, and Public Choice: A Survey of Undergraduate Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Roger S.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews undergraduate public finance textbooks for content, difficulty, and ideology. Includes tables summarizing the percentage space devoted to specific topics in 13 popular textbooks. Offers suggestions for supplementary materials. (Author/DH)

  9. Recurring errors among recent history of psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger K

    2007-01-01

    Five recurring errors in history of psychology textbooks are discussed. One involves an identical misquotation. The remaining examples involve factual and interpretational errors that more than one and usually several textbook authors made. In at least 2 cases some facts were fabricated, namely, so-called facts associated with Pavlov's mugging and Descartes's reasons for choosing the pineal gland as the locus for mind-body interaction. A fourth example involves Broca's so-called discovery of the speech center, and the fifth example involves misinterpretations of Lloyd Morgan's intentions regarding his famous canon. When an error involves misinterpretation and thus misrepresentation, I will show why the misinterpretation is untenable.

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FOURTH CLASS GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA CHIRCEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the illustrations found in five different Geography textbooks in Romania. The analysis is based on several criteria: number, size, clarity, pedagogical usefulness. The following conclusions have been drawn: the illustrations are numerous; most of the illustrations are too small and unclear to be efficiently used in the teaching activity; the purpose of some materials is purely illustrative; some illustrations are overcharged with details, which prevent children from understanding them. Authors and publishing houses are advised to choose the illustrations in the fourth class Geography textbooks more carefully.

  11. Textbook treatments of quantum electromagnetic interaction: pedagogical and conceptual problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Peláez, F. Javier

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we review and discuss the approaches used, almost universally, in textbooks dealing with quantum mechanics, and particularly those focused on optoelectronics devices, to explain the atom-field interactions. For this purpose, a true understanding and careful use of the first-order perturbation theory are necessary. By providing two alternative full derivations of the absorption/emission processes when the radiation is in a coherent multimode state, we highlight a number of conceptual and didactical failures in the usual textbook presentations, and propose more suitable and convincing strategies to improve them.

  12. THE THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTER OF INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article includes data concerning application of one of the universal method of the modern science based on fundamental thermodynamic laws to analyze the efficiency of the information processes. The comparison of the information and thermodynamic processes brought the author to the basic conclusion of the energetic character of information.

  13. Fundamental functions in equilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.J. ter

    1987-01-01

    In the standard presentations of the principles of Gibbsian equilibrium thermodynamics one can find several gaps in the logic. For a subject that is as widely used as equilibrium thermodynamics, it is of interest to clear up such questions of mathematical rigor. In this paper it is shown that using

  14. Thermodynamics from Car to Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The historical background to the laws of thermodynamics is explained using examples we can all observe in the world around us, focusing on motorised transport, refrigeration and solar heating. This is not to be considered as an academic article. The purpose is to improve understanding of thermodynamics rather than impart new knowledge, and for…

  15. Thermodynamics from Car to Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The historical background to the laws of thermodynamics is explained using examples we can all observe in the world around us, focusing on motorised transport, refrigeration and solar heating. This is not to be considered as an academic article. The purpose is to improve understanding of thermodynamics rather than impart new knowledge, and for…

  16. Thermodynamics of light and sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kremer

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a thermodynamic theory of light and sound. It demonstrates that extended thermodynamics permits the explicit calculation of the main part of the equations of balance of energy for photons and phonons. Wave speeds are calculated and the limiting cases of near-equilibrium and free streaming are discussed.

  17. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, Frank D [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, PO Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia)], E-mail: Frank.Stacey@csiro.au

    2010-04-15

    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 x 10{sup 12} W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>10{sup 4} : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical

  18. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  19. Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen’s postulational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, Robert J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates

  20. Thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Leachman, Jacob; Lemmon, Eric; Penoncello, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic propertie...

  1. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baldiotti, M C; Molina, C

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed ontop of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac's theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases.

  2. Thermodynamic cost of acquiring information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micadei, Kaonan; Serra, Roberto M; Céleri, Lucas C

    2013-12-01

    Connections between information theory and thermodynamics have proven to be very useful to establish bounding limits for physical processes. Ideas such as Landauer's erasure principle and information-assisted work extraction have greatly contributed not only to broadening our understanding about the fundamental limits imposed by nature, but also paving the way for practical implementations of information-processing devices. The intricate information-thermodynamics relation also entails a fundamental limit on parameter estimation, establishing a thermodynamic cost for information acquisition. We show that the amount of information that can be encoded in a physical system by means of a unitary process is limited by the dissipated work during the implementation of the process. This includes a thermodynamic tradeoff for information acquisition. Likewise, the information acquisition process is ultimately limited by the second law of thermodynamics. This tradeoff for information acquisition may find applications in several areas of knowledge.

  3. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  4. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  5. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  6. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Out of equilibrium structuring in space and time is contingent on continuous entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the natural tendency of Nature to explore all available microstates. The process producing the greatest amount of entropy in the biosphere is the absorption and transformation of sunlight, leading to the transpiration of water by plants and cyanobacteria. Here we hypothesize that life began, and exists today, as a dynamic catalyst for the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat, which could then be efficiently harvested by the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are extremely rapid in transforming this light into heat that can be readily absorbed by liquid water. The origin and evolution of life was thus driven...

  7. Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Daniel [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Patiño, Leonardo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Trancanelli, Diego [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo,05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-11-22

    We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a ‘Minkowski embedding’, in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a ‘black hole embedding’, in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on the black hole temperature, its degree of anisotropy, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.

  8. Covariant Thermodynamics and Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Monsalvo, C S

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the dynamics of irreversible processes within the context of the general theory of relativity. In particular, we address the problem of the 'infinite' speed of propagation of thermal disturbances in a dissipative fluid. The present work builds on the multi-fluid variational approach to relativistic dissipation, pioneered by Carter, and provides a dynamical theory of heat conduction. The novel property of such approach is the thermodynamic interpretation associated with a two-fluid system whose constituents are matter and entropy. The dynamics of this model leads to a relativistic generalisation of the Cattaneo equation; the constitutive relation for causal heat transport. A comparison with the Israel and Stewart model is presented and its equivalence is shown. This discussion provides new insights into the not-well understood definition of a non-equilibrium temperature. The variational approach to heat conduction presented in this thesis constitutes a mathematically promising formalism ...

  9. Thermodynamics of fragment binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, György G; Keserű, György M

    2012-04-23

    The ligand binding pockets of proteins have preponderance of hydrophobic amino acids and are typically within the apolar interior of the protein; nevertheless, they are able to bind low complexity, polar, water-soluble fragments. In order to understand this phenomenon, we analyzed high resolution X-ray data of protein-ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank and found that fragments bind to proteins with two near optimal geometry H-bonds on average. The linear extent of the fragment binding site was found not to be larger than 10 Å, and the H-bonding region was found to be restricted to about 5 Å on average. The number of conserved H-bonds in proteins cocrystallized with multiple different fragments is also near to 2. These fragment binding sites that are able to form limited number of strong H-bonds in a hydrophobic environment are identified as hot spots. An estimate of the free-energy gain of H-bond formation versus apolar desolvation supports that fragment sized compounds need H-bonds to achieve detectable binding. This suggests that fragment binding is mostly enthalpic that is in line with their observed binding thermodynamics documented in Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) data sets and gives a thermodynamic rationale for fragment based approaches. The binding of larger compounds tends to more rely on apolar desolvation with a corresponding increase of the entropy content of their binding free-energy. These findings explain the reported size-dependence of maximal available affinity and ligand efficiency both behaving differently in the small molecule region featured by strong H-bond formation and in the larger molecule region featured by apolar desolvation.

  10. An Analysis of Science Textbooks for Grade 6: The Electric Circuit Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…

  11. A Social Semiotic Approach to Textbook Analysis: The Construction of the Discourses of Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Rachel; Archer, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a multimodal social semiotic approach to analysing educational textbooks. We are interested in the ways in which educational textbooks contribute to designing our social futures by constructing both the student and the discipline in a particular manner. While a textbook's primary purpose is to provide the reader with knowledge…

  12. Computer Security in the Introductory Business Information Systems Course: An Exploratory Study of Textbook Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Kenneth J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.; Fougere, Kenneth T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of Management Information Systems (MIS) textbooks and found that computer security receives very little in-depth coverage. The textbooks provide, at best, superficial treatment of security issues. The research results suggest that MIS faculty need to provide material to supplement the textbook to provide…

  13. Working with Textbooks: Reconceptualising Student and Teacher Roles in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Luke; Barrs, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Student reactions to different methods of in-class textbook use have received little attention in the literature on English language teaching. This article explores the responses of 57 Japanese university students to the replacement of teacher-led textbook lessons with small group, role-based textbook work in regular English reading classes.…

  14. Instructional Manuals of Boundary-Work : Psychology textbooks, student subjectivities, and disciplinary historiographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flis, I.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the historiography of psychology textbooks. In the overview, I identify and describe in detail two strands of writing histories of introductory textbooks of psychology and juxtapose them to provide an integrated historiography of textbooks in psychology. O

  15. Effects of Lexico-Syntactic Errors on Teaching Materials: A Study of Textbooks Written by Nigerians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Peace Chinwendu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lexico-syntactic errors in selected textbooks written by Nigerians. Our focus was on the educated bilinguals (acrolect) who acquired their primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria and the selected textbooks were textbooks published by Vanity Publishers/Press. The participants (authors) cut across the three major…

  16. Evaluative Criteria for High School Textbooks in Journalism and Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    The purpose of this study was to develop criteria for high school textbooks in journalism and mass media. The study discusses the procedure used in evaluating textbooks; the role of textbooks in journalism and mass media courses; a general background of these courses; a review of objectives concerning the student journalist, the teenage writer,…

  17. Illiad, Rapid, and an Unmediated Solution to the Interlibrary Loan Textbook Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Erika Hanson

    2017-01-01

    As the cost of textbooks rises and discoverability of resources improves, students are turning more and more to interlibrary loan to meet their textbook needs. This article describes how systems can be utilized to streamline processes and allow for the canceling of textbook requests consistently and appropriately by taking full advantage of the…

  18. The De-emphasis of Evolution in the Secondary School Biology Textbooks of the 1970's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    Analysis of ten biology textbooks published in the 1970's revealed a de-emphasis in evolution as compared to the 1960's in the overall coverage of 44 topics concerned with evolution in these textbooks. Also, in certain textbooks the emphasis on selected topics concerned with evolution was drastically reduced or eliminated. Many changes in wording…

  19. Decolonizing Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Post-Secondary Humanities Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kimberly C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nine post-secondary humanities textbooks published between 2001 and 2011 using an approach that includes both qualitative and quantitative methodology to analyze the written and visual content of humanities textbooks. This dissertation engages in current debates that address bias in humanities textbooks and contributes…

  20. Analyzing Listening and Speaking Activities of Iranian EFL Textbook Prospect 3 through Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizbani, Maryam; Chalak, Azizeh

    2017-01-01

    Some significant components are essential in teaching a language. Among these, textbooks are the most significant ones and must be considered seriously. Textbooks play an important role in EFL teaching and learning because they can provide ready-made materials to both teachers and students. Besides, if textbooks aren't used appropriately, they may…