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Sample records for ground-water solute-transport studies

  1. Ground-water solute transport modeling using a three-dimensional scaled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crider, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Scaled models are used extensively in current hydraulic research on sediment transport and solute dispersion in free surface flows (rivers, estuaries), but are neglected in current ground-water model research. Thus, an investigation was conducted to test the efficacy of a three-dimensional scaled model of solute transport in ground water. No previous results from such a model have been reported. Experiments performed on uniform scaled models indicated that some historical problems (e.g., construction and scaling difficulties; disproportionate capillary rise in model) were partly overcome by using simple model materials (sand, cement and water), by restricting model application to selective classes of problems, and by physically controlling the effect of the model capillary zone. Results from these tests were compared with mathematical models. Model scaling laws were derived for ground-water solute transport and used to build a three-dimensional scaled model of a ground-water tritium plume in a prototype aquifer on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Model results compared favorably with field data and with a numerical model. Scaled models are recommended as a useful additional tool for prediction of ground-water solute transport

  2. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  3. Simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Glen Canyon aquifer, East-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.; Stolp, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of methane from coal beds in the Ferron coal trend in central Utah started in the mid-1980s. Beginning in 1994, water from the extraction process was pressure injected into the Glen Canyon aquifer. The lateral extent of the aquifer that could be affected by injection is about 7,600 square miles. To address regional-scale effects of injection over a decadal time frame, a conceptual model of ground-water movement and transport of dissolved solids was formulated. A numerical model that incorporates aquifer concepts was then constructed and used to simulate injection.The Glen Canyon aquifer within the study area is conceptualized in two parts—an active area of ground-water flow and solute transport that exists between recharge areas in the San Rafael Swell and Desert, Waterpocket Fold, and Henry Mountains and discharge locations along the Muddy, Dirty Devil, San Rafael, and Green Rivers. An area of little or negligible ground-water flow exists north of Price, Utah, and beneath the Wasatch Plateau. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water occurs in this area where dissolved-solids concentrations can be more than 100,000 milligrams per liter. Injection has the potential to increase hydrologic interaction with the active flow area, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally less than 3,000 milligrams per liter.Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water in 1994 initiated a net addition of flow and mass of solutes into the Glen Canyon aquifer. To better understand the regional scale hydrologic interaction between the two areas of the Glen Canyon aquifer, pressurized injection was numerically simulated. Data constraints precluded development of a fully calibrated simulation; instead, an uncalibrated model was constructed that is a plausible representation of the conceptual flow and solute-transport processes. The amount of injected water over the 36-year simulation period is about 25,000 acre-feet. As a result

  4. A proposed strategy for the validation of ground-water flow and solute transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Goodrich, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water flow and transport models can be thought of as a combination of conceptual and mathematical models and the data that characterize a given system. The judgment of the validity or invalidity of a model depends both on the adequacy of the data and the model structure (i.e., the conceptual and mathematical model). This report proposes a validation strategy for testing both components independently. The strategy is based on the philosophy that a model cannot be proven valid, only invalid or not invalid. In addition, the authors believe that a model should not be judged in absence of its intended purpose. Hence, a flow and transport model may be invalid for one purpose but not invalid for another. 9 refs

  5. Evaluation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Lompoc area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Daniel J.; Nash, David B.; Martin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the Lompoc area, especially in the Lompoc plain, is only marginally acceptable for most uses. Demand for ground water has increased for municipal use since the late 1950's and has continued to be high for irrigation on the Lompoc plain, the principal agricultural area in the Santa Ynez River basin. As use has increased, the quality of ground water has deteriorated in some areas of the Lompoc plain. The dissolved-solids concentration in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath most of the central and western plains has increased from less than 1,000 milligrams per liter in the 1940's to greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter in the 1960's. Dissolved- solids concentration have remained relatively constant since the 1960's. A three-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow in the Lompoc area and a two-dimensional finite-element model was used to simulate solute transport to gain a better understanding of the ground-water system and to evaluate the effects of proposed management plans for the ground-water basin. The aquifer system was simulated in the flow model as four horizontal layers. In the area of the Lompoc plain, the layers represent the shallow, middle, and main zones of the upper aquifer, and the lower aquifer. For the Lompoc upland and Lompoc terrace, the four layers represent the lower aquifer. The solute transport model was used to simulate dissolved-solids transport in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath the Lompoc plain. The flow and solute-transport models were calibrated to transient conditions for 1941-88. A steady-state simulation was made to provide initial conditions for the transient-state simulation by using long-term average (1941-88) recharge rates. Model- simulated hydraulic heads generally were within 5 feet of measured heads in the main zone for transient conditions. Model-simulated dissolved- solids concentrations for the main zone generally differed less than 200milligrams

  6. Evaluation of the matrix exponential for use in ground-water-flow and solute-transport simulations; theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, A.M.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to obtain analytic solutions to the groundwater flow and solute transport equations if space variables are discretized but time is left continuous. From these solutions, hydraulic head and concentration fields for any future time can be obtained without ' marching ' through intermediate time steps. This analytical approach involves matrix exponentiation and is referred to as the Matrix Exponential Time Advancement (META) method. Two algorithms are presented for the META method, one for symmetric and the other for non-symmetric exponent matrices. A numerical accuracy indicator, referred to as the matrix condition number, was defined and used to determine the maximum number of significant figures that may be lost in the META method computations. The relative computational and storage requirements of the META method with respect to the time marching method increase with the number of nodes in the discretized problem. The potential greater accuracy of the META method and the associated greater reliability through use of the matrix condition number have to be weighed against this increased relative computational and storage requirements of this approach as the number of nodes becomes large. For a particular number of nodes, the META method may be computationally more efficient than the time-marching method, depending on the size of time steps used in the latter. A numerical example illustrates application of the META method to a sample ground-water-flow problem. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Quasi-three-dimensional analysis of ground water flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport in saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yi.

    1991-01-01

    A computational procedure was developed in this study to provide flexibility needed in the application of three-dimensional groundwater flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport simulations. In the first part of this study, analytical solutions were proposed for the dissolved single-component solute transport problem. These closed form solutions were developed for homogeneous but stratified porous media. This analytical model took into account two-dimensional diffusion-advection in the main aquifer layer and one-dimensional diffusion-advection in the adjacent aquitards, as well as first order radioactive decay and linear adsorption isotherm in both aquifer and aquitards. The associated analytical solutions for solute concentration distributions in the aquifer and aquitards were obtained using Laplace Transformation and Method of Separation of Variables techniques. Next, in order to analyze the problem numerically, a quasi-three-dimensional finite element algorithm was developed based on the multilayer aquifer concept. In this phase, advection, dispersion, adsorption and first order multi-species chemical reaction terms were included to the analysis. Employing this model, without restriction on groundwater flow pattern in the multilayer aquifer system, one may analyze the complex behavior of the groundwater flow and solute movement pattern in the system. These numerical models may be utilized as calibration tools in site characterization studies, or as predictive models during the initial stages of a typical site investigation study. Through application to several test and field problems, the usefulness, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed models were demonstrated. Comparison of results with analytical solution, experimental data and other numerical methods were also discussed

  8. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as 14 C, 36 Cl and 4 He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  9. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  10. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  12. The Virginia Beach shallow ground-water study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionVirginia Beach is a rapidly growing city of more than 425,000 people. Sources of fresh water within the city, however, are limited. Prior to 1998, the Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department met the city's water needs by purchasing treated drinking water from the City of Norfolk. Because Norfolk had to meet its own requirements, the amount of water available to Virginia Beach was limited to about 30 million gallons per day (mgd) and even less during droughts. This water supply was supplemented with ground water from city-owned, community, and private wells. In many parts of the city, however, ground water cannot be used because of high concentrations of chloride, iron, and (or) sulfur, which give the water an unpleasant taste.In early 1998, a pipeline came on-line that can carry up to 45 mgd of water from Lake Gaston to Virginia Beach. The Gaston pipeline has alleviated concerns about water supply and quality for most residents living north of the "Green Line." These residents primarily use ground water only for small-scale domestic activities such as watering lawns, filling ponds and pools, and washing cars. City water and sewer services have been extended beyond the Green Line into the "Transition Area." Residents and businesses south of the Transition Area, however, continue to rely on ground water to meet most of their needs for potable and non-potable water. To help assure a continued, reliable supply of ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department, has begun an assessment of the shallow ground-water resources underlying the City of Virginia Beach.

  13. Implications of ground water chemistry and flow patterns for earthquake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangcai, Wang; Zuochen, Zhang; Min, Wang; Cravotta, Charles A; Chenglong, Liu

    2005-01-01

    Ground water can facilitate earthquake development and respond physically and chemically to tectonism. Thus, an understanding of ground water circulation in seismically active regions is important for earthquake prediction. To investigate the roles of ground water in the development and prediction of earthquakes, geological and hydrogeological monitoring was conducted in a seismogenic area in the Yanhuai Basin, China. This study used isotopic and hydrogeochemical methods to characterize ground water samples from six hot springs and two cold springs. The hydrochemical data and associated geological and geophysical data were used to identify possible relations between ground water circulation and seismically active structural features. The data for delta18O, deltaD, tritium, and 14C indicate ground water from hot springs is of meteoric origin with subsurface residence times of 50 to 30,320 years. The reservoir temperature and circulation depths of the hot ground water are 57 degrees C to 160 degrees C and 1600 to 5000 m, respectively, as estimated by quartz and chalcedony geothermometers and the geothermal gradient. Various possible origins of noble gases dissolved in the ground water also were evaluated, indicating mantle and deep crust sources consistent with tectonically active segments. A hard intercalated stratum, where small to moderate earthquakes frequently originate, is present between a deep (10 to 20 km), high-electrical conductivity layer and the zone of active ground water circulation. The ground water anomalies are closely related to the structural peculiarity of each monitoring point. These results could have implications for ground water and seismic studies in other seismogenic areas.

  14. Ground water in Delhi area, problems and prospects under fast urbanisation- a nuclear aided study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, P.; Datta, P.S.; Chandrasekharan, H.; Tyagi, S.K.; Singh, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The work presented in this paper constitutes a peep into the components of urbanization in the two decades which affected the quality and availability of ground water in the Delhi territory. The recharge studies conducted in Delhi villages employing oxygen 18 and tritium tagging have been described with a view to focus attention on the sustainability of the ground water potential. 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  16. Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone. Information and data sets. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Springer, E.P.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    The Environmental Science Group (HSE-12) is conducting a study to compare various approaches of modeling water and solute transport in porous media. Various groups representing different approaches will model a common set of transport data so that the state of the art in modeling and field experimentation can be discussed in a positive framework with an assessment of current capabilities and future needs in this area of research. This paper provides information and sets of data that will be useful to the modelers in meeting the objectives of the modeling study. The information and data sets include: (1) a description of the experimental design and methods used in obtaining solute transport data, (2) supporting data that may be useful in modeling the data set of interest, and (3) the data set to be modeled

  17. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables

  19. Application of isotopic techniques for study of ground water from karstic areas. 1. Origin of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia

    2000-01-01

    Environmental stable isotope method was used for study of ground water from karst of NE Dobrogea. Study area is in the vicinity of Danube Delta (declared in 1990 by UNESCO the Reserve of Biosphere) and presents scientific and ecological interest. Measurements of deuterium content of ground water show that waters are meteoric in origin, but at the same time the results showed that the water from two sampling points could not originate from local ground water and have their recharge area at high altitude and a considerable distance. According to the δD values the following categories of waters were established: - waters depleted in deuterium (δD 0 / 00 ) relative to δD values of surface and ground water in the geographic area from which they were collected. They represent most probably the intrusion of isotopically light water from high altitude sites (higher than 1000 m) through network of highly permeable karst channels. The discharge of this component of aquifer occurs both by conduct flow and by diffuse flow; - Waters tributaries to the Danube River (δD > -75 0 / 00 ) that have a small time variability of δD values; - Local infiltration waters, situated in the West side of the investigated area towards the continental platform of the Dobrogea (δD > -70 0 / 00 ). They present high time variability of δD values, due to distinct seasonal effects; - Waters originated in mixing processes between the waters with different isotopic content. The endmember one is heavier isotopic water that belongs to local recharged waters (local infiltration waters and waters tributary to Danube river) while the other endmember is the isotopically light water. (authors)

  20. An Experimental Study on Solute Transport in One-Dimensional Clay Soil Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaheer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solute transport in low-permeability media such as clay has not been studied carefully up to present, and we are often unclear what the proper governing law is for describing the transport process in such media. In this study, we composed and analyzed the breakthrough curve (BTC data and the development of leaching in one-dimensional solute transport experiments in low-permeability homogeneous and saturated media at small scale, to identify key parameters controlling the transport process. Sodium chloride (NaCl was chosen to be the tracer. A number of tracer tests were conducted to inspect the transport process under different conditions. The observed velocity-time behavior for different columns indicated the decline of soil permeability when switching from tracer introducing to tracer flushing. The modeling approaches considered were the Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE, Two-Region Model (TRM, Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW, and Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation (FADE. It was found that all the models can fit the transport process very well; however, ADE and TRM were somewhat unable to characterize the transport behavior in leaching. The CTRW and FADE models were better in capturing the full evaluation of tracer-breakthrough curve and late-time tailing in leaching.

  1. Study of reactive solutes transport and PAH migration in unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujisaite, V.; Simonnot, M.O.; Gujisaite, V.; Morel, J.L.; Ouvrard, S.; Simonnot, M.O.; Gaudet, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental studies about solute transport in soil have most of the time been conducted under saturated conditions, whereas studies with unsaturated media are usually limited to hydrodynamic analysis. Those are mainly concerning the prediction of water flow, which is the main vector for the transport of contaminants in soil. Only a few studies have made the link between unsaturated flow and physical, chemical and biological interactions, which are controlling the availability of pollutants. However, the presence of a gaseous phase in soil can modify not only the movement of soil solution, but also chemical interactions and exchanges between soil aggregates and solution. Study of reactive solute transport in the vadose zone seems thus to be a necessary stage to predict contaminant fate in natural soils, for risk assessment as well as for the design of effective processes for the remediation of contaminated soils. This question is the main objective of the present work developed in the frame of our French Scientific Interest Group Industrial Wastelands called 'GISFI' (www.gisfi.prd.fr), based around a scientific and technological project dedicated to acquisition of knowledge for sustainable requalification of degraded sites polluted by past industrial activities. We will focus here on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), which are among the most widely discussed environmental contaminants because of their toxicity for human health and ecosystems. They are present in large quantities in soils polluted by former industrial activities, especially in relation to the coal extraction, exploitation and treatment. An experimental system has been specifically designed at the laboratory scale to carry out experiments under controlled conditions, with an unsaturated steady-state flow. The first experiments are performed on model soils, in order to investigate unsaturated steady-state flow in relation to interactions mechanisms. We have thus chosen to use a sandy

  2. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  3. Laboratory studies on natural restoration of ground water after in-situ leach uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    When uranium is mined using in-situ leach techniques, the chemical quality of the ground water in the ore-zone aquifer is affected. This could lead to long-term degradation of the ground water if restoration techniques are not applied after the leaching is completed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is conducting an NRC-sponsored research project on natural restoration and induced-restoration techniques. Laboratory studies were designed to evaluate the ability of the natural system (ore-zone sediments and groundwater) to mitigate the effects of mining on aquifer chemistry. Using batch and flow-through column experiments [performed with lixiviant (leaching solution) and sediments from the reduced zone of an ore-zone aquifer], we found that the natural system can lower uranium and bicarbonate concentrations in solutions and reduce the lixiviant redox potential (Eh). The change in redox potential could cause some of the contaminants that were dissolved during the uranium leaching operation to precipitate, thereby lowering their solution concentration. The concentrations of other species such as calcium, potassium, and sulfate increased, possibly as a result of mineral dissolution and ion exchange. In this paper, we describe the experimentally determined mobility of contaminants after in-situ leach mining, and discuss the possible chemical process affecting mobility

  4. Laboratory studies on natural restoration of ground water after in-situ leach uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, N.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    When uranium is mined using in-situ leach techniques, the chemical quality of the ground water in the ore-zone aquifer is affected. This could lead to long-term degradation of the ground water if restoration techniques are not applied after the leaching is completed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is conducting an NRC-sponsored research project on natural restoration and induced-restoration techniques. Laboratory studies were designed to evaluate the ability of the natural system (ore-zone sediments and groundwater) to mitigate the effects of mining on aquifer chemistry. Using batch and flow-through column experiments (performed with lixiviant (leaching solution) and sediments from the reduced zone of an ore-zone aquifer), we found that the natural system can lower uranium and bicarbonate concentrations in solutions and reduce the lixiviant redox potential (Eh). The change in redox potential could cause some of the contaminants that were dissolved during the uranium leaching operation to precipitate, thereby lowering their solution concentration. The concentrations of other species such as calcium, potassium, and sulfate increased, possibly as a result of mineral dissolution and ion exchange. In this paper, we describe the experimentally determined mobility of contaminants after in-situ leach mining, and discuss the possible chemical process affecting mobility.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry and simulated solute transport, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, S.G.; Saulnier, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Oil-shale mining activities in Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado could adversely affect the ground- and surface-water quality in the basin. This study of the hydrology and geochemistry of the area used ground-water solute-transport-modeling techniques to investigate the possible impact of the mines on water quality. Maps of the extent and structure of the aquifer were prepared and show that a saturated thickness of 2,000 feet occurs in the northeast part of the basin. Ground-water recharge in the upland areas in the east, south, and west parts of the basin moves down into deeper zones in the aquifer and laterally to the discharge areas along Piceance and Yellow Creeks. The saline zone and the unsaturated zone provide the majority of the dissolved solids found in the ground water. Precipitation, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions are also occuring in the aquifer. Model simulations of ground-water pumpage in tracts C-a and C-b indicate that the altered direction of ground-water movement near the pumped mines will cause an improvement in ground-water quality near the mines and a degradation of water quality downgradient from the tracts. Model simulations of mine leaching in tract C-a and C-b indicate that equal rates of mine leaching in the tracts will produce much different effects on the water quality in the basin. Tract C-a, by virtue of its remote location from perennial streams, will primarily degrade the ground-water quality over a large area to the northeast of the tract. Tract C-b, by contrast, will primarily degrade the surface-water quality in Piceance Creek, with only localized effects on the ground-water quality. (USGS)

  6. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  7. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India. There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi – a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat −1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer – inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer

  8. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  11. Evaluation of unsaturated-zone solute-transport models for studies of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Bayless, E. Randall; Green, Christopher T.; Garg, Sheena; Voss, Frank D.; Lampe, David C.; Barbash, Jack E.; Capel, Paul D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Seven unsaturated-zone solute-transport models were tested with two data sets to select models for use by the Agricultural Chemical Team of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data sets were from a bromide tracer test near Merced, California, and an atrazine study in the White River Basin, Indiana. In this study the models are designated either as complex or simple based on the water flux algorithm. The complex models, HYDRUS2D, LEACHP, RZWQM, and VS2DT, use Richards' equation to simulate water flux and are well suited to process understanding. The simple models, CALF, GLEAMS, and PRZM, use a tipping-bucket algorithm and are more amenable to extrapolation because they require fewer input parameters. The purpose of this report is not to endorse a particular model, but to describe useful features, potential capabilities, and possible limitations that emerged from working with the model input data sets. More rigorous assessment of model applicability involves proper calibration, which was beyond the scope of this study.

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  15. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  16. Radiological and chemical studies of the ground water at Enewetak Atoll. 1. Sampling, field measurements, and analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Wong, K.M.; Holladay, G.; Noshkin, V.E.; Buddemeier, R.

    1975-01-01

    A research program to study the ground water on several of the islets in the Enewetak Atoll is being conducted jointly by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and the University of Hawaii under the sponsorship of ERDA Division of Biology and Environmental Research. The purpose is to provide data characterizing the ground water for possible use by returning Marshallese and to investigate the hydrology and recycling of radionuclides in an atoll environment. This first of a series of reports describes the sampling locations, field operations, and methods of analysis

  17. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  18. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  19. Sorption/ desorption studies of some radionuclides between disposal soil fractions and ground water. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Reefy, S.A.; Ali, A.

    1996-01-01

    The radioactive waste management program in egypt includes shallow land disposal area for waste package disposal. The proposed site is located to the east of the Hot laboratory centre at Inchas. Assessment of the efficiency of the different sediments and rocks found in this area as a barrier against release of radioactive nuclide to the environment is of major importance. This study is related to evaluate the migration of Cs, Co, and Am within the environment of this site. In this concern, seven soil fractions were taken from a digging well from the proposed disposal site at different depths down to the basalt sheets. A column was constructed containing the soil fractions representing the stratigraphic successions taken from the site. The radionuclides; Cs-137, Co-60, and Am-241 were in this investigation representatives for mono, di- and tri-valent elements and also represented the radionuclides which are mostly associated with radioactive wastes. The sorption/ desorption studies of these radionuclides with the different soil fractions and ground water from the proposed disposal site were carried out. The results obtained were used to predict the migration pathways of these radionuclides within the disposal environment. 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Sorption/ desorption studies of some radionuclides between disposal soil fractions and ground water. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Reefy, S A; Ali, A [Hot Lab. Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive waste management program in egypt includes shallow land disposal area for waste package disposal. The proposed site is located to the east of the Hot laboratory centre at Inchas. Assessment of the efficiency of the different sediments and rocks found in this area as a barrier against release of radioactive nuclide to the environment is of major importance. This study is related to evaluate the migration of Cs, Co, and Am within the environment of this site. In this concern, seven soil fractions were taken from a digging well from the proposed disposal site at different depths down to the basalt sheets. A column was constructed containing the soil fractions representing the stratigraphic successions taken from the site. The radionuclides; Cs-137, Co-60, and Am-241 were in this investigation representatives for mono, di- and tri-valent elements and also represented the radionuclides which are mostly associated with radioactive wastes. The sorption/ desorption studies of these radionuclides with the different soil fractions and ground water from the proposed disposal site were carried out. The results obtained were used to predict the migration pathways of these radionuclides within the disposal environment. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  2. Dating gasoline releases using ground-water chemical analyses: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, M.A.; Perez, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents case studies where geochemical data were analyzed in spatial and temporal relation to documented gasoline releases at typical service station sites. In particular, the authors present ground-water analytical data for sites where (1) the date of the gasoline release is known with a good degree of confidence, (2) the release is confined to a relatively short period of time so as to be considered essentially instantaneous, (3) antecedent geochemical condition are known or can be reasonably expected to have been either unaffected by previous hydrocarbon impacts or minor in comparison to known release events, and (4) where geologic materials can be classified as to structure and composition. The authors' intent is to provide empirical data regarding the hydrogeological fate of certain gasoline components, namely the compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of gasoline weathering as a means of comparing releases in given hydrogeologic environments. Trends seen in a variety of comparative hydrocarbon compound ratios may provide a basis for evaluating relative release dates

  3. physiochemical study of ground water quality of quaid-e-azam industrial estate, kot lakhpat lahore-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, M.U.; Ather, A.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns regarding contamination of ground water due to the presence of different elements is of great importance. Study of ground water quality is an essential parameter for healthy population of Quaid-e-Azam industrial estate (Kot Lakhpat Area). The measurements of ground water quality parameters were found in the following ranges such as pH 7.16-7.43, Turbidity 5.0-6.4 N.T.U, Conductivit micro s/cm, TDS 492-1499, Hardness 80-380, Total Alkalinity 300-500, Chloride 21-192, Sulphate 80-450, Phosphate 0.1-2.2, Fluoride 0.04-0.08, Iron <0.01, Nitrite <0.01, Nitrate 0.01-0.04, Zinc 0.01-1.6 ppm respectively. The concentration of essential metal ions (Na, K, Ca and Mg) was found to be in range of 119-366, 4-6, 16-56 and 10-58 ppm respectively. Results of this study showed that ground water of the particular research area was characterized by good quality of water except some slight variations due to industrial activity. (author)

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  5. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  6. Potential ground water resources of Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand by gravity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warawutti Lohawijarn

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual gravity anomaly with a minimum of about -140 mm s-2 with approximately NS trend and a limited axial length was observed over Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand. The modeled Hat Yai basin is about 1 km deep at its deepest, 60 km long and 20 km wide. The porosity of basin sediment and the amount of potential ground water reserves within the basin are estimated to be 39% and 121.7±0.8 km3 respectively, assuming full saturation. Within the topmost 80 m of ground where the present extraction is concentrated, the estimated ground water reserve is 12.5±0.5 km3.

  7. Hydrochemical and isotopic study of the Botucatu aquifer ground waters in Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.B.G. da.

    1983-01-01

    The process controlling chemical composition of ground water,its origin and apparent age as well as, the natural flow rate of the water in Botucatu aquifer in state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, have been investigated using hydrochemical and environmental isotopic ( 18 O, 2 H, 13 C, 14 C) Technics. The main recharge process is assumed to be the infiltration of rain water in the aquifer outcrop area. The progressive confining conditions with the increasing depth of the top of the aquifer layer makes the ground water temperature slowly greater. The recent magnesium and sodium bicarbonated waters changes first to sodium bicarbonated and then to sodium chloride-sulfated waters which are oldest found out in the research area(around 30.000 years ago). The mean Darcy permeability estimated on basis of 14 C and hydraulic gradient data is 2.6x10 -5 m/s. 9 maps (author) [pt

  8. Field-scale water flow and solute transport : SWAP model concepts, parameter estimation and case studies = [Waterstroming en transport van opgeloste stoffen op veldschaal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water flow and solute transport in top soils are important elements in many environmental studies. The agro- and ecohydrological model SWAP (Soil-Water-Plant-Atmosphere) has been developed to simulate simultaneously water flow, solute transport, heat flow and crop growth at field scale

  9. Study of uranium contamination of ground water in Punjab using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrakabi, Muhanad; Singh, Gurjeet; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rai, Bimal; Singh, N.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Srivastava, Alok

    2010-01-01

    A number of reports have appeared in public media about uranium ingestion being a possible cause for cancer and increased birth rate abnormalities among children in the Malwa region of Punjab state in India. These reports link problems like cancer and Autism, with the presence of uranium in the ground waters of Malwa region. The concentration of uranium in drinking water from sources as varied as ground water, canal water supply and reverse osmosis system have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. Samples from the thermal power plants in the regions and nearby ground waters were also analyzed to identify the source of contamination. The samples were collected with assistance of the officials from the Government of Punjab. More than half a litre of each of the water samples was dried at 60 deg-80 deg in an oven. Residue was collected using larger quantities of water samples in case of RO water samples. The elemental analysis of the residue was carried out using the Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer consisting of an 42 Mo-anode X-ray tube (Panalytical, 2.5 kW) as an excitation source and a Si(Li) detector. A combination of selective absorbers of 30 Zn, 38 Sr, and 39 Y was used in the incident beam for improving the detection limit for Uranium by reducing the background and removing the 42 Mo K X-rays. The detection limit in ppb/litre depends upon the amount of residue

  10. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  11. Transport Visualization for Studying Mass Transfer and Solute Transport in Permeable Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Haggerty

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and predicting mass transfer coupled with solute transport in permeable media is central to several energy-related programs at the US Department of Energy (e.g., CO 2 sequestration, nuclear waste disposal, hydrocarbon extraction, and groundwater remediation). Mass transfer is the set of processes that control movement of a chemical between mobile (advection-dominated) domains and immobile (diffusion- or sorption-dominated) domains within a permeable medium. Consequences of mass transfer on solute transport are numerous and may include (1) increased sequestration time within geologic formations; (2) reduction in average solute transport velocity by as much as several orders of magnitude; (3) long ''tails'' in concentration histories during removal of a solute from a permeable medium; (4) poor predictions of solute behavior over long time scales; and (5) changes in reaction rates due to mass transfer influences on pore-scale mixing of solutes. Our work produced four principle contributions: (1) the first comprehensive visualization of solute transport and mass transfer in heterogeneous porous media; (2) the beginnings of a theoretical framework that encompasses both macrodispersion and mass transfer within a single set of equations; (3) experimental and analytical tools necessary for understanding mixing and aqueous reaction in heterogeneous, granular porous media; (4) a clear experimental demonstration that reactive transport is often not accurately described by a simple coupling of the convection-dispersion equation with chemical reaction equations. The work shows that solute transport in heterogeneous media can be divided into 3 regimes--macrodispersion, advective mass transfer, and diffusive mass transfer--and that these regimes can be predicted quantitatively in binary media. We successfully predicted mass transfer in each of these regimes and verified the prediction by completing quantitative visualization experiments in each of the regimes, the

  12. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  13. Analog model study of the ground-water basin of the Upper Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyley, Stephen J.

    1974-01-01

    An analog model of the ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley was constructed to determine the effects of imported water on ground-water levels. The model was considered verified when the ground-water levels generated by the model approximated the historical change in water levels of the ground-water basin caused by man's activities for the period 1986-67. The ground-water basin was almost unaffected by man's activities until about 1945 when ground-water development caused the water levels to begin to decline. The Palm Springs area has had the largest water-level decline, 75 feet since 1986, because of large pumpage, reduced natural inflow from the San Gorgonio Pass area, and diversions of natural inflows at Snow and Falls Creeks and Chino Canyon starting in 1945. The San Gorgonio Pass inflow had been reduced from about 18,000 acre-feet in 1986 to about 9,000 acre-feet by 1967 because of increased ground-water pumpage in the San Gorgonio Pass area, dewatering of the San Gorgonio Pass area that took place when the tunnel for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California was drilled, and diversions of surface inflow at Snow and Falls Creeks. In addition, 1944-64 was a period of below-normal precipitation which, in part, contributed to the declines in water levels in the Coachella Valley. The Desert Hot Springs, Garnet Hill, and Mission Creek subbasins have had relatively little development; consequently, the water-level declines have been small, ranging from 5 to 15 feet since 1986. In the Point Happy area a decline of about 2 feet per year continued until 1949 when delivery of Colorado River water to the lower valley through the Coachella Canal was initiated. Since 1949 the water levels in the Point Happy area have been rising and by 1967 were above their 1986 levels. The Whitewater River subbasin includes the largest aquifer in the basin, having sustained ground-water pumpage of about 740,000 acre-feet from 1986 to 1967, and will probably

  14. Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone: Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, E.P.; Fuentes, H.R.

    1987-04-01

    Issues addressed were the adequacy of the data for the various models, effectiveness of the models to represent the data, particular information provided by the models, the role of caisson experiments in providing fundamental knowledge of porous-media water flow and solute transport, and the importance of geochemistry to the transport of nonconservative tracers. These proceedings include the presentations made by each of the modelers; the summary document written by the panel; and a transcript of the discussions, both the discussions that followed individual presentations and the general discussion held on the second day. This publication completes the series on the workshop. Volume I in the series (NUREG/CR-4615, Vol. I) contains background information and the data sets provided each modeler

  15. Studies on radiation dose due to radioactive elements present in ground water and soil samples around Mysore city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, M S; Veda, S M; Paramesh, L

    2012-04-01

    A systematic study of the ground water and soil samples collected from different locations around Mysore city (12(°)N and 76(°)E) has been carried out. (226)Ra activity concentration in water samples varies from 0.28 to 189 mBq l(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 4.75 mBq l(-1) and (222)Rn concentration in ground water varies from 4.25 to 435 Bq l(-1) with a GM of 25.9 Bq l(-1). The GM of inhalation and ingestion doses due to (222)Rn in water is 65.2 and 5.43, µSv y(-1), respectively. The measured GM gamma dose rate in air is 85.4 nGy h(-1) and absorbed dose rate estimated from the measured activity of radionuclides is 92.6 nGy h(-1).

  16. Study of uranium contamination of ground water in Punjab using X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alrakabi, Muhanad; Singh, Gurjeet; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rai, Bimal; Singh, N; Shahi, J S; Mehta, D [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Srivastava, Alok [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-01

    A number of reports have appeared in public media about uranium ingestion being a possible cause for cancer and increased birth rate abnormalities among children in the Malwa region of Punjab state in India. These reports link problems like cancer and Autism, with the presence of uranium in the ground waters of Malwa region. The concentration of uranium in drinking water from sources as varied as ground water, canal water supply and reverse osmosis system have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. Samples from the thermal power plants in the regions and nearby ground waters were also analyzed to identify the source of contamination. The samples were collected with assistance of the officials from the Government of Punjab. More than half a litre of each of the water samples was dried at 60 deg-80 deg in an oven. Residue was collected using larger quantities of water samples in case of RO water samples. The elemental analysis of the residue was carried out using the Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer consisting of an {sup 42}Mo-anode X-ray tube (Panalytical, 2.5 kW) as an excitation source and a Si(Li) detector. A combination of selective absorbers of {sup 30}Zn, {sup 38}Sr, and {sup 39}Y was used in the incident beam for improving the detection limit for Uranium by reducing the background and removing the {sup 42}Mo K X-rays. The detection limit in ppb/litre depends upon the amount of residue

  17. Development of single-well techniques for quantitative ground water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmat, Y.; Bugayevsky, M.; Mandel, S.; Behrens, H.; Drost, W.; Klotz, D.; Moser, H.

    1984-02-01

    The signle-well pulse technique was modified in such manner that the dispersivity of the ground water bearing strata can be derived from the measured results. An outline of the theoretical fundamentals is followed by solutions to apparative problems, i.e. tracer selection (Br-82, colour), set-up of measuring points, etc.. The method was tested in the laboratory and in a test field. Suitable, quick methods of evaluation were developed and the technical equipment was optimized for routine application. The method was tested in wells in Israel. (HP) [de

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  19. Evaluation and proposed study of potential ground-water supplies, Gallup area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, William L.

    1975-01-01

    The ground-water potential of 5 areas in central-western New Mexico within 85 miles (135 km) of Gallup, N. Mex. was evaluated by reviewing the published literature, inspecting aerial and space photographs, and interviewing ranchers and personnel employed by well-drilling and mineral-exploration companies by telephone. The San Andres Limestone and underlying Glorieta Sandstone of Permian age are the oldest aquifers capable of yielding water of a quality suitable for municipal use. Extreme local variations in hydraulic conductivity and water quality reflect a karstic topography developed on the San Andres Limestone prior to burial by Upper Triassic sediments. The San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone form an important aquifer in the Grants-Bluewater area where yields of as much as 2,200 gallons per minute (140 l/s) have been obtained. Yields from wells completed in the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer on the Chaco slope and in the Gallup sag-Mogollon slope on the northeast and southeast flanks, respectively, of the Zuni uplift will be much less than those prevailing in the Grants-Bluewater area. Water quality in the San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone deteriorates with distance away from the axis of the Zuni uplift. Sandstones of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous age are potential aquifers wherever they are present. Yields to wells tapping these aquifers are generally less than 200 gallons per minute (13 l/s) due to the relatively low hydraulic conductivity. Wells tapping alluvium of Late Cenozoic age along the Rio San Jose and Puerco River and interbedded volcanics and alluvium elsewhere in the area generally yield less than 100 gallons per minute (6 l/s) of water. Tributaries ,of the Rio San Jose that have eroded canyons into Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks east of the Continental Divide and south of the eastern part of the Zuni uplift have been repeatedly displaced and (or) covered by Quaternary volcanic rocks. The exact location, extent, and depth of

  20. Shallow ground water in the Powder River Bbasin, northeastern Wyoming: Description of selected publications, 1950-91, and indications for further study. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner-Lunsford, J.B.; Wilson, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the conclusions and contributions to knowledge of shallow ground water in publications resulting from previous ground-water investigations in the Powder River Basin and describes indications for further study. For the report, shallow ground water is defined as water in geologic formations overlying the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale and equivalents. The 76 publications described were produced from 1950-91 by the U.S. Geological Survey, other government agencies, and academic and private organizations, including mining companies and engineering consultants. Only those parts of the publications that are relevant to thee quantity or quality of shallow ground water in the Powder River Basin are described. Mine plans for coal and uranium mines (many of which contain detailed, local hydrologic information) and publications containing pertinent geologic information, but no hydrologic information, are not included

  1. Distribution patterns study of Escherichia coli as an Indicator for ground water quality at Matraman District, East Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisah, U.; Iswanto, B.; Rinanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution pattern E.coli as indicators of ground water contamination by fecal coliforms at Matraman District, East Jakarta, Indonesia (106049‧35″E 06010‧37″LS) consisting of six sub-districts (Utan Kayu Selatan, Utan Kayu Utara, Kayu Manis, Pal Meriam, Kebon Manggis and Pisangan Baru). The presence of E.coli examined by the method of Most Probable Number (MPN) according to SNI 01-2332.1-2006 about the determination of coliforms and E.coli in fishery products which consists of three stages of tests in a row, the estimation, determination or confirmation and complementary or morphology test. Matraman District is a densely populated area and the distance between septic tank and well is inadequate, both with their own’s septic tank or with neighbors’s septic tank. The result of sample analysis shows that E.coli counts exceeds water quality standards in accordance with regulation Health Ministry No.492/2010 concerning the drinking water quality requirements. The lowest MPN number is 3 MPN/100 ml and the highest number of E. coli is more than1100 MPN/100 ml. The temperature, pH and DO0 on average are 27.520C, 5.59 and 2.24 mg/L. This study is expected to be a reference in the use of ground water for daily activities in the district Matraman.

  2. A study of solute transport of radiolysis products in crud and its effects on crud growth on PWR fuel pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Justin H. [BNF Consulting (United States); Kim, Seung Jun, E-mail: skim@lanl.gov [Mechanical and Thermal Engineering Group (AET-1), Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Jones, Barclay G. [Department of Nuclear Plasma Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We model a 3-D numerical solute transport within crud deposit on PWR fuel pin. • Source term effect from radiolysis yield and recombination is minimal. • Lower crud porosity leads substantially higher concentration of solutes. • Thicker crud deposit generates substantially higher concentration of solutes. • High concentration of radiolysis species (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can be directly related to corrosion issues on fuel cladding. - Abstract: This research examines the concentration of radiolysis species (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) over the porous crud layer using a three dimensional time dependent solute transport model. A Monte Carlo random walk technique is adopted to simulate the transport behavior of the different species with various parametric studies of source term, crud thickness, and crud porosity. Particularly, this model employs a system of coupled mass transport and chemical interactions as the source term, which makes the problem non-linear. It is demonstrated that a negligible effect on radiolysis species concentrations change due to the consideration of source term. The crud thickness and porosity effect on the concentration distributions are notably observed. In general, higher concentration starts from the intersection of the heating surface with the chimney wall from the beginning and it reaches the equilibrium state within tens of seconds. The concentration profiles of the radiolysis species H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can be directly related to corrosion issues. The direct application of this study to nuclear engineering research is to aid in the design of reactors with higher performance without experiencing an Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA), an unexpected measured shift in axial power distribution from predicted values.

  3. A study of solute transport of radiolysis products in crud and its effects on crud growth on PWR fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Justin H.; Kim, Seung Jun; Jones, Barclay G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a 3-D numerical solute transport within crud deposit on PWR fuel pin. • Source term effect from radiolysis yield and recombination is minimal. • Lower crud porosity leads substantially higher concentration of solutes. • Thicker crud deposit generates substantially higher concentration of solutes. • High concentration of radiolysis species (H 2 , O 2 , and H 2 O 2 ) can be directly related to corrosion issues on fuel cladding. - Abstract: This research examines the concentration of radiolysis species (H 2 , O 2 , and H 2 O 2 ) over the porous crud layer using a three dimensional time dependent solute transport model. A Monte Carlo random walk technique is adopted to simulate the transport behavior of the different species with various parametric studies of source term, crud thickness, and crud porosity. Particularly, this model employs a system of coupled mass transport and chemical interactions as the source term, which makes the problem non-linear. It is demonstrated that a negligible effect on radiolysis species concentrations change due to the consideration of source term. The crud thickness and porosity effect on the concentration distributions are notably observed. In general, higher concentration starts from the intersection of the heating surface with the chimney wall from the beginning and it reaches the equilibrium state within tens of seconds. The concentration profiles of the radiolysis species H 2 , O 2 , and H 2 O 2 can be directly related to corrosion issues. The direct application of this study to nuclear engineering research is to aid in the design of reactors with higher performance without experiencing an Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA), an unexpected measured shift in axial power distribution from predicted values.

  4. Solute transport in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solute transport is of importance in view of the movement of nutrient elements, e.g. towards the plant root system, and because of a broad range of pollutants. Pollution is not necessarily man induced, but may be due to geological or geohydrological causes, e.g. in the cases of pollution with

  5. Risk evaluation of ground water table decline as a type of desertification. A case study are: Southern Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asrari, E.; Masoudi, M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a model to assess risk of ground water table decline. Taking into consideration eleven indicators of lowering of ground water table the model identifies areas with Potential Risk (risky zones) and areas of Actual risk as well as projects the probability of the worse degradation in future. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. Risk evaluation of ground water table decline as a type of desertification. A case study are: Southern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asrari, E.; Masoudi, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model to assess risk of ground water table decline. Taking into consideration eleven indicators of lowering of ground water table the model identifies areas with Potential Risk (risky zones) and areas of Actual risk as well as projects the probability of the worse degradation in future. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  8. Environmental impacts of small dams on agriculture and ground water development: a case study of Khan pur Dam, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, N.; Shahmim, M.A.; Elahi, A.; Khan, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The water scarcity issues are increasing through out the world. Pakistan is also facing water crises and its water demands are increasing every day. During this research it is investigated that small dams are playing an important role for the sustainability of groundwater and agriculture. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of small dam on agricultural and ground water. Proper planning and management of small dams may improve the sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. It is also concluded that small dams are significantly contributing towards economy, environment, local climate, recreational activities and crop production. Small dams can also be utilized for the production of electricity at local level. On the other hand, water management issues can be resolved by the involvement of local farmer's associations. Water losses through seepage, unlined channels and old irrigation methods are most critical in developing world. Considering the overall positive environmental impacts, construction of small dams must be promoted. (author)

  9. Use of naturally occurring helium to estimate ground-water velocities for studies of geologic storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1977-01-01

    In a study of the potential for storing radioactive waste in metamorphic rock at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina, the rate of water movement was determined to be about 0.06 m/y by analyzing gas dissolved in the water. The gas contained up to 6 percent helium, which originated from the radioactive decay of natural uranium and thorium in the crystalline rock. The residence time of the water in the rock was calculated to be 840,000 years from the quantity of uranium and thorium in the rock, their rates of radioactive decay, and the quantity of helium dissolved in the water. The estimation of ground-water velocities by the helium method is more applicable to the assessment of a geologic site for storage of radioactive waste than are velocities estimated from packer tests, pumping tests, or artificial tracer tests, all of which require extensive time and space extrapolations

  10. Hydrogeologic Settings and Ground-Water Flow Simulations for Regional Studies of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to Public-Supply Wells - Studies Begun in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2007-01-01

    This study of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells (TANC study) is being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and was designed to increase understanding of the most important factors to consider in ground-water vulnerability assessments. The seven TANC studies that began in 2001 used retrospective data and ground-water flow models to evaluate hydrogeologic variables that affect aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability at a regional scale. Ground-water flow characteristics, regional water budgets, pumping-well information, and water-quality data were compiled from existing data and used to develop conceptual models of ground-water conditions for each study area. Steady-state regional ground-water flow models were used to represent the conceptual models, and advective particle-tracking simulations were used to compute areas contributing recharge and traveltimes from recharge to selected public-supply wells. Retrospective data and modeling results were tabulated into a relational database for future analysis. Seven study areas were selected to evaluate a range of hydrogeologic settings and management practices across the Nation: the Salt Lake Valley, Utah; the Eagle Valley and Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada; the San Joaquin Valley, California; the Northern Tampa Bay region, Florida; the Pomperaug River Basin, Connecticut; the Great Miami River Basin, Ohio; and the Eastern High Plains, Nebraska. This Professional Paper Chapter presents the hydrogeologic settings and documents the ground-water flow models for each of the NAWQA TANC regional study areas that began work in 2001. Methods used to compile retrospective data, determine contributing areas of public-supply wells, and characterize oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions also are presented. This Professional Paper Chapter provides the foundation for future susceptibility and vulnerability analyses in the TANC

  11. The use of laboratory experiments for the study of conservative solute transport in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, S. E.; Zheng, L.; Conwell, P.

    Laboratory experiments on heterogeneous porous media (otherwise known as intermediate scale experiments, or ISEs) have been increasingly relied upon by hydrogeologists for the study of saturated and unsaturated groundwater systems. Among the many ongoing applications of ISEs is the study of fluid flow and the transport of conservative solutes in correlated permeability fields. Recent advances in ISE design have provided the capability of creating correlated permeability fields in the laboratory. This capability is important in the application of ISEs for the assessment of recent stochastic theories. In addition, pressure-transducer technology and visualization methods have provided the potential for ISEs to be used in characterizing the spatial distributions of both hydraulic head and local water velocity within correlated permeability fields. Finally, various methods are available for characterizing temporal variations in the spatial distribution (and, thereby, the spatial moments) of solute concentrations within ISEs. It is concluded, therefore, that recent developments in experimental techniques have provided an opportunity to use ISEs as important tools in the continuing study of fluid flow and the transport of conservative solutes in heterogeneous, saturated porous media. Résumé Les hydrogéologues se sont progressivement appuyés sur des expériences de laboratoire sur des milieux poreux hétérogènes (connus aussi par l'expression "Expériences àéchelle intermédiaire", ISE) pour étudier les zones saturées et non saturées des aquifères. Parmi les nombreuses applications en cours des ISE, il faut noter l'étude de l'écoulement de fluide et le transport de solutés conservatifs dans des champs aux perméabilités corrélées. Les récents progrès du protocole des ISE ont donné la possibilité de créer des champs de perméabilités corrélées au laboratoire. Cette possibilité est importante dans l'application des ISE pour l'évaluation des th

  12. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  13. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  14. In situ study of the effect of ground source heat pump on shallow ground-water quality in the late Pleistocene terrace area of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, T.; Uemura, K.; Akiba, Y.; Ota, M.

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems has rapidly increased around the world, since they reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save electric energy. The GSHP system transfer heat into the geosphere zone when air conditioners are used to cool rooms or buildings. However, the effects of temperature increase on the quality of underground water has yet to be fully investigated. In order to reduce the risks of ground-water pollution by the installed GSHPs, it is important to evaluate the effect of temperature change on the ground-water quality. In this study, we installed a closed loop GSHP system on a heat exchange well along with a monitoring well drilled to measure ground-water quality and temperature. The monitoring well was drilled at 0.1cm away from the heat exchange well. We observed that changes of temperature in the heat exchange well affected the water quality, especially turbidity, in gravelly layer.

  15. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  16. Ground water pollution: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources, contaminant transport, and monitoring of pollutants in aquifers. Topics include pollution characterization from landfills and mine drainage, descriptions of study programs undertaken by specific states, and Superfund site studies of contaminated areas. The uses of mathematical models are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  18. In-situ x-ray absorption study of copper films in ground water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvashnina, K.O.; Butorin, S.M.; Modin, A.; Soroka, I.; Marcellini, M.; Nordgren, J.; Guo, J.-H.; Werme, L.

    2007-01-01

    This study illustrates how the damage from copper corrosion can be reduced by modifying the chemistry of the copper surface environment. The surface modification of oxidized copper films induced by chemical reaction with Cl - and HCO 3 - in aqueous solutions was monitored by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that corrosion of copper can be significantly reduced by adding even a small amount of sodium bicarbonate. The studied copper films corroded quickly in chloride solutions, whereas the same solution containing 1.1 mM HCO 3 - prevented or slowed down the corrosion processes

  19. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism.

  20. Impact assessment of fly ash on ground water quality: An experimental study using batch leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandautiya, Rahul; Singh, Ajit Pratap; Kundu, Sanghamitra

    2018-05-01

    The fly ash, generated at the coal-based thermal power plant, is always a cause of concern to environmentalists owing to its adverse impact on air, water and land. There exists a high environmental risk when it is disposed to the environment. Thus, two different type of fly ash samples (FA-1 and FA-2) have been considered in this study to examine the leaching potential of the elements magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, strontium, cadmium, barium and lead for different types of leachant. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure and ASTM tests have been performed in the laboratory to simulate different natural leaching scenarios. Characterisation of samples have been done through X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscope. The effect of different liquid to solid ratios (i.e. 5, 10, 20 and 50) on the mobilisation of elements has been analysed. The results indicated that the maximum leaching of all elements occurred at a liquid to solid ratio of 5 except for arsenic, barium and silicon. The groundwater analysis has also been done to understand the actual effects of leachate. The elements presenting the highest leachability in the two fly ash samples under all tested conditions were magnesium, aluminium, silicon and calcium. It has been observed that calcium exhibits greater leaching effects than all other constituents. The study presented here has been found very useful for assessing contamination levels in groundwater owing to leaching effects of fly ash under different scenarios, which can be helpful to prevent spreading of the contaminants by efficient management of fly ash.

  1. A study on the ground water flow and hydrogeochemical interaction in fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jong Sung; Kim, Chun Soo; Yoon, Si Tae; Kim, Sun Joon; Chung, Chan Ho; Kim, Gye Nam

    1991-01-01

    A study site, the Precambrian gneiss complex in the vincinity of Chungyang has been investigated by geologic surface mapping, tunnel mapping and core drilling with chemical analysis and microscopic observation of rock samples and fracture filling materials. Four boreholes at depths between 50 and 200m were drilled. They are located in a potential fracture zone, which was selected based on the topographic characterisitcs and the fracture survey data. The hydraulic characteristics are described based on the results of constant pressure injection test and cross hole test. In the single hole test, the test sections varied between 1 and 5 m. The hydraulic conductivity of local fracture zones ranges from 1xlO -5 to lxlO -7 m/sec whereas that of the intact rock within the depth of 50 m is in the range of 7xlO -8 to 8xlO -9 m/sec. The field dispersivity values obtained from an injection phase range from 0.15 to 4.5 m at varying depths. The whole thickness dispersivity on the 18 m section obtained from a withdrawal phase is 0.4 m. The dispersion test in two well non-circulation mode was carried out along a single fracture set at depth between 11.5-14.5m. The longitudinal dispersivity obtained from the two well test is 8.14 m. The identified minerals of host rocks are quartz, K-feldspar,plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, sericite, chlorite, calcite, pyrite, zircon and opaque minerals. The primary minerals such as feldspar and biotite are highly altered into sericite and chlorite respectively. The fracture-filling materials from core samples identified by as calcite, kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illitite, quartz, pyrite with fe- and Mn-oxides. (Author)

  2. Voltammetric Study of Arsenic (III and Arsenic (V in Ground Water of Hajigonj and Kalkini in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arifur Rahman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of arsenic in groundwater samples using Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV, Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV and Normal Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (NPASV are described. Good resolution of the species, arsenic (III and arsenic (V is achieved using SWASV. The reliability of the methods was checked by analyzing the total arsenic content of the samples by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorptioion Spectrophotometer and by analyzing prepared controlled laboratory standard solution. Since this technique is comparatively cheaper than other available techniques it could be a better analytical technique for arsenic speciation from water. In this study, the assessment of inorganic arsenic species in ground water of Kalkini (Madaripur and Hajigonj (Chandpur is reported. It shows that arsenic content in water in different locations is irregular. Most of the locations contain higher level of As(III than As(V. The highest concentration of arsenic is found in Anayetnagor (554.46 ± 0.07 mg/L of Kalkini and Raichar (562 ± 0.50 mg/L of Hajigonj. However, the level of total arsenic and As(III of most of the villages of the study areas are more than the WHO guideline value (50mg/L. Therefore a proper monitoring process should be evolved along with the development of methods to keep the water free from arsenic.

  3. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    , Groundwater Section, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, initiated a multiyear study of ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces. The study began in 1999.Most of the study area is underlain by a complex, two-part, regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system. Thickness of the regolith throughout the study area is highly variable and ranges from 0 to more than 150 feet. The regolith consists of an unconsolidated or semiconsolidated mixture of clay and fragmental material ranging in grain size from silt to boulders. Because porosities range from 35 to 55 percent, the regolith provides the bulk of the water storage within the Blue Ridge and Piedmont ground-water system. At the base of the regolith is the transition zone where saprolite grades into unweathered bedrock. The transition zone has been identified as a potential conduit for rapid ground-water flow. If this is the case, the transition zone also may serve as a conduit for rapid movement of contaminants to nearby wells or to streams with channels that cut into 1 U.S. Geological Survey, Raleigh, North Carolina. 2 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, Groundwater Section. or through the transition zone. How rapidly a contaminant moves through the system largely may be a function of the characteristics of the transition zone. The transition zone is one of several topics identified during the literature review and data synthesis, for which there is a deficiency in data and understanding of the processes involved in the movement of ground water to surface water.Because the Blue Ridge and Piedmont study area is so large, and the hydrogeology diverse, it is not feasible to study all of the area in detail. A more feasible approach is to select areas that are most representative of the land use, geology, and hydrology to obtain an understanding of the hydrologic processes in the selected areas, and transfer the knowledge from these local "type

  4. Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, S K; Yadav, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K; Sharma, V K; Minhas, P S

    2010-09-01

    Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

  5. A study on uranium metallogenetic prospects of ground water oxidation zone type in the lower cretaceous, north Shanganning basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping

    2000-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous is developed well in the north part of Shanganning basin. The area was widely uplifting vertically after their deposited. Based on the features of lithology, lithophase and Neotectonic forms, two main periods of oxidation-erosion of K2-E1 and N1-present can be distinguished. During these two periods, large scale horizontal oxidation were occurred. It is significant that the ground water oxidation related to the uranium mineralization and has been proved by the field investigation and the data of γ-logging in drill hole for oil. Meanwhile, according to the hydrodynamic features of present Shanganning plateau type artesian basin, it seems that uranium mineralization main related to the ground water oxidation the upper parts of the Lower Cretaceous

  6. Focus on Fluoride and Fluorosis by Studying the Ground Water Quality in some Villages of Nalgonda, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    , Ishrath Aish; , B.L.P. Babu; , K. Sreenu

    2011-01-01

    The fluoride content of ground water was determined in eight villages of Shalsher vagu, Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, where it is the only source for drinking water. Various water quality parameters such as Hydrogen potential, Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Total Alkalies and Fluoride were determined. The results indicated considerable variations among the analysed samples with respect to the above parameters the concentration of Fluoride in groundwater ...

  7. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  8. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  10. Hydrogeologic controls on the transport and fate of nitrate in ground water beneath riparian buffer zones: Results from thirteen studies across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been growing interest in the capacity of riparian buffer zones to remove nitrate from ground waters moving through them. Riparian zone sediments often contain organic carbon, which favors formation of reducing conditions that can lead to removal of nitrate through denitrification. Over the past decade the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has investigated the transport and fate of nitrate in ground and surface waters in study areas across the United States. In these studies riparian zone efficiency in removing nitrate varied widely as a result of variations in hydrogeologic factors. These factors include (1) denitrification in the up-gradient aquifer due to the presence of organic carbon or other electron donors, (2) long residence times (>50 years) along ground-water flow paths allowing even slow reactions to completely remove nitrate, (3) dilution of nitrate enriched waters with older water having little nitrate, (4) bypassing of riparian zones due to extensive use of drains and ditches, and (5) movement of ground water along deep flow paths below reducing zones. By developing a better understanding of the hydrogeologic settings in which riparian buffer zones are likely to be inefficient we can develop improved nutrient management plans. ?? US Government 2004.

  11. Well-Construction, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Data for Ground-Water Monitoring Wells for the J4 Hydrogeologic Study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haugh, Connor J

    1996-01-01

    ...) in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality...

  12. Management of ground water and evolving hydrogeologic studies in New Jersey : a heavily urbanized and industrialized state in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P. Patrick

    1985-01-01

    New Jersey is the most densely populated and one of the most industrialized states in the United States. An abundance of freshwater and proximity to major northeastern metropolitan centers has facilitated this development. Pumpage of freshwater from all aquifers in the State in 1980 was 730 million gallons per day (2.76 million cubic meters per day).Management and efficient development of the ground-water resources of the State are the responsibility of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Laws have been enacted and updated by the State legislature to manage water allocation and to control the disposal of hazardous wastes. Present resource management is guided by the New Jersey Water-Supply Master Plan of 1981. Funding for management activities is partially derived from the sale of state-approved bonds.Effective planning and regional management require accurate and up-to-date hydrologic information and analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Geological Survey, is conducting three intensive ground-water studies involving the collection and interpretation of hydrologic data to meet the urgent water-management needs of New Jersey. These studies are part of a long-term cooperative program and are funded through the Water-Supply Bond Act of 1981. They began in 1983 and are scheduled to be completed in 1988.The project areas are situated in the New Jersey part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in and near Atlantic City, Camden, and South River. They range in size from 400 to 1,200 mil (1,040 to 3,120 km2). The studies are designed to define the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the local ground-water systems. The results of these studies will enable the State to address more effectively major problems in these areas such as declining water levels, overpumping, saltwater intrusion, and ground-water contamination resulting from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes.Specific objectives of these studies by the U

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit (USAW) was investigated from November 2006 through March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Upper Santa Ana Watershed study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within USAW, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. Ninety of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Nine wells were selected to provide additional understanding of specific water-quality issues identified within the basin (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Dissolved gases, and isotopes of nitrogen gas and of dissolved nitrate also were measured in order to investigate the sources and occurrence of

  14. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, R.

    1994-03-01

    ;Contents: Hydrodynamic cavitation oxidation destroys organics; Biosparging documented in fuel remediation study; Surfactant flushing research to remove organic liquids from aquifers; and Compilation of Ground-Water Models (a book review).

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  16. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  17. Ground water chemistry and geochemical modeling of water-rock interactions at the Osamu Utsumi mine and the Morro do Ferro analogue study sites, Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McNutt, R.H.; Puigdomenech, I.; Smellie, John A.T.; Wolf, M.

    1992-01-01

    Surface and ground waters, collected over a period of three years from the Osamu Utsumi uranium mine and the Morro do Ferro thorium/rare-earth element (Th/REE) deposits, were analyzed and interpreted to identify the major hydrogeochemical processes. These results provided information on the current geochemical evolution of ground waters for two study sites within the Poços de Caldas Natural Analogue Project.

  18. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  19. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  20. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  1. Composite liners protect ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  2. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  3. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  4. Comparison of Low Concentration and High Concentration Arsenic Removal Techniques and Evaluation of Concentration of Arsenic in Ground Water: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Abdullah; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Shahzadi, Uzma; Saleem, Pakeeza

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this study was the evaluation of arsenic concentration in the ground water of Lahore at different depth and application of different mitigation techniques for arsenic removal. Twenty four hours of solar oxidation gives 90% of arsenic removal as compared to 8 hr. or 16 hr. Among oxides, calcium oxide gives 96% of As removal as compared to 93% by lanthanum oxide. Arsenic removal efficiency was up to 97% by ferric chloride, whereas 95% by alum. Activated alumina showed 99% removal as compared to 97% and 95% removal with bauxite and charcoal, respectively. Elemental analysis of adsorbents showed that the presence of phosphate and silica can cause a reduction of arsenic removal efficiency by activated alumina, bauxite and charcoal. This study has laid a foundation for further research on arsenic in the city of Lahore and has also provided suitable techniques for arsenic removal

  5. Comparison of Low Concentration and High Concentration Arsenic Removal Techniques and Evaluation of Concentration of Arsenic in Ground Water: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasar, Abdullah; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Shahzadi, Uzma; Saleem, Pakeeza [GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    The main focus of this study was the evaluation of arsenic concentration in the ground water of Lahore at different depth and application of different mitigation techniques for arsenic removal. Twenty four hours of solar oxidation gives 90% of arsenic removal as compared to 8 hr. or 16 hr. Among oxides, calcium oxide gives 96% of As removal as compared to 93% by lanthanum oxide. Arsenic removal efficiency was up to 97% by ferric chloride, whereas 95% by alum. Activated alumina showed 99% removal as compared to 97% and 95% removal with bauxite and charcoal, respectively. Elemental analysis of adsorbents showed that the presence of phosphate and silica can cause a reduction of arsenic removal efficiency by activated alumina, bauxite and charcoal. This study has laid a foundation for further research on arsenic in the city of Lahore and has also provided suitable techniques for arsenic removal.

  6. Multiscale modelling of dual-porosity porous media; a computational pore-scale study for flow and solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Enno T.; Raoof, Amir; van Genuchten, Martinus Th.

    2017-07-01

    Many environmental and agricultural applications involve the transport of water and dissolved constituents through aggregated soil profiles, or porous media that are structured, fractured or macroporous in other ways. During the past several decades, various process-based macroscopic models have been used to simulate contaminant transport in such media. Many of these models consider advective-dispersive transport through relatively large inter-aggregate pore domains, while exchange with the smaller intra-aggregate pores is assumed to be controlled by diffusion. Exchange of solute between the two domains is often represented using a first-order mass transfer coefficient, which is commonly obtained by fitting to observed data. This study aims to understand and quantify the solute exchange term by applying a dual-porosity pore-scale network model to relatively large domains, and analysing the pore-scale results in terms of the classical dual-porosity (mobile-immobile) transport formulation. We examined the effects of key parameters (notably aggregate porosity and aggregate permeability) on the main dual-porosity model parameters, i.e., the mobile water fraction (ϕm) and the mass transfer coefficient (α). Results were obtained for a wide range of aggregate porosities (between 0.082 and 0.700). The effect of aggregate permeability was explored by varying pore throat sizes within the aggregates. Solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained with the pore-scale network model at several locations along the domain were analysed using analytical solutions of the dual-porosity model to obtain estimates of ϕm and α. An increase in aggregate porosity was found to decrease ϕm and increase α, leading to considerable tailing in the BTCs. Changes in the aggregate pore throat size affected the relative flow velocity between the intra- and inter-aggregate domains. Higher flow velocities within the aggregates caused a change in the transport regime from diffusion dominated to more

  7. Model-based studies into ground water movement, with water density depending on salt content. Case studies and model validation with respect to the long-term safety of radwaste repositories. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelkes, K.

    1995-12-01

    Near-to-reality studies into ground water movement in the environment of planned radwaste repositories have to take into account that the flow conditions are influenced by the water density which in turn depends on the salt content. Based on results from earlier studies, computer programs were established that allow computation and modelling of ground water movement in salt water/fresh water systems, and the programs were tested and improved according to progress of the studies performed under the INTRAVAL international project. The computed models of ground water movement in the region of the Gorlebener Rinne showed for strongly simplified model profiles that the developing salinity distribution varies very sensitively in response to the applied model geometry, initial input data for salinity distribution, time frame of the model, and size of the transversal dispersion length. The WIPP 2 INTRAVAL experiment likewise studied a large-area ground water movement system influenced by salt water. Based on the concept of a hydraulically closed, regional ground water system (basin model), a sectional profile was worked out covering all relevant layers of the cap rock above the salt formation planned to serve as a repository. The model data derived to describe the salt water/fresh water movements in this profile resulted in essential enlargements and modifications of the ROCKFLOW computer program applied, (relating to input data for dispersion modelling, particle-tracker, computer graphics interface), and yielded important information for the modelling of such systems (relating to initial pressure data at the upper margin, network enhancement for important concentration boundary conditions, or treatment of permeability contrasts). (orig.) [de

  8. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  9. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ''ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated

  10. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  11. The study of ground water movements about Guarani Aquifer system through Parana, Sao Paulo isotopes and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Lima Bittendourt, A.; Chemas Hindt, E.; Duarte, U.; Montano, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study relates tectonic features to hydrochemistry properties in order to show an example where the Guarany Aquifer behaves like a closed compartiment. This situation can be used as a model to other localities with similar geological structures where the aquifer is not recharged by modern waters, therefore, groundwater withdrawal from deep wells depletes the aquifer turning its exploitation not recommended. This study area was located inside the limits of the Ponta Grossa Arch, especially by the the Rio Alonzo and Sao Jeronimo-Curiuva lineaments. Among the waters that had been already classified in Sao Paulo and Parana States (Brazil), predominate the calcium-bicarbonate and sodiumbicarbonate types and the characteristic of the water in this particular case is sodiumsulfate- chloride type with TDS above 1000 mg/L

  12. Geochemical studies of fluoride and other water quality parameters of ground water in Dhule region Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dilip A; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Fursule, Ravindra A; Patil, Pravin O

    2010-07-01

    This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra State in India. The analysis was carried out for the parameters pH, DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biological oxygen demand), Cl-, NO3-, F-, S(2)-, total alkalinity, total solid, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness, calcium, magnesium, carbonate and noncarbonate hardness, and concentrations of calcium and magnesium. These parameters were compared against the standards laid down by World Health Organization (WHO) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for drinking water quality. High levels of NO(3)-, Cl-, F-, S(2)-, total solid, TDS, TSS, total hardness, magnesium and calcium have been found in the collected samples. From these observations, it has been found that fluoride is present as per the permissible limit (WHO 2003) in some of the villages studied, but both fluoride and nitrate levels are unacceptable in drinking water samples taken from several villages in Dhule. This is a serious problem and, therefore, requires immediate attention. Excess of theses impurities in water causes many diseases in plants and animals. This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra.

  13. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies of ground water from Botucatu Aquifer - Partial results for North region of Parana Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.B.G. da; Kimmelmann, A.A.; Cunha Reboucas, A. da

    1985-01-01

    The first results of an investigation, to study the flow path, the processes controlling the chemical composition, the recharge, as well as, the origin, apparent ages and dynamic of the groundwater of the Botucatu Aquifer in the Brazilian part of the Parana Basin (818.000 Km 2 ), using hydrochemical and environmental isotope technics ( 2 H, 18 O, 13 C, 3 H, 14 C), are presented. Samples of 20 deep wells, located in the northern part of the Basin (states of Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goias), were analysed. (Author) [pt

  14. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  15. Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in ground water studies - an example using electromagnetic soundings in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick; Hite, Laura; Carlson, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Time domain surface electromagnetic soundings, borehole induction logs, and other borehole logging techniques are used to construct a realistic model for the shallow subsurface hydraulic properties of unconsolidated sediments in south Florida. Induction logs are used to calibrate surface induction soundings in units of pore water salinity by correlating water sample specific electrical conductivity with the electrical conductivity of the formation over the sampled interval for a two‐layered aquifer model. Geophysical logs are also used to show that a constant conductivity layer model is appropriate for the south Florida study. Several physically independent log measurements are used to quantify the dependence of formation electrical conductivity on such parameters as salinity, permeability, and clay mineral fraction. The combined interpretation of electromagnetic soundings and induction logs was verified by logging three validation boreholes, confirming quantitative estimates of formation conductivity and thickness in the upper model layer, and qualitative estimates of conductivity in the lower model layer.

  16. Behavior of microorganisms in drinking water treatment by inductively coupled plasma system: Case study in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmiarti, Reni; Hazmi, Ariadi; Martynis, Munas; Sutopo, Ulung Muhammad; Li, Fusheng

    2018-02-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, such as total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and other coliforms (OC), were removed from groundwater by inductively coupled plasma system treatment in continuous flow experiments. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of flowrate and frequency on the behavior of microorganisms in drinking water treatment using inductively coupled plasma system (ICPS). The results showed that after 120 minutes of ICPS treatment, the removal efficiency with respect to TC, FC and OC decreased with increasing flowrate. The removal efficiency of FC was achieved at 100% in all runs. Compared to FC, the removal efficiencies with respect to TC and FC were lower than those with respect to TC and OC in the following order: FC >OC> TC. The disinfection yield of TC and OC significantly increased when the removal efficiency increased. The electromagnetic flux varied from 8.08±0.46 to 10.54±0.19 W/cm2. The results in the present work can be used to design a new technology for drinking water treatment to remove all pathogenic bacteria without using hazardous chemicals.

  17. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  18. Studies on 222Rn concentration in ground water using smart radon monitor and assessment of the radiation dose to the population of Mysuru city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, M.S.; Pruthvi Rani, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive elements originate from the earth's crust and make their way into air, water, food and eventually in to the living system. Even though 75% of the Earth's surface is covered by water, only about 0.3 % of the total water on the Earth is available for public use. The ground water contains trace amounts of radioactive elements and these radionuclides contribute significant amount of dose to living beings, through intake of water into the human body. Radon dissolved in water is released into air when it is used for cooking, drinking, bathing and washing purposes. Exposure of population to higher concentrations of radon and its progeny for a long time causes occurrence of lung cancer and pathological effects like respiratory functional changes. Radon is a main source of ionizing radiation of natural origin and the studies on radon concentrations in drinking water are of importance. A systematic study of 226 Ra and 222 Rn concentration in the drinking water samples was carried out in Mysuru city. The concentration of 226 Ra and 222 Rn was estimated in water samples using emanometry method employing scintillation cells and alpha counting system. The 222 Rn concentration in water was also measured using a Smart Radon Monitor (SRM) for comparison of the results. SRM is a technologically advanced real time, portable, radon monitor developed at BARC, Mumbai

  19. The determination of ground water quality based on the presence of Escherichia coli on populated area (a case study: Pasar Minggu, South Jakarta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, Y.; Rinanti, A.; Hendrawan, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine the quality of groundwater in densely populated areas in the Pasar Minggu district, which focuses on examination of Escherichia coli bacteria as biological parameters. E.coli analysis was conducted in 3 sub-districtin the Pasar Minggu district, South Jakarta (106° 45‧0″E - 6° 15‧40″S), which included Pejaten Barat, Jati Padang and Kebagusan sub-district based on topography. The method used is Most Probable Number (MPN), referring to SNI 01-2332.1-2006. The results showed that the presence of E. coli in the highest groundwater ranged from 1100 MPN/100 ml to > 1100 MPN/100 ml, present in Pejaten Barat sub-district (06° 16‧39 "S-106° 49‧48" E) whereas the lowest number ranged from 11.5 MPN/100 ml to 23 MPN/100 ml occurred in Jati Padang sub-district (06° 17‧6 "S - 106° 49‧48" E).The correlation test results show that the amount of E.coli in ground water is affected by the distance of the septic tank to the groundwater well. The amount of E.coli contained in groundwater is also increasing, 1100 MPN/100 ml in groundwater samples at 15 m depth. This study provides information that topography and water flow affect the amount of E. coli.

  20. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow, Transport, Age, and Particle Tracking near York, Nebraska, for a Study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to Public-Supply Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Landon, Matthew K.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Hornberger, George Z.

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of public-supply wells has resulted in public-health threats and negative economic effects for communities that must treat contaminated water or find alternative water supplies. To investigate factors controlling vulnerability of public-supply wells to anthropogenic and natural contaminants using consistent and systematic data collected in a variety of principal aquifer settings in the United States, a study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The area simulated by the ground-water flow model described in this report was selected for a study of processes influencing contaminant distribution and transport along the direction of ground-water flow towards a public-supply well in southeastern York, Nebraska. Ground-water flow is simulated for a 60-year period from September 1, 1944, to August 31, 2004. Steady-state conditions are simulated prior to September 1, 1944, and represent conditions prior to use of ground water for irrigation. Irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells were simulated using the Multi-Node Well package of the modular three-dimensional ground-water flow model code, MODFLOW-2000, which allows simulation of flow and solutes through wells that are simulated in multiple nodes or layers. Ground-water flow, age, and transport of selected tracers were simulated using the Ground-Water Transport process of MODFLOW-2000. Simulated ground-water age was compared to interpreted ground-water age in six monitoring wells in the unconfined aquifer. The tracer chlorofluorocarbon-11 was simulated directly using Ground-Water Transport for comparison with concentrations measured in six monitoring wells and one public supply well screened in the upper confined aquifer. Three alternative model simulations indicate that simulation results are highly sensitive to the distribution of multilayer well bores where leakage

  1. Transitions in midwestern ground water law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.A.; Clark, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ground-water law in eight states in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is examined, and a review of transitions in ground-water doctrines is presented. Two underlying themes in changing ground-water management are communicated. First, ground-water law is evolving from private property rules of capture based on the absolute ownership doctrines to rules requiring conservation and sharing of ground water as a public resource. Second, in both courts and state legislatures, a proactive role of ground-water management is emerging, again, with an emphasis on sharing. Both of these trends are apparent in the Midwest. In the last decade midwestern states have (1) seen significant shifts in court decisions on ground-water use with greater recognition of the reciprocal or mutually dependent nature of ground-water rights, and (2) seen increased legislative development of comprehensive ground-water management statutes that emphasize the reciprocal liabilities of ground-water use. These trends are examined and ground-water management programs discussed for eight states in the Midwest

  2. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  3. Testing and validation of numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions in fractured granites: A quantitative study of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero Huguet, J

    2001-07-01

    This work deals with numerical modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions through fractured media. These models have been developed within the framework of research activities founded by ENRESA , the Spanish Company for Nuclear Waste Management. This project is the result of a collaborative agreement between ENRESA and his equivalent Swedish Company (SKB) through the research project Task Force 5 of the Aspo Underground Laboratory. One of the objectives of this project is to assess quantitatively th hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced by the construction of a Deep Geological Repository in fractured granites. This is important because the new conditions altered construction impact will constitute the initial conditions for the repository closure stage. A second goo l of this work deals with testing the ability of current numerical tools to cope simultaneously with the complex hydrogeological and hydrochemical settlings, which are expected to take place in actual nuclear waste underground repositories constructed in crystalline fractured bed racks. This study has been undertaken through the performance of numerical models, which have subsequently been applied to simulate the hydrogeological and hydrochemical behavior of a granite massif, at a kilo metrical scale, during construction of the Aspo Hard Rock Underground Laboratory (Sweden). The Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory is a prototype, full-scale underground facility launched and operated by SKB. The main aim of the laboratory is to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The framework of this underground facility provides a unique opportunity to attempt the objectives of the present dissertation. (Author)

  4. Testing and validation of numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions in fractured granites: A quantitative study of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinero Huguet, J.

    2001-06-01

    This work deals with numerical modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions through fractured media. These models have been developed within the framework of research activities founded by ENRESA , the Spanish Company for Nuclear Waste Management. This project is the result of a collaborative agreement between ENRESA and his equivalent Swedish Company (SKB) through the research project Task Force 5 of the Aspo Underground Laboratory. One of the objectives of this project is to assess quantitatively th hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced by the construction of a Deep Geological Repository in fractured granites. This is important because the new conditions altered construction impact will constitute the initial conditions for the repository closure stage. A second goo l of this work deals with testing the ability of current numerical tools to cope simultaneously with the complex hydrogeological and hydrochemical settlings, which are expected to take place in actual nuclear waste underground repositories constructed in crystalline fractured bed racks. This study has been undertaken through the performance of numerical models, which have subsequently been applied to simulate the hydrogeological and hydrochemical behavior of a granite massif, at a kilo metrical scale, during construction of the Aspo Hard Rock Underground Laboratory (Sweden). The Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory is a prototype, full-scale underground facility launched and operated by SKB. The main aim of the laboratory is to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The framework of this underground facility provides a unique opportunity to attempt the objectives of the present dissertation. (Author)

  5. Peritoneal solute transport and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Simon J

    2014-12-01

    The speed with which small solutes cross the peritoneal membrane, termed peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR), is a key measure of individual membrane performance. PSTR can be quantified easily by using the 4-hour dialysate to plasma creatinine ratio, which, although only an approximation to the diffusive characteristics of the membrane, has been well validated clinically in terms of its relationship to patient survival and changes in longitudinal membrane function. This has led to changes in peritoneal dialysis modality use and dialysis prescription. An important determinant of PSTR is intraperitoneal inflammation, as exemplified by local interleukin 6 production, which is largely independent of systemic inflammation and its relationship to comorbid conditions and increased mortality. There is no strong evidence to support the contention that the peritoneal membrane in some individuals with high PSTR is qualitatively different at the start of treatment; rather, it represents a spectrum that is determined in part by genetic factors. Both clinical and experimental evidence support the view that persistent intraperitoneal inflammation, detected as a continuously high or increasing PSTR, may predispose the membrane to progressive fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between ground water and surface water in Taylor Slough and vicinity, Everglades National Park, South Florida; study methods and appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Jackson, J.M.; Mooney, R.H.; Choi, Jungyill

    2000-01-01

    The data presented in this report are products of an investigation that quantified interactions between ground water and surface water in Taylor Slough in Everglades National Park. Determining the extent of hydrologic interactions between wetland surface water and ground water in Taylor Slough is important because the balance of freshwater flow in the lower part of the Slough is uncertain. Although freshwater flows through Taylor Slough are quite small in comparison to Shark Slough (the larger of the two major sloughs in Everglades National Park), flows through Taylor Slough are especially important to the ecology of estuarine mangrove embayments of northeastern Florida Bay. Also, wetland and ground- water interactions must be quantified if their role in affecting water quality is to be determined. In order to define basic hydrologic characteristics of the wetland, depth of wetland peat was mapped, and hydraulic conductivity and vertical hydraulic gradients in peat were determined. During specific time periods representing both wet and dry conditions in the area, the distribution of major ions, nutrients, and water stable isotopes throughout the slough were determined. The purpose of chemical measurements was to identify an environmental tracer could be used to quantify ground-water discharge.

  7. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-01-01

    The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations ...

  8. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  9. Geocongress 84: 20. Geological congress of the Geological Society of South Africa. Abstracts: Pt. 2. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Only one article in the publication is relevant to INIS: Environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry in ground water studies. A very short review is given on the ground water resources of the Kalahari in Gordonia. Ground water in mining exploration and the geophysics of ground water and the methods used in the geophysics are discussed. The dolomitic aquifers, especially in the southern and western Transvaal and ground water models are also reviewed

  10. Study of superficial films and of electrochemical behaviour of some nickel base alloys and titanium base alloys in solution representation of granitic, argillaceous and salted ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quang, K.V.; Da Cunha Belo, M.; Benabed, M.S.; Bourelier, F.; Jallerat, N.; Pari, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of the stainless steels 304, 316 Ti, 25Cr-20Ni-Mo-Ti, nickel base alloys Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Ti and Ti-0.2% Pd alloy has been studied in the aerated or deaerated solutions at 20 0 C and 90 0 C whose compositions are representative of interstitial ground waters: granitic or clay waters or salt brine. The electrochemical techniques used are voltametry, polarization resistance and complexe impedance measurements. Electrochemical data show the respective influence of the parameters such as temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen, addition of soluble species chloride, fluoride, sulfide and carbonates, on which depend the corrosion current density, the passivation and the pitting potential. The inhibition efficiency of carbonate and bicarbonate activities against pitting corrosion is determined. In clay water at 90 0 C, Ti and Ti-Pd show very high passivation aptitude and a broad passive potential range. Alloying Pd increases cathodic overpotential and also transpassive potential. It makes the alloy less sensitive to the temperature effect. Optical Glow Discharge Spectra show three parts in the composition depth profiles of surface films on alloys. XPS and SIMS spectrometry analyses are also carried out. Electron microscopy observation shows that passive films formed on Ti and Ti-Pd alloy have amorphous structure. Analysis of the alloy constituents dissolved in solutions, by radioactivation in neutrons, gives the order of magnitude of the Ni base alloy corrosion rates in various media. It also points out the preferential dissolution of alloying iron and in certain cases of chromium

  11. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data

  12. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  13. Geologic studies to identify the source for high levels of radium and barium in illinois ground-water supplies: a preliminary report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, K.; Specht, S.A.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Griffin, R.A.; Larson, T.E.

    1978-08-01

    Analyses of water from municipal wells in Illinois by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency showed that more than 300 wells exceeded the upper limit for gross alpha radiation in drinking water. More than 30 wells exceeded the upper limit for barium in drinking water. High levels of radiation in ground water were more extensive in areal distribution than the high levels of barium. All of the affected wells were finished in bedrock, primarily in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems of northern Illinois. The geologic settings in which the high levels of radiation and barium were documented indicated that the problem was not restricted to Illinoise. The source of the radiation in ground water was thought to be the natural occurrence of the radioactive elements uranium-238 and thorium-232 in the aquifer rocks. Analyses of a limited number of rock samples indicated that uranium and thorium concentrations were highest in fine-grained sediments in the aquifer systems; the highest concentration was in shales that confine the aquifer. Chemical analyses of rock samples indicated that high concentrations of barium were widespread in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems. The concentration of barium in ground water was controlled by solubility equilibria reactions with sulfate ion. A map showing sulfate ion concentration in the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer could be used to delimit regions where barium might occur at concentrations exceeding 1 milligram/liter

  14. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  15. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  16. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  17. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  18. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  19. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  20. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  1. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    ground-water development have eliminated the natural sources of discharge, and pumping for agricultural and urban uses have become the primary source of discharge from the ground-water system. Infiltration of return flows from agricultural irrigation has become an important source of recharge to the aquifer system. The ground-water flow model of the basin was discretized horizontally into a grid of 43 rows and 60 columns of square cells 1 mile on a side, and vertically into three layers representing the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. Faults that were thought to act as horizontal-flow barriers were simulated in the model. The model was calibrated to simulate steady-state conditions, represented by 1915 water levels and transient-state conditions during 1915-95 using water-level and subsidence data. Initial estimates of the aquifer-system properties and stresses were obtained from a previously published numerical model of the Antelope Valley ground-water basin; estimates also were obtained from recently collected hydrologic data and from results of simulations of ground-water flow and land subsidence models of the Edwards Air Force Base area. Some of these initial estimates were modified during model calibration. Ground-water pumpage for agriculture was estimated on the basis of irrigated crop acreage and crop consumptive-use data. Pumpage for public supply, which is metered, was compiled and entered into a database used for this study. Estimated annual pumpage peaked at 395,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) in 1952 and then declined because of declining agricultural production. Recharge from irrigation-return flows was estimated to be 30 percent of agricultural pumpage; the irrigation-return flows were simulated as recharge to the regional water table 10 years following application at land surface. The annual quantity of natural recharge initially was based on estimates from previous studies. During model calibration, natural recharge was reduced from the initial

  2. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  3. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  4. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  5. Temporal variation of uranium in ground water with conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Chaudhury, Moushumi D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of uranium in drinking water sources is a matter of health concern since it has been proved to be chemo-toxic to humans. Uranium being a more soluble actinide is also very mobile in the environment. The effect of water quality parameters and their co-relation to uranium content in the water is an interesting study to understand and predict its behavior in ground water and subsequently to judge the hazard posed. Hence studies on spatial and temporal variation of uranium concentration with electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids and salinity in ground water was carried out. (author)

  6. Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) model: Formulation and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Kincaid, C.T.; Monti, A.M.

    1987-10-01

    The CFEST (Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport) code has been developed to analyze coupled hydrologic, thermal, and solute transport processes. It treats single-pahse Darcy ground-water flow in a horizontal or vertical plane, or in fully three-dimensional space under nonisothermal conditions. The code has the capability to model discontinuous and continuous layering, time-dependent and constant sources/sinks, and transient as well as steady-stae ground-water flow. The code offers a wide choice of boundary conditions such as precsribed heads, nodal injection or withdrawal, constant or spatially varying infiltration rates, and welemental source/sink. Initial conditions for the flow analysis can be prescribed pressure or hydraulic head. The heterogeneity in aquifer permeability and porosity can be described by geologic unit or explicity for given elements. Three-dimensional elelments are generated from user-defined well logs at each surface node. To facilitate interaction between disciplines, support programs are provided to plot the finite element grid, well logs, contour maps of input and output parameters, and vertical cross sections. Ground-water travel paths and times and volumetric rates from a specified point can be determined from support programs. This report includes governing partial differential equations, finite element formulation, a use's manual, verification test examples, sample problems, and source listings. 36 refs., 121 figs., 36 tabs

  7. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  8. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  9. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  10. Assessment of well vulnerability for groundwater source protection based on a solute transport model: a case study from Jilin City, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huan; Wang, Jinsheng; Lai, Desheng; Teng, Yanguo; Zhai, Yuanzheng

    2015-05-01

    Well vulnerability assessment is essential for groundwater source protection. A quantitative approach to assess well vulnerability in a well capture zone is presented, based on forward solute transport modeling. This method was applied to three groundwater source areas (Jiuzhan, Hadawan and Songyuanhada) in Jilin City, northeast China. The ratio of the maximum contaminant concentration at the well to the released concentration at the contamination source ( c max/ c 0) was determined as the well vulnerability indicator. The results indicated that well vulnerability was higher close to the pumping well. The well vulnerability in each groundwater source area was low. Compared with the other two source areas, the cone of depression at Jiuzhan resulted in higher spatial variability of c max/ c 0 and lower minimum c max/ c 0 by three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicated that the denitrification rate in the aquifer was the most sensitive with respect to well vulnerability. A process to derive a NO3-N concentration at the pumping well is presented, based on determining the maximum nitrate loading limit to satisfy China's drinking-water quality standards. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and prospects for improving the precision of this well vulnerability assessment approach are discussed.

  11. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  12. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.

  13. MODELING NITRATE CONCENTRATION IN GROUND WATER USING REGRESSION AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Nacha; Krishnan, Palaniappa; Bernard, John C.; Ritter, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in ground water is a major problem in specific agricultural areas. Using regression and neural networks, this study models nitrate concentration in ground water as a function of iron concentration in ground water, season and distance of the well from a poultry house. Results from both techniques are comparable and show that the distance of the well from a poultry house has a significant effect on nitrate concentration in groundwater.

  14. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  15. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  16. Solute transport in aggregated and layered porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.

    1993-01-01

    This work is a contribution to research in soil physics dealing with solute transport in porous media. The influence of structural inhomogeneities on solute transport is investigated. Detailed experiments at the laboratory scale are used to enlighten distinct processes which cannot be studied separately at field scale. Two main aspects are followed up: (i) to show the influence of aggregation of a porous medium on breakthrough time and spreading of an inert tracer and consequences on the estimation of parameter values of models describing solute transport in aggregated systems, (ii) to investigate the influences on the dispersion process when stratification is perpendicular to the direction of flow. Several concepts of modelling solute transport in soil are discussed. Models based on the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) are emphasized because they are used here to model solute transport experiments conducted with aggregated porous media. Stochastic concepts are introduced to show the limitations of the deterministic CDE approaches. Experiments are done in columns containing two kinds of solid phases and were saturated with water. The solid phases are porous and solid glass beads exhibiting a distinctly unimodal or bimodal pore size distribution. Experimental breakthrough curves (BTCs) are modelled with the CDE, a bicontinuum model with a phenomenological mass transfer rate and a bicontinuum spherical diffusion model. Experiments are also done in columns that are unsaturated containing porous materials that are layered. Flow is made at a steady rate. It is shown that layer boundaries have a severe influence on lateral mixing. They may force streamlines to converge or cause a lateral redistribution of solutes. (author) figs., tabs., 122 refs

  17. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods

  18. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  19. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  20. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  1. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  2. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  3. Natural isotope technique for the exploration and exploitation of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Abidin; Hudi Hastowo; Aang Hanafiah

    2007-01-01

    In line with the condition of climate and hydrology, Indonesia has a fast amount of aquifers which are sources of ground water. In several areas large number of springs occurred with small to large debits which is a sign of ground water potential. Ground water is a potential reservoir to be use at maximum for several purposes such as drinking water, industry and tourism. Large cities such as Jakarta, Bandung and others depend on ground water for their industries and hotels. The exploitation of ground water use has to be controlled and monitoring of a management system have to be done. Research carried out only on the exploitation of geophysics and hydrology showed that the amount of ground water reservoirs is not enough to be used when it comes to justification to explore it. Other parameters are still be needed which are the origins and dating of the ground water, these last two factors mentioned have to be taken into consideration in the system of conversion and balance of water. An alternative technology to determine the two factors mentioned in a short time is the natural isotope technique of 18 O, 2 H and 14 C. This technique is used to determine the origin of water, and isotope 14 C is carried out to determine the age of ground water. Isotopes 18 H and 2 H are stable isotopes in the form of water and is integrated in the hydrological cycle. Their specific concentrations in rain water at several elevations are used as fingerprints to locate the area of ground water supplement and its origin. Isotope 14 C is a natural radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5.730 years and is found in the hydrology cycle and enters the ground water system through CO 2 gas which is dissolved in water. 14 C isotope could determine the age of ground water and is also able to indicate the potential/amount of ground water. Studies of exploration and exploration monitoring of ground water should be an integrated study by geohydrology, geophysics and isotope and could be a solution of

  4. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. The ground water chemical characteristics of Beishan area-the China's potential high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianxiao; Guo Yonghai

    2004-01-01

    The ground water chemical characteristics have impact on nuclide migration in high level waste repository, so the study on the ground water chemical characteristics is an important aspect in site screening and characterization. The geochemical modeling of the reaction trend between ground water and solid phase, the water-rock interaction modeling of the formation and evolution of ground water chemistry, the modeling of the reaction between ground water and nuclear waste are all carried out in this paper to study the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area. The study illustrates that the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area is favorable to the disposal of high level nuclear waste and to prevent the nuclides migration. (author)

  6. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  7. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  8. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support

  9. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  10. New numerical method for solving the solute transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Koplik, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The solute transport equation can be solved numerically by approximating the water flow field by a network of stream tubes and using a Green's function solution within each stream tube. Compared to previous methods, this approach permits greater computational efficiency and easier representation of small discontinuities, and the results are easier to interpret physically. The method has been used to study hypothetical sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

  11. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples

  12. Effects Disposal Condition and Ground Water to Leaching Rate of Radionuclides from Solidification Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlan Martono; Wati

    2008-01-01

    Effects disposal condition and ground water to leaching rate of radionuclides from solidification products have been studied. The aims of leaching test at laboratory to get the best composition of solidified products for continuous process or handling. The leaching rate of radionuclides from the many kinds of matrix from smallest to bigger are glass, thermosetting plastic, urea formaldehyde, asphalt, and cement. Glass for solidification of high level waste, thermosetting plastic and urea formaldehyde for solidification of low and intermediate waste, asphalt and cement for solidification of low and intermediate level waste. In shallow land burial, ground water rate is fast, debit is high, and high permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is occur. The pH of ground water increasing leaching rate, but cation in the ground water retard leaching rate. Effects temperature radiation and radiolysis to solidification products is not occur. In the deep repository, ground water rate is slow, debit is small, and low permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is very small. There are effect cooling time and distance between pits to rock temperature. Alfa radiation effects can be occur, but there is no contact between solidification products and ground water, so that there is not radiolysis. (author)

  13. Nitrogen-isotope ratios of nitrate in ground water under fertilized fields, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, W.J.; Bonner, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the 15N/14N ratios (??15N values) of fertilizer are increased during transit from land surface to ground water to an extent which would preclude use of this ratio to distinguish agricultural from animal sources of nitrate in ground water. Ground water at both sites contained a greater proportion of 15N than the fertilizers being applied. At the potato farm, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was 0.2???; the average ??15N value of the ground-water nitrate was 6.2???. At the golf course, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was -5.9???, and that of ground-water nitrate was 6.5???. The higher ??15N values of ground-water nitrate are probably caused by isotopic fractionation during the volatile loss of ammonia from nitrogen applied in reduced forms (NH4+ and organic-N). The ??15N values of most ground-water samples from both areas were less than 10???, the upper limit of the range characteristic of agricultural sources of nitrate; these sources include both fertilizer nitrate and nitrate derived from increased mineralization of soil nitrogen through cultivation. Previous studies have shown that the ??15N values of nitrate derived from human or animal waste generally exceed 10???. The nitrogen-isotope ratios of fertilizer-derived nitrate were not altered to an extent that would make them indistinguishable from animal-waste-derived nitrates in ground water.Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to

  14. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  15. GROUND WATER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREA, CASE STUDY FROM MACHANG-MALAYSIA (Penilaian Air Tanah di Daerah Pertanian, Studi Kasus di Machang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Islami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study area is located in Machang, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. Hydrogeochemical method was used to study groundwater of shallow aquifer characters within the area. Based on water samples analysis collected from the study area, it can be deduced that the cations and anions concentration are good for domestic use except in the southern region which the nitrate concentration is higher (more than 20 mg/l compared to the northern region (relatively zero. The areas that possibly possess nitrate-contaminated groundwater have been mapped along with groundwater flow patterns. The southern and middle part of the study area has an east to west groundwater flow pattern, making it impossible for contaminated water from the southern region to enter the northern area, despite in the northern area has lower elevation. ABSTRAK Lokasi area studi adalah berada di Machang, Kelantan Utara – Malaysia. Dataran tanah wilayah Kelantan Utara dilapisi oleh batuan Sedimen Kuarter yang mana batuan granit sebagai batuan dasar. Sistem pengairan adalah berbentuk jaringan dendritik dengan sungai utama mengalir ke Laut Cina Selatan. Metoda hydrogeochemical digunakan untuk mempelajari karakter air tanah dari akuifer dangkal untuk keseluruhan area studi. Berdasarkan pada analisa air yang diperoleh dari area studi, dapat disimpulkan bahwa konsentrasi kation dan anion baik digunakan untuk kehidupan sehari hari kecuali air tanah di area sebelah selatan yang mana kandungan nitratnya tinggi (lebih dari 20 mg/l dibandingkan di area sebelah utara (hampir tidak ada kandungan nitrat. Area yang memungkinkan memiliki konsentrasi nitrat pada air tanah dipetakan dengan kombinasi pola aliran air tanah. Pola aliran air tanah di area belahan selatan dan bagian tengah adalah dari timur ke barat yang mana tidak

  16. Estimating Natural Recharge in a Desert Environment Facing Increasing Ground-Water Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.; Izbicki, J. A.; Hevesi, J. A.; Martin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin, and ground-water withdrawals averaging about 960 acre-ft/yr have resulted in as much as 35 ft of drawdown. As growth continues in the desert, ground-water resources may need to be supplemented using imported water. To help meet future demands, JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. To manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. To this end, field and numerical techniques were applied to determine the distribution and quantity of natural recharge. Field techniques included the installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Numerical techniques included the use of a distributed-parameter watershed model and a ground-water flow model. The results from the field techniques indicated that as much as 70 acre-ft/yr of water infiltrated downward through the two principal washes during the study period (2001-3). The results from the watershed model indicated that the average annual recharge in the ground-water subbasins is about 160 acre-ft/yr. The results from the calibrated ground-water flow model indicated that the average annual recharge for the same area is about 125 acre-ft/yr. Although the field and numerical techniques were applied to different scales (local vs. large), all indicate that natural recharge in the Joshua Tree area is very limited; therefore, careful management of the limited ground-water resources is needed. Moreover, the calibrated model can now be used to estimate the effects of different water-management strategies on the ground-water

  17. Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

    2013-07-15

    Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of Ground water Groundwater Potentiality and Sea Water Intrusion Along along the Coastal Plain, Wadi Thuwal, KSA- A Case Study Based on DC Resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour A. Al-Garni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study mainly aims to outline zones that have groundwater potentiality with good quality and those which are affected by sea water intrusion. The electrical resistivity data were acquired over an area of about 170 km2 of a coastal plain, Wadi Thuwal, which is bounded by the Red Sea in the west and the volcanic hills in the east.  In such an area, resistivity measurements, using n-layering model, reveal generally reveal a wide range of resistivity values which do not reflect the reality. Hence, the statistical analysis has to be involved to overcome this problem and to make the final interpretation reliable.  In our case, the n-layer models were modified to another statistical geoelectric models (SLM, consisting of  a number of layers equivalent to the stratigraphic layering beneath each VES site. The modified models were used to outline the depth to the bed rock, groundwater accumulation zones and  water table as well as to define the effect of sea water intrusion through the study area. Check alignment above

  19. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  20. Purification of arsenic contaminated ground water using hydrated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, N.; Swain, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed for the separation of arsenic from ground water using inorganic material in neutral medium. The separation procedure involves the quantitative retention of arsenic on hydrated manganese dioxide, in neutral medium. The validity of the separation procedure has been checked by a standard addition method and radiotracer studies. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), a powerful measurement technique, has been used for the quantitative determination of arsenic. (author)

  1. The isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    An intensive hydrological and geophysical survey of fresh water occurance in the Gordonia area, promoted a parallel study of the isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of both the fresh and saline ground waters of the area. Measurements of 14 C, 3 H, 13 C and 18 O as well of major element hydrochemistry were conducted on numerous samples. Radiocarbon concentrations range from 6 pmc to 111 pmc. Significant tritium is only observed in cases where 14 C concentrations are significantly higher than 90 pmc

  2. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  3. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  4. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  5. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  6. Environmental isotope observations on Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental isotope measurements have been conducted on the outputs of some of the main dewatering points in both north and south mining areas as well as on numerous other observation points in the Sishen compartment. The effect of the dykes bounding the compartment could be observed from the behaviour of the isotopic composition of ground waters in the conduit zone. Measurements were done on radiocarbon, tritium oxygen-18 and carbon-13

  7. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  8. VS2DRTI: Simulating Heat and Reactive Solute Transport in Variably Saturated Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W; Haile, Sosina S; Parkhurst, David L; Charlton, Scott R

    2018-01-29

    Variably saturated groundwater flow, heat transport, and solute transport are important processes in environmental phenomena, such as the natural evolution of water chemistry of aquifers and streams, the storage of radioactive waste in a geologic repository, the contamination of water resources from acid-rock drainage, and the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Up to now, our ability to simulate these processes simultaneously with fully coupled reactive transport models has been limited to complex and often difficult-to-use models. To address the need for a simple and easy-to-use model, the VS2DRTI software package has been developed for simulating water flow, heat transport, and reactive solute transport through variably saturated porous media. The underlying numerical model, VS2DRT, was created by coupling the flow and transport capabilities of the VS2DT and VS2DH models with the equilibrium and kinetic reaction capabilities of PhreeqcRM. Flow capabilities include two-dimensional, constant-density, variably saturated flow; transport capabilities include both heat and multicomponent solute transport; and the reaction capabilities are a complete implementation of geochemical reactions of PHREEQC. The graphical user interface includes a preprocessor for building simulations and a postprocessor for visual display of simulation results. To demonstrate the simulation of multiple processes, the model is applied to a hypothetical example of injection of heated waste water to an aquifer with temperature-dependent cation exchange. VS2DRTI is freely available public domain software. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  10. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  11. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  12. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  13. Predictive capabilities of a two-dimensional model in the ground water transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.; Beskid, N.J.; Marmer, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The discharge of low-level radioactive waste into tailings ponds is a potential source of ground water contamination. The estimation of the radiological hazards related to the ground water transport of radionuclides from tailings retention systems depends on reasonably accurate estimates of the movement of both water and solute. A two-dimensional mathematical model having predictive capability for ground water flow and solute transport has been developed. The flow equation has been solved under steady-state conditions and the mass transport equation under transient conditions. The simultaneous solution of both equations is achieved through the finite element technique using isoparametric elements, based on the Galerkin formulation. However, in contrast to the flow equation solution, the weighting functions used in the solution of the mass transport equation have a non-symmetric form. The predictive capability of the model is demonstrated using an idealized case based on analyses of field data obtained from the sites of operating uranium mills. The pH of the solution, which regulates the variation of the distribution coefficient (K/sub d/) in a particular site, appears to be the most important factor in the assessment of the rate of migration of the elements considered herein

  14. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992

  15. Colloid Detection in Natural Ground Water from Ruprechtov by Laser-Induced Breakdown Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, W.; Geckeis, H.; Goetz, R. [FZK - Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Ka rlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: hauser@ine.fzk.de; Noseck, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Laciok, A. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc, Waste and Environmental Management Dept., Husinec-Rez, PSC 250 68 (Czech Republic)

    2007-06-15

    A borehole ground water sampling system and a mobile laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) equipment for colloid detection combined with a geomonitoring unit have been applied to characterize the natural background colloid concentration in ground waters of the Ruprechtov natural analogue site (Czech Republic). Ground water has been sampled using steel cylinders. To minimize artifacts during ground water sampling the contact to atmospheric oxygen has been excluded. The ground water samples collected in this way are transported to the laboratory where they have been connected to a series of flow-through detection cells. Argon gas is used to press the ground water through these detection cells for colloid analysis (LIBD), pH, Eh, electrical conductivity and oxygen content. After the above mentioned analysis additional samples are taken for chemical analysis by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, IC- and DOC-detection. Our data obtained by in-situ- and laboratory- measurements point out that the natural colloid concentration found at the Ruprechtov site is a strong function of the ground water ionic strength. The LIBD determined natural background colloid concentrations found at Ruprechtov are compared with data of studies performed in Aespoe (Sweden) and Grimsel (Switzerland)

  16. Solute transport dynamics in small, shallow groundwater-dominated agricultural catchments: insights from a high-frequency, multisolute 10 yr-long monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Aubert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency, long-term and multisolute measurements are required to assess the impact of human pressures on water quality due to (i the high temporal and spatial variability of climate and human activity and (ii the fact that chemical solutes combine short- and long-term dynamics. Such data series are scarce. This study, based on an original and unpublished time series from the Kervidy-Naizin headwater catchment (Brittany, France, aims to determine solute transfer processes and dynamics that characterise this strongly human-impacted catchment. The Kervidy-Naizin catchment is a temperate, intensive agricultural catchment, hydrologically controlled by shallow groundwater. Over 10 yr, five solutes (nitrate, sulphate, chloride, and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon were monitored daily at the catchment outlet and roughly every four months in the shallow groundwater. The concentrations of all five solutes showed seasonal variations but the patterns of the variations differed from one solute to another. Nitrate and chloride exhibit rather smooth variations. In contrast, sulphate as well as organic and inorganic carbon is dominated by flood flushes. The observed nitrate and chloride patterns are typical of an intensive agricultural catchment hydrologically controlled by shallow groundwater. Nitrate and chloride originating mainly from organic fertilisers accumulated over several years in the shallow groundwater. They are seasonally exported when upland groundwater connects with the stream during the wet season. Conversely, sulphate as well as organic and inorganic carbon patterns are not specific to agricultural catchments. These solutes do not come from fertilisers and do not accumulate in soil or shallow groundwater; instead, they are biogeochemically produced in the catchment. The results allowed development of a generic classification system based on the specific temporal patterns and source locations of each solute. It also considers the

  17. Ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is a former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in ground water beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define ground water contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Solving this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  18. Implications of an assessment of potential organic contamination of ground water at an inactive uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Laws and regulations concerning remedial actions at inactive uranium mills explicitly recognize radiological and nonradiological hazards and may implicitly recognize the potential presence of hazardous wastes at these mill sites. Ground-water studies at the sites have placed an increasing emphasis on screening for priority pollutants. The Grand Junction, Colorado, mill site was deemed to have a high potential for the presence of organic compounds in ground water, and was chosen as a prototype for assessing the presence of organic compounds in ground water at inactive sites. Lessons learned from the assessment of organics at the Grand Junction site were used to develop a screening procedure for other inactive mill sites

  19. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  20. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  1. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  2. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  3. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  4. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992

  6. Hydrographs Showing Ground-Water Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Lower Skagit River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasser, E.T.; Julich, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrographs for selected wells in the Lower Skagit River basin, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate monthly and seasonal changes in ground-water levels in the study area. Ground-water level data and well information were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey using standard techniques and were stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) System.

  7. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  8. Geologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lite, Kenneth E.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2002-12-10

    Ground water is increasingly relied upon to satisfy the needs of a growing population in the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon. Hydrogeologic studies are being undertaken to aid in management of the ground-water resource. An understanding of the geologic factors influencing ground-water flow is basic to those investigations. The geology of the area has a direct effect on the occurrence and movement of ground water. The permeability and storage properties of rock material are influenced by the proportion, size, and degree of interconnection of open spaces the rocks contain. These properties are the result of primary geologic processes such as volcanism and sedimentation, as well as subsequent processes such as faulting, weathering, or hydrothermal alteration. The geologic landscape in the study area evolved during about 30 million years of volcanic activity related to a north-south trending volcanic arc, the current manifestation of which are today’s Cascade Range volcanoes.

  9. Application of the resistivity method to study ground water potentialities on a part of the entrance of wadi el-assiuti, Eastern desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bekheit, A. A. [ابو ضيف عبلا العال بخيت; Senosy, M. A.; Riad, S.; Omran, A. A.; Ibrahim, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Wadi El-Assiuti is located east of Assiut city and extends in almost northeast direction. The entrance of the wadi is suitable site for reclamation and city planning projects. Consequently, it is very important to study the groundwater potentialities of this part of Assiut governorate. Electrical resistivity measurements included 29 vertical electrical sounding (VES) applying Schlumberger layout were carried out. The obtained VES-curves were quantitatively interpreted to deduce the correspond...

  10. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Ehrnsten, U.; Saario, T.

    1996-05-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  11. Delineation of ground water potential zones using GIS and remote sensing - A case study from midland region of Vamanapuram river basin, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Geena; Vinod P., G.; John, Shaleena Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    In a highly rugged terrain, shielded by hard crystalline rocks like that of Kerala, locating potential zones of groundwater is found to be an unenviable task. Remote sensing and Geographical information system technologies have been attempted widely to delineate the potential regions in such terrain. Geographical information system tool has been used for delineation of groundwater prospect zones in midland physiographic zone (30-200m) of Vamanapuram river basin. The terrain variables are generated using satellite imageries, SRTM DEM data of 30m resolution and SOI toposheets. The groundwater prospect zones were delineated through the integration of the reclassified raster map layers of geomorphology, slope percent, geology, land use / land cover and soil texture using the weighted overlay analysis in the GIS platform. The groundwater prospects in the study area were grouped into five classes and their distribution are; `very high/high' (8.79%), `moderate' (39.08%), and `very low / low' (52.01%). The study result of the area has been validated with water level data of dug wells and bore wells of the area. The spatial distribution map of the water level of the region is overlaid on groundwater prospect map and shows a positive correlation i.e., the water level at shallow depth in higher prospect zones and at deeper depth in poor to very poor zones. The Groundwater prospect map of midland region of Vamanapuram river basin can be used as base level information which can be further investigated with geophysical methods to locate potential well sites for the execution of water supply schemes.

  12. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  13. Surface-ground water interactions and hydrogeochemical evolution in a fluvio-deltaic setting: The case study of the Pinios River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Paraskevopoulou, Vasiliki; Lazogiannis, Konstantinos; Botsou, Fotini; Dassenakis, Manos; Ghionis, George; Alexopoulos, John D.; Poulos, Serafim E.

    2018-06-01

    River deltas sustain important ecosystems with rich biodiversity and large biomass, as well as human populations via the availability of water and food sources. Anthropogenic activities, such as urbanization, tourism and agriculture, may pose threats to river deltas. The knowledge of the factors controlling the regional water quality regime in these areas is important for planning sustainable use and management of the water resources. Here, hydrochemical methods and multivariate statistical techniques were combined to investigate the shallow aquifer of the Pinios River (Thessaly) deltaic plain with respect to water quality, hydrogeochemical evolution and interactions between groundwater and surface water bodies. Water quality assessment indicated that most of the river and groundwater samples fully comply with the criteria set by the Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC). The river is recharged mainly from springs of the Tempi valley and the shallow aquifer, and to a lesser degree from precipitation, throughout the year. The hydrogeochemical characteristics indicated a cation (Ca, Mg, and Na) bicarbonate water type, which evolves to calcium-chloride, sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-chloride water type, in the northern part of the delta. Calcite and dolomite dissolution determined the major ion chemistry, but other processes, such as silicate weathering and cation exchange reactions, also contributed. In the northern part of the plain, the interaction with the deeper aquifer enriched the shallow aquifer with Na and Cl ions. Principal Component Analysis showed that five components (PCs) explain 77% of the total variance of water quality parameters; these are: (1) salinity; (2) water-silicate rocks interaction; (3) hardness due to calcite dissolution, and cation exchange processes; (4) nitrogen pollution; and (5) non-N-related artificial fertilizers. This study demonstrated that the variation of water hydrochemistry in the deltaic plain could be attributed to natural and

  14. Coupled geochemical and solute transport code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, J.R.; Hostetler, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of coupled geochemical hydrologic codes have been reported in the literature. Some of these codes have directly coupled the source-sink term to the solute transport equation. The current consensus seems to be that directly coupling hydrologic transport and chemical models through a series of interdependent differential equations is not feasible for multicomponent problems with complex geochemical processes (e.g., precipitation/dissolution reactions). A two-step process appears to be the required method of coupling codes for problems where a large suite of chemical reactions must be monitored. Two-step structure requires that the source-sink term in the transport equation is supplied by a geochemical code rather than by an analytical expression. We have developed a one-dimensional two-step coupled model designed to calculate relatively complex geochemical equilibria (CTM1D). Our geochemical module implements a Newton-Raphson algorithm to solve heterogeneous geochemical equilibria, involving up to 40 chemical components and 400 aqueous species. The geochemical module was designed to be efficient and compact. A revised version of the MINTEQ Code is used as a parent geochemical code

  15. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibla, O.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO 3 ''-''-), nitrite (No 2 ''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO 4 ''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO 3 ''-''-,HCO 3 ''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from physical and chemical

  16. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibla, O A.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Graduate Studies, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-01-15

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO{sub 3}''-''-), nitrite (No{sub 2}''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO{sub 4}''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO{sub 3}''-''-,HCO{sub 3}''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from

  17. Respiration testing for bioventing and biosparging remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, A.L.; Brown, A.; Moore, B.J.; Payne, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Respiration tests were performed to measure the effect of subsurface aeration on the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in vadose zone soils (bioventing) and ground water (biosparging). The aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contamination is typically limited by the absence of oxygen in the soil and ground water. Therefore, the goal of these bioremediation technologies is to increase the oxygen concentration in the subsurface and thereby enhance the natural aerobic biodegradation of the organic contamination. One case study for biosparging bioremediation testing is presented. At this site atmospheric air was injected into the ground water to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ground water surrounding a well, and to aerate the smear zone above the ground water table. Aeration flow rates of 3 to 8 cfm (0.09 to 0.23 m 3 /min) were sufficient to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates of 32 to 47 microg/l/hour were calculated based on measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in ground water. The results of this test have demonstrated that biosparging enhances the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, but the results as they apply to remediation are not known. Two case studies for bioventing respiration testing are presented

  18. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  19. A review and assessment of variable density ground water flow effects on plume formation at UMTRA project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A standard assumption when evaluating the migration of plumes in ground water is that the impacted ground water has the same density as the native ground water. Thus density is assumed to be constant, and does not influence plume migration. This assumption is valid only for water with relatively low total dissolved solids (TDS) or a low difference in TDS between water introduced from milling processes and native ground water. Analyses in the literature suggest that relatively minor density differences can significantly affect plume migration. Density differences as small as 0.3 percent are known to cause noticeable effects on the plume migration path. The primary effect of density on plume migration is deeper migration than would be expected in the arid environments typically present at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, where little or no natural recharge is available to drive the plume into the aquifer. It is also possible that at some UMTRA Project sites, a synergistic affect occurred during milling operations, where the mounding created by tailings drainage (which created a downward vertical gradient) and the density contrast between the process water and native ground water acted together, driving constituents deeper into the aquifer than either process would alone. Numerical experiments were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey saturated unsaturated transport (SUTRA) model. This is a finite-element model capable of simulating the effects of variable fluid density on ground water flow and solute transport. The simulated aquifer parameters generally are representative of the Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site where some of the highest TDS water from processing has been observed

  20. Copepod communities from surface and ground waters in the everglades, south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M.C.; Cunningham, K.J.; Perry, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We studied species composition and individual abundance of copepods in the surficial aquifer northeast of Everglades National Park. We identified the spatial distribution of subsurface habitats by assessing the depth of the high porosity layers in the limestone along a canal system, and we used copepods to assess the exchange between surface water and ground water along canal banks, at levels in the wells where high porosity connections to the canals exist. Surface- and ground-water taxa were defined, and species composition was related to areal position, sampling depth, and time. Subsurface copepod communities were dominated by surface copepods that disperse into the aquifer following the groundwater seepage along canal L-31N. The similarities in species composition between wells along canal reaches, suggest that copepods mainly enter ground water horizontally along canals via active and passive dispersal. Thus, the copepod populations indicate continuous connections between surface- and ground waters. The most abundant species were Orthocyclops modestus, Arctodiaptomus floridanus, Mesocyclops edax, and Thermocyclops parvus, all known in literature from surface habitats; however, these species have been collected in ground water in ENP. Only two stygophiles were collected: Diacylcops nearcticus and Diacyclops crassicaudis brachycercus. Restoration of the Everglades ecosystem requires a mosaic of data to reveal a complete picture of this complex system. The use of copepods as indicators of seepage could be a tool in helping to assess the direction and the duration of surface and ground water exchange.

  1. Statistical analysis of ground-water contamination at the alert apron and northern landfill areas of Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, P.; Naber, S.; Verducci, J.

    1988-07-01

    Two plumes of contamination are analyzed to determine their extent, composition, and movement. The large number of ground-water monitoring wells sampled over the past eight years at Wurtsmith AFB allow this analysis to be performed directly from empirical data, with minimal assumptions about solute transport mechanisms. Conclusions are drawn about the likely sources of contamination in the two plumes, the adequacy of the data for making risk assessments, and the likely consequences of alternative programs of remediation.

  2. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  3. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  4. Plutonium radionuclides in the ground waters at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Marsh, K.; Eagle, R.; Holladay, G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1974 a groundwater program was initiated at Eniwetok Atoll to study systematically the hydrology and the ground water geochemistry on selected islands of the Atoll. The program provides chemical and radiochemical data for assessment of water quality on those islands designated for rehabilitation. These and other data are used to interpret the mechanisms by which radionuclides are cycled in the soil-groundwater system. Because of the international concern over the long-term buildup, availability, and transport of plutonium in the environment, this program emphasizes analysis of the element. The results of the study show that on all islands sampled, small quantities of plutonium radionuclides have migrated through the soil columns and are redistributed throughout the groundwater reservoirs. The observed maximum surface concentrations are less than 0.02 percent of the maximal recommended concentration for drinking water. Concentrations of 137 Cs are found to correlate with water freshness, but those of 239 , 240 Pu show no such relationship. The mechanisms moving 239 , 240 Pu through the ground water reservoirs are independent of the processes controlling the cycling of 137 Cs and fresh water. A reasonable linear correlation is found between mean surface-water concentrations and soil burdens. This indicates that the quantities of 239 , 240 Pu migrating to the groundwater surface layers are, to a first approximation, independent of the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the islands. (auth)

  5. National water summary 1986; Hydrologic events and ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David W.; Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    -scale, or nonpoint, sources of contamination such as agricultural activities or highdensity domestic waste disposal (septic systems) in urban centers. At present, only a very small percentage of the total volume of potable ground water in the United States is contaminated from both point and nonpoint sources; however, available data, especially data about the occurrence of synthetic organic and toxic substances, generally are inadequate to determine the full extent of ground-water contamination in the Nation's aquifers or to define trends in groundwater quality. Most information about the occurrence of these substances has come from the study of individual sites or areas where contamination had already been detected or suspected.Management and protection of ground water present a major challenge to the Nation. Current and projected costs of detection and cleanup of existing ground-water contamination are staggering and, even so, complete removal of pollutants from ground water in the vicinity of some waste sites might not be technically feasible. At all levels of government, the task of protecting the resource for its most beneficial uses is difficult and controversial.Despite increasing awareness that some of the Nation's ground water is contaminated with a variety of toxic metals, synthetic organic chemicals, radionuclides, pesticides, and other contaminants that might present a long-term risk to human health, public policy towards ground-water protection is still in the formative stages. Despite increasing efforts devoted to ground-water protection by State and Federal regulatory and resource-management agencies, the extent of ground-water contamination is likely to appear to increase over the next few years because more agencies will be searching for evidence of contamination, and they will be using increasingly sensitive analytical procedures. Increased technology and expanded monitoring activities probably will detect the effects of past contamination and land uses on

  6. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer

  7. Ground water quality evaluation in Beed city, Maharashtra, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters into consideration. The present investigation is aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of ground water and to assess the impact of pollutants due to agriculture ...

  8. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards

  9. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  10. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified in...

  11. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  12. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  13. Evaluation of Front Morphological Development of Reactive Solute Transport Using Behavior Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Sheng Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While flowing through porous medium, ground water flow dissolves minerals thereby in creasing medium porosity and ultimately permeability. Reactive fluid flows preferentially into highly permeable zones, which are therefore dissolved most rapidly, producing a further preferential permeability enhancement. Accordingly, slight non-uniformities present in porous medium can be amplified and lead to fingering reaction fronts. The objective of this study is to investigate dissolution-induced porosity changes on reaction front morphology in homogeneous porous medium with two non-uniformities. Four controlling parameters, including up stream pressure gradient, reaction rate constant, non-uniformities spacing and non-uniformity strength ratio are comprehensively considered. By using a modified version of the numerical code, NSPCRT, to conduct a series of numerical simulations, front behavior diagrams are constructed to illustrate the morphologies of reaction fronts under various combinations of these four factors. Simulation results indicate that the two non-uniformities are inhibited into a planar front under low up stream pressure gradient, merge into a single-fingering front under inter mediate up stream pressure gradient, or grow into a double-fingers front under high up stream pressure gradient. More over, the two non-uniformities tend to develop intoadouble-fingering front as the non-uniformity strength ratio in creases from 0.2 to 1.0, and merge into a single-fingering front while the non-uniformity strength ratio in creases from 1.0 to 1.8. When the reaction rate constant is small, the two non-uniformities merge into a single front. Reaction rate constant significantly affects front advancing velocity. The front advancing velocity decreases with the reaction rate constant. Based on these results, front behavior diagrams which de fine the morphologies of the reaction fronts for these four parameters are constructed. Moreover, non

  14. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  15. Preliminary report on the geology and ground-water supply of the Newark, New Jersey, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpers, Henry; Barksdale, Henry C.

    1951-01-01

    In the Newark area, ground water is used chiefly for industrial cooling, air-conditioning, general processing, and for sanitary purposes. A small amount is used in the manufacture of beverages. Total ground-water pumpage in Newark is estimated at not less than 20,000,000 gallons daily. The Newark area is underlain by formations of Recent, Pleistocene and Triassic age, and the geology and hydrologic properties of these formations are discussed. Attention is called to the important influence of a buried valley in the rock floor beneath the Newark area on the yield of wells located within it. Data on the fluctuation of the water levels and the variation in pumpage are presented, and their significance discussed. The results of a pumping test made during the investigation were inconclusive. The beneficial results of artificially recharging the aquifers in one part of the area are described. The intrusion of salt water into certain parts of the ground-water body is described and graphically portrayed by a map showing the chloride concentration of the ground water in various parts of the City. Insofar as available data permit, the chemical quality of the ground water is discussed and records are given of the ground-water temperatures in various parts of the City. There has been marked lowering of the water table in the eastern part of the area, accompanied by salt water intrusion, indicating that the safe yield of the formations in this part of Newark has probably been exceeded. It is recommended that the study of the ground-water resources of this area be continued, and that artificial recharging of the aquifers be increased over as wide an area as possible.

  16. Solute transport in fractured rock - applications to radionuclide waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1990-12-01

    Flow and solute transport in fractured rocks has been intensively studied in the last decade. The increased interest is mainly due to the plans in many countries to site repositories for high level nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. All investigated crystalline rocks have been found to be fractured and most of the water flows in the fractures and fracture zones. The water transports dissolved species and radionuclides. It is thus of interest to be able to understand and to do predictive modelling of the flowrate of water, the flowpaths and the residence times of the water and of the nuclides. The dissolved species including the nuclides will interact with the surrounding rock in different ways and will in many cases be strongly retarded relative to the water velocity. Ionic species may be ion exchanged or sorbed in the mineral surfaces. Charges and neutral species may diffuse into the stagnant waters in the rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the mobile water. These effects will be strongly dependent on how much rock surface is in contact with the flowing water. It has been found in a set of field experiments and by other observations that not all fractures conduct water. Furthermore it is found that conductive fractures only conduct the water in a small part of the fracture in what is called channels or preferential flowpaths. This report summarizes the present concepts of water flow and solute transport in fractured rocks. The data needs for predictive modelling are discussed and both field and laboratory measurement which have been used to obtain data are described. Several large scale field experiments which have been specially designed to study flow and tracer transport in crystalline rocks are described. In many of the field experients new techniques have been developed and used. (81 refs.) (author)

  17. Geological entropy and solute transport in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Pedretti, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    We propose a novel approach to link solute transport behavior to the physical heterogeneity of the aquifer, which we fully characterize with two measurable parameters: the variance of the log K values (σY2), and a new indicator (HR) that integrates multiple properties of the K field into a global measure of spatial disorder or geological entropy. From the results of a detailed numerical experiment considering solute transport in K fields representing realistic distributions of hydrofacies in alluvial aquifers, we identify empirical relationship between the two parameters and the first three central moments of the distributions of arrival times of solute particles at a selected control plane. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the mean and the variance of the solutes arrival times tend to increase with spatial disorder (i.e., HR increasing), while highly skewed distributions are observed in more orderly structures (i.e., HR decreasing) or at higher σY2. We found that simple closed-form empirical expressions of the bivariate dependency of skewness on HR and σY2 can be used to predict the emergence of non-Fickian transport in K fields considering a range of structures and heterogeneity levels, some of which based on documented real aquifers. The accuracy of these predictions and in general the results from this study indicate that a description of the global variability and structure of the K field in terms of variance and geological entropy offers a valid and broadly applicable approach for the interpretation and prediction of transport in heterogeneous porous media.

  18. Stochastic dynamics modeling solute transport in porous media modeling solute transport in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Kulasiri, Don

    2002-01-01

    Most of the natural and biological phenomena such as solute transport in porous media exhibit variability which can not be modeled by using deterministic approaches. There is evidence in natural phenomena to suggest that some of the observations can not be explained by using the models which give deterministic solutions. Stochastic processes have a rich repository of objects which can be used to express the randomness inherent in the system and the evolution of the system over time. The attractiveness of the stochastic differential equations (SDE) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE) come from the fact that we can integrate the variability of the system along with the scientific knowledge pertaining to the system. One of the aims of this book is to explaim some useufl concepts in stochastic dynamics so that the scientists and engineers with a background in undergraduate differential calculus could appreciate the applicability and appropriateness of these developments in mathematics. The ideas ...

  19. Ground-water pumpage in the Willamette lowland regional aquifer system, Oregon and Washington, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Charles A.; Broad, Tyson M.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage for 1990 was estimated for an area of about 5,700 square miles in northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington as part of the Puget-Willamette Lowland Regional Aquifer System Analysis study. The estimated total ground-water pumpage in 1990 was about 340,000 acre-feet. Ground water in the study area is pumped mainly from Quaternary sediment; lesser amounts are withdrawn from Tertiary volcanic materials. Large parts of the area are used for agriculture, and about two and one-half times as much ground water was pumped for irrigation as for either public- supply or industrial needs. Estimates of ground- water pumpage for irrigation in the central part of the Willamette Valley were generated by using image-processing techniques and Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Field data and published reports were used to estimate pumpage for irrigation in other parts of the study area. Information on public- supply and industrial pumpage was collected from Federal, State, and private organizations and individuals.

  20. Evaluation of ground-water flow and hydrologic budget for Lake Five-O, a seepage lake in northwestern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of ground-water inflow to, and leakage from Lake Five-O, a softwater, seepage lake in northwestern Florida, were evaluated using hydrologic data and simulation models of the shallow ground-water system adjacent to the lake. The simulation models indicate that ground-water inflow to the lake and leakage from the lake to the ground-water system are the dominant components in the total inflow (precipitation plus ground-water inflow) and total outflow (evaporation plus leakage) budgets of Lake Five-O. Simlulated ground-water inflow and leakage were approximately 4 and 5 times larger than precipitation inputs and evaporative losses, respectively, during calendar years 1989-90. Exchanges of water between Lake Five-O and the ground-water system were consistently larger than atmospheric-lake exchanges. A consistent pattern of shallow ground-water inflow and deep leakage was also evident throughout the study period. The mean time of travel from ground-water that discharges at Lake Five-O (time from recharge at the water table to discharge at the lake) was estimated to be within a range of 3 to 6 years. Flow-path evaluations indicated that the intermediate confining unit probably has a negligible influence on the geochemistry of ground-water inflow to Lake Five-O. The hydrologic budgets and flow-path evaluations provide critical information for developing geochemical budgets for Lake Five-O and for improving the understanding of the relative importance of various processes that regulate the acid-neutralizing capacity of softwater seepage lakes in Florida.

  1. One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initially porous domain is considered solute free and the input source condition is ... parameters for description of solute transport in porous media. ... flow assuming uniform initial concentration with first and third type boundary conditions. Aral.

  2. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  4. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented

  5. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J

    1986-04-01

    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  6. Factors controlling As and U in shallow ground water, southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Unusually high As and U concentrations (> 100 ??g/L) are widespread in shallow ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert. The high concentrations, which locally exceed 1000 ??g/L, are of concern from a human health standpoint because the shallow ground water is used for domestic supply. Possible affects on wildlife are also of concern because the ground water flows into shallow lakes and marshes within wildlife refuges. Arsenic and U concentrations in ground water of the southern Carson Desert appear to be affected by evaporative concentration, redox reactions, and adsorption. The relation of these elements with Cl suggest that most of the high concentrations can be attributed to evaporative concentration of Carson River water, the primary source of recharge. Some ground water contains higher As and U concentrations that cannot be explained by evaporative concentration alone. Oxidation-reduction reactions, involving metal oxides and sedimentary-organic matter, appear to contribute As, U, inorganic C, Fe and Mn to the ground water. Arsenic in Fe-oxide was confirmed by chemical extraction and is consistent with laboratory adsorption studies. Uranium in both sedimentary-organic C and Fe-oxide coatings has been confirmed by fission tracks and petrographic examination. Arsenic concentrations in the ground water and chemical extracts of aquifer sediments are broadly consistent with adsorption as a control on some dissolved As concentrations. An apparent loss of As from some ground water as evaporative concentration proceeds is consistent with adsorption as a control on As. However, evidence for adsorption should be viewed with caution, because the adsorption model used values for the adsorbent that have not been shown to be valid for the aquifer sediments throughout the southern Carson Desert. Hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Carson Desert are similar to other areas with high As and U concentrations in ground water, including the Salton Sea basin and

  7. Factors controlling As and U in shallow ground water, southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lico, M.S.; Welch, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    100 μg/L) are widespread in shallow ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert. The high concentrations, which locally exceed 1000 μg/L, are of concern from a human health standpoint because the shallow ground water is used for domestic supply. Possible affects on wildlife are also of concern because the ground water flows into shallow lakes and marshes within wildlife refuges. Arsenic and U concentrations in ground water of the southern Carson Desert appear to be affected by evaporative concentration, redox reactions, and adsorption. The relation of these elements with Cl suggest that most of the high concentrations can be attributed to evaporative concentration of Carson River water, the primary source of recharge.Some ground water contains higher As and U concentrations that cannot be explained by evaporative concentration alone. Oxidation-reduction reactions, involving metal oxides and sedimentary-organic matter, appear to contribute As, U, inorganic C, Fe and Mn to the ground water. Arsenic in Fe-oxide was confirmed by chemical extraction and is consistent with laboratory adsorption studies. Uranium in both sedimentary-organic C and Fe-oxide coatings has been confirmed by fission tracks and petrographic examination.Arsenic concentrations in the ground water and chemical extracts of aquifer sediments are broadly consistent with adsorption as a control on some dissolved As concentrations. An apparent loss of As from some ground water as evaporative concentration proceeds is consistent with adsorption as a control on As. However, evidence for adsorption should be viewed with caution, because the adsorption model used values for the adsorbent that have not been shown to be valid for the aquifer sediments throughout the southern Carson Desert.Hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Carson Desert are similar to other areas with high As and U concentrations in ground water, including the Salton Sea basin and southern San Joaquin Valley of California

  8. Modeling the effects of longwall mining on the ground water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matetic, R.J.; Liu, J.; Elsworth, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this US Bureau of Mines hydrologic-subsidence investigation was to evaluate the effects of longwall mining on the local ground water regime through field monitoring and numerical modeling. Field data were obtained from multiple-position borehole extensometers (MPBXs) that were used to measure subsurface displacements. Survey monuments were installed to measure mining-induced surface deformations. Numerous drawdown and recovery tests were performed to characterized hydrologic properties of the overburden strata. Coreholes were drilled above the study area to determine lithologic and strength characteristics of the overburden strata using the rock samples collected. Electronic recorders were installed on all monitoring wells to continuously monitor ground water levels in coordination with mining of the longwall panels. A combined finite element model of the deformation of overlying strata, and its influence on ground water flow was used to define the change in local and regional water budgets. The predicted effects of the postmining ground water system determined by the model correlated well with field data collected from the fieldsite. Without an infiltration rate added to the model, a static decrease of 3.0 m (10 ft) in water level would occur due to mining of both longwall panels and if an infiltration rate was inputted in the model, no predicted long-term effects would occur to the ground water system

  9. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2009-01-01

    Livestock manure containing antimicrobials becomes a possible source of these compounds to surface and ground waters when applied to cropland as a nutrient source. The potential for transport of the veterinary antimicrobial lincomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to ground water was assessed by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snowmelt runoff, and ground water over a 2-yr period in Saskatchewan, Canada, after fall application of liquid swine manure to cropland. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify lincomycin in all matrix extracts. Initial concentrations in soil (46.3-117 mug kg(-1)) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for manure application rates ranging from 60,000 to 95,000 L ha(-1) and had decreased to nondetectable levels by mid-summer the following year. After fall manure application, lincomycin was present in all simulated rainfall runoff (0.07-2.7 mug L(-1)) and all snowmelt runoff (0.038-3.2 mug L(-1)) samples. Concentrations in snowmelt runoff were not significantly different from those in simulated rainfall runoff the previous fall. On average, lincomycin concentrations in ephemeral wetlands dissipated by 50% after 31 d. Concentrations of lincomycin in ground water were generally <0.005 mug L(-1). This study demonstrates that the management practice of using livestock manure from confined animal feeding operations as a plant nutrient source on cropland may result in antimicrobial transport to surface and ground waters.

  10. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  11. Assessment of the hydraulic connection between ground water and the Peace River, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelling, B.R.; Tihansky, A.B.; Kindinger, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    . Generally, the upper Peace River is characterized by a shallow, buried irregular top of rock, numerous observed sinkholes, and subsidence depressions. The downward head gradient provides potential for the Peace River to lose water to the ground-water system. Along the middle Peace River area, head gradients alternate between downward and upward, creating both recharging and discharging ground-water conditions. Seismic records show that buried, laterally continuous reflectors in the lower Peace River pinch out in the middle Peace River streambed. Small springs have been observed along the streambed where these units pinch out. This area corresponds to the region where highest ground-water seepage volumes were measured during this study. Further south, along the lower Peace River, upward head gradients provide conditions for ground-water discharge into the Peace River. Generally, confinement between the surficial aquifer and the confined ground-water systems in this area is better than to the north. However, localized avenues for surface-water and ground-water interactions may exist along discontinuities observed in seismic reflectors associated with large-scale flexures or subsidence features. Ground-water seepage gains or losses along the Peace River were quantified by making three seepage runs during periods of: (1) low base flow, (2) high base flow, and (3) high flow. Low and high base-flow seepage runs were performed along a 74-mile length of the Peace River, between Bartow and Nocatee. Maximum losses of 17.3 cubic feet per second (11.2 million gallons per day) were measured along a 3.2-mile reach of the upper Peace River. The high-flow seepage run was conducted to quantify losses in the Peace River channel and floodplain between Bartow and Fort Meade. Seepage losses calculated during high-flow along a 7.2-mile reach of the Peace River, from the Clear Springs Mine bridge to the Mobil Mine bridge, were approximately 10 percent of the river flow, or 118 c

  12. Evaluation of ground water nutrient loading to Priest Lake, Bonner County, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.M.; Ralston, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of water of Idaho lakes is of increasing concern, particularly when related to waste disposal and land use practices within the watersheds. This study investigates the Kalispell Bay and Granite Creek areas. Conclusions are as follows: Both areas demonstrate direction of ground water towards Priest Lake. The Kalispell Bay area displays horizontal ground water flow throughout the entire area with an upward hydraulic gradient over a portion of the area. The Granite Creek Area displays strictly horizontal flow; both study areas contain particular sub-areas which display nutrient enrichment, particulary nitrogen, of ground water; the granite Creek study area contains a sub-area displaying both elevated nitrogen concentrations and positive tests for E. coli bacteria. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Ground-water conditions in the Triassic aquifer in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffin, G.L.

    1984-12-01

    In April 1984, the Director of the Nuclear Waste Programs of the Governor's Office requested a study be undertaken by the Texas Department of Water Resources on the ground-water conditions in the Triassic aquifer in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties. The need for the study was prompted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) announcement that consideration was being given to locating high-level nuclear waste repository sites in these counties and by the concern over what impacts operation of such sites might have on the ground-water resources in the area. The results of the study, including a discussion of the occurrence of ground water and a tabulation of basic data obtained during the investigation are presented in this report

  14. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  15. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  16. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is vital to the livelihood of communities in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins in Nebraska, and ground water is used to irrigate most of the cropland. Concerns about the sustainability of ground-water and surface-water resources have prompted State and regional agencies to evaluate the cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation in this area. To facilitate understanding of the effects of ground-water irrigation, a numerical computer model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and assess the effects of ground-water irrigation (including ground-water withdrawals, hereinafter referred to as pumpage, and enhanced recharge) on stream base flow. The study area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and includes the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk, Nebraska, and the Loup River Basin upstream from Columbus, Nebraska. The water-table aquifer consists of Quaternary-age sands and gravels and Tertiary-age silts, sands, and gravels. The simulation was constructed using one layer with 2-mile by 2-mile cell size. Simulations were constructed to represent the ground-water system before 1940 and from 1940 through 2005, and to simulate hypothetical conditions from 2006 through 2045 or 2055. The first simulation represents steady-state conditions of the system before anthropogenic effects, and then simulates the effects of early surface-water development activities and recharge of water leaking from canals during 1895 to 1940. The first simulation ends at 1940 because before that time, very little pumpage for irrigation occurred, but after that time it became increasingly commonplace. The pre-1940 simulation was calibrated against measured water levels and estimated long-term base flow, and the 1940 through 2005 simulation was calibrated against measured water-level changes and estimated long-term base flow. The calibrated 1940 through 2005 simulation was used as the basis for analyzing hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the effects of

  17. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  18. Theoretical aspects on the phenomenon of contamination of ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of contamination of ground waters and the destination of certain constituents of the water keep in mind diverse mechanisms of physical nature, chemistry and biological; in this work it is consigned in a concise way, the theoretical aspects of these topics, that is to say, the basic principles of the ground water hydraulics, the fundamental concepts of the physics of the movement and the chemistry of the ground water, as well as the equations that govern the phenomenon of contamination of the mass of water contained in the interstices of the floors and the rocks, broadly used in the mathematical modeling of the phenomenon

  19. Geohydrological and environmental isotope observation of Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Dziembowski, Z.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dewatering of Sishen Mine in the northern Cape Province supplies good quality water for the mine and surrounding areas. Using various approaches, attempts are made to quantify the remaining storage of ground water. Geohydrological observations provide an estimate based on extrapolating the thickness of dewatered rock. Environmental isotope observations on various borehole outputs show contrasts between different ground-water bodies and their mixtures and allows for some extrapolations of observed trends. Indications are that previous estimates of storage, based on ground-water level changes, are conservative

  20. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, P.L.; Duerden, S.L.; Atkins, K.M.; Majumdar, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  1. MINTEQ, Geochemical Equilibria in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase. 2 - Method of solution: MINTEQ applies the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to solve geochemical equilibria from a set of mass balance equations, one for each component. Because the

  2. Ground-Water Occurrence and Contribution to Streamflow, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The study area lies on the northern flank of the East Maui Volcano (Haleakala) and covers about 129 square miles between the drainage basins of Maliko Gulch to the west and Makapipi Stream to the east. About 989 million gallons per day of rainfall and 176 million gallons per day of fog drip reaches the study area and about 529 million gallons per day enters the ground-water system as recharge. Average annual ground-water withdrawal from wells totals only about 3 million gallons per day; proposed (as of 1998) additional withdrawals total about 18 million gallons per day. Additionally, tunnels and ditches of an extensive irrigation network directly intercept at least 10 million gallons per day of ground water. The total amount of average annual streamflow in gaged stream subbasins upstream of 1,300 feet altitude is about 255 million gallons per day and the total amount of average annual base flow is about 62 million gallons per day. Six major surface-water diversion systems in the study area have diverted an average of 163 million gallons per day of streamflow (including nearly all base flow of diverted streams) for irrigation and domestic supply in central Maui during 1925-97. Fresh ground water is found in two main forms. West of Keanae Valley, ground-water flow appears to be dominated by a variably saturated system. A saturated zone in the uppermost rock unit, the Kula Volcanics, is separated from a freshwater lens near sea level by an unsaturated zone in the underlying Honomanu Basalt. East of Keanae Valley, the ground-water system appears to be fully saturated above sea level to altitudes greater than 2,000 feet. The total average annual streamflow of gaged streams west of Keanae Valley is about 140 million gallons per day at 1,200 feet to 1,300 feet altitude. It is not possible to estimate the total average annual streamflow at the coast. All of the base flow measured in the study area west of Keanae Valley represents ground-water discharge from the high

  3. The use of high vacuum soil vapor extraction to improve contaminant recovery from ground water zones of low transmissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C.; Burgess, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the potential for enhancing hydrocarbon contaminant mass recovery from ground water using high vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE). The effectiveness of this form of remediation is compared with the effectiveness of conventional pump-and-treat. This study focuses on the performance of a high vacuum SVE system at two ground water monitoring wells (MW-17 and MW-65b) at a site in Santa Barbara, California, US. The site is a highly characterized site with vadose zone and ground water petroleum hydrocarbon contamination (gasoline). The ground water wells are located beyond a defined area of vadose zone soil contamination. Ground water hydrocarbon contamination [light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and dissolved phase] is present at each of the wells. the ground water wells have been part of a low-flow, pump-and-treat, ground water treatment system (GWTS) since August, 1986. The low transmissivity of the aquifer sediments prevent flow rates above approximately 0.02 gpm (0.01 l/min) per well

  4. Flow and geochemistry along shallow ground-water flowpaths in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, D.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Water-quality and geohydrologic data were collected from 19 monitor wells and a stream in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin. These sites were located along a 2,700-ft transect from a local ground-water high to the stream. The transect is approximately parallel to the horizontal direction of ground-water flow at the water table. Most of the wells were installed in unconsolidated deposits at five locations along the transect and include an upgradient well nest, a midgradient well nest, a downgradient well nest, wells in the lowland area near the stream, and wells installed in the stream bottom. The data collected from this study site were used to describe the water quality and geohydrology of the area and to explain and model the variations in water chemistry along selected ground-water flowpaths.

  5. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  6. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. The Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin. The JBWD is concerned with the long-term sustainability of the underlying aquifer. To help meet future demands, the JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. As growth continues in the desert, there may be a need to import water to supplement the available ground-water resources. In order to manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins, (2) determine the distribution and quantity of recharge using field and numerical techniques, and (3) develop a ground-water flow model that can be used to help manage the water resources of the region. The geohydrologic framework was refined by collecting and interpreting water-level and water-quality data, geologic and electric logs, and gravity data. The water-bearing deposits in the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins are Quarternary alluvial deposits and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The Quarternary alluvial deposits were divided into two aquifers (referred to as the 'upper' and the 'middle' alluvial aquifers), which are about 600 feet (ft) thick, and the Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits were assigned to a single aquifer (referred to as the 'lower' aquifer), which is as thick as 1,500 ft. The ground-water quality of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins was defined by collecting 53 ground-water samples from 15 wells (10 in the

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities

  8. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  9. ground water quality evaluation in beed city, maharashtra, india

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khatib Afsar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical .... All ideal value s (Vio) are taken as zero for the drinking water ..... Conference: Ustron, Poland, 2004, Routledge, New York.

  10. Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cml

    2012-06-16

    Jun 16, 2012 ... Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which endangers ... include leakage of pipes, pollution from sewerage pipes ..... and Quality Control Authority, Karachi, Pakistan.

  11. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  12. Comparison between agricultural and urban ground-water quality in the Mobile River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2003-01-01

    . Samples from 8 of the agricultural wells and all 30 urban wells were age dated using analyses of chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, and dissolved gases. Ground water sampled from the agricultural wells ranged in age from about 14 to 34 years, with a median age of about 18.5 years. Ground water sampled from the urban wells ranged in age from about 1 to 45 years, with a median age of about 12 years. The ages estimated for the ground water are consistent with the geology and hydrology of the study area and the design of the wells. All of the agricultural and urban wells sampled for this study produce water from the shallow aquifer that overlies and recharges the Black Warrior River aquifer, or from the uppermost unit of the Black Warrior River aquifer. The wells are located in the same physiographic setting, have similar depths, and the water collected from the wells had a similar range in age. Statistically significant differences in ground-water quality beneath the agricultural and urban areas can reasonably be attributed to the effects of land use. Ground water from the agricultural wells typically had acidic pH values and low specific conductance and alkalinity values. The water contained few dissolved solids, and typically had small concentrations of ions. Some of the agricultural ground-water contained concentrations of ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, phosphorus, orthophosphate, and dissolved organic carbon in concentrations that exceeded those typically found in ground water. Pesticides were detected in ground water collected from 25 of the 29 agricultural wells. Nineteen different pesticide compounds were detected a total of 83 times. Herbicides were the most frequently detected class of pesticides. The greatest concentration of any pesticide was an estimated value of 1.4 microgram per liter of fluometuron. The Wilcoxan rank sum test was used to determine statistically significant differences in water quality between the agricultural and urba

  13. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  14. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act

  15. Dry Stream Reaches in Carbonate Terranes: Surface Indicators of Ground-Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Hollyday, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    In areas where dry stream reaches occur, subsurface drainage successfully competes with surface drainage, and sheet-like dissolution openings have developed parallel to bedding creating the ground-water reservoir. Union Hollow in south-central Tennessee is the setting for a case study that illustrates the application of the dry stream reach technique. In this technique, dry stream reach identification is based on two types of readily acquired information: remotely sensed black and white infrared aerial photography; and surface reconnaissance of stream channel characteristics. Test drilling in Union Hollow subsequent to identification of the dry reach proved that a localized ground-water reservoir was present.

  16. Non-stationary open-flow filtration of ground waters at the Pripyat'-Dnieper inter river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapon, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to filtration of ground waters into rivers and to effect of drainage devices. Investigations were conducted with use of modelling of planned and profile filtration of ground waters at the electric models. Efficiency of engineering protection facilities suggested, was studied to prevent contamination of water intakes. Modelling shown, that contamination washing out process was in a cycle character with 1 year period. Use of drainage canal with the water level 0.8 m lower than in the river, is an effective way to prevent filtration of ground waters into the Pripyat' and the Dnieper from the upper open-flow aquiver

  17. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Silurian-Devonian aquifer system, Johnson County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Patrick; McKay, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Bedrock of Silurian and Devonian age (termed the “Silurian-Devonian aquifer system”) is the primary source of ground water for Johnson County in east-central Iowa. Population growth within municipal and suburban areas of the county has resulted in increased amounts of water withdrawn from this aquifer and water-level declines in some areas. A 3-year study of the hydrogeology of the Silurian-Devonian aquifer system in Johnson County was undertaken to provide a quantitative assessment of ground water resources and to construct a ground-water flow model that can be used by local governmental agencies as a management tool.

  18. Handling the decline of ground water using artificial recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, Muhammad Shofi; Yoga, Kuncaraningrat Edi; Muslim, Dicky

    2017-11-01

    Jatinagor, a region with rapid growth cause increasing in water demand. The ground water surface in the observation area shows a decrease based on its potential. This deflation is mainly caused by the inequality between inputs and outputs of the ground water itself. The decrease of this ground water surface is also caused by the number of catchment areas that keeps decreasing. According to the data analysis of geology and hydrology, the condition of ground water in Jatinangor on 2015 had indicated a decrease compared to 2010. Nowadays, the longlivity of clean water can be ensure by the hydrogeology engineering, which is to construct an artificial recharge for ground water in use. The numerical method is aims to determine the number of ground water supply in Jatinangor. According to the research, the most suitable artificial recharge is in the form of a small dam located in the internment river. With the area of 209.000 m2, this dam will be able to contain 525 m3 runoff water with the intensity of maximum rainfall effectively 59,44 mm/hour. The increase of water volume generate by this artificial recharge, fulfilled the demand of clean water.

  19. Uranium mineralization by ground water in sedimentary rocks, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Hirono, S.; Sakamaki, Y.

    1975-01-01

    To solve the mechanism of uranium concentration in stratabound uranium deposits occurring in the basal part of Neogene sediments overlying granite basement, attention was paid to uranium leaching from weathered granite by circulating carbonated fissure waters, to effective adsorbents for fixing uranium from uraniferous ground waters, to structural features controlling the ground-water circulation, and other relevant factors. The evidence for uranium transportation by hydothermal solutions, including hot spring waters, is hard to observe. Conclusions are summarized as follows: Uranium in the deposits is supplied from surrounding source rocks, mostly from granite. Uranium is transported by circulating ground-water solutions. The uranium dissolved in ground water is fixed in minerals in various ways, the most important being adsorption by carbonaceous matter. Ore-grade uranium concentrated from very dilute solutions occurs by multiple repetition of a leaching-and-fixation cycle between minerals or adsorbents and circulating uraniferous ground water. Important factors for uranium mineralization are sufficient uranium, supplied mostly from granite, the existence of effective adsorbents such as carbonaceous matter in the host rocks, and favorable geological, geochemical, and geophysical environments. The last seem to require not only physical and chemical conditions but also correct flow and volume of ground water. (U.S.)

  20. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  1. Potential effects of the Hawaii Geothermal Project on ground-water resources on the island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the State of Hawaii proposed the Hawaii Geothermal Project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. This report uses data from 31 wells and 8 springs to describe the properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. Potential effects of this project on ground-water resources are also discussed. Data show differences in ground-water chemistry and heads within the study area that appear to be related to mixing of waters of different origins and ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. East of Pahoa, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the pumping of freshwater to support geothermal development in that part of the rift zone would have a minimal effect on ground-water levels. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying sufficient fresh water to support geothermal operations. Contamination of ground-water resources by accidental release of geothermal fluids into shallow aquifers is possible because of corrosive conditions in the geothermal wells, potential well blowouts, and high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of water level, temperature, and chemistry in observation wells should continue throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project for early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids within the groundwater system.

  2. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  3. Mathematical modeling of solute transport in the subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naymik, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    A review of key works on solute transport models indicates that solute transport processes with the exception of advection are still poorly understood. Solute transport models generally do a good job when they are used to test scientific concepts and hypotheses, investigate natural processes, systematically store and manage data, and simulate mass balance of solutes under certain natural conditions. Solute transport models generally are not good for predicting future conditions with a high degree of certainty, or for determining concentrations precisely. The mathematical treatment of solute transport far surpasses their understanding of the process. Investigations of the extent of groundwater contamination and methods to remedy existing problems show the along-term nature of the hazard. Industrial organic compounds may be immiscible in water, highly volatile, or complexed with inorganic as well as other organic compounds; many remain stable in nature almost indefinitely. In the worst case, future disposal of hazardous waste may be restricted to deep burial, as is proposed for radioactive wastes. For investigations pertinent to transport of radionuclides from a geologic repository, the process cannot be fully understood without adequate thermodynamic and kinetic data bases

  4. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow, Picatinny Arsenal and vicinity, Morris County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, L.M.; Rice, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water flow in glacial sediments and bedrock at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., was simulated by use of a three-dimensional finite-difference ground- water-flow model. The modeled area includes a 4.3-square-mile area that extends from Picatinny Lake to the Rockaway River. Most of the study area is bounded by the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water system. eophysical logs, lithologic logs, particle-size data, and core data from selected wells and surface geophysical data were analyzed to define the hydrogeologic framework. Hydrogeologic sections and thickness maps define six permeable and three low-permeability layers that are represented in the model as aquifers and confining units, respectively. Hydrologic data incorporated in the model include a rate of recharge from precipitation of 22 inches per year, estimated from long-term precipitation records and estimates of evapotranspiration. Additional recharge from infiltration along valleys was estimated from measured discharge of springs along the adjacent valley walls and from estimates of runoff from upland drainage that flows to the valley floor. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of permeable and low-permeability layers were estimated from examination of aquifer-test data, gamma-ray logs, borehole cuttings, and previously published data. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in glacial sediments range from 10 to 380 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities of the low-permeability layers range from 0.01 to 0.7 feet per day. The model was calibrated by simulating steady-state conditions during 1989-93 and by closely matching simulated and measured ground-water levels, vertical ground-water-head differences, and streamflow gain and loss. Simulated steady-state potentiometric- surface maps produced for the six permeable layers indicate that ground water in the unconfined material within Picatinny Arsenal flows predominantly toward the center of the valley, where it discharges to Green

  5. Ground-Water Hydrology and Projected Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1983-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mount...

  6. Solute transport model for radioisotopes in layered soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The study considered the transport of a radioactive solute in solution from the surface of the earth down through the soil to the ground water when there is an accidental or intentional spillage of a radioactive material on the surface. The finite difference method was used to model the spatial and temporal profile of moisture content in a soil column using the θ-based Richard's equation leading to solution of the convective-dispersive equation for non-adsorbing solutes numerically. A matlab code has been generated to predict the transport of the radioactive contaminant, spilled on the surface of a vertically heterogeneous soil made up of two layers to determine the residence time of the solute in the unsaturated zone, the time it takes the contaminant to reach the groundwater and the amount of the solute entering the groundwater in various times and the levels of pollution in those times. The model predicted that, then there is a spillage of 7.2g of tritium, on the surface of the ground at the study area, it will take two years for the radionuclide to enter the groundwater and fifteen years to totally leave the unsaturated zone. There is therefore the need to try as much as possible to avoid intentional or accidental spillage of the radionuclide since it has long term effect. (au)

  7. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  8. Modelling of the evolution of ground waters in a granite system at low temperature: the Stripa ground waters, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaud, D.; Michard, G.; Beaucaire, C.

    1990-01-01

    From chemical data on the Stripa ground waters we have tried to model the evolution of the chemical composition of a ground water in a granitic system at low temperature. The existence of two end-member ground water compositions made it possible first, to test the conventional model of a geothermal system according to which an overall equilibrium between the waters and a given mineral assemblage can be defined, and then to show that such a model could be extended to low temperatures (10 o C). Conversely, if we know the mineral assemblage, the equilibration temperature and the charge of the mobile ions (in this case, Cl), the composition of the solution is entirely fixed. In our model of the Stripa ground waters, the existence of two end-member ground water compositions can be explained by an evolution from a ''kaolinite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium to a ''prehnite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium, the latter requiring less Al than the former. We have also emphasized the importance of the Cl ion concentrations of the ground waters, because they can be considered as indicators of the degree of reaction progress between rock and water, thus determining the degree of equilibration of the system. (author)

  9. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  11. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  12. Ground water pollution due to aquaculture in east coast region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ground water quality parameters were studied for pollution due to aquaculture in the east coast region of district Andhrapradesh, India. Over a period of two years, 46 groundwater samples were collected for analyses. The results showed that the alkalinity ranged from 120 - 482 mg/L, and pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6.

  13. Soils and ground waters cleaning; Depollution des sols et des eaux souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberentz, P. [ANTEA, 45 - Orleans (France); Cazenove, A. de [Ecole Superieure de l' Energie et des Materiaux ESEM, 45 - Orleans (France); Darmendrail, D. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, BRGM, 45 - Orleans (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    By seven presentations of case studies and researches, this colloquium takes stock on the natural pollution control mechanisms and technic and also on the economic and juridical stakes. Many french sites, concerning the soils and the ground waters are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Forest Carbon Stocks in Woody Plants of Arba Minch Ground Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of forests in mitigating the effect of climate change depends on the carbon sequestration potential and management. This study was conducted to estimate the carbon stock and its variation along environmental gradients in Arba Minch Ground Water Forest. The data was collected from the field by measuring plants ...

  15. Electrolyte solution transport in electropolar nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianbing; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen Xi; Qiao Yu; Zhou Qulan; Li Yibing; Tak, Moonho; Park, Taehyo

    2010-01-01

    Electrolyte transport in nanochannels plays an important role in a number of emerging areas. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations, the fundamental transport behavior of an electrolyte/water solution in a confined model nanoenvironment is systematically investigated by varying the nanochannel dimension, solid phase, electrolyte phase, ion concentration and transport rate. It is found that the shear resistance encountered by the nanofluid strongly depends on these material/system parameters; furthermore, several effects are coupled. The mechanisms of the nanofluidic transport characteristics are explained by considering the unique molecular/ion structure formed inside the nanochannel. The lower shear resistance observed in some of the systems studies could be beneficial for nanoconductors, while the higher shear resistance (or higher effective viscosity) observed in other systems might enhance the performance of energy dissipation devices.

  16. User's guide to revised method-of-characteristics solute-transport model (MOC--version 31)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Granato, G.E.; Hornberger, G.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey computer model to simulate two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water (Konikow and Bredehoeft, 1978; Goode and Konikow, 1989) has been modified to improve management of input and output data and to provide progressive run-time information. All opening and closing of files are now done automatically by the program. Names of input data files are entered either interactively or using a batch-mode script file. Names of output files, created automatically by the program, are based on the name of the input file. In the interactive mode, messages are written to the screen during execution to allow the user to monitor the status and progress of the simulation and to anticipate total running time. Information reported and updated during a simulation include the current pumping period and time step, number of particle moves, and percentage completion of the current time step. The batch mode enables a user to run a series of simulations consecutively, without additional control. A report of the model's activity in the batch mode is written to a separate output file, allowing later review. The user has several options for creating separate output files for different types of data. The formats are compatible with many commercially available applications, which facilitates graphical postprocessing of model results. Geohydrology and Evaluation of Stream-Aquifer Relations in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Southeastern Alabama, Northwestern Florida, and Southwestern Georgia By Lynn J. Torak, Gary S. Davis, George A. Strain, and Jennifer G. Herndon Abstract The lower Apalachieola-Chattahoochec-Flint River Basin is underlain by Coastal Plain sediments of pre-Cretaceous to Quaternary age consisting of alternating units of sand, clay, sandstone, dolomite, and limestone that gradually thicken and dip gently to the southeast. The stream-aquifer system consism of carbonate (limestone and dolomite) and elastic sediments

  17. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Ground-water resources data for Baldwin County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.; Moreland, Richard S.; Clark, Amy E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for 237 wells were collected, and water-levels in 223 wells in Baldwin and Escambia Counties were measured. Long-term water water-level data, available for many wells, indicate that ground-water levels in most of Baldwin County show no significant trends for the period of record. However, ground-water levels have declined in the general vicinity of Spanish Fort and Daphne, and ground-water levels in the Gulf Shores and Orange Beach areas are less than 5 feet above sea level in places. The quality of ground water generally is good, but problems with iron, sulfur, turbidity, and color occur. The water from most private wells in Baldwin County is used without treatment or filtration. Alabama public- health law requires that water from public-supply wells be chlorinated. Beyond that, the most common treatment of ground water by public-water suppliers in Baldwin County consists of pH adjustment, iron removal, and aeration. The transmissivity of the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer was determined at 10 locations in Baldwin County. Estimates of transmissivity ranged from 700 to 5,400 feet squared per day. In general, aquifer transmissivity was greatest in the southeastern part of the county, and least in the western part of the county near Mobile Bay. A storage coefficient of 1.5 x 10-3 was determined for the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer near Loxley.

  19. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  20. Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2004-09-01

    The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.

  1. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1994. Much of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  2. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  3. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ''pump-and-treat'' technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations

  4. First status report on regional ground-water flow modeling for Vacherie Dome, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Regional ground-water flow within the principal geohydrologic units in the vicinity of Vacherie Dome, Louisiana is evaluated by developing a conceptual model of the flow regime within these units and testing the model using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code (SWENT). Semiquantitative sensitivity analyses (a limited parametric study) are conducted to define the system responses to changes in the conceptual model, particularly in regard to the geohydrologic properties. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data utilized in this study are summarized. The conceptual model is defined in terms of the areal and vertical averaging of lithologic units, aquifer properties, and hydrologic boundary conditions. The simulated ground-water flow fields are described with potentiometric surfaces, areas of upward and downward flow across aquitards, tables summarizing the horizontal and vertical volumetric flows through the principal units, ground-water travel times and paths, and Darcy velocities within specified finite-difference blocks. The reported work is the first stage of an ongoing evaluation of Vacherie Dome as a potential repository for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, the report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity of the conceptualization of ground-water flow to parameterization and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainties in the present conceptualization. 34 refs., 57 figs., 19 tabs

  5. Durability of blended cements in contact with sulfate-bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, S.L.; Majumdar, A.J.; Walton, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    In the concept of radioactive waste disposal developed in the UK (United Kingdom), OPC (ordinary portland cement) blended with pulverized fuel ash or ground granulated blastfurnace slag is being considered for encapsulation of waste forms, as a material for backfilling and sealing a repository, and for concrete in repository construction. This paper describes a laboratory study of the long term durability of such cements in contact with sulfate-bearing ground water under accelerated exposure conditions. Mineralogical analysis of the cements over the exposure period, carried out with the aid of scanning electron microscope observations and x-ray diffraction studies, provides an indication of the stability of cementitious phases exposed to an aggressive environment. It is shown that for intact cement blocks there is minimal interaction between cement and sulfate-bearing ground water. Sulfate minerals produced by the reaction are accommodated in voids in the cement with no adverse effect on the cement structure. However, crystallization of C-S-H and sulfate minerals along cracks in hardened cement specimens causes expansion of fracture surfaces resulting in a more accessible route for ground water intrusion and radionuclide migration. The reaction of cement with ground water is greatly accelerated by the use of powdered material. Ettringite formed in the reaction is found to be unstable under these conditions. The mineralogical assemblage after exposure for 1 year is calcite, hydrotalcite, C-S-H and quartz

  6. dispersion equation parameters of solute transport in agricultural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... fields for predicting soil quality property. Key words: ... The classical approach of modeling solute transport in porous media uses the deterministic ... concentration of the solution in the liquid phase, u0 is the mean velocity and ...

  7. Scaling and predicting solute transport processes in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. González-Pinzón; R. Haggerty; M. Dentz

    2013-01-01

    We investigated scaling of conservative solute transport using temporal moment analysis of 98 tracer experiments (384 breakthrough curves) conducted in 44 streams located on five continents. The experiments span 7 orders of magnitude in discharge (10-3 to 103 m3/s), span 5 orders of magnitude in...

  8. Solute transport modelling with the variable temporally dependent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pintu Das

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... in a finite domain with time-dependent sources and dis- tance-dependent dispersivities. Also, existing ... solute transport in multi-layered porous media using gen- eralized integral transform technique with .... methods for solving the fractional reaction-–sub-diffusion equation. To solve numerically the Eqs.

  9. Effects of Temperature on Solute Transport Parameters in Differently-Textured Soils at Saturated Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, S.; Arihara, M.; Kawamoto, K.; Nishimura, T.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface warming driven by global warming, urban heat islands, and increasing use of shallow geothermal heating and cooling systems such as the ground source heat pump, potentially causes changes in subsurface mass transport. Therefore, understanding temperature dependency of the solute transport characteristics is essential to accurately assess environmental risks due to increased subsurface temperature. In this study, one-dimensional solute transport experiments were conducted in soil columns under temperature control to investigate effects of temperature on solute transport parameters, such as solute dispersion and diffusion coefficients, hydraulic conductivity, and retardation factor. Toyoura sand, Kaolin clay, and intact loamy soils were used in the experiments. Intact loamy soils were taken during a deep well boring at the Arakawa Lowland in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In the transport experiments, the core sample with 5-cm diameter and 4-cm height was first isotropically consolidated, whereafter 0.01M KCl solution was injected to the sample from the bottom. The concentrations of K+ and Cl- in the effluents were analyzed by an ion chromatograph to obtain solute breakthrough curves. The solute transport parameters were calculated from the breakthrough curves. The experiments were conducted under different temperature conditions (15, 25, and 40 oC). The retardation factor for the intact loamy soils decreased with increasing temperature, while water permeability increased due to reduced viscosity of water at higher temperature. Opposite, the effect of temperature on solute dispersivity for the intact loamy soils was insignificant. The effects of soil texture on the temperature dependency of the solute transport characteristics will be further investigated from comparison of results from differently-textured samples.

  10. Aldicarb-pesticide contamination of ground water in eastern Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, Julian; Stelz, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Aldicarb, a toxic oxime-carbamate pesticide that was believed incapable of reaching ground water, was used in potato-farming areas of eastern Suffolk County, New York during 1975-80. In 1979, aldicarb was found in substantial concentrations in ground water throughout the area. The New York State Department of Health set a limit of 7 micrograms per liter for aldicarb in drinking water. Extensive ground-water sampling into 1980 showed widespread contamination ranging from small amounts to as much as 515 micrograms per liter. In 1980, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency banned the use of aldicarb on Long Island at the manufacturer 's request. A 1982 sampling study found aldicarb to have penetrated to about 40 feet below the water table in concentrations ranging from below detection limit to 239 micrograms per liter. Despite reputed toxicity, no instance of aldicarb poisoning on Long Island has been documented. The excessive aldicarb concentrations in the ground water of eastern Long Island may persist for decades; the duration has not been precisely determined and remains under investigation. (USGS)

  11. A dual phased approach for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, N.D.; Maher, A.; Buckallew, B.

    1994-01-01

    A case study will be presented to demonstrate an effective and timely method of site remediation which yields complete contaminant destruction rather than the contaminant transfer that traditional ground water extraction and treatment techniques result in. By utilizing bioremediation at this site, the client was able to completely degrade the contamination beneath the property, and in the process avoid future liability from transfer of the contamination to another party (i.e. landfill) or phase (i.e. liquid to vapor through air stripping). The provisions of a real estate transaction involving a former service station site in Central Iowa stipulated that the site be remediated prior to title transfer. Previous Environmental Investigative activities revealed significant soil and ground water contamination resulting from over 50 years of diesel and gasoline fuel storage and dispensing operations at the site. Microbial Environmental Services, Inc. (MES) utilized a dual phased bioremediation approach to meet regulatory clean-up guidelines in order for a timely property transfer to occur. To facilitate and expedite ground water remediation, contaminated soil was excavated and remediated via Advanced Biological Surface Treatment (ABST) techniques. ABST techniques are utilized by MES to treat excavated soil in closed cell to control emissions and treatment conditions. Following contaminant source removal, ground water was extracted and treated in a submerged, fixed film, flow through 1,000 gallon fixed film bioreactor at a rate of 2.5 gallons per minute

  12. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  13. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  14. Dating of ground water: an evaluation of its use in the assessment of HLW repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.N.; Bentley, H.W.; Zito, R.

    1984-01-01

    Dating of ground water is potentially useful in the evaluation of the hydrogeologic hazards associated with proposed repositories for high-level radioactive waste in the following ways: (1) identification of areas of static ground water where regional migration of radionuclides should be minimal; (2) help with the calibration of numerical transport models; (3) estimation of water velocities; (4) help with the prediction of future natural changes in the chemistry of ground water; and (5) help with the interpretation of the Pleistocene history of a region which will have a bearing on the development of hazards not related directly to ground water. Methods judged to be most useful for dating water are hydrodynamic calculations, the use of atmospherically derived radionuclides, and the measurement of the accumulated products of the decay of certain radionuclides. Thus far, the most useful atmospherically derived radionuclide is chlorine-36 with a half-life of about 3 x 10 5 years. Iodine-129, with a half-life of 1.6 x 10 7 years, is potentially useful in dating and tracing some waters older than 5 x 10 6 years. Further study is needed, however

  15. Identification of contaminants of concern in Hanford ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    More than 1,500 waste-disposal sites have been identified at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, these sites were aggregated into four administrative areas for listing on the National Priority List. Within the four aggregate areas, 646 inactive sites were selected for further evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS). Evaluation of inactive waste sites by HRS provided valuable insight to design a focused radiological- and hazardous-substance monitoring network. Hanford Site-wide ground-water monitoring was expanded to address not only radioactive constituents but also hazardous chemicals. The HRS scoring process considers the likelihood of ground-water contamination from past disposal practices at inactive waste sites. The network designed to monitor ground water at those facilities identified 129 I, 99 Tc, 90 Sr, uranium, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, and cyanide

  16. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  17. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Report of analyses for light hydrocarbons in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, E.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report contains on microfiche the results of analyses for methane, ethane, propane, and butane in 11,659 ground water samples collected in 47 western and three eastern 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles of the National Topographic Map Series (Figures 1 and 2), along with a brief description of the analytical technique used and some simple, descriptive statistics. The ground water samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Further information on the ground water samples can be obtained by consulting the NURE data reports for the individual quadrangles. This information includes (1) measurements characterizing water samples (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and other measurements), and (3) elemental analyses

  19. Ground-water quality in the southeastern Sacramento Valley aquifer, California, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 29 domestic wells and 2 monitoring wells in the southeastern Sacramento Valley as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This area, designated as the NAWQA Sacramento subunit study area, was chosen because it had the largest amount of ground-water use in the Sacramento River Basin. The Sacramento subunit study area is about 4,400 square kilometers and includes intense agricultural and urban development. The wells sampled ranged from 14.9 to 79.2 meters deep. Ground-water samples from 31 wells were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 14 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, organic carbon, 86 pesticides, 87 volatile organic compounds, tritium (hydrogen-3), radon-222, deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. Nitrate levels were lower than the 2000 drinking-water standards in all but one well, but many detections were in the range that indicated an effect by human activities on ground-water quality. Radon was detected in all wells, and was measured at levels above the proposed Federal 2000 maximum contaminant level in 90 percent of the wells. Five pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples and concentrations were below 2000 drinking-water standards. All pesticides detected during this study have been used in the Sacramento Valley. Thirteen volatile organic compounds were detected in ground water. One detection of trichloroethene was above Federal 2000 drinking-water standards, and another, tetrachloromethane, was above California 1997 drinking-water standards; both occurred in a well that had eight volatile organic compound detections and is near a known source of ground-water contamination. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected in agricultural and urban areas; both pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected at a higher frequency in urban wells. Ground-water chemistry indicates that natural

  20. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed

  1. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  2. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  3. Valuation of potential hazards to ground water from abandoned sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerndorff, H.; Schleyer, R.; Dieter, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    With a view to obtaining, for the large number of abandoned sites suspected of pollution, necessary information regarding the type and extent of possible ground water contamination with a minimum of effort and cost, a hierarchical investigation strategy was developed and successfully tested in more than 100 cases in Germany. As a decisive advantage, already the well-defined and simple investigation steps ''preliminary prospecting'' and ''screening'' permit to recognize polluted sites posing a hazard to ground water. The more specific and demanding investigation steps ''pollutant analysis'' and ''detailed investigations'' may be carried through if necessary. (orig./BBR). 27 figs., 36 tabs [de

  4. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  5. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  6. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    One of the major water-quality problems in the Chesapeake Bay is an overabundance of nutrients from the streams and rivers that discharge to the Bay. Some of these nutrients are from nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, agricultural manure and fertilizer, and septic systems. The effects of efforts to control nonpoint sources, however, can be difficult to quantify because of the lag time between changes at the land surface and the response in the base-flow (ground water) component of streams. To help resource managers understand the lag time between implementation of management practices and subsequent response in the nutrient concentrations in the base-flow component of streamflow, a study of ground-water discharge, residence time, and nitrate transport in springs throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and in four smaller watersheds in selected hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMRs) was conducted. The four watersheds were in the Coastal Plain Uplands, Piedmont crystalline, Valley and Ridge carbonate, and Valley and Ridge siliciclastic HGMRs.A study of springs to estimate an apparent age of the ground water was based on analyses for concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons in water samples collected from 48 springs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Results of the analysis indicate that median age for all the samples was 10 years, with the 25th percentile having an age of 7 years and the 75th percentile having an age of 13 years. Although the number of samples collected in each HGMR was limited, there did not appear to be distinct differences in the ages between the HGMRs. The ranges were similar between the major HGMRs above the Fall Line (modern to about 50 years), with only two HGMRs of small geographic extent (Piedmont carbonate and Mesozoic Lowland) having ranges of modern to about 10 years. The median values of all the HGMRs ranged from 7 to 11 years. Not enough samples were collected in the Coastal Plain for comparison. Spring samples showed slightly younger

  7. Simulated Effects of Ground-Water Augmentation on the Hydrology of Round and Halfmoon Lakes in Northwestern Hillsborough County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.; Metz, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    estimated through steady-state simulations of average conditions in July 1996. Simulated hydrographs computed by the Round and Halfmoon Lake models closely matched measured water-level fluctuations, except during El Ni?o, when the Halfmoon Lake model was unable to accurately reproduce water levels. Possibly, potential recharge during El Ni?o was diverted through ground-water-flow outlets that were not represented in the Halfmoon Lake model, or a large part of the rainfall was diverted into runoff before it could become recharge. Solute transport simulations with MT3D indicate that leakage of lake water extended 250 to 400 feet into the surficial aquifer around Round Lake, and from 75 to 150 feet around Halfmoon Lake before flowing to the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. These results are in agreement with concentrations of stable isotopes of oxygen-18 (d18O) and deuterium (dD) in the surficial aquifer. Schedules of monthly augmentation rates to maintain constant stages in Round and Halfmoon Lakes were computed using an equation that accounted for changes in the Upper Floridan aquifer head and the deviation from the mean recharge rate. Resulting lake stages were nearly constant during the first half of the study, but increased above target lake stages during El Ni?o; modifying the computation of augmentation rates to account for the higher recharge rate during El Ni?o resulted in lake stages that were closer to the target lake stage. Substantially more lake leakage flows to the Upper Floridan aquifer from Round Lake than from Halfmoon Lake, because the estimated vertical hydraulic conductivities of lake and confining layer sediments and breaches in the confining layer beneath Round Lake are much greater. Augmentation rates required to maintain the low guidance stages in Round Lake (53 feet) and Halfmoon Lake (42 feet) under average Upper Floridan aquifer heads are estimated as 33,850 cubic feet per day and 1,330 to 10,000 cubic feet per day, respectively. T

  8. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  9. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  11. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  12. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  13. Ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Enid, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, Stuart L.

    1948-01-01

    This memorandum summaries matter discussed at a meeting of the City Commission of Enid, Oklahoma, on Thursday, January 15, 1948, at which the write presented a brief analysis of the ground-water resources available to the City of Enid and answered questions brought up by the commissioners.

  14. Uranium solubility and speciation in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this study has been to assess the solubility and possible species of uranium in groundwater at the disposal conditions of spent fuel. The effects of radiolysis and bentonite are considered. The assessment is based on the theoretical calculations found in the literature. The Finnish experimental results are included. The conservative estimate for uranium solubility under the oxidizing conditions caused by alpha radiolysis is based on the oxidation of uranium to the U(VI) state and formation of carbonate complex. For the groundwater with the typical carbonate content of 275 mg/l and the high carbonate content of 485 mg/l due to bentonite, the solubility values of 360 mg u/l and 950 mg U/l, are obtained, respectively. The experimental results predict considerably lower values, 0.5-20 mg U/l. The solubility of uranium under the undisturbed reducing conditions may be calculated based on the hydrolysis, carbonate complexation and redox reactions. The results vary considerably depending on the thermodynamic data used. The wide ranges of the most important groundwater parameters are seen in the solubility values. The experimental results show the same trends. As a conservative value for the solubility in reducing groundwater 50-500 μg U/l is estimated. (author)

  15. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  16. Ground-water quality, levels, and flow direction near Fort Cobb Reservoir, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2001-01-01

    Fort Cobb Reservoir in northwest Caddo County Oklahoma is managed by the Bureau of Reclamation for water supply, recreation, flood control, and wildlife. Excessive amounts of nitrogen in the watershed have the potential to cause long-term eutrophication of the reservoir and increase already elevated concentrations of nitrogen in the Rush Springs aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation studied ground water in the area surrounding a swine feeding operation located less than 2 miles upgradient from Fort Cobb Reservoir in Caddo County, Oklahoma. Objectives of the study were to (1) determine if the operation was contributing nitrogen to the ground water and (2) measure changes in ground-water levels and determine the local ground-water flow direction in the area surrounding the swine feeding operation. Nitrate concentrations (28.1 and 31.5 milligrams per liter) were largest in two ground-water samples from a well upgradient of the wastewater lagoon. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 4.30 to 8.20 milligrams per liter in samples from downgradient wells. Traces of ammonia and nitrite were detected in a downgradient well, but not in upgradient wells. d15N values indicate atmospheric nitrogen, synthetic fertilizer, or plants were the predominate sources of nitrate in ground water from the downgradient wells. The d15N values in these samples are depleted in nitrogen-15, indicating that animal waste was not a significant contributor of nitrate. Manganese concentrations (1,150 and 965 micrograms per liter) in samples from a downgradient well were substantially larger than concentrations in samples from other wells, exceeding the secondary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. Larger concentrations of bicarbonate, magnesium, fluoride, and iron and a higher pH were also measured in water from a downgradient well. Ground-water levels in an observation well were higher from April to mid-July and lower during the late summer

  17. Determination of chemical solute transport parameters effecting radiostrontium interbed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.; Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The extent to which radionuclides migrate in an aquifer system is a function of various physical, chemical, and biological processes. A measure of this migration rate is of primary concern when locating suitable storage sites for such species. Parameters including water-rock interactions, infiltration rates, chemical phase modification, and biochemical reactions all affect solute transport. While these different types of chemical reactions can influence solute transport in subsurface waters, distribution coefficients (Kd) can be send to effectively summarize the net chemical factors which dictate transport efficiency. This coefficient describes the partitioning of the solute between the solution and solid phase. Methodology used in determining and interpreting the distribution coefficient for radiostrontium in well characterized sediments will be presented

  18. Mathematical modeling of fluid and solute transport in peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Waniewski, Jacek

    2001-01-01

    Optimization of peritoneal dialysis schedule and dialysis fluid composition needs, among others, methods for quantitative assessment of fluid and solute transport. Furthermore, an integrative quantitative description of physiological processes within the tissue, which contribute to the net transfer of fluid and solutes, is necessary for interpretation of the data and for predictions of the outcome of possible intervention into the peritoneal transport system. The current pro...

  19. Numerical Investigation of Multiple-, Interacting-Scale Variable-Density Ground Water Flow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosler, D.; Ibaraki, M.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of our study is to elucidate the nonlinear processes that are important for multiple-, interacting-scale flow and solute transport in subsurface environments. In particular, we are focusing on the influence of small-scale instability development on variable-density ground water flow behavior in large-scale systems. Convective mixing caused by these instabilities may mix the fluids to a greater extent than would be the case with classical, Fickian dispersion. Most current numerical schemes for interpreting field-scale variable-density flow systems do not explicitly account for the complexities caused by small-scale instabilities and treat such processes as "lumped" Fickian dispersive mixing. Such approaches may greatly underestimate the mixing behavior and misrepresent the overall large-scale flow field dynamics. The specific objectives of our study are: (i) to develop an adaptive (spatial and temporal scales) three-dimensional numerical model that is fully capable of simulating field-scale variable-density flow systems with fine resolution (~1 cm); and (ii) to evaluate the importance of scale-dependent process interactions by performing a series of simulations on different problem scales ranging from laboratory experiments to field settings, including an aquifer storage and freshwater recovery (ASR) system similar to those planned for the Florida Everglades and in-situ contaminant remediation systems. We are examining (1) methods to create instabilities in field-scale systems, (2) porous media heterogeneity effects, and (3) the relation between heterogeneity characteristics (e.g., permeability variance and correlation length scales) and the mixing scales that develop for varying degrees of unstable stratification. Applications of our work include the design of new water supply and conservation measures (e.g., ASR systems), assessment of saltwater intrusion problems in coastal aquifers, and the design of in-situ remediation systems for aquifer restoration

  20. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  1. A quasilinear model for solute transport under unsaturated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Leem, J.

    2009-01-01

    We developed an analytical solution for solute transport under steady-state, two-dimensional, unsaturated flow and transport conditions for the investigation of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The two-dimensional, unsaturated flow problem is treated using the quasilinear flow method for a system with homogeneous material properties. Dispersion is modeled as isotropic and is proportional to the effective hydraulic conductivity. This leads to a quasilinear form for the transport problem in terms of a scalar potential that is analogous to the Kirchhoff potential for quasilinear flow. The solutions for both flow and transport scalar potentials take the form of Fourier series. The particular solution given here is for two sources of flow, with one source containing a dissolved solute. The solution method may easily be extended, however, for any combination of flow and solute sources under steady-state conditions. The analytical results for multidimensional solute transport problems, which previously could only be solved numerically, also offer an additional way to benchmark numerical solutions. An analytical solution for two-dimensional, steady-state solute transport under unsaturated flow conditions is presented. A specific case with two sources is solved but may be generalized to any combination of sources. The analytical results complement numerical solutions, which were previously required to solve this class of problems.

  2. Regional flow and solute transport modeling for site suitability. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, J.; Miller, I.

    1979-12-01

    The nature of regional flow systems in large sedimentary basins will largely determine the effectiveness of regional flow as a barrier to radionuclide escape from deep geologic repositories. The purpose of the work reported herein and the proposed future work is to develop a methodology for evaluating regional flow barriers by using numerical models. The Williston Basin was chosen as an archetype case for the regional modeling study. However, due to the simplified nature of the study, the results are not meant to represent the behavior of a repository actually placed within the Williston Basin. The major components of this Phase I study are: (1) assembly and reduction of available data; (2) formulation of a simplified geohydrologic model; (3) computer simulation of fluid flow; and (4) computer simulation of solute transport. As of this report, the first two items are essentially completed. Computer simulation of fluid flow will require some revision and further study, which will be done in the second phase of this study. Computer simulation of solute transport has been considered only on a very preliminary basis. Important conclusions of this Phase I study are as follows. Assembly and reduction of data require an extensive work effort. Generally, the parameters describing fluid flow are poorly known on a regional basis and those describing solute transport are unknown

  3. Regional flow and solute transport modeling for site suitability. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, J.; Miller, I.

    1979-12-01

    The nature of regional flow systems in large sedimentary basins will largely determine the effectiveness of regional flow as a barrier to radionuclide escape from deep geologic repositories. The purpose of the work reported herein and the proposed future work is to develop a methodology for evaluating regional flow barriers by using numerical models. The Williston Basin was chosen as an archetype case for the regional modeling study. However, due to the simplified nature of the study, the results are not meant to represent the behavior of a repository actually placed within the Williston Basin. The major components of this Phase I study are: (1) assembly and reduction of available data; (2) formulation of a simplified geohydrologic model; (3) computer simulation of fluid flow; and (4) computer simulation of solute transport. As of this report, the first two items are essentially completed. Computer simulation of fluid flow will require some revision and further study, which will be done in the second phase of this study. Computer simulation of solute transport has been considered only on a very preliminary basis. Important conclusions of this Phase I study are as follows. Assembly and reduction of data require an extensive work effort. Generally, the parameters describing fluid flow are poorly known on a regional basis and those describing solute transport are unknown.

  4. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  5. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of a ground-water contamination area in Wolcott, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J.R.; Casey, G.D.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Frick, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds and inorganic constituents has been identified at a number of industrial sites in the Town of Wolcott, Connecticut. Contamination is also present at a municipal landfill in the City of Waterbury that is upgradient from the industrial sites in the local ground-water-flow system. The study area, which lies in the Western Highlands of Connecticut, is in the Mad River Valley, a tributary to the Naugatuck River. Geohydrologic units (aquifer materials) include unconsolidated glacial sediments (surficial materials) and fractured crystalline (metamorphic) bedrock. Surficial materials include glacial till, coarse-grained andfine-grained glacial stratified deposits, and postglacial floodplain alluvium and swamp deposits. The ground-water-flow system in the surficial aquifer is complex because the hydraulic properties of the surficial materials are highly variable. In the bedrock aquifer, ground water moves exclusively through fractures. Hydrologic characteristics of the crystalline bedrock-degree of confinement, hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and porosity-are poorly defined in the study area. Further study is needed to adequately assess ground-water flow and contaminant migration under current or past hydrologic conditions. All known water-supply wells in the study area obtain water from the bedrock aquifer. Twenty households in a hillside residential area on Tosun Road currently obtain drinking water from private wells tapping the bedrock aquifer. The extent of contamination in the bedrock aquifer and the potential for future contamination from known sources of contamination in the surficial aquifer is of concern to regulatory agencies. Previous investigations have identified ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds at the Nutmeg Valley Road site area. Contamination has been associated with on-site disposal of heavy metals, chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds, and

  6. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Lung, R.H.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The study of structural response to seismic inputs has been extensively studied and, particularly with the advent of the growth of digital computer capability, has lead to the development of numerical methods of analysis which are used as standard tools for the design of structures. One aspect of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) process which has not been developed to the same degree of sophistication is the impact of ground water (or pure water) on the response of the soil-structure system. There are very good reasons for his state of affairs, however, not the least of which is the difficulty of incorporating the true constitutive behavior of saturated soils into the analysis. At the large strain end of the spectrum, the engineer is concerned with the potential development of failure conditions under the structure, and is typically interested in the onset of liquefaction conditions. The current state of the art in this area is to a great extent based on empirical methods of analysis which were developed from investigations of limited failure data from specific sites around the world. Since it is known that analytic solutions are available for only the simplest of configurations, a numerical finite element solution process was developed. Again, in keeping with typical SSI analyses, in order to make the finite element approach yield resonable results, a comparable transmitting boundary formulation was included in the development. The purpose of the transmitting boundary is, of course, to allow for the treatment of extended soil/water half-space problems. For the calculations presented herein, a simple one dimensional transmitting boundary model was developed and utilized

  7. Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Dhamar City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefdallah Al Aizari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on groundwater at five fields (17 sampling wells located in Dhamar city, the central highlands of Yemen, was carried out. Samples were collected from the ground water supplies (tube wells during the year 2015. Physical parameters studied include (values between bracket s represents the measured mean values temperature (T, 25°, total dissolved solids (TDS, 271.47, pH (7.5, and electrical conductivity (EC, 424.18. The chemical parameters investigated include total hardness (TH, 127.45, calcium (Ca2+, 32.89, magnesium (Mg2+, 11.03, bicarbonate (HCO3̶, 143.84, sulphate (SO42-, 143.84, sodium (Na+, 35.11, potassium (K+, 6.28 and Chloride (Cl ̵, 22.69. The results were compared with drinking water quality standards issued by Yemen standards for drinking water. Except for T° and pH, all other measured parameters fall below the minimum permissible limits. The correlation between various physio-chemical parameters of the studied water wells was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. The obtained results show that all water samples are potable and can be safely used for both drinking and irrigation purposes. This comes in agreement with the public notion about groundwater of Dhamar Governorate. Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR values were calculated and found below 3 except for one drill. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 56-71

  8. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  9. Limit Theorems and Their Relation to Solute Transport in Simulated Fractured Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, D. M.; Benson, D. A.; Meerschaert, M. M.

    2003-12-01

    Solute particles that travel through fracture networks are subject to wide velocity variations along a restricted set of directions. This may result in super-Fickian dispersion along a few primary scaling directions. The fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE), a modification of the original advection-dispersion equation in which a fractional derivative replaces the integer-order dispersion term, has the ability to model rapid, non-Gaussian solute transport. The FADE assumes that solute particle motions converge to either α -stable or operator stable densities, which are modeled by spatial fractional derivatives. In multiple dimensions, the multi-fractional dispersion derivative dictates the order and weight of differentiation in all directions, which correspond to the statistics of large particle motions in all directions. This study numerically investigates the presence of super- Fickian solute transport through simulated two-dimensional fracture networks. An ensemble of networks is gen

  10. Simulation of unsaturated flow and nonreactive solute transport in a heterogeneous soil at the field scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    A field-scale, unsaturated flow and solute transport experiment at the Las Cruces trench site in New Mexico was simulated as part of a ''blind'' modeling exercise to demonstrate the ability or inability of uncalibrated models to predict unsaturated flow and solute transport in spatially variable porous media. Simulations were conducted using a recently developed multiphase flow and transport simulator. Uniform and heterogeneous soil models were tested, and data from a previous experiment at the site were used with an inverse procedure to estimate water retention parameters. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean observed and simulated flow and transport behavior. The results of this study suggest that defensible predictions of waste migration and fate at low-level waste sites will ultimately require site-specific data for model calibration

  11. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  12. Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Niño and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Niño and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area—the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east—provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge

  13. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Active and inactive mine sites are challenging to remediate because of their complexity and scale. Regulations meant to achieve environmental restoration at mine sites are equally challenging to apply for the same reasons. The goal of environmental restoration should be to restore contaminated mine sites, as closely as possible, to pre-mining conditions. Metalliferous mine sites in the Western United States are commonly located in hydrothermally altered and mineralized terrain in which pre-mining concentrations of metals were already anomalously high. Typically, those pre-mining concentrations were not measured, but sometimes they can be reconstructed using scientific inference. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The State of New Mexico requires that ground-water quality standards be met on closure unless it can be shown that potential contaminant concentrations were higher than the standards before mining. No ground water at the mine site had been chemically analyzed before mining. The aim of this investigation, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality by an examination of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls on ground-water quality in a nearby, or proximal, analog site in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Twenty-seven reports contain details of investigations on the geological, hydrological, and geochemical characteristics of the Red River Valley that are summarized in this report. These studies include mapping of surface mineralogy by Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS); compilations of historical surface- and ground- water quality data; synoptic/tracer studies with mass loading and temporal water-quality trends of the Red River; reaction-transport modeling of the Red River; environmental geology of the Red River Valley; lake

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN THE MEADOW OF BORCEA ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the factors leading to water pollution by nitrates in the Meadow of Borcea arm, mainly derived from agricultural sources. mIn oder to model the amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil, which can be partially used by plants or leached into the ground water, research was made on alluvial soil in the Meadow of Borcea arm. I tried to study in the laboratory the influence of three factors of nitrate nitrogen pollution of ground water: soil type, environmental conditions (temperature and humidity and the amount of mineral fertilizers incorporated. The resulting amount of nitrate nitrogen resulted with nitrogen fertilizer dose, and the temperature and it was affected by humidity especially 40-80% of field capacity.

  15. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  16. Ground-water hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow at Operable Unit 3 and surrounding region, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Air Station, Jacksonville (herein referred to as the Station), occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Duval County, Florida. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) occupies 134 acres on the eastern side of the Station and has been used for industrial and commercial purposes since World War II. Ground water contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds has been detected in the surficial aquifer at OU3. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a cooperative hydrologic study to evaluate the potential for ground water discharge to the neighboring St. Johns River. A ground-water flow model, previously developed for the area, was recalibrated for use in this study. At the Station, the surficial aquifer is exposed at land surface and forms the uppermost permeable unit. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 30 to 100 feet and consists of unconsolidated silty sands interbedded with local beds of clay. The low-permeability clays of the Hawthorn Group form the base of the aquifer. The USGS previously conducted a ground-water investigation at the Station that included the development and calibration of a 1-layer regional ground-water flow model. For this investigation, the regional model was recalibrated using additional data collected after the original calibration. The recalibrated model was then used to establish the boundaries for a smaller subregional model roughly centered on OU3. Within the subregional model, the surficial aquifer is composed of distinct upper and intermediate layers. The upper layer extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 15 feet below sea level; the intermediate layer extends from the upper layer down to the top of the Hawthorn Group. In the northern and central parts of OU3, the upper and intermediate layers are separated by a low-permeability clay layer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the upper layer, determined from aquifer tests, range from 0.19 to 3.8 feet per day. The horizontal hydraulic

  17. A dual model approach to ground water recovery trench design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.L.; Crouch, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design of trenches for contaminated ground water recovery must consider several variables. This paper presents a dual-model approach for effectively recovering contaminated ground water migrating toward a trench by advection. The approach involves an analytical model to determine the vertical influence of the trench and a numerical flow model to determine the capture zone within the trench and the surrounding aquifer. The analytical model is utilized by varying trench dimensions and head values to design a trench which meets the remediation criteria. The numerical flow model is utilized to select the type of backfill and location of sumps within the trench. The dual-model approach can be used to design a recovery trench which effectively captures advective migration of contaminants in the vertical and horizontal planes

  18. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  19. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  20. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35 degrees N., long 115 degrees W and lat 38 degrees N., long 118 degrees W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system

  1. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  2. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  3. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  4. Ground-water development and problems in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1954-01-01

    The development of groundwater for irrigation in Idaho, as most of you know, has proceeded at phenomenal rate since the Second World War. In the period 1907 to 1944 inclusive only about 328 valid permits and licenses to appropriate ground water were issued by the state. thereafter 28 permits became valid in 1945, 83 in 1946, and 121 in 1947. Sine 1947 permits and licenses have been issued at the rate of more than 400 a year.  

  5. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  6. A contribution on the problem of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliox, L.; Muntzer, P.; Kresser, W.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present the underlying physics of processes relevant to the problem of ground water pollution. A series of models are discussed which include two-dimensional diffusion from a point source of pollution in a uniform homogeneous medium and the modifying effect of inhomogeneities, together with displacement processes for miscible liquids in saturated porous media. In conclusion an account of laboratory and theoretical investigations of these diffusion processes in layered media of different permeabilities is given. (J.R.B.)

  7. Cyclic deformation-induced solute transport in tissue scaffolds with computer designed, interconnected, pore networks: experiments and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Buijs, Jorn Op; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Ritman, Erik L

    2009-08-01

    Nutrient supply and waste removal in porous tissue engineering scaffolds decrease from the periphery to the center, leading to limited depth of ingrowth of new tissue into the scaffold. However, as many tissues experience cyclic physiological strains, this may provide a mechanism to enhance solute transport in vivo before vascularization of the scaffold. The hypothesis of this study was that pore cross-sectional geometry and interconnectivity are of major importance for the effectiveness of cyclic deformation-induced solute transport. Transparent elastic polyurethane scaffolds, with computer-programmed design of pore networks in the form of interconnected channels, were fabricated using a 3D printing and injection molding technique. The scaffold pores were loaded with a colored tracer for optical contrast, cyclically compressed with deformations of 10 and 15% of the original undeformed height at 1.0 Hz. Digital imaging was used to quantify the spatial distribution of the tracer concentration within the pores. Numerical simulations of a fluid-structure interaction model of deformation-induced solute transport were compared to the experimental data. The results of experiments and modeling agreed well and showed that pore interconnectivity heavily influences deformation-induced solute transport. Pore cross-sectional geometry appears to be of less relative importance in interconnected pore networks. Validated computer models of solute transport can be used to design optimal scaffold pore geometries that will enhance the convective transport of nutrients inside the scaffold and the removal of waste, thus improving the cell survivability deep inside the scaffold.

  8. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin X. Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM. It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots – apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs, which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic. Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle. The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  9. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangmin X; Ranathunge, Kosala; Lee, Seulbi; Lee, Yejin; Lee, Deogbae; Sung, Jwakyung

    2018-01-01

    The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM). It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots - apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs), which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic). Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle). The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  10. Existence of Insecticides in Tap Drinking Surface and Ground Water in Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Mandour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The environmental degradation products of pesticides may enter drinking water and result in serious health problems. Objective: To evaluate the occurrence of insecticides in drinking surface and ground water in Dakahlyia Governorate, northern Egypt in 2011. Methods: We studied blood samples collected from 36 consecutive patients diagnosed with pesticides poisoning and 36 tap drinking water (surface and ground. Blood and water samples were analyzed for pesticides using gas chromatography-electron captured detector (GC-ECD. In addition, blood samples were analyzed for plasma pseudo-cholinesterase level (PChE and red blood cells acetyl cholinesterase activity (AChE. Results: The results confirmed the presence of high concentrations of insecticides, including organonitrogenous and organochlorine in tap drinking surface and ground water. Conclusion: Drinking water contaminated with insecticides constitutes an important health concern in Dakahlyia governorate, Egypt.

  11. Assessment of ground water quality in a fractured aquifer under continue wastewater injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrieri, C.; Masciopinto, C.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies have been carried out in a fractured coastal aquifer of the Salento Region (Nardo' (Le) Italy), subject since 1991 to injection of 12000 m 3 /d of treated municipal wastewater in a natural sink. The analytical parameters of ground water sampled in monitoring wells, have been compared before and after the injection started. The mound of water table (1.5 m), the reduction of seawater extent of 2 km and the spreading of pollutants injected were evaluated by means of mathematical model results. After ten years operation, the volume of the available resource for agricultural and drinking use has been increased, without notable decrease of the pre existent ground water quality. Moreover for preserving such resource from pollution, the mathematical model allowed the standards of wastewater quality for recharge to be identified. Around the sink, a restricted area was also defined with prohibition of withdrawals, to avoid infection and other risks on human health [it

  12. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  13. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  14. Estimates of ground-water recharge rates for two small basins in central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichty, R.W.; McKinley, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of ground-water recharge rates developed from hydrologic modeling studies are presented for 3-Springs and East Stewart basins, two small basins (analog sites) located in central Nevada. The analog-site studies were conducted to aid in the estimation of recharge to the paleohydrologic regime associated with ground water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain under wetter climatic conditions. The two analog sites are located to the north and at higher elevations than Yucca Mountain, and the prevailing (current) climatic conditions at these sites is thought to be representative of the possible range of paleoclimatic conditions in the general area of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Two independent modeling approaches were conducted at each of the analog sites using observed hydrologic data on precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, stream discharge, and chloride-ion water chemistry for a 6-year study period (October 1986 through September 1992). Both models quantify the hydrologic water-balance equation and yield estimates of ground-water recharge, given appropriate input data. Results of the modeling approaches support the conclusion that reasonable estimates of average-annual recharge to ground water range from about 1 to 3 centimeters per year for 3-Springs basin (the drier site), and from about 30 to 32 centimeters per year for East Stewart basin (the wetter site). The most reliable results are those derived from a reduced form of the chloride-ion model because they reflect integrated, basinwide processes in terms of only three measured variables: precipitation amount, precipitation chemistry, and streamflow chemistry

  15. Assessment of ground-water flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer using geostatistical filtering and hydrocarbon fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, S.A. Jr.; Smith, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional environmental investigations at tidally influenced hazardous waste sites such as marine fuel storage terminals have generally failed to characterize ground-water flow and chemical transport because they have been based on only a cursory knowledge of plume geometry, chemicals encountered, and hydrogeologic setting and synoptic ground-water level measurement. Single-time observations cannot be used to accurately determine flow direction and gradient in tidally fluctuating aquifers since these measurements delineate hydraulic head at only one point in time during a tidal cycle, not the net effect of the fluctuations. In this study, a more rigorous approach was used to characterize flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer at a marine fuel storage terminal using: (1) ground-water-level monitoring over three tidal cycles (72 hours), (2) geostatistical filtering of ground-water-level data using 25-hour and 71-hour filtering methods, and (3) hydrocarbon fingerprinting analysis. The results from the study indicate that naphtha released from one of the on-site naphtha tanks has been the predominant contributor to the hydrocarbon plume both on-site and downgradient off-site and that net ground-water and hydrocarbon movement has been to the southeast away from the tank since 1989

  16. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James M.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the quality of ground water in the Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys as part of the Carson River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) pilot study. Four aquifer systems have been de- lineated in the study area. Principal aquifers are unconsolidated deposits at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet above sea level and more than 50 feet below land surface. Shallow aquifers are at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet and less than 50 feet below land surface. Upland aquifers are above 4,900 feet and provide recharge to the principal aquifers. Thermal aquifers, defined as those having a water temperature greater than 30 degrees Celsius, are also present. Ground water used in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys is pumped from principal aquifers in unconsolidated basin-fill deposits. Ground water in these aquifers originates as precipitation in the adjacent mountains and is recharged by the Carson River and by underflow from adjacent upstream valleys. Ground-water flow is generally parallel to the direction of surface-water flow in the Carson River. Ground water is discharged by pumping, evapo- transpiration, and underflow into the Carson River. The results of geochemical modeling indicate that as ground water moves from upland aquifers in mountainous recharge areas to principal aquifers in basin-fill deposits, the following processes probably occur: (1) plagioclase feldspar, sodium chloride, gypsum (or pyrite), potassium feldspar, and biotite dissolve; (2) calcite precipitates; (3) kaolinite forms; (4) small amounts of calcium and magnesium in the water exchange for potassium on aquifer minerals; and (5) carbon dioxide is gained or lost. The geochemical models are consistent with (1) phases identified in basin- fill sediments; (2) chemical activity of major cations and silica; (3) saturation indices of calcite and amorphous silica; (4) phase relations for aluminosilicate minerals indicated by activity diagrams; and

  17. Bioventing - a new twist on soil vapor remediation of the vadose zone and shallow ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancheski, T.B.; McFarland, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing, which is a combination of soil vapor remediation and bioremediation techniques, may be an innovative, cost-effective, and efficient remedial technology for addressing petroleum contamination in the vadose zone and shallow ground water. The objective of bioventing is to mobilize petroleum compounds from the soil and ground water into soil vapor using soil vapor extraction and injection technology, and to promote the migration of the soil vapor upward to the turf root zone for degradation by active near-surface microbiological activity. Promoting and maintaining optimum microbiological activity in the turf root rhizosphere is a key component to the bioventing technique. Preliminary ongoing USEPA bioventing pilot studies (Kampbell, 1991) have indicated that this technique is a promising remediation technology, although feasibility studies are not yet complete. However, based on the preliminary data, it appears that proper bioventing design and implementation will result in substantial reductions of petroleum compounds in the capillary zone and shallow ground water, complete degradation of petroleum compounds in the turf root zone, and no surface emissions. A bioventing system was installed at a site in southern Delaware with multiple leaking underground storage tanks in early 1992 to remediate vadose zone and shallow ground-water contaminated by petroleum compounds. The system consists of a series of soil vapor extraction and soil vapor/atmospheric air injection points placed in various contamination areas and a central core remediation area (a large grassy plot). This system was chosen for this site because it was least costly to implement and operate as compared to other remedial alternatives (soil vapor extraction with carbon or catalytic oxidation of off-gas treatment, insitu bioremediation, etc.), and results in the generation of no additional wastes

  18. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  19. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J. K.; Nørgaard, Trine; Loung, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables......, and tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the field scale for the inert solute transport under a steady-state irrigation rate which produced near-saturated conditions. Sixty-five undisturbed soil columns approximately 20 cm in height and diameter were sampled from the loamy topsoil of an agricultural field...... to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the column...

  20. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  1. Soil properties and preferential solute transport at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J K; Minh, Luong Nhat; Nørgaard, Trine

    An important fraction of water flow and solute transport through soil takes place through preferential flow paths. Although this had been already observed in the nineteenth century, it had been forgotten by the scientific community until it was rediscovered during the 1970s. The awareness...... of the relevance of preferential flow was broadly re-established in the community by the early 1990s. However, since then, the notion remains widespread among soil scientists that the occurrence and strength of preferential flow cannot be predicted from measurable proxy variables such as soil properties or land...

  2. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  3. Radiological risk assessment of U(nat) in the ground water around Jaduguda uranium mining complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethy, N.K.; Jha, V.N.; Shukla, A.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium is present naturally in earth crust and hence at trace level in ground water, sea water, building materials etc. Naturally occurring radionuclide originating from industrial activities, metal mining and waste depository may contribute to the nearby ground water by radionuclide migration. Ground water ecosystem surrounding the uranium processing facility at Jaduguda has been studied for natural uranium distribution. In the present study, the drinking water sources at various distance zone (with in 1.6 km, 1.6-5 km and > 5km) covering all directions around the waste depository (tailings pond) have been investigated for uranium content. Evaluation of intake, ingestion dose and subsequent risk for population residing around the tailings pond has been carried out. Annual intake of uranium through drinking water for members of public residing around the uranium complex is found to be in the range of 41.8 - 44.4 Bq.y -1 . The intake and ingestion dose is appreciably low ( -1 ) which is far below the WHO recommended level of 100 Sv.y -1 . The life time radiological risk due to uranium natural in drinking water is insignificant and found to be of the order of 10 -6 . (author)

  4. Radon content in various types of ground water in south-eastern Sweden. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, G.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of investigation has been to study the radon content and its seasonal fluctuations in different types of ground water. The investigation was carried out in an area where the hydrogeological conditions are fairly well known. The geology is dominated by granitic bedrock and till. Water samples were collected from drilled wells in different rocks and from dug wells and springs in till and gravel. The seasonal fluctuations were studied in a small area. All radon measurements were made in the laboratory. The main results are following.(1) The highest radon content (max. 40 nCi/l) was observed in water from wells drilled granite. (2) The radon content in ground water from till never exceeds 8 nCi/l; the highest amount is normally found in springs situated in drumlin terrain with basel till and gravel lenses and beds (3-5 nCi/l) the contents in dug wells are 0.5-3.5 nCi/l.(3) Waters from gravel deposits have constantly low radon contents (0.1-3 nCi/l), and surface water has no radon.(4) The seasonal fluctuations in radon content are rather high and show a similar pattern to that of the fluctuations of the ground-water levels in till in the same area. (author)

  5. Status Of Physico-Chemical Parameter Of Ground Water Of Gorakhpur City U.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district by collecting 20 samples of water from hand pump from 20 locations well distributed with in Gorakhpur district were analyzed for different parameters such as pH electric conductivity chloride total free chlorine hardness fluoride nitrate iron Turbidity potassium. Groundwater is polluted from seepage pits refuse dumps septic tanks barnyards manures transport accident and different pollutant. Important sources of ground water pollution are sewage is dumped in shallow soak pits. It gives rise to cholera hepatitis dysenteries etc. especially in areas with high water table.

  6. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  7. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  8. Estimates of Nutrient Loading by Ground-Water Discharge into the Lynch Cove Area of Hood Canal, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, F. William; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Reich, Christopher D.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the waters of Hood Canal threaten marine life in late summer and early autumn. Oxygen depletion in the deep layers and landward reaches of the canal is caused by decomposition of excess phytoplankton biomass, which feeds on nutrients (primarily nitrogen compounds) that enter the canal from various sources, along with stratification of the water column that prevents mixing and replenishment of oxygen. Although seawater entering the canal is the largest source of nitrogen, ground-water discharge to the canal also contributes significant quantities, particularly during summer months when phytoplankton growth is most sensitive to nutrient availability. Quantifying ground-water derived nutrient loads entering an ecologically sensitive system such as Hood Canal is a critical component of constraining the total nutrient budget and ultimately implementing effective management strategies to reduce impacts of eutrophication. The amount of nutrients entering Hood Canal from ground water was estimated using traditional and indirect measurements of ground-water discharge, and analysis of nutrient concentrations. Ground-water discharge to Hood Canal is variable in space and time because of local geology, variable hydraulic gradients in the ground-water system adjacent to the shoreline, and a large tidal range of 3 to 5 meters. Intensive studies of ground-water seepage and hydraulic-head gradients in the shallow, nearshore areas were used to quantify the freshwater component of submarine ground-water discharge (SGD), whereas indirect methods using radon and radium geochemical tracers helped quantify total SGD and recirculated seawater. In areas with confirmed ground-water discharge, shore-perpendicular electrical resistivity profiles, continuous electromagnetic seepage-meter measurements, and continuous radon measurements were used to visualize temporal variations in ground-water discharge over several tidal cycles. The results of these

  9. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  10. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  11. Radiolysis of ground water: influence of carbonate and chloride on the hydrogen peroxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Ndalamba, P.; Bjergbakke, E.

    1988-12-01

    Small volumes of aqueous solutions have been subjected to α-radiation from a Am-241 source. The irradiated solution was separated from the bulk solution by a glass filter serving as a diffusion barrier. The H 2 O 2 concentration in the bulk solution was monitored by a chemiluminescence technique and the overall production of oxidizing species (H 2 O 2 /O 2 ) in irradiated ground water was studied by measuring the Fe 2+ -consumption in ground water initially containing 2 x 10 -6 mol x dm -3 Fe 2+ . H 2 O 2 yields calculated using the computer program CHEMSIMUL are in fair agreement with experimental yields for 'pure' water (pH 8) and aqueous methanol solutions (pH 5). Experimentally G(H 2 O 2 ) = 1.06 +- 0.1 was obtained in 'pure' water. In solutions containing 2 x 10 -3 mol x dm -3 HCO 3 - and in ground water G(H 2 O 2 ) decreased to 0.69 +- 0.03. A corresponding decrease in G(H 2 O 2 ) was not found in the calculations. The agreement between measured and calculated Fe 2+ consumption is fair when slow oxidative reactions in the bulk solutions are taken into account. (authors)

  12. Determination of Arsenic and Health Risk Assessment in the Ground Water of Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULFIQAR ALIBHATTI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As (Arsenic is one of the lethal element present at the various locations of the world, putting human beings in danger by polluting the water. Arsenic Kit and atomic absorption spectrometer were used to determine As in ground water of Sindh province, Pakistan. Twenty-Four (24 districts both on the left and right bank of RI (River Indus were analyzed. It was observed from the results that highest As concentration 200 ppb (parts per billion i.e. above the WHO (World Health Organization limit (10 ppb was observed in Sakrand, district Shaheed Benazirabad followed by Hala, Matairi, TMK (Tando Mohammad Khan and Nasarpur regions. It was further found that ground water of regions on the left bank of RIwas more contaminated than the right bank. Contour map was created using OriginPro and coordinate systems to highlight the elevated arsenic in the studied area. HRA (Health Risk Assessment of these areas was carried out to calculate EDI (Estimated Daily Intake, TQH (Target Hazard Quotient and CR (Cancer Risk. 45% of the total ground water samples analyzed were above the permissible limit for As in water and mostly these are located on the left bank of RI. The local wells in Sindh have never been tested for metal concentration former to use. These results provide baselines for researchers, NGO's (Non-Governmental Organizations and government to apply arsenic treatment technologies in those areas

  13. Second status report on regional ground-water flow modeling for the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Regional ground-water flow within the principal geohydrologic units of the Palo Duro Basin is evaluated by developing a conceptual model of the flow regime and testing the model using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Sensitivity analyses (a limited parametric study) are conducted to define the system responses to changes in the conceptual model. Of particular interest are the impacts of salt permeability and potential climatic changes on the system response. The conceptual model is described in terms of its areal and vertical discretization, aquifer properties, fluid properties and hydrologic boundary conditions. The simulated ground-water flow fields are described with potentiometric surfaces, tables summarizing the areal and vertical volumetric flows through the principal units, and Darcy velocities within specified finite-difference blocks. The reported work is the second stage of an ongoing evaluation of the Palo Duro Basin as a potential repository for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, the report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity of the present conceptualization of ground-water flow to particular parameters and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainties in the present conceptualization. 28 refs., 44 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Volatile organic compounds in the nation's ground water and drinking-water supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogorski, John S.; Carter, Janet M.; Ivahnenko, Tamara; Lapham, Wayne W.; Moran, Michael J.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Squillace, Paul J.; Toccalino, Patricia L.

    2006-01-01

    This national assessment of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water gives emphasis to the occurrence of VOCs in aquifers that are used as an important supply of drinking water. In contrast to the monitoring of VOC contamination of ground water at point-source release sites, such as landfills and leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs), our investigations of aquifers are designed as large-scale resource assessments that provide a general characterization of water-quality conditions. Nearly all of the aquifers included in this assessment have been identified as regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems. The assessment of ground water (Chapter 3) included analyses of about 3,500 water samples collected during 1985-2001 from various types of wells, representing almost 100 different aquifer studies. This is the first national assessment of the occurrence of a large number of VOCs with different uses, and the assessment addresses key questions about VOCs in aquifers. The assessment also provides a foundation for subsequent decadal assessments of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to ascertain long-term trends of VOC occurrence in these aquifers.

  15. Ground-water flow and saline water in the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds of Virginia Beach, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry S.

    2003-01-01

    Population and tourism continues to grow in Virginia Beach, Virginia, but the supply of freshwater is limited. A pipeline from Lake Gaston supplies water for northern Virginia Beach, but ground water is widely used to water lawns in the north, and most southern areas of the city rely solely on ground water. Water from depths greater than 60 meters generally is too saline to drink. Concentrations of chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Virginia Beach, Department of Public Utilities, investigated the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds to determine the distribution of fresh ground water, its potential uses, and its susceptibility to contamination. Aquifers and confining units of the southern watersheds were delineated and chloride concentrations in the aquifers and confining units were contoured. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model of the shallow aquifer system reached steady state with regard to measured chloride concentrations after 31,550 years of freshwater recharge. Model simulations indicate that if freshwater is found in permeable sediments of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, such a well field could supply freshwater, possibly for decades, but eventually the water would become more saline. The rate of saline-water intrusion toward the well field would depend on the rate of pumping, aquifer properties, and on the proximity of the well field to saline water sources. The steady-state, ground-water-flow model also was used to simulate drawdowns around two hypothetical well fields and drawdowns around two hypothetical open-pit mines. The chloride concentrations simulated in the model did not approximate the measured concentrations for some wells, indicating sites where local hydrogeologic units or unit properties do not conform to the simple hydrogeology of the model. The Columbia aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown

  16. Determination of uranium in ground water using different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Maity, Sukanta; Bhangare, R.C.; Pandit, G.G.; Sharma, D.N.

    2014-10-01

    The concern over presence of natural radionuclides like uranium in drinking water is growing recently. The contamination of aquifers with radionuclides depends on number of factors. The geology of an area is the most important factor along with anthropogenic activities like mining, coal ash disposal from thermal power plants, use of phosphate fertilizers etc. Whatever may be the source, the presence of uranium in drinking waters is a matter of great concern for public health. Studies show that uranium is a chemo-toxic and nephrotoxic heavy metal. This chemotoxicity affects the kidneys and bones in particular. Seeing the potential health hazards from natural radionuclides in drinking water, many countries worldwide have adopted the guideline activity concentration for drinking water quality recommended by the WHO (2011). For uranium, WHO has set a limit of 30μgL-1 in drinking water. The geological distribution of uranium and its migration in environment is of interest because the element is having environmental and exposure concerns. It is of great interest to use an analytical technique for uranium analysis in water which is highly sensitive especially at trace levels, specific and precise in presence of other naturally occurring major and trace metals and needs small amount of sample. Various analytical methods based on the use of different techniques have been developed in the past for the determination of uranium in the geological samples. The determination of uranium requires high selectivity due to its strong association with other elements. Several trace level wet chemistry analytical techniques have been reported for uranium determination, but most of these involve tedious and pain staking procedures, high detection limits, interferences etc. Each analytical technique has its own merits and demerits. Comparative assessment by different techniques can provide better quality control and assurance. In present study, uranium was analysed in ground water samples

  17. Coupled Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Solute Transport, Metabolism and Nutrient Uptake in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. J.; Schmidt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Slower flow velocities and longer residence times within stream transient storage (TS) zones facilitate interaction between solutes and microbial communities, potentially increasing local rates of metabolic activity. Multiple factors, including channel morphology and substrate, variable hydrology, and seasonal changes in biological and physical parameters, result in changes in the solute transport dynamics and reactivity of TS zones over time and space. These changes would be expected to, in turn, influence rates of whole-stream ecosystem functions such as metabolism and nutrient uptake. However, the linkages between solute transport and ecosystem functioning within TS zones, and the contribution of TS zones to whole-stream functioning, are not always so straight forward. This may be due, in part, to methodological challenges. In this study we investigated the influence of stream channel hydro-morphology and substrate type on reach (103 m) and sub-reach (102 m) scale TS and ecosystem functioning. Patterns in solute transport, metabolism and nitrate uptake were tracked from April through October in two contrasting upland streams using several methods. The two streams, located in the Harz Mountains, Germany, are characterized by differing size (0.02 vs. 0.3 m3/s), dominant stream channel substrate (bedrock vs. alluvium) and sub-reach morphology (predominance of pools, riffles and glides). Solute transport parameters and respiration rates at the reach and sub-reach scale were estimated monthly from coupled pulse injections of the reactive tracer resazurin (Raz) and conservative tracers uranine and salt. Raz, a weakly fluorescent dye, irreversibly transforms to resorufin (Rru) under mildly reducing conditions, providing a proxy for aerobic respiration. Daily rates of primary productivity, respiration and nitrate retention at the reach scale were estimated using the diel cycles in dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations measured by in-situ sensors. Preliminary

  18. Implementation of Solute Transport in the Vadose Zone into the `HYDRUS Package for MODFLOW'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunek, J.; Beegum, S.; Szymkiewicz, A.; Sudheer, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The 'HYDRUS package for MODFLOW' was developed by Seo et al. (2007) and Twarakavi et al. (2008) to simultaneously evaluate transient water flow in both unsaturated and saturated zones. The package, which is based on the HYDRUS-1D model (Šimůnek et al., 2016) simulating unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone, was incorporated into MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) simulating saturated groundwater flow. The HYDRUS package in the coupled model can be used to represent the effects of various unsaturated zone processes, including infiltration, evaporation, root water uptake, capillary rise, and recharge in homogeneous or layered soil profiles. The coupled model is effective in addressing spatially-variable saturated-unsaturated hydrological processes at the regional scale, allowing for complex layering in the unsaturated zone, spatially and temporarily variable water fluxes at the soil surface and in the root zone, and with alternating recharge and discharge fluxes (Twarakavi et al., 2008). One of the major limitations of the coupled model was that it could not be used to simulate at the same time solute transport. However, solute transport is highly dependent on water table fluctuations due to temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge. This is an important concern when the coupled model is used for analyzing groundwater contamination due to transport through the unsaturated zone. The objective of this study is to integrate the solute transport model (the solute transport part of HYDRUS-1D for the unsaturated zone and MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999; Zheng, 2009) for the saturated zone) into an existing coupled water flow model. The unsaturated zone component of the coupled model can consider solute transport involving many biogeochemical processes and reactions, including first-order degradation, volatilization, linear or nonlinear sorption, one-site kinetic sorption, two-site sorption, and two-kinetic sites sorption (Šimůnek and van Genuchten, 2008

  19. Coupling between solute transport and chemical reactions models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, J.; Ajora, C.

    1993-01-01

    During subsurface transport, reactive solutes are subject to a variety of hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The major hydrodynamic processes include advection and convection, dispersion and diffusion. The key chemical processes are complexation including hydrolysis and acid-base reactions, dissolution-precipitation, reduction-oxidation, adsorption and ion exchange. The combined effects of all these processes on solute transport must satisfy the principle of conservation of mass. The statement of conservation of mass for N mobile species leads to N partial differential equations. Traditional solute transport models often incorporate the effects of hydrodynamic processes rigorously but oversimplify chemical interactions among aqueous species. Sophisticated chemical equilibrium models, on the other hand, incorporate a variety of chemical processes but generally assume no-flow systems. In the past decade, coupled models accounting for complex hydrological and chemical processes, with varying degrees of sophistication, have been developed. The existing models of reactive transport employ two basic sets of equations. The transport of solutes is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. An important consideration in any approach is the choice of primary dependent variables. Most existing models cannot account for the complete set of chemical processes, cannot be easily extended to include mixed chemical equilibria and kinetics, and cannot handle practical two and three dimensional problems. The difficulties arise mainly from improper selection of the primary variables in the transport equations. (Author) 38 refs

  20. The secret to successful solute-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling subsurface solute transport is difficult—more so than modeling heads and flows. The classical governing equation does not always adequately represent what we see at the field scale. In such cases, commonly used numerical models are solving the wrong equation. Also, the transport equation is hyperbolic where advection is dominant, and parabolic where hydrodynamic dispersion is dominant. No single numerical method works well for all conditions, and for any given complex field problem, where seepage velocity is highly variable, no one method will be optimal everywhere. Although we normally expect a numerically accurate solution to the governing groundwater-flow equation, errors in concentrations from numerical dispersion and/or oscillations may be large in some cases. The accuracy and efficiency of the numerical solution to the solute-transport equation are more sensitive to the numerical method chosen than for typical groundwater-flow problems. However, numerical errors can be kept within acceptable limits if sufficient computational effort is expended. But impractically long

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  3. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  4. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of glacial-drift aquifers, Leech Lake Indian Reservation, north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Among the duties of the water managers of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation in north-central Minnesota are the development and protection of the water resources of the Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Leech Lake Indian Reservation Business Committee, conducted a three and one half-year study (1988-91) of the ground-water resources of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation. The objectives of this study were to describe the availability and quality of ground water contained in glacial-drift aquifers underlying the Reservation.

  5. Sixth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Outdoor Action Conference was comprised of three days of technical presentations, workshops, demonstrations, and an exhibition. The sessions were devoted to the following topics: Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Sampling Technology; Soil and Ground Water Remediation; and Surface and Borehole Geophysics. The meeting was sponsored by the National Ground Water Association. These papers were published exactly as submitted, without technical and grammatical editing or peer review

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  8. In situ remediation of Jet A in soil and ground water by high vacuum, dual phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.; Roth, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial results of subsurface remediation at Terminal 1, Kennedy International Airport, to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with Jet A fuel. The project was driven and constrained by the construction schedule of a major new terminal at the facility. The remediation system used a combination of ground water pumping, air injection, and soil vapor extraction. In the first five months of operation, the combined processes of dewatering, volatilization, and biodegradation removed a total of 36,689 pounds of total volatile and semivolatile organic jet fuel hydrocarbons from subsurface soil and ground water. The results of this case study have shown that 62% of the removal resulted from biodegradation, 27% occurred as a result of liquid removal, and 11% resulted from the extraction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  9. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141... customer as follows: (i) Chemical disinfection—(A) Ground water systems serving greater than 3,300 people...

  10. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has not been affected by leakage from a regulated unit; (i) A determination of background ground-water...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... elevation each time ground water is sampled. (g) In detection monitoring or where appropriate in compliance...

  11. Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, northwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lee R.; Bayless, E. Randall; Buszka, Paul M.; Wilson, John T.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality were studied at a site in northwestern Indiana using a variety of geochemical indicators. Site characteristics such as high snowfall rates; large quantities of applied deicers; presence of a high-traffic highway; a homogeneous, permeable, and unconfined aquifer; a shallow water table; a known ground-water-flow direction; and minimal potential for other sources of chloride and sodium to complicate source interpretation were used to select a study area where ground water was likely to be affected by deicer application. Forty-three monitoring wells were installed in an unconfined sand aquifer (the Calumet aquifer) near Beverly Shores in northwestern Indiana. Wells were installed along two transects that approximately paralleled groundwater flow in the Calumet aquifer and crossed US?12. US?12 is a highway that receives Indiana?s highest level of maintenance to maintain safe driving conditions. Ground-water quality and water-level data were collected from the monitoring wells, and precipitation and salt-application data were compiled from 1994 through 1997. The water-quality data indicated that chloride was the most easily traced indicator of highway deicers in ground water. Concentration ratios of chloride to iodide and chloride to bromide and Stiff diagrams of major element concentrations indicated that the principal source of chloride and sodium in ground water from the uppermost one-third to one-half of the Calumet relative electromagnetic conductivity defined a distinct plume of deicer-affected water in the uppermost 8 feet of aquifer at about 9 feet horizontally from the paved roadway edge and a zone of higher conductivity than background in the lower one-third of the aquifer. Chloride and sodium in the deep parts of the aquifer originated from natural sources. Chloride and sodium from highway deicers were present in the aquifer throughout the year. The highest concentrations of chloride and sodium

  12. Simplified estimation technique for organic contaminant transport in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1984-05-01

    The analytical solution for one-dimensional dispersive-advective transport of a single solute in a saturated soil accompanied by adsorption onto soil surfaces and first-order reaction rate kinetics for degradation can be used to evaluate the suitability of potential sites for burial of organic chemicals. The technique can be used to the greatest advantage with organic chemicals that are present in ground waters in small amounts. The steady-state solution provides a rapid method for chemical landfill site evaluation because it contains the important variables that describe interactions between hydrodynamics and chemical transformation. With this solution, solute concentration, at a specified distance from the landfill site, is a function of the initial concentration and two dimensionless groups. In the first group, the relative weights of advective and dispersive variables are compared, and in the second group the relative weights of hydrodynamic and degradation variables are compared. The ratio of hydrodynamic to degradation variables can be rearranged and written as (a/sub L lambda)/(q/epsilon), where a/sub L/ is the dispersivity of the soil, lambda is the reaction rate constant, q is ground water flow velocity, and epsilon is the soil porosity. When this term has a value less than 0.01, the degradation process is occurring at such a slow rate relative to the hydrodynamics that it can be neglected. Under these conditions the site is unsuitable because the chemicals are unreactive, and concentrations in ground waters will change very slowly with distance away from the landfill site.

  13. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  14. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  15. Electrochemistry of lead in simulated ground water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, E.A.; Devereux, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    Lead and lead alloys are used commonly as moisture barriers for underground cables. Lead exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in a variety of environments, but areas of localized attack have been found. These can result in able failures. The susceptibility of lead to pitting in several simulated ground water (SGW) environments was assessed using cyclic potentiodynamic pitting scans (PPS) and microscopy. Although general corrosion was observed, PPS demonstrated pitting did not occur in the same sense as in alloys known to be susceptible to pitting (i.e., very localized pit formation without general corrosion). However, areas of nonuniform general attack did occur, resulting in pitted surface morphologies

  16. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm - Local Search Method for Ground-Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-water management problems commonly are formulated as a mixed-integer, non-linear programming problem (MINLP). Relying only on conventional gradient-search methods to solve the management problem is computationally fast; however, the methods may become trapped in a local optimum. Global-optimization schemes can identify the global optimum, but the convergence is very slow when the optimal solution approaches the global optimum. In this study, we developed a hybrid optimization scheme, which includes a genetic algorithm and a gradient-search method, to solve the MINLP. The genetic algorithm identifies a near- optimal solution, and the gradient search uses the near optimum to identify the global optimum. Our methodology is applied to a conjunctive-use project in the Warren ground-water basin, California. Hi- Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-manager in the basin, plans to construct a wastewater treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the ground-water system. The treated wastewater instead will recharge the ground-water basin via percolation ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy, subject to State regulations (e.g. minimum distances and travel times). HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctive-use strategies that control ground-water levels, meet regulations, and identify new production-well locations. As formulated, the MINLP objective is to minimize water-delivery costs subject to constraints including pump capacities, available recharge water, water-supply demand, water-level constraints, and potential new-well locations. The methodology was demonstrated by an enumerative search of the entire feasible solution and comparing the optimum solution with results from the branch-and-bound algorithm. The results also indicate that the hybrid method identifies the global optimum within an affordable computation time. Sensitivity analyses, which include testing different recharge-rate scenarios, pond

  17. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater-quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective.In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Water-quality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinking water standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county.Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  18. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  19. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground-water

  20. Ground-Water System in the Chimacum Creek Basin and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction in Chimacum and Tarboo Creeks and the Big and Little Quilcene Rivers, Eastern Jefferson County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, F. William; Longpre, Claire I.; Justin, Greg B.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study of the ground-water system in the unconsolidated glacial deposits in the Chimacum Creek Basin and the interactions between surface water and ground water in four main drainage basins was conducted in eastern Jefferson County, Washington. The study will assist local watershed planners in assessing the status of the water resources and the potential effects of ground-water development on surface-water systems. A new surficial geologic map of the Chimacum Creek Basin and a series of hydrogeologic sections were developed by incorporating LIDAR imagery, existing map sources, and drillers' logs from 110 inventoried wells. The hydrogeologic framework outlined in the study will help characterize the occurrence of ground water in the unconsolidated glacial deposits and how it interacts with the surface-water system. Water levels measured throughout the study show that the altitude of the water table parallels the surface topography and ranges from 0 to 400 feet above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 across the basin, and seasonal variations in precipitation due to natural cycles generally are on the order of 2 to 3 feet. Synoptic stream-discharge measurements and instream mini-piezometers and piezometers with nested temperature sensors provided additional data to refine the positions of gaining and losing reaches and delineate seasonal variations. Chimacum Creek generally gains water from the shallow ground-water system, except near the community of Chimacum where localized losses occur. In the lower portions of Chimacum Creek, gaining conditions dominate in the summer when creek stages are low and ground-water levels are high, and losing conditions dominate in the winter when creek stages are high relative to ground-water levels. In the Quilcene Bay area, three drainage basins were studied specifically to assess surface water/ground water interactions. The upper reaches of Tarboo Creek generally gain water from the shallow ground-water system

  1. Radionuclides in ground water of the Carson River Basin, western Nevada and eastern California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.M.; Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.; Hughes, J.L.; Whitney, R.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of domestic and public supply in the Carson River Basin. Ground water originates as precipitation primarily in the Sierra Nevada in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys, and flows down gradient in the direction of the Carson River through Dayton and Churchill Valleys to a terminal sink in the Carson Desert. Because radionuclides dissolved in ground water can pose a threat to human health, the distribution and sources of several naturally occurring radionuclides that contribute to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities in the study area were investigated. Generally, alpha and beta activities and U concentration increase from the up-gradient to down-gradient hydrographic areas of the Carson River Basin, whereas 222Rn concentration decreases. Both 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations are similar throughout the study area. Alpha and beta activities and U concentration commonly exceed 100 pCi/l in the Carson Desert at the distal end of the flow system. Radon-222 commonly exceeds 2,000 pCi/l in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys adjacent to the Sierra Nevada. Radium-226 and 228Ra concentrations are processes. Thus, U is transported as dissolved and adsorbed species. A rise in the water table in the Carson Desert because of irrigation has resulted in the oxidation of U-rich organic matter and dissolution of U-bearing coatings on sediments, producing unusually high U concentration in the ground water. Alpha activity in the ground water is almost entirely from the decay of U dissolved in the water. Beta activity in ground water samples is primarily from the decay of 40K dissolved in the water and ingrowth of 238U progeny in the sample before analysis. Approximately one-half of the measured beta activity may not be present in ground water in the aquifer, but instead is produced in the sample after collection and before analysis. Potassium-40 is primarily from the dissolution of K-containing minerals, probably K-feldspar and biotite

  2. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  3. Groundwater and solute transport modeling at Hyporheic zone of upper part Citarum River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Irwan; Farazi, Hendy; Fadhilah, Rahmat; Purnandi, Cipto; Notosiswoyo, Sudarto

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater and surface water interaction is an interesting topic to be studied related to the water resources and environmental studies. The study of interaction between groundwater and river water at the Upper Part Citarum River aims to know the contribution of groundwater to the river or reversely and also solute transport of dissolved ions between them. Analysis of drill logs, vertical electrical sounding at the selected sections, measurement of dissolved ions, and groundwater modeling were applied to determine the flow and solute transport phenomena at the hyporheic zone. It showed the hyporheic zone dominated by silt and clay with hydraulic conductivity range from 10-4∼10-8 m/s. The groundwater flowing into the river with very low gradient and it shows that the Citarum River is a gaining stream. The groundwater modeling shows direct seepage of groundwater into the Citarum River is only 186 l/s, very small compared to the total discharge of the river. Total dissolved ions of the groundwater ranged from 200 to 480 ppm while the river water range from 200 to 2,000 ppm. Based on solute transport modeling it indicates dissolved ions dispersion of the Citarum River into groundwater may occur in some areas such as Bojongsoang-Dayeuh Kolot and Nanjung. This situation would increase the dissolved ions in groundwater in the region due to the contribution of the Citarum River. The results of the research can be a reference for further studies related to the mechanism of transport of the pollutants in the groundwater around the Citarum River.

  4. Effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer was monitored during 1991-95 at the Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota. The objectives of the study were to:

  5. Correspondence Between One- and Two-Equation Models for Solute Transport in Two-Region Heterogeneous Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.; Wood, B. D.; Debenest, G.; Quintard, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study the transient behavior of homogenized models for solute transport in two-region porous media. We focus on the following three models: (1) a time non-local, two-equation model (2eq-nlt). This model does not rely on time

  6. Bayesian estimation of the hydraulic and solute transport properties of a small-scale unsaturated soil column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, Paulo H S; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Orlande, Helcio R B; Cotta, Renato M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the hydraulic and solute transport properties of an unsaturated soil were estimated simultaneously from a relatively simple small-scale laboratory column infiltration/outflow experiment. As governing equations we used the Richards equation for variably saturated flow and a physical

  7. Reactive solute transport in an asymmetrical fracture-rock matrix system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjie; Zhan, Hongbin

    2018-02-01

    The understanding of reactive solute transport in a single fracture-rock matrix system is the foundation of studying transport behavior in the complex fractured porous media. When transport properties are asymmetrically distributed in the adjacent rock matrixes, reactive solute transport has to be considered as a coupled three-domain problem, which is more complex than the symmetric case with identical transport properties in the adjacent rock matrixes. This study deals with the transport problem in a single fracture-rock matrix system with asymmetrical distribution of transport properties in the rock matrixes. Mathematical models are developed for such a problem under the first-type and the third-type boundary conditions to analyze the spatio-temporal concentration and mass distribution in the fracture and rock matrix with the help of Laplace transform technique and de Hoog numerical inverse Laplace algorithm. The newly acquired solutions are then tested extensively against previous analytical and numerical solutions and are proven to be robust and accurate. Furthermore, a water flushing phase is imposed on the left boundary of system after a certain time. The diffusive mass exchange along the fracture/rock matrixes interfaces and the relative masses stored in each of three domains (fracture, upper rock matrix, and lower rock matrix) after the water flushing provide great insights of transport with asymmetric distribution of transport properties. This study has the following findings: 1) Asymmetric distribution of transport properties imposes greater controls on solute transport in the rock matrixes. However, transport in the fracture is mildly influenced. 2) The mass stored in the fracture responses quickly to water flushing, while the mass stored in the rock matrix is much less sensitive to the water flushing. 3) The diffusive mass exchange during the water flushing phase has similar patterns under symmetric and asymmetric cases. 4) The characteristic distance

  8. Ground-water protection activities of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report evaluates the internal consistency of NRC's ground-water protection programs. These programs have evolved consistently with growing public concerns about the significance of ground-water contamination and environmental impacts. Early NRC programs provided for protection of the public health and safety by minimizing releases of radionuclides. More recent programs have included provisions for minimizing releases of nonradiological constituents, mitigating environmental impacts, and correcting ground-water contamination. NRC's ground-water protection programs are categorized according to program areas, including nuclear materials and waste management (NMSS), nuclear reactor operation (NRR), confirmatory research and standards development (RES), inspection and enforcement (IE), and agreement state programs (SP). Based on analysis of existing ground-water protection programs within NRC, the interoffice Ground-water Protection Group has identified several inconsistencies between and within program areas. These inconsistencies include: (1) different definitions of the term ''ground-water,'' (2) variable regulation of nonradiological constituents in ground water, (3) different design periods for ground-water protection, and (4) different scopes and rigor of ground-water assessments. The second inconsistency stems from differences in statutory authority granted to the NRC. The third inconsistency is rationalized by recognizing differences in perceived risks associated with nuclear facilities. The Ground-water Protection Group will document its analysis of the remaining inconsistencies and make recommendations to reconcile or eliminate them in a subsequent report

  9. Effects of energy development on ground water quality: an overview and preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.M. III; Yin, S.C.L.; Davis, M.J.; Kutz, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    A preliminary national overview of the various effects on ground water quality likely to result from energy development. Based on estimates of present and projected energy-development activities, those regions of the country are identified where ground water quality has the potential for being adversely affected. The general causes of change in ground water quality are reviewed. Specific effects on ground water quality of selected energy technologies are discussed, and some case-history material is provided. A brief overview of pertinent legislation relating to the protection and management of ground water quality is presented. Six methodologies that have some value for assessing the potential effects on ground water quality of energy development activities are reviewed. A method of identifying regions in the 48 contiguous states where there is a potential for ground water quality problems is described and then applied

  10. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow and Particle Pathline Analysis in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in Modesto, Eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Phillips, Steven P.; Dalgish, Barbara A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley is affected by high nitrate and uranium concentrations and frequent detections of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as a result of ground-water development and intensive agricultural and urban land use. A single public-supply well was selected for intensive study to evaluate the dominant processes affecting the vulnerability of public-supply wells in the Modesto area. A network of 23 monitoring wells was installed, and water and sediment samples were collected within the approximate zone of contribution of the public-supply well, to support a detailed analysis of physical and chemical conditions and processes affecting the water chemistry in the well. A three-dimensional, steady-state local ground-water-flow and transport model was developed to evaluate the age of ground water reaching the well and to evaluate the vulnerability of the well to nonpoint source input of nitrate and uranium. Particle tracking was used to compute pathlines and advective travel times in the ground-water flow model. The simulated ages of particles reaching the public-supply well ranged from 9 to 30,000 years, with a median of 54 years. The age of the ground water contributed to the public-supply well increased with depth below the water table. Measured nitrate concentrations, derived primarily from agricultural fertilizer, were highest (17 milligrams per liter) in shallow ground water and decreased with depth to background concentrations of less than 2 milligrams per liter in the deepest wells. Because the movement of water is predominantly downward as a result of ground-water development, and because geochemical conditions are generally oxic, high nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water are expected to continue moving downward without significant attenuation. Simulated long-term nitrate concentrations indicate that concentrations have peaked and will decrease in the public-supply well during the next 100 years

  11. Preliminary evaluation of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Marc F.; Schoenberg, Michael E.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant from 1918 to 1972 in St. Louis Park, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minn., resulted in ground-water contamination. This preliminary evaluation presents an overview of the problem based on the results of the first year (1979) of an ongoing study.

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  13. A Review of Darcy's Law: Limitations and Alternatives for Predicting Solute Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Kung, K.-J. Sam; Jaynes, Dan; Helling, Charles S.; Gish, Tim; Kladivko, Eileen

    2016-04-01

    Darcy's Law that was derived originally empirically 160 years ago, has been used successfully in calculating the (Darcy) flux in porous media throughout the world. However, field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the Darcy flux employed in the convective disperse equation could only successfully predict solute transport under two conditions: (1) uniformly or densely packed porous media; and (2) field soils under relatively dry condition. Employing the Darcy flux for solute transport in porous media with preferential flow pathways was problematic. In this paper we examine the theoretical background behind these field and laboratory observations and then provide an alternative to predict solute movement. By examining the characteristics of the momentum conservation principles on which Darcy's law is based, we show under what conditions Darcy flux can predict solute transport in porous media of various complexity. We find that, based on several case studies with capillary pores, Darcy's Law inherently merges momentum and in that way erases information on pore-scale velocities. For that reason the Darcy flux cannot predict flow in media with preferential flow conduits where individual pore velocities are essential in predicting the shape of the breakthrough curve and especially "the early arrival" of solutes. To overcome the limitations of the assumption in Darcy's law, we use Jury's conceptualization and employ the measured chemical breakthrough curve as input to characterize the impact of individual preferential flow pathways on chemical transport. Specifically, we discuss how best to take advantage of Jury's conceptualization to extract the pore-scale flow velocity to accurately predict chemical transport through soils with preferential flow pathways.

  14. Occurrence of Agricultural Chemicals in Shallow Ground Water and the Unsaturated Zone, Northeast Nebraska Glacial Till, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Steele, Gregory V.; Vogel, Jason R.

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals applied at the land surface in northeast Nebraska can move downward, past the crop root zone, to ground water. Because agricultural chemicals applied at the land surface are more likely to be observed in the shallowest part of an aquifer, an assessment of shallow ground-water and unsaturated zone quality in the northeast Nebraska glacial till was completed between 2002 and 2004. Ground-water samples were collected at the first occurrence of ground water or just below the water table at 32 sites located in areas likely affected by agriculture. Four of the 32 sites were situated along a ground-water flow path with its downgradient end next to Maple Creek. Twenty-eight sites were installed immediately adjacent to agricultural fields throughout the glacial-till area. In addition to those 32 sites, two sites were installed in pastures to represent ground-water conditions in a non-cropland setting. Ground-water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, selected pesticides and pesticide degradates, dissolved solids, major ions, trace elements, and dissolved organic carbon. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentrations were analyzed at about 70 percent of the monitoring wells to estimate the residence time of ground water. Borehole-core samples were collected from 28 of the well boreholes. Sediment in the unsaturated zone was analyzed for nitrate, chloride, and ammonia concentrations. Analytical results indicated that the agricultural chemicals most often detected during this study were nitrates and herbicides. Nitrate as nitrogen (nitrate-N) concentrations (2003 median 9.53 milligrams per liter) indicated that human activity has affected the water quality of recently recharged ground water in approximately two-thirds of the wells near corn and soybean fields. The principal pesticide compounds that were detected reflect the most-used pesticides in the area and

  15. Ground-water resources of the Alma area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlier, Kenneth E.

    1963-01-01

    The Alma area consists of 30 square miles in the northwestern part of Gratiot County, Mich. It is an area of slight relief gently rolling hills and level plains and is an important agricultural center in the State.The Saginaw formation, which forms the bedrock surface in part of the area, is of relatively low permeability and yields water containing objectionable amounts of chloride. Formations below the Saginaw are tapped for brine in and near the Alma area.The consolidated rocks of the Alma area are mantled by Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are as much as 550 feet thick where preglacial valleys were eroded into the bedrock. The glacial deposits consist of till, glacial-lake deposits, and outwash. Till deposits are at the surface along the south-trending moraines that cross the area, and they underlie other types of glacial deposits at depth throughout the area. The till deposits are of low permeability and are not a source of water to wells, though locally they include small lenses of permeable sand and gravel.In the western part of the area, including much of the city of Alma, the glacial-lake deposits consist primarily of sand and are a source of small supplies of water. In the northeastern part of the area the lake deposits are predominantly clayey and of low permeability.Sand and gravel outwash yields moderate and large supplies of water within the area. Outwash is present at the surface along the West Branch of the Pine River. A more extensive deposit of outwash buried by the lake deposits is the source of most of the ground water pumped at Alma. The presence of an additional deposit of buried outwash west and southwest of the city is inferred from the glacial history of the area. Additional water supplies that may be developed from these deposits are probably adequate for anticipated population and industrial growth.Water levels have declined generally in the vicinity of the city of Alma since 1920 in response to pumping for municipal and industrial

  16. Surface and ground waters evaluation at Brazilian Multiproposed Reactor installation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellato, Thamiris B.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.da; Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Marques, Joyce R.; Oliveira, Cintia C. de; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Pires, Maria A.F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates six surface and ground waters physicochemical characteristics on the area of the future Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), at Iperó/SP. One of the main goals is to establish reference values for future operation monitoring programs, as well as for environmental permits and regulation. Considering analyzed parameters, all collection points presented values within CONAMA Resolution 396/08 and 357/05 regulation limits, showing similar characteristics among collection points.Only two points groundwater (RMB-005 and RMB-006) presented higher alkalinity, total dissolved solids and conductivity. The studied area was considered in good environmental conservation condition, as far as water quality is concerned. (author)

  17. Improvement of ground water management and protection through the use of isotope and Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.

    2009-01-01

    To establish nuclear techniques for the study and management of water resources including technology transfer; to develop a national strategy for the use of isotope techniques in water management and development studies; to develop a water mangement framework; to solve problems related to water shortage, overexploitation, management and rapid quality deterioration; to evaluate the sources, recharge rates and renewal of ground water reservoires; to resolve the problems of mixed aquifers, the quantity of mixing and the exchange reactions between groundwater reservoirs and their matrix; to strengthen the role of the CNRS within national instituions and water authorities. (author)

  18. Hydrogeology, Ground-Water-Age Dating, Water Quality, and Vulnerability of Ground Water to Contamination in a Part of the Whitewater Valley Aquifer System near Richmond, Indiana, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, Paul M.; Watson, Lee R.; Greeman, Theodore K.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of the vulnerability to contamination of ground-water sources used by public-water systems, as mandated by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996, commonly have involved qualitative evaluations based on existing information on the geologic and hydrologic setting. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program has identified ground-water-age dating; detailed water-quality analyses of nitrate, pesticides, trace elements, and wastewater-related organic compounds; and assessed natural processes that affect those constituents as potential, unique improvements to existing methods of qualitative vulnerability assessment. To evaluate the improvement from use of these methods, in 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Richmond, Indiana, compiled and interpreted hydrogeologic data and chemical analyses of water samples from seven wells in a part of the Whitewater Valley aquifer system in a former glacial valley near Richmond. This study investigated the application of ground-water-age dating, dissolved-gas analyses, and detailed water-quality analyses to quantitatively evaluate the vulnerability of ground water to contamination and to identify processes that affect the vulnerability to specific contaminants in an area of post-1972 greenfield development.

  19. Laboratory experiments on solute transport in bimodal porous media under cyclic precipitation-evaporation boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface is strongly governed by atmospheric boundary conditions. Erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles lead to alternating upward and downward flow, as well as spatially and temporally varying water contents and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing materials. Thus presenting a highly complicated, dynamic system. Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to assess e.g. the entry of, potentially hazardous, solutes to the groundwater and nutrient uptake by plant roots and can be gained in many ways. Besides field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. With the aim to gain a better understanding and to quantify solute transport in the unsaturated shallow subsurface under natural precipitation conditions in heterogeneous media, we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell that is filled with two types of sand and apply cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases at the soil surface. Pressure at the bottom of the domain is kept constant. Following recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a), heterogeneity is introduced by a sharp vertical interface between coarse and fine sand. Fluorescent tracers are used to i) qualitatively visualize transport paths within the domain and ii) quantify solute leaching at the bottom of the domain. Temporal and spatial variations in water content during the experiment are derived from x-ray radiographic images. Monitored water contents between infiltration and evaporation considerably changed in the coarse sand while the fine sand remained saturated throughout the experiments. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both directions at different depths of the investigated soil columns were observed. This depended on the flow rate applied at the soil surface and

  20. Measurement of flow and direction of ground water by radioactive tracers: hydrological evaluation of a waste disposal site at 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Aoki, P.E.; Ramos e Silva, J.A.; Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1981-05-01

    The method of determining flow and drection of ground water by using radioactive tracers in ground water borings is described. Various parameters controlling the measurements are discussed in detail. Application of the method in studying a variety of geohydrological problems, in view of the hydrological evaluation of the waste disposal site at IPEN, is indicated. Comparison of the method with conventional pumping tests is made. (I.C.R.) [pt

  1. Simulation of ground-water flow in the St. Peter aquifer in an area contaminated by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A model constructed to simulate ground-water flow in part of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and St. Peter aquifers, St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was used to test hypotheses about the movement of ground water contaminated with coal-tar derivatives and to simulate alternatives for reducing the downgradient movement of contamination in the St. Peter aquifer. The model, constructed for a previous study, was applied to simulate the effects of current ground-water withdrawals on the potentiometric surface of the St. Peter aquifer. Model simulations predict that the multiaquifer wells have the potential to limit downgradient migration of contaminants in the St. Peter aquifer caused by cones of depression created around the multiaquifer wells. Differences in vertical leakage to the St. Peter aquifer may exist in areas of bedrock valleys. Model simulations indicate that these differences are not likely to affect significantly the general patterns of ground-water flow

  2. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent

  3. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic problem consists of a liner flexible structure situated at or near the surface of a soil half-space. In keeping with typical small strain seismic analyses, the soil skeleton is represented as a linear medium in which all potential nonlinearities are at most lumped together into an equivalent hysteretic damping modulus. In addition, the ground water level is located at some depth relatively close to the structure, and in a position to impact on the seismic response of the facility. In order to estimate the response of this oil-water system, the two-phased medium formulation of Biot was used to treat the response of the solids and water as two separate linear media, coupled together through soil permeability and volume effects. (orig./HP)

  4. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.

    1974-01-01

    This manual reviews the standard methods of surface geophysics applicable to ground-water investigations. It covers electrical methods, seismic and gravity methods, and magnetic methods. The general physical principles underlying each method and its capabilities and limitations are described. Possibilities for non-uniqueness of interpretation of geophysical results are noted. Examples of actual use of the methods are given to illustrate applications and interpretation in selected geohydrologic environments. The objective of the manual is to provide the hydrogeologist with a sufficient understanding of the capabilities, imitations, and relative cost of geophysical methods to make sound decisions as to when to use of these methods is desirable. The manual also provides enough information for the hydrogeologist to work with a geophysicist in designing geophysical surveys that differentiate significant hydrogeologic changes.

  5. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  6. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  8. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  9. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  10. Assessment of trace ground-water contaminants release from south Texas in-situ uranium solution-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Humenick, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The future of uranium solution mining in south Texas depends heavily on the industry's ability to restore production zone ground water to acceptable standards. This study investigated the extent of trace contaminant solubilization during mining and subsequent restoration attempts, first through a literature search centered on uranium control mechanisms, and then by laboratory experiments simulating the mining process. The literature search indicated the complexity of the situation. The number of possible interactions between indigenous elements and materials pointed on the site specificity of the problem. The column studies evaluated three different production area ores. Uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, vanadium, and selenium were analyzed in column effluents. After simulated mining operations were completed, uranium was found to be the most persistent trace element. However, subsequent ground water flushing of the columns could restore in-situ water to EPA recommended drinking water concentrations. Limited data indicated that ground water flowing through mined areas may solubilize molybdenum present in down gradient areas adjacent to the production zone due to increased oxidation potential of ground water if adequate restoration procedures are not followed.

  11. Ground water geochemistry in the vicinity of the Jabiluka deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, R.L.; Mann, A.W.; Giblin, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen exploration drill holes in the vicinity of the Jabiluka One and Jabiluka Two deposits were logged for Eh-pH and conductivity at 5 metre intervals to depths of up to 195 metres below ground surface. Forty-seven water samples from exploration drill holes, augered holes on the Magela flood plain and from two billabongs in the vicinity of the deposits were collected and analyzed. Analyses for pH and Fe were conducted in the field, and further analyses for major ions Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , SO 4 2- , Cl - , HCO 3 - and Si and minorelements Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and U were conducted in the laboratory. The in situ Eh-pH and conductivity measurements, and analyses for major and minor elements of ground waters suggest that deep-lying chlorite-graphite schists containing the uranium mineralization are well protected from, or do not react rapidly with, ground water under present-day conditions, i.e. the schists of the Cahill Formation are a stable host for uranium mineralization at depth. In the vicinity of the Magela flood plain where the Cahill Formation and the permanent water table are close to the surface, some samples were found to contain high concentrations of sulphate, zinc, lead and iron. These same samples were characterized by low pH's in the pH range 3.0-4.0. The anomalies suggest weathering of sulphides associated with the mineralized Cahill Formation, where the schists are at shallow depths and in an oxidizing environment. The anomalies are not, however, necessarily indicative of zones of uranium enrichment in this formation. (author)

  12. A new breed of innovative ground water modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Ziagos, J.; McKereghan, P.; Vogele, T.; Nelson, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Sparse data is a critical obstacle in every ground water remediation project. Lack of data necessitates non-unique interpolations that can distort modeled distributions of contaminants and essential physical properties (e.g., permeability, porosity). These properties largely determine the rates and paths that contaminants may take in migrating from sources to receptor locations. We apply both forward and inverse model estimates to resolve this problem because coupled modeling provides the only way to obtain constitutive property distributions that simultaneously simulate the flow and transport behavior observed in borehole measurements. Innovations in multidimensional modeling are a key to achieving more effective subsurface characterizations, remedial designs, risk assessments, and compliance monitoring in efforts to accelerate cleanup and reduce costs in national environmental remediations. Fundamentally new modeling concepts and novel software have emerged recently from two decades of research on self-adaptive solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs). We have tested a revolutionary software product, PDEase, applying it to coupled forward and inverse flow problems. In the Superfund cleanup effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site, the new modeling paradigm of PDEase enables ground water professionals to simply provide the flow equations, site geometry, sources, sinks, constitutive parameters, and boundary conditions. Its symbolic processors then construct the actual numerical solution code and solve it automatically. Powerful grid refinements that conform adaptively to evolving flow features are executed dynamically with iterative finite-element solutions that minimize numerical errors to user-specified limits. Numerical solution accuracy can be tested easily with the diagnostic information and interactive graphical displays that appear as the solutions are generated

  13. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  14. Design and optimization of a ground water monitoring system using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D.; Gupta, A.D.; Ramnarong, V.

    1998-12-31

    A GIS-based methodology has been developed to design a ground water monitoring system and implemented for a selected area in Mae-Klong River Basin, Thailand. A multicriteria decision-making analysis has been performed to optimize the network system based on major criteria which govern the monitoring network design such as minimization of cost of construction, reduction of kriging standard deviations, etc. The methodology developed in this study is a new approach to designing monitoring networks which can be used for any site considering site-specific aspects. It makes it possible to choose the best monitoring network from various alternatives based on the prioritization of decision factors.

  15. Fifth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring, and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book presents papers on technology in ground water sampling, monitoring, and remediation and geophysical techniques. The section on monitoring and remediation covers monitoring case studies, monitoring waste disposal sites, petroleum recovery, techniques in aquifer remediation, mathematical analysis of remedial techniques, vacuum extraction, bioremediation, and monitoring techniques. The section on sampling covers measurement variability, microbial sampling, vadose zone sampling, sampling with hydraulic probes, unusual sampling problems and equipment, and data management. A section on geophysics covers geophysics and site characterization, and geophysics and mining. The focus is on hazardous organic compounds. Individual articles are abstracted separately

  16. Uranium-236 as an indicator of fuel-cycle uranium in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, R.E.

    1989-08-01

    Environmental monitoring on and around the Hanford Site includes regular sampling of onsite monitoring wells and offsite farm wells. Uranium has been identified in the ground water onsite and also in water from farm wells located on the east side of the Columbia River, across from the Hanford Site. Information on the hydrology of the area indicates that the source of the offsite uranium is not the Hanford Site. This study evaluated the isotopic composition of the uranium in water from the various wells to differentiate the onsite uranium contamination from natural uranium offsite. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer, southwestern Albany area, Georgia, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Debbie; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    During 1997, the Dougherty County Health Department sampled more than 700 wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Dougherty County, Georgia, and determined that nitrate as nitrogen (hereinafter called nitrate) concentrations were above 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in 12 percent of the wells. Ten mg/L is the Georgia primary drinking-water standard. The ground-water flow system is complex and poorly understood in this predominantly agricultural area. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with Albany Water, Gas and Light Commission - conducted a study to better define ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Florida aquifer in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia. Ground-water levels were measured in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia, during May 1998 and March 1999 (spring), and October 1998 and September 1999 (fall). Groundwater levels measured in 75 wells open only to the Upper Floridan aquifer were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for those four time periods. These maps show that ground water generally flows from northwest to southeast at gradients ranging from about 2 to greater than 10 feet per mile. During spring and fall 1998, ground-water levels were high and mounding of the potentiometric surface occurred in the central part of the study area, indicating a local recharge area. Water levels declined from December through February, and by March 1999 the mound in the potentiometric surface had dissipated. Of the 75 wells in the potentiometric network, 24 were selected for a water-quality network. These 24 wells and 1 spring were sampled during fall 1998 and spring 1999. Samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, selected minor constituents, selected nutrients, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). Water-quality field measurements - such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance (SC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) - were taken at each well. During August 2000, a ground-water sample was collected

  18. Effects of changing irrigation practices on the ground-water hydrology of the Santa Isabel-Juana Diaz area, south central Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gines, Orlando

    1994-01-01

    Prior to 1930, the principal source of water for irrigation in the Santa Isabel-Juana Diaz area was surface water from outside the study area, which was delivered by a complex channel-pond system. Recharge from water applied to the fields, estimated to be 18.7 million of gallons per day, and discharge by ground-water flow to sea, estimated to be 17 million of gallons per day, were the major water- budget components prior to intensive development of the ground-water resources. Development of the ground-water resources after 1930 resulted in a substantial increase in irrigation, primarily furrow irrigation. The surface water supplied by the complex channel-pond system continued to be used and ground-water withdrawals increased sub- stantially. By 1966-68, ground-water recharge from irrigation water applied to the fields, estimated to be 37 million of gallons per day, and discharge by pumpage for irrigation, estimated to be 77 million of gallons per day, were the two major components of the ground-water budget. By 1987, drip irrigation had become the principal method of irrigation in the study area, and surface-water irrigation had, for the most part, been discontinued. The estimated aquifer recharge from irrigation water in 1987 was about 6.6 million of gallons per day, which occurred primarily in the remaining fields where furrow irrigation was still practiced. Although aquifer recharge had been reduced as a result of the conversion from furrow to drip irrigation, water levels in the aquifer were higher in 1987 than in 1968 because of the large reduction in ground-water withdrawals and subsequent recovery of ground-water levels.

  19. Estimates of ground-water recharge rates for two small basins in central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichty, R.W.; McKinley, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of ground-water recharge rates developed from hydrologic modeling studies are presented for 3-Springs and East Stewart basins. two small basins (analog sites) located in central Nevada. The analog-site studies were conducted to aid in the estimation of recharge to the paleohydrologic regime associated with ground water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain under wetter climatic conditions. The two analog sites are located to the north and at higher elevations than Yucca Mountain, and the prevailing (current) climatic conditions at these sites is thought to be representative of the possible range of paleoclimatic conditions in the general area of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Two independent modeling approaches were conducted at each of the analog sites using observed hydrologic data on precipitation, temperature, solar radiation stream discharge, and chloride-ion water chemistry for a 6-year study period (October 1986 through September 1992). Both models quantify the hydrologic water-balance equation and yield estimates of ground-water recharge, given appropriate input data. The first model uses a traditional approach to quantify watershed hydrology through a precipitation-runoff modeling system that accounts for the spatial variability of hydrologic inputs, processes, and responses (outputs) using a dailycomputational time step. The second model is based on the conservative nature of the dissolved chloride ion in selected hydrologic environments, and its use as a natural tracer allows the computation of acoupled, water and chloride-ion, mass-balance system of equations to estimate available water (sum ofsurface runoff and groundwater recharge). Results of the modeling approaches support the conclusion that reasonable estimates of average-annual recharge to ground water range from about 1 to 3 centimeters per year for 3-Springs basin (the drier site), and from about 30 to 32 centimeters per year for East Stewart basin (the wetter site). The most

  20. Effect of dewatering on seismic performance of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo; Sato, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Previous research reported that the ground water in the backfill of reinforced soil wall made it deteriorate. According to the damage investigation of Great East Earthquake 2011, the reinforced soil structure due to high ground water level by seismic wave were deformed remarkably. Some of them classified ultimate limit state or restorability limit state. However, more than 90% of reinforced soil structure, which suffered from this earthquake, were classified into no damage condition. Therefore, it is necessary that the seismic behaviors of multi-anchor wall due to seepage flow should be clarified in order to adopt the performance-based design in such reinforced soil structure. In this study, a series of centrifugal shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level. The reinforced drainage pipes were installed into the backfill in order to verify the dewatering effect and additional reinforcement. Furthermore, to check only the dewatering effect, the model tests was carried out with several ground water table that was modeled the case reinforced drainage pipes installed. The test results show unique behavior of reinforced region that moved integrally. This implies that the reinforced region has been behaved as if it became one mass, and this behavior make this structure increase seismic performance. Thus, the effectiveness of dewatering was observed remarkably because of decreasing the inertial force during earthquake.

  1. Radiocarbon ages of ground water as a basis for the determination of safe limits of aquifer exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamers, M.A.; Stipp, J.J.; Weiner, R.

    1975-01-01

    Deep ground waters of the Biscayne aquifer of south Florida were studied with radiocarbon dating techniques. Dissolved carbonates served as the material for the age determinations. Limestone dilution corrections of the measured carbon-14 activities were made by comparison of the relative concentrations of bicarbonate and total carbonates. The deep well waters of the southern portion of the deposit have corrected radiocarbon contents indicating thermonuclear weapon testing contamination; they are, therefore, less than 20 years old. The ages of the ground waters generally increase in the northern direction. This is interpreted as due to the greater depth of the deposit of that region. A model is formulated for ground water movement in an unconfined producing hydrological unit and applied to the radiocarbon results of the most intensively exploited zone of the Biscayne aquifer. It is shown that the water which is extracted by the municipal wells in this area is limited to the bottom third of the deposit. The avoidance of pollution from the surrounding septic tanks in the shallower depths of the area is explained in this way. The model leads to an objective estimation of the safe limit for the ground water extraction rate in the zone. By application of radiocarbon dating, it is possible to obtain useful information without disturbing the water supply

  2. Second status report on regional and local ground-water flow modeling for Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    Regional and local ground-water flow within the principal geohydrologic units in the Mississippi salt-dome basin is evaluated by developing conceptual models of the flow regime at a regional and a local scale and testing these models using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Semiquantitative sensitivity analyses (a limited parametric study) are conducted to define the system response to changes in the conceptual models. The conceptual models are described in terms of their areal and vertical discretizations, aquifer properties, fluid properties, and hydrologic boundary conditions. The simulated ground-water flow fields are described with potentiometric surfaces, areas of upward and downward flow across aquitards, tables summarizing the real and vertical volumetric flows through the principal units, and Darcy velocities with specified finite-difference blocks. Ground-water travel paths and times from both Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome are provided. The regional scale simulation results are discussed with regard to measured field data. The reported work is the second state of an ongoing evaluation of Richton and Cypress Creek Domes as potential repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, the report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity of the present conceptualization of ground-water flow to parameterization and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainties in the present conceptualization. 19 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs

  3. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described

  4. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2017-06-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  5. Fluid and solute transport in a network of channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1991-09-01

    A three-dimensional channel network model is presented. The fluid flow and solute transport are assumed to take place through a network of connected channels. The channels are generated assuming that the conductances are lognormally distributed. The flow is calculated resolving the pressure distribution and the sole transport is calculated by using a particle tracking technique. The model includes diffusion into the rock matrix and sorption within the matrix in addition to advection along the channel network. Different approaches are used to describe the channel volume and its relation to the conductivity. To quantify the diffusion into the rock matrix the size of the flow wetted surface (contact surface between the channel and the rock) is needed in addition to the diffusion properties and the sorption capacity of the rock. Two different geometries were simulated: regional parallel flow and convergent flow toward a tunnel. In the generation of the channel network, it is found that its connectivity is reduced when the standard deviation in conductances is increased. For large standard deviations, the water conducting channels are found to be few. Standard deviations for the distribution of the effluent channel flowrates were calculated. Comparisons were made with experimental data from drifts and tunnels as well as boreholes as a means to validate the model. (au) (31 refs.)

  6. Modeling ground water flow and radioactive transport in a fractured aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohll, G.; Hassan, A.E.; Chapman, J.B.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical modeling is used to characterize ground water flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal nuclear test site in north-central Nevada. The fractured rock aquifer at the site is modeled using an equivalent porous medium approach. Field data are used to characterize the fracture system into classes: large, medium, and no/small fracture zones. Hydraulic conductivities are assigned based on discrete interval measurements. Contaminants from the Shoal test are assumed to all be located within the cavity. Several challenging issues are addressed in this study. Radionuclides are apportioned between surface deposits and volume deposits in nuclear melt glass, based on their volatility and previous observations. Surface-deposited radionuclides are released hydraulically after equilibration of the cavity with the surrounding ground water system, and as a function of ground water flow through the higher-porosity cavity into the low-porosity surrounding aquifer. Processes that are modeled include the release functions, retardation, radioactive decay, prompt injection, and in growth of daughter products. Prompt injection of radionuclides away from the cavity is found to increase the arrival of mass at the control plane but is not found to significantly impact calculated concentrations due to increased spreading. Behavior of the other radionuclides is affected by the slow chemical release and retardation behavior. The transport calculations are sensitive to many flow and transport parameters. Most important are the heterogeneity of the flow field and effective porosity. The effect of porosity in radioactive decay is crucial and has not been adequately addressed in the literature. For reactive solutes, retardation and the glass dissolution rate are also critical

  7. First status report on regional and local ground-water flow modeling for Richton Dome, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; Metcalfe, D.E.

    1984-03-01

    Regional and local ground-water flow within the principal hydrogeologic units in the vicinity of Richton Dome is evaluated by developing conceptual models of the flow regime within these units at three different scales and testing these models using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Semiquantitative sensitivity analysis is conducted to define the system response to changes in the conceptual model, particularly the hydrologic properties. The effects of salinity on the flow field are evaluated at the refined and local scales. Adjoint sensitivity analysis is applied to the conceptualized flow regime in the Wilcox aquifer. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data utilized in this study is summarized. The specific conceptual models, defining the areal and vertical averaging of lithologic units, aquifer properties, fluid properties, and hydrologic boundary conditions, are described in detail. The results are delineated by the simulated potentiometric surfaces and tables summarizing areal and vertical boundary fluxes, Darcy velocities at specific points, and ground-water travel paths. These results are presented at regional, refined, and local (near-dome) scales. The reported work is the first stage of an ongoing evaluation of the Richton Dome as a potential repository for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, this report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainty of the present conceptualization of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Richton Dome. 25 references, 69 figures, 15 tables

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  9. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  10. Effects of Pisha sandstone content on solute transport in a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Qing; Zheng, Jiyong; He, Honghua; Han, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xingchang

    2016-02-01

    In sandy soil, water, nutrients and even pollutants are easily leaching to deeper layers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of Pisha sandstone on soil solute transport in a sandy soil. The miscible displacement technique was used to obtain breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Br(-) as an inert non-adsorbed tracer and Na(+) as an adsorbed tracer. The incorporation of Pisha sandstone into sandy soil was able to prevent the early breakthrough of both tracers by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity compared to the controlled sandy soil column, and the impeding effects increased with Pisha sandstone content. The BTCs of Br(-) were accurately described by both the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R), and the T-R model fitted the experimental data slightly better than the CDE. The two-site nonequilibrium model (T-S) accurately fit the Na(+) transport data. Pisha sandstone impeded the breakthrough of Na(+) not only by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity but also by increasing the adsorption capacity of the soil. The measured CEC values of Pisha sandstone were up to 11 times larger than those of the sandy soil. The retardation factors (R) determined by the T-S model increased with increasing Pisha sandstone content, and the partition coefficient (K(d)) showed a similar trend to R. According to the results of this study, Pisha sandstone can successfully impede solute transport in a sandy soil column. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    The State of Idaho and local water users are concerned that streamflow depletion in the Portneuf River in Caribou and Bannock Counties is linked to ground-water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture. A year-long field study during 2001 02 that focused on monitoring surface- and ground-water relations was conducted, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, to address some of the water-user concerns. The study area comprised a 10.2-mile reach of the Portneuf River downstream from the Chesterfield Reservoir in the broad Portneuf Valley (Portneuf River Valley reach) and a 20-mile reach of the Portneuf River in a narrow valley downstream from the Portneuf Valley (Pebble-Topaz reach). During the field study, the surface- and ground-water relations were dynamic. A losing river reach was delineated in the middle of the Portneuf River Valley reach, centered approximately 7.2 miles downstream from Chesterfield Reservoir. Two seepage studies conducted in the Portneuf Valley during regulated high flows showed that the length of the losing river reach increased from 2.6 to nearly 6 miles as the irrigation season progressed.Surface- and ground-water relations in the Portneuf Valley also were characterized from an analysis of specific conductance and temperature measurements. In a gaining reach, stratification of specific conductance and temperature across the channel of the Portneuf River was an indicator of ground water seeping into the river.An evolving method of using heat as a tracer to monitor surface- and ground-water relations was successfully conducted with thermistor arrays at four locations. Heat tracing monitored a gaining reach, where ground water was seeping into the river, and monitored a losing reach, where surface water was seeping down through the riverbed (also referred to as a conveyance loss), at two locations.Conveyance losses in the Portneuf River Valley reach were greatest, about 20 cubic feet per second, during the mid-summer regulated

  12. Ground-Water Quality and its Relation to Land Use on Oahu, Hawaii, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2003-01-01

    Water quality in the main drinking-water source aquifers of Oahu was assessed by a one-time sampling of untreated ground water from 30 public-supply wells and 15 monitoring wells. The 384 square-mile study area, which includes urban Honolulu and large tracts of forested, agricultural, and suburban residential lands in central Oahu, accounts for 93 percent of the island's ground-water withdrawals. Organic compounds were detected in 73 percent of public-supply wells, but mostly at low concentrations below minimum reporting levels. Concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards in just a few cases: the solvent trichloroethene and the radionuclide radon-222 exceeded Federal standards in one public-supply well each, and the fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) exceeded State standards in three public-supply wells each. Solvents, fumigants, trihalomethanes, and herbicides were prevalent (detected in more than 30 percent of samples) but gasoline components and insecticides were detected in few wells. Most water samples contained complex mixtures of organic compounds: multiple solvents, fumigants, or herbicides, and in some