WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground-water movement patterns

  1. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  2. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Further development of the methodical instruments to calculate ground water movements at repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Clauser, C.; Fein, E.; Karpinski, P.; Storck, R.

    1990-06-01

    In addition to the subsequent requirements concerning the Konrad plan approval procedure, other ground water and propagation calculations were also made. All available programs were used. Simple one- and two-dimensional models were considered for which an analytical solution exists. In some cases such analytical solutions are only approximate under certain conditions. By calculating such simple problems, the programs used were tested and verified, and the use of those programs was reviewed and documented. In addition to the finite-difference program SWIFT and the finite-element program CFEST, two other ground water and propagation programs were applied: 1) Finite-difference program MOL, two-dimensional propagation program for ground water flow; 2) SUTRA, two-dimensional hybrid finite-element and integrated finite-difference model for ground water flow and radionuclide migration. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  5. Movement of radionuclides from river to ground water in vicinity of location for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Lj.; Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of ground water contamination caused by radionuclide from river water to which liquid effluents were released from a nuclear power station was estimated using one-dimensional transport model. This model is suitable for a homogeneous medium and takes into account hydraulic convection and dispersion as well as physical-chemical retardation for the various radionuclides. (author)

  6. Implications of ground water chemistry and flow patterns for earthquake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangcai, Wang; Zuochen, Zhang; Min, Wang; Cravotta, Charles A; Chenglong, Liu

    2005-01-01

    Ground water can facilitate earthquake development and respond physically and chemically to tectonism. Thus, an understanding of ground water circulation in seismically active regions is important for earthquake prediction. To investigate the roles of ground water in the development and prediction of earthquakes, geological and hydrogeological monitoring was conducted in a seismogenic area in the Yanhuai Basin, China. This study used isotopic and hydrogeochemical methods to characterize ground water samples from six hot springs and two cold springs. The hydrochemical data and associated geological and geophysical data were used to identify possible relations between ground water circulation and seismically active structural features. The data for delta18O, deltaD, tritium, and 14C indicate ground water from hot springs is of meteoric origin with subsurface residence times of 50 to 30,320 years. The reservoir temperature and circulation depths of the hot ground water are 57 degrees C to 160 degrees C and 1600 to 5000 m, respectively, as estimated by quartz and chalcedony geothermometers and the geothermal gradient. Various possible origins of noble gases dissolved in the ground water also were evaluated, indicating mantle and deep crust sources consistent with tectonically active segments. A hard intercalated stratum, where small to moderate earthquakes frequently originate, is present between a deep (10 to 20 km), high-electrical conductivity layer and the zone of active ground water circulation. The ground water anomalies are closely related to the structural peculiarity of each monitoring point. These results could have implications for ground water and seismic studies in other seismogenic areas.

  7. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  8. Potential for ground-water contamination from movement of wastewater through the unsaturated zone, upper Mojave River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, A.M.; Martin, P.M.; Schroeder, R.A.; Duell, L.F.; Fay, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Septic-tank wastewater disposed in 30-foot-deep seepage pits (dry wells) at 46,000 residences is estimated to equal 18 percent of the natural recharge to the sole-source aquifer in the rapidly developing upper Mojave River Basin (Victor Valley) in the high desert northeast of Los Angeles. Vertical rates of movement of the wastewater wetting front through the unsaturated zone at three newly occupied residences ranged from 0.07 to 1.0 foot per day. These rates translate to traveltimes of several months to several years for the wastewater wetting front to reach the water table and imply that wastewater from many disposal systems already has reached the water table, which averages about 150 feet below land surface in the Victor Valley. As wastewater percolates from seepage pits into the adjacent unsaturated zone, the nitrogen present in reduced form is rapidly converted to nitrate. Analyses on soil-core extracts and soil moisturefrom suction lysimeters installed beneath the seepage pits at eight residences showed that nitrate concentrations and nitrate/ chloride ratios generally become lower with increasing depth. The intervals of greatest decline seemed to coincide with finer soil texture or were near the water table. Nitrate-reducing bacteria were tested for and found to be present in soil cores from two residences. Sparse nitrogen-15 data from suction lysimeters at one of these residences, where thenitrate concentration decreased by about one-half at a depth of 200 feet, indicate that the nitrate decline was accompanied by nitrogen-15 enrichment in the residual nitrate with an isotope-separation factor of about -10 permil. Despite the potential input of abundant nitrogen with the domestic wastewater recharge, nitrate concentrations in the area's ground water are generally low. The absence of high nitrate concentrations in the ground water is consistent with the existence of denitrification, a microbial nitrogen-removal mechanism, as wastewater moves through the

  9. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  10. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  11. Distribution patterns study of Escherichia coli as an Indicator for ground water quality at Matraman District, East Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisah, U.; Iswanto, B.; Rinanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution pattern E.coli as indicators of ground water contamination by fecal coliforms at Matraman District, East Jakarta, Indonesia (106049‧35″E 06010‧37″LS) consisting of six sub-districts (Utan Kayu Selatan, Utan Kayu Utara, Kayu Manis, Pal Meriam, Kebon Manggis and Pisangan Baru). The presence of E.coli examined by the method of Most Probable Number (MPN) according to SNI 01-2332.1-2006 about the determination of coliforms and E.coli in fishery products which consists of three stages of tests in a row, the estimation, determination or confirmation and complementary or morphology test. Matraman District is a densely populated area and the distance between septic tank and well is inadequate, both with their own’s septic tank or with neighbors’s septic tank. The result of sample analysis shows that E.coli counts exceeds water quality standards in accordance with regulation Health Ministry No.492/2010 concerning the drinking water quality requirements. The lowest MPN number is 3 MPN/100 ml and the highest number of E. coli is more than1100 MPN/100 ml. The temperature, pH and DO0 on average are 27.520C, 5.59 and 2.24 mg/L. This study is expected to be a reference in the use of ground water for daily activities in the district Matraman.

  12. Response of spatial point pattern of halostachys caspica population to ground water depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, P.; Wang, M.; Jiang, P.; Li, M.; Chu, G.

    2017-01-01

    We subjected Halostachys caspica populations to three groundwater depths: shallow ( 4.5 m) in the sample plots, at the diluvial fan of the South Junggar Basin. Both the spatial pattern and spatial association of the population among all three groundwater depths and four growth stages were studied to investigate the impact of groundwater depth on the formation and persistence mechanism of the spatial pattern of Halostachys caspica populations. In this study, Ripley's K function was utilized to characterize spatial patterns and intraspecific associations of H. caspica in three 1-ha plots, as well as to study their relationship with groundwater depth. The seedling supplement severely decreased with increasing groundwater depth, and the population structure changed noticeably due to increased amount of dead standing plants. Different growth stages of the H. caspica population all had aggregated distributions at small scale in the three groundwater depth areas. With increasing scales, the aggregation intensity weakened in all growth stages. Distribution was aggregated at 50 m scales in both the shallow and middle groundwater depth areas, while the deep groundwater depth area followed a random distribution. (author)

  13. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  14. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  15. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  16. Hydrogeology, ground-water flow, and tritium movement at low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garklavs, George; Healy, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Groundwater flow and tritium movement are described at and near a low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Flow in the shallow aquifer is confined to three basins that ultimately drain into a stripmine lake. Most of the flow from the site is through a buried, pebbly sandfilled channel. Remaining flow is toward alluvium of an existing stream. Conceptual flow models for the two largest basins are used to improve definition of flow velocity and direction. Flow velocities range from about 25 to 2,500 ft/yr. Tritium was found in all three basins. The most extensive migration of tritium is coincident with buried channel. Tritium concentrations ranged from detection level to more than 300 nanocuries/L. (USGS)

  17. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Naval Station Mayport, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport near Jacksonville, Florida, was simulated with a two-layer finite-difference model as part of an investigation conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The model was calibrated to 229 water-level measurements from 181 wells during three synoptic surveys (July 17, 1995; July 31, 1996; and October 24, 1996). A quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer was needed to evaluate remedial-action alternatives under consideration by the Naval Station Mayport to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites on the station. Multi-well aquifer tests, single-well tests, and slug tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the surficial aquifer system, which was divided into three geohydrologic units?an S-zone and an I-zone separated by a marsh-muck confining unit. The recharge rate was estimated to range from 4 to 15 inches per year (95 percent confidence limits), based on a chloride-ratio method. Most of the simulations following model calibration were based on a recharge rate of 8 inches per year to unirrigated pervious areas. The advective displacement of saline pore water during the last 200 years was simulated using a particle-tracking routine, MODPATH, applied to calibrated steady-state and transient models of the Mayport peninsula. The surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport has been modified greatly by natural and anthropogenic forces so that the freshwater flow system is expanding and saltwater is being flushed from the system. A new MODFLOW package (VAR1) was written to simulate the temporal variation of hydraulic properties caused by construction activities at Naval Station Mayport. The transiently simulated saltwater distribution after 200 years of displacement described the chloride distribution in the I-zone (determined from measurements made during 1993 and 1996) better than the steady-state simulation. The

  18. Model-based studies into ground water movement, with water density depending on salt content. Case studies and model validation with respect to the long-term safety of radwaste repositories. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelkes, K.

    1995-12-01

    Near-to-reality studies into ground water movement in the environment of planned radwaste repositories have to take into account that the flow conditions are influenced by the water density which in turn depends on the salt content. Based on results from earlier studies, computer programs were established that allow computation and modelling of ground water movement in salt water/fresh water systems, and the programs were tested and improved according to progress of the studies performed under the INTRAVAL international project. The computed models of ground water movement in the region of the Gorlebener Rinne showed for strongly simplified model profiles that the developing salinity distribution varies very sensitively in response to the applied model geometry, initial input data for salinity distribution, time frame of the model, and size of the transversal dispersion length. The WIPP 2 INTRAVAL experiment likewise studied a large-area ground water movement system influenced by salt water. Based on the concept of a hydraulically closed, regional ground water system (basin model), a sectional profile was worked out covering all relevant layers of the cap rock above the salt formation planned to serve as a repository. The model data derived to describe the salt water/fresh water movements in this profile resulted in essential enlargements and modifications of the ROCKFLOW computer program applied, (relating to input data for dispersion modelling, particle-tracker, computer graphics interface), and yielded important information for the modelling of such systems (relating to initial pressure data at the upper margin, network enhancement for important concentration boundary conditions, or treatment of permeability contrasts). (orig.) [de

  19. Radon 222 and Tritium in the identification and quantification of NAPL contamination in ground water. 2. 222RN, 3H and CL patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molerio Leon, LF; Fernandez Gomez, IM; Carrazana Gonzalez, J A

    2012-01-01

    This is a second and last paper on these theme and presents the typical behavior of Rn 222a nd 3H at the Northern Havana-Matanzas Heavy Oil Belt for the following cases: a) fresh ground waters (unaffected by sea water intrusion), b) fresh ground water affected by isolated advances of sea water intrusion, c) fresh ground water intruded by sea water, d) ground water affected by oil spill and e) ground water affected by produced water spill

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  1. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  2. Inference of Stream Network Fragmentation Patterns from Ground Water - Surface Water Interactions on the High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, D. G.; Yang, X.; Steward, D. R.; Gido, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stream networks in the Great Plains integrate fluxes from precipitation as surface runoff in discrete events and groundwater as base flow. Changes in land cover and agronomic practices and development of ground water resources to support irrigated agriculture have resulted in profound changes in the occurrence and magnitude of stream flows, especially near the Ogallala aquifer, where precipitation is low. These changes have demonstrably altered the aquatic habitat of western Kansas, with documented changes in fish populations, riparian communities and groundwater quality due to stream transmission losses. Forecasting future changes in aquatic and riparian ecology and groundwater quality requires a large scale spatially explicit model of groundwater- surface water interaction. In this study, we combine historical data on land use, stream flow, production well development and groundwater level observations with groundwater elevation modeling to support a geospatial framework for assessing changes in refugia for aquatic species in four rivers in western Kansas between 1965 and 2005. Decreased frequency and duration of streamflow occurred in all rivers, but the extent of change depended on the geomorphology of the river basin and the extent of groundwater development. In the absence of streamflow, refugia for aquatic species were defined as the stream reaches below the phreatic surface of the regional aquifer. Changes in extent, location and degree of fragmentation of gaining reaches was found to be a strong predictor of surface water occurrence during drought and a robust hydrological template for the analysis of changes in recharge to alluvial and regional aquifers and riparian and aquatic habitat.

  3. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  4. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  5. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  6. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  7. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  8. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  9. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  10. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  11. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge

    This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. [3] proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.

  12. Tropical deforestation alters hummingbird movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced pollination success, as a function of habitat loss and fragmentation, appears to be a global phenomenon. Disruption of pollinator movement is one hypothesis put forward to explain this pattern in pollen limitation. However, the small size of pollinators makes them very difficult to track; thus, knowledge of their movements is largely speculative. Using tiny radio transmitters (0.25 g), we translocated a generalist tropical ‘trap-lining’ hummingbird, the green hermit (Phaethornis guy), across agricultural and forested landscapes to test the hypothesis that movement is influenced by patterns of deforestation. Although, we found no difference in homing times between landscape types, return paths were on average 459±144 m (±s.e.) more direct in forested than agricultural landscapes. In addition, movement paths in agricultural landscapes contained 36±4 per cent more forest than the most direct route. Our findings suggest that this species can circumvent agricultural matrix to move among forest patches. Nevertheless, it is clear that movement of even a highly mobile species is strongly influenced by landscape disturbance. Maintaining landscape connectivity with forest corridors may be important for enhancing movement, and thus in facilitating pollen transfer. PMID:19158031

  13. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  14. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  15. Cross-slope Movement Patterns in Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D.; Murphy, W.; Bulmer, M. H.; Keefer, D.

    2002-12-01

    There is growing evidence that there is a significant element of cross-slope movement in many large landslide systems. These movements may result in changing states of stress between landslide blocks that can establish complex displacement patterns. Such motions, which are not considered in traditional two-dimensional limit-equilibrium analyses, are important in the investigation of a variety of landslide types, such as those triggered by earthquakes. In addition, these movements may introduce considerable errors into the interpretation of strain patterns as derived from InSAR studies. Finally, even traditional interpretation techniques may lead to the amount of total displacement being underestimated. These observations suggest that a three dimensional form of analysis may be more appropriate for large landslide complexes. The significance of such cross-slope movements are being investigated using a detailed investigation of the Lishan landslide complex in Central Taiwan. This landslide system, which was reactivated in 1990 related to the construction of a hotel. The total recorded movements have been approximately 1.5 m over an area of sliding that is estimated to be 450 m wide and 200 m long. Extensive damage has been caused to roads and buildings within the town. Remediation work has resulted largely in the stabilization of the landslide complex. Detailed geomorphological mapping has revealed that the landslide complex is composed of two main components. The first, immediately upslope of the hotel construction site, is a relatively shallow earthflow. The second, which has formed a large headscarp upslope from the main road in the centre of the town, is a deeper translational slide. Both appear to have been reactivations of previous failures. While the displacement patterns of the earthflow indicate a relatively simple downslope movement, the vectors derived from kinematic analysis of surface features have indicated that the movement of the deeper

  16. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities....... The recording and analysis of the thermal videos has been made in collaboration with Rikke Gade from the Visual Analytics of People Lab at Aalborg University....

  17. Movement Pattern Analysis Based on Sequence Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Chavoshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased affordability and deployment of advanced tracking technologies have led researchers from various domains to analyze the resulting spatio-temporal movement data sets for the purpose of knowledge discovery. Two different approaches can be considered in the analysis of moving objects: quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. This research focuses on the latter and uses the qualitative trajectory calculus (QTC, a type of calculus that represents qualitative data on moving point objects (MPOs, and establishes a framework to analyze the relative movement of multiple MPOs. A visualization technique called sequence signature (SESI is used, which enables to map QTC patterns in a 2D indexed rasterized space in order to evaluate the similarity of relative movement patterns of multiple MPOs. The applicability of the proposed methodology is illustrated by means of two practical examples of interacting MPOs: cars on a highway and body parts of a samba dancer. The results show that the proposed method can be effectively used to analyze interactions of multiple MPOs in different domains.

  18. Simulation of ground-water flow in the St. Peter aquifer in an area contaminated by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A model constructed to simulate ground-water flow in part of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and St. Peter aquifers, St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was used to test hypotheses about the movement of ground water contaminated with coal-tar derivatives and to simulate alternatives for reducing the downgradient movement of contamination in the St. Peter aquifer. The model, constructed for a previous study, was applied to simulate the effects of current ground-water withdrawals on the potentiometric surface of the St. Peter aquifer. Model simulations predict that the multiaquifer wells have the potential to limit downgradient migration of contaminants in the St. Peter aquifer caused by cones of depression created around the multiaquifer wells. Differences in vertical leakage to the St. Peter aquifer may exist in areas of bedrock valleys. Model simulations indicate that these differences are not likely to affect significantly the general patterns of ground-water flow

  19. Dynamical patterns of cattle trade movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bajardi

    Full Text Available Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displacement network hide important patterns of structural changes affecting nodes' centrality and farms' spreading potential, thus limiting the efficiency of interventions based on partial longitudinal information. By fully taking into account the longitudinal dimension, we propose a novel definition of dynamical motifs that is able to uncover the presence of a temporal arrow describing the evolution of the system and the causality patterns of its displacements, shedding light on mechanisms that may play a crucial role in the definition of preventive actions.

  20. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  1. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  2. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  3. Geospatial Analysis of Grey Wolf Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.

    2017-12-01

    The grey wolf is a top predator that lives across a diverse habitat, ranging from Europe to North America. They often hunt in packs, preferring caribou, deer and elk as prey. Currently, many gray wolves live in Denali National Park and Preserve. In this study, several wolf packs were studied in three distinct regions of Denali. The purpose of my research was to investigate the links between wolf habitat, movement patterns, and prey thresholds. These are needed for projecting future population, growth and distribution of wolves in the studied region. I also investigated the effect wolves have on the ecological structure of the communities they inhabit. In the study I carried out a quantitative analysis of wolf population trends and daily distance movement by utilizing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the program JmpPro12 (SAS Institute, Crary, NC) to assess regional differences in pack size, wolf density, average daily distance moved. I found a clear link between the wolf habitat and prey thresholds; the habitat directly influences the types of prey available. However there was no link between the daily distance movement, the wolf habitat and prey density.

  4. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  5. Theoretical aspects on the phenomenon of contamination of ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of contamination of ground waters and the destination of certain constituents of the water keep in mind diverse mechanisms of physical nature, chemistry and biological; in this work it is consigned in a concise way, the theoretical aspects of these topics, that is to say, the basic principles of the ground water hydraulics, the fundamental concepts of the physics of the movement and the chemistry of the ground water, as well as the equations that govern the phenomenon of contamination of the mass of water contained in the interstices of the floors and the rocks, broadly used in the mathematical modeling of the phenomenon

  6. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  7. Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tracking of individual 192 Ir-labelled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile Pterostichus versicolor and spent Calathus melanocephalus. Although mean locomotory activity increased with temperature, great daily differences occurred between individuals, pointing to asynchronous behaviour. In an unfavorable habitat directed movement occurred both more frequently and more extremely, sometimes resulting in escape to more favorable areas. Most of the radioactive beetles died within 7 weeks due to radiation effects, but independent field experiments and simulations showed that the recorded patterns were valid. Simulated individuals of P. versicolor living on 1 ha spread over 49 ha, whereas simulated C. melanocephalus covered only 9 ha after one activity season. Normal locomotory activities lead to both exchange of individuals between subpopulations and dispersal out of the habitat. The significance of these phenomena for population stability and for the survival of the species is discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Movement response patterns of livestock to rainfall variability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...

  9. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  10. Understanding ground water investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.E.; Ward, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    An orientation manual for groundwater has been developed for small-to-medium-sized businesses who can ill-afford full-time groundwater specialists in their organizations, but who must and wish to comply with the increasingly-complicated environmental laws. Basic themes and information are highlighted, with the hope that these businesses, their counsel, local and regional officials, and government agencies that must make decisions will find their concerns illuminated, and, if necessary, can seek specialized help. The manual is organized into thirteen short chapters which address such discrete issues as: who uses groundwater and how, patterns and trends, and resource value; basic groundwater science and how contaminants reach and move in groundwater; sources of groundwater contamination, particularly light industry and commercial sources; federal regulatory programs for monitoring, protecting, and cleaning up groundwater; state, local, and regional rules for groundwater, focusing on wellhead protection; monitoring groundwater quality and detecting contamination; deciding how significant the contamination is and how much cleanup is necessary; cleanup strategies and techniques; corporate groundwater programs; contingency planning for responding to contamination incidents and replacing contaminated groundwater supplies; a peek into the crystal ball of federal groundwater law; and the cost of cleaning up groundwater. The book concludes with a glossary of terms and acronyms likely to be unfamiliar to the general reader

  11. Respiratory pattern changes during costovertebral joint movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if costovertebral joint manipulation (CVJM) could influence the respiratory pattern. Phrenic efferent activity (PA) was monitored in dogs that were anesthetized with Dial-urethane, vagotomized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. Ribs 6-10 (bilaterally) were cut and separated from ribs 5-11. Branches of thoracic nerves 5-11 were cut, leaving only the joint nerve supply intact. Manual joint movement in an inspiratory or expiratory direction had an inhibitory effect on PA. Sustained displacement of the ribs could inhibit PA for a duration equal to numerous respiratory cycles. CVJM in synchrony with PA resulted in an increased respiratory rate. The inspiratory inhibitory effect of joint receptor stimulation was elicited with manual chest compression in vagotomized spontaneously breathing dogs, but not with artificial lung inflation or deflation. It is concluded that the effect of CVJM on the respiratory pattern is due to stimulation of joint mechanoreceptors, and that they exert their influence in part via the medullary-pontine rhythm generator.

  12. Regional Survey of Structural Properties and Cementation Patterns of Fault Zones in the Northern Part of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico - Implications for Ground-Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the need to document and evaluate the types and variability of fault zone properties that potentially affect aquifer systems in basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, we systematically characterized structural and cementation properties of exposed fault zones at 176 sites in the northern Albuquerque Basin. A statistical analysis of measurements and observations evaluated four aspects of the fault zones: (1) attitude and displacement, (2) cement, (3) lithology of the host rock or sediment, and (4) character and width of distinctive structural architectural components at the outcrop scale. Three structural architectural components of the fault zones were observed: (1) outer damage zones related to fault growth; these zones typically contain deformation bands, shear fractures, and open extensional fractures, which strike subparallel to the fault and may promote ground-water flow along the fault zone; (2) inner mixed zones composed of variably entrained, disrupted, and dismembered blocks of host sediment; and (3) central fault cores that accommodate most shear strain and in which persistent low- permeability clay-rich rocks likely impede the flow of water across the fault. The lithology of the host rock or sediment influences the structure of the fault zone and the width of its components. Different grain-size distributions and degrees of induration of the host materials produce differences in material strength that lead to variations in width, degree, and style of fracturing and other fault-related deformation. In addition, lithology of the host sediment appears to strongly control the distribution of cement in fault zones. Most faults strike north to north-northeast and dip 55? - 77? east or west, toward the basin center. Most faults exhibit normal slip, and many of these faults have been reactivated by normal-oblique and strike slip. Although measured fault displacements have a broad range, from 0.9 to 4,000 m, most are internal structure of, and cement

  13. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  14. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  15. Detecting movement patterns using Brownian bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Sijben, S.; Arseneau, T.J.-M.; Willems, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    In trajectory data a low sampling rate leads to high uncertainty in between sampling points, which needs to be taken into account in the analysis of such data. However, current algorithms for movement analysis ignore this uncertainty and assume linear movement between sample points. In this paper we

  16. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  17. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  18. Movement patterns of limb coordination in infant rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2016-12-01

    Infants must perform dynamic whole-body movements to initiate rolling, a key motor skill. However, little is known regarding limb coordination and postural control in infant rolling. To address this lack of knowledge, we examined movement patterns and limb coordination during rolling in younger infants (aged 5-7 months) that had just begun to roll and in older infants (aged 8-10 months) with greater rolling experience. Due to anticipated difficulty in obtaining measurements over the second half of the rolling sequence, we limited our analysis to the first half. Ipsilateral and contralateral limbs were identified on the basis of rolling direction and were classified as either a stationary limb used for postural stability or a moving limb used for controlled movement. We classified the observed movement patterns by identifying the number of stationary limbs and the serial order of combinational limb movement patterns. Notably, older infants performed more movement patterns that involved a lower number of stationary limbs than younger infants. Despite the wide range of possible movement patterns, a small group of basic patterns dominated in both age groups. Our results suggest that the fundamental structure of limb coordination during rolling in the early acquisition stages remains unchanged until at least 8-10 months of age. However, compared to younger infants, older infants exhibited a greater ability to select an effective rotational movement by positioning themselves with fewer stationary limbs and performing faster limb movements.

  19. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Transitions in midwestern ground water law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.A.; Clark, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ground-water law in eight states in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is examined, and a review of transitions in ground-water doctrines is presented. Two underlying themes in changing ground-water management are communicated. First, ground-water law is evolving from private property rules of capture based on the absolute ownership doctrines to rules requiring conservation and sharing of ground water as a public resource. Second, in both courts and state legislatures, a proactive role of ground-water management is emerging, again, with an emphasis on sharing. Both of these trends are apparent in the Midwest. In the last decade midwestern states have (1) seen significant shifts in court decisions on ground-water use with greater recognition of the reciprocal or mutually dependent nature of ground-water rights, and (2) seen increased legislative development of comprehensive ground-water management statutes that emphasize the reciprocal liabilities of ground-water use. These trends are examined and ground-water management programs discussed for eight states in the Midwest

  2. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  3. Analyzing animal movement patterns using potential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. K. Preisler; A. A. Ager; M. J. Wisdom

    2013-01-01

    The advent of GPS technology has made it possible to study human-wildlife interactions on large landscapes and quantify behavioral responses to recreation and other anthropogenic disturbances at increasingly fine scales. Of particular interest are the potential impacts on habitat use patterns, energetics, and cascading impacts on fecundity and other life history traits...

  4. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  5. Movement patterns of cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in farmlands in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Weyde, L K; Hubel, T; Horgan, J; Shotton, J; McKenna, R; Wilson, A M

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Bots...

  6. Composite liners protect ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatzky, R; August, H

    1987-12-01

    For about 10 years flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have been used as bottom liners to protect ground water in the vicinity of waste sites. But a permeation (absorption, diffusion, desorption) of chemical liquids, e.g. hydrocarbons (HC) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) will generally occur. The rates of permeation depend, first of all, on the chemical affinity, the thickness of the FML and the boundary conditions. In order to improve the barrier quality of polymeric membranes, it is necessary to study the transport processes of HC and CHC through the polymeric materials. Long-term tests with composite liners are additionally carried out. These are liners which consist of two components, flexible membrane and natural soil liner (recompacted clay, bentonite-soil mixtures). Laboratory studies show that with composite liners a perfect sealing of waste sites may be possible. Test methods for measuring permeation rates of HC and CHC through polymeric membranes and methods of testing for the development of composite liner systems are presented. (orig.)

  7. A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiong, Y.; Newman, S.; Xiao, X.; Batbayar, N.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Balachandran, S.; Yan, B.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets.

  8. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  9. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  10. Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders in a naturalistic schizophrenia population: diagnostic value of actometric movement patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuisku Katinka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders (NIMDs have overlapping co-morbidity. Earlier studies have described typical clinical movement patterns for individual NIMDs. This study aimed to identify specific movement patterns for each individual NIMD using actometry. Methods A naturalistic population of 99 schizophrenia inpatients using conventional antipsychotics and clozapine was evaluated. Subjects with NIMDs were categorized using the criteria for NIMD found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Two blinded raters evaluated the actometric-controlled rest activity data for activity periods, rhythmical activity, frequencies, and highest acceleration peaks. A simple subjective question was formulated to test patient-based evaluation of NIMD. Results The patterns of neuroleptic-induced akathisia (NIA and pseudoakathisia (PsA were identifiable in actometry with excellent inter-rater reliability. The answers to the subjective question about troubles with movements distinguished NIA patients from other patients rather well. Also actometry had rather good screening performances in distinguishing akathisia from other NIMD. Actometry was not able to reliably detect patterns of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Conclusion The present study showed that pooled NIA and PsA patients had a different pattern in lower limb descriptive actometry than other patients in a non-selected sample. Careful questioning of patients is a useful method of diagnosing NIA in a clinical setting.

  11. Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders in a naturalistic schizophrenia population: diagnostic value of actometric movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janno, Sven; Holi, Matti M; Tuisku, Katinka; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2008-04-18

    Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders (NIMDs) have overlapping co-morbidity. Earlier studies have described typical clinical movement patterns for individual NIMDs. This study aimed to identify specific movement patterns for each individual NIMD using actometry. A naturalistic population of 99 schizophrenia inpatients using conventional antipsychotics and clozapine was evaluated. Subjects with NIMDs were categorized using the criteria for NIMD found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV).Two blinded raters evaluated the actometric-controlled rest activity data for activity periods, rhythmical activity, frequencies, and highest acceleration peaks. A simple subjective question was formulated to test patient-based evaluation of NIMD. The patterns of neuroleptic-induced akathisia (NIA) and pseudoakathisia (PsA) were identifiable in actometry with excellent inter-rater reliability. The answers to the subjective question about troubles with movements distinguished NIA patients from other patients rather well. Also actometry had rather good screening performances in distinguishing akathisia from other NIMD. Actometry was not able to reliably detect patterns of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. The present study showed that pooled NIA and PsA patients had a different pattern in lower limb descriptive actometry than other patients in a non-selected sample. Careful questioning of patients is a useful method of diagnosing NIA in a clinical setting.

  12. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics-eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error-and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns-minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades-were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA.

  13. Use of tree-ring chemistry to document historical ground-water contamination events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The annual growth rings of tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) appear to preserve a chemical record of ground-water contamination at a landfill in Maryland. Zones of elevated iron and chlorine concentrations in growth rings from trees immediately downgradient from the landfill are closely correlated temporally with activities in the landfill expected to generate iron and chloride contamination in the ground water. Successively later iron peaks in trees increasingly distant from the landfill along the general direction of ground-water flow imply movement of iron-contaminated ground water away from the landfill. The historical velocity of iron movement (2 to 9 m/yr) and chloride movement (at least 40 m/yr) in ground water at the site was estimated from element-concentration trends of trees at successive distances from the landfill. The tree-ring-derived chloride-transport velocity approximates the known ground-water velocity (30 to 80 m/yr). A minimum horizontal hydraulic conductivity (0.01 to .02 cm/s) calculated from chloride velocity agrees well with values derived from aquifer tests (about 0.07 cm/s) and from ground-water modeling results (0.009 to 0.04 cm/s).

  14. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  15. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  16. Structure, dynamics and movement patterns of the Australian pig industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, I J; Davis, J; Sergeant, E S G; Garner, M G

    2014-03-01

    To assess management practices and movement patterns that could influence the establishment and spread of exotic animal diseases (EAD) in pigs in Australia. A literature review of published information and a telephone survey of 370 pig producers owning >10 pigs who were registered with the PigPass national vendor declaration scheme. The movement and marketing patterns of Australian pig producers interviewed were divided into two groups based predominantly on the size of the herd. Major pig producers maintain closed herds, use artificial insemination and market direct to abattoirs. Smaller producers continue to purchase from saleyards and market to other farms, abattoirs and through saleyards in an apparently opportunistic fashion. The role of saleyards in the Australian pig industry continues to decline, with 92% of all pigs marketed directly from farm to abattoir. This survey described movement patterns that will assist in modelling the potential spread of EAD in the Australian pig industry. Continued movement towards vertical integration and closed herds in the Australian pig industry effectively divides the industry into a number of compartments that mitigate against the widespread dissemination of disease to farms adopting these practices. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  18. Mining Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Elder's Daily Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Liu, M. E.; Tsai, S. J.; Son, N. T.; Kinh, L. V.

    2016-06-01

    With rapid developments in wearable device technology, a vast amount of spatiotemporal data, such as people's movement and physical activities, are generated. Information derived from the data reveals important knowledge that can contribute a long-term care and psychological assessment of the elders' living condition especially in long-term care institutions. This study aims to develop a method to investigate the spatial-temporal movement patterns of the elders with their outdoor trajectory information. To achieve the goal, GPS based location data of the elderly subjects from long-term care institutions are collected and analysed with geographic information system (GIS). A GIS statistical model is developed to mine the elderly subjects' spatiotemporal patterns with the location data and represent their daily movement pattern at particular time. The proposed method first finds the meaningful trajectory and extracts the frequent patterns from the time-stamp location data. Then, a density-based clustering method is used to identify the major moving range and the gather/stay hotspot in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The preliminary results indicate that the major moving area of the elderly people encompasses their dorm and has a short moving distance who often stay in the same site. Subjects' outdoor appearance are corresponded to their life routine. The results can be useful for understanding elders' social network construction, risky area identification and medical care monitoring.

  19. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  20. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  1. Public sentiment and movement patterns during natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Guo, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we have unfortunately witnessed a series of deadly hurricane events, including Harvey, Irma, Jose, Maria and Nate. Effective disaster management actions such as getting citizen sheltered and evacuated can significantly reduce injuries and fatalities. A more comprehensive understanding of citizen's perceptions (e.g., sentiment) about a disaster and movement behaviors (e.g., evacuation) will help improve disaster management and decision making during natural hazards. With the popularity of various social media platforms (i.e. Twitter), there has been great potentials in using social media data to detect and analyze citizen's perceptions and moving behaviors before, during and after a natural hazard. Using the geo-tagged tweets generated during recent hurricane events, the study will examine the movement interactions between citizens and a hurricane and also explore citizens' tweeting behaviors and sentiments at different stages of a disaster. The results provide insights on understanding 1) spatiotemporal patterns of public movements (i.e., when and where did people's movements happen), 2) how were people's movements related to the hurricane trajectory, 3) when did people in different locations start to pay attention to the hurricane, and finally 4) how were the sentiments of people in different places towards the hurricane during different disaster stages.

  2. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  3. Movement patterns of silvertip sharks ( Carcharhinus albimarginatus) on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Heupel, Michelle. R.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how sharks use coral reefs is essential for assessing risk of exposure to fisheries, habitat loss, and climate change. Despite a wide Indo-Pacific distribution, little is known about the spatial ecology of silvertip sharks ( Carcharhinus albimarginatus), compromising the ability to effectively manage their populations. We examined the residency and movements of silvertip sharks in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). An array of 56 VR2W acoustic receivers was used to monitor shark movements on 17 semi-isolated reefs. Twenty-seven individuals tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored from 70 to 731 d. Residency index to the study site ranged from 0.05 to 0.97, with a mean residency (±SD) of 0.57 ± 0.26, but most individuals were detected at or near their tagging reef. Clear seasonal patterns were apparent, with fewer individuals detected between September and February. A large proportion of the tagged population (>71 %) moved regularly between reefs. Silvertip sharks were detected less during daytime and exhibited a strong diel pattern in depth use, which may be a strategy for optimizing energetic budgets and foraging opportunities. This study provides the first detailed examination of the spatial ecology and behavior of silvertip sharks on coral reefs. Silvertip sharks remained resident at coral reef habitats over long periods, but our results also suggest this species may have more complex movement patterns and use larger areas of the GBR than common reef shark species. Our findings highlight the need to further understand the movement ecology of silvertip sharks at different spatial and temporal scales, which is critical for developing effective management approaches.

  4. Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Arnold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 3D gait analysis, kinematics of the foot joints are usually reported via isolated time histories of joint rotations and no information is provided on the relationship between rotations at different joints. The aim of this study was to identify movement coordination patterns in the foot during walking by expanding an existing vector coding technique according to an established multi-segment foot and ankle model. A graphical representation is also described to summarise the coordination patterns of joint rotations across multiple patients. Methods Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics were recorded in 13 adults during walking. A modified vector coding technique was used to identify coordination patterns between foot joints involving calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux segments. According to the type and direction of joints rotations, these were classified as in-phase (same direction, anti-phase (opposite directions, proximal or distal joint dominant. Results In early stance, 51 to 75% of walking trials showed proximal-phase coordination between foot joints comprising the calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsus. In-phase coordination was more prominent in late stance, reflecting synergy in the simultaneous inversion occurring at multiple foot joints. Conversely, a distal-phase coordination pattern was identified for sagittal plane motion of the ankle relative to the midtarsal joint, highlighting the critical role of arch shortening to locomotor function in push-off. Conclusions This study has identified coordination patterns between movement of the calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux by expanding an existing vector cording technique for assessing and classifying coordination patterns of foot joints rotations during walking. This approach provides a different perspective in the analysis of multi-segment foot kinematics, and may be used for the objective quantification of the alterations in foot joint

  5. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992

  6. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  7. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  8. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  9. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  10. Learning alternative movement coordination patterns using reinforcement feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hsiang; Denomme, Amber; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2018-05-01

    One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules. Participants performed a virtual reaching task, where they moved a cursor to different targets positioned on the screen. Our goal was to make participants use a coordination pattern with greater trunk motion, and to this end, we provided reinforcement by making the cursor disappear if the trunk motion during the reach did not cross a specified threshold value. In Experiment 1, we compared two reinforcement schedules in two groups of participants-an abrupt group, where the threshold was introduced immediately at the beginning of practice; and a gradual group, where the threshold was introduced gradually with practice. Results showed that both abrupt and gradual groups were effective in shifting their coordination patterns to involve greater trunk motion, but the abrupt group showed greater retention when the reinforcement was removed. In Experiment 2, we examined the basis of this advantage in the abrupt group using two additional control groups. Results showed that the advantage of the abrupt group was because of a greater number of practice trials with the desired coordination pattern. Overall, these results show that reinforcement can be successfully used to shift coordination patterns, which has potential in the rehabilitation of movement disorders.

  11. Geologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lite, Kenneth E.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2002-12-10

    Ground water is increasingly relied upon to satisfy the needs of a growing population in the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon. Hydrogeologic studies are being undertaken to aid in management of the ground-water resource. An understanding of the geologic factors influencing ground-water flow is basic to those investigations. The geology of the area has a direct effect on the occurrence and movement of ground water. The permeability and storage properties of rock material are influenced by the proportion, size, and degree of interconnection of open spaces the rocks contain. These properties are the result of primary geologic processes such as volcanism and sedimentation, as well as subsequent processes such as faulting, weathering, or hydrothermal alteration. The geologic landscape in the study area evolved during about 30 million years of volcanic activity related to a north-south trending volcanic arc, the current manifestation of which are today’s Cascade Range volcanoes.

  12. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  13. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  14. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  15. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support

  16. Intuitive Face Judgments Rely on Holistic Eye Movement Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura F. Mega

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an ‘intuitive group,’ instructed to rely on their “gut feeling” for the authenticity judgments, and a ‘deliberative group,’ instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the “gestalt” of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.

  17. Intuitive Face Judgments Rely on Holistic Eye Movement Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Laura F; Volz, Kirsten G

    2017-01-01

    Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an 'intuitive group,' instructed to rely on their "gut feeling" for the authenticity judgments, and a 'deliberative group,' instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the "gestalt" of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.

  18. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  19. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  20. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, R.

    1994-03-01

    ;Contents: Hydrodynamic cavitation oxidation destroys organics; Biosparging documented in fuel remediation study; Surfactant flushing research to remove organic liquids from aquifers; and Compilation of Ground-Water Models (a book review).

  1. Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in farmlands in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, T. Y.; Horgan, J.; Shotton, J.; McKenna, R.; Wilson, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method. Cheetahs had medium-sized home ranges compared to previously studied cheetah in similar farming environments. Results showed that cheetahs actively visited scent marking trees and avoided visiting homesteads. A slight preference for visiting game farms over cattle farms was found, but there was no difference in duration of visits between farm types. We conclude that cheetahs selected for areas that are important for their dietary and social needs and prefer to avoid human-occupied areas. Improved knowledge of how cheetahs use farmlands can allow farmers to make informed decisions when developing management practices and can be an important tool for reducing human-wildlife conflict. PMID:27913453

  2. Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus in farmlands in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Van der Weyde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method. Cheetahs had medium-sized home ranges compared to previously studied cheetah in similar farming environments. Results showed that cheetahs actively visited scent marking trees and avoided visiting homesteads. A slight preference for visiting game farms over cattle farms was found, but there was no difference in duration of visits between farm types. We conclude that cheetahs selected for areas that are important for their dietary and social needs and prefer to avoid human-occupied areas. Improved knowledge of how cheetahs use farmlands can allow farmers to make informed decisions when developing management practices and can be an important tool for reducing human-wildlife conflict.

  3. Techniques for assessing water resource potentials in the developing countries: with emphasis on streamflow, erosion and sediment transport, water movement in unsaturated soils, ground water, and remote sensing in hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1971-01-01

    . Nuclear methodology in hydrologic applications is generally more complex than the conventional and hence requires a high level of technical expertise for effective use. Application of nuclear techniques to hydrologic problems in the developing countries is likely to be marginal for some years to come, owing to the higher costs involved and expertise required. Nuclear techniques, however, would seem to have particular promise in studies of water movement in unsaturated soils and of erosion and sedimentation where conventional techniques are inadequate, inefficient and in some cases costly. Remote sensing offers great promise for synoptic evaluations of water resources and hydrologic processes, including the transient phenomena of the hydrologic cycle. Remote sensing is not, however, a panacea for deficiencies in hydrologic data programs in the developing countries. Rather it is a means for extending and augmenting on-the-ground observations ans surveys (ground truth) to evaluated water resources and hydrologic processes on a regionall or even continental scale. With respect to economic growth goals in developing countries, there are few identifiable gaps in existing hydrologic instrumentation and methodology insofar as appraisal, development and management of available water resources are concerned. What is needed is acceleration of institutional development and professional motivation toward more effective use of existing and proven methodology. Moreover, much sophisticated methodology can be applied effectively in the developing countries only when adequate levels of indigenous scientific skills have been reached and supportive institutional frameworks are evolved to viability.

  4. Comparison of the hydrogeology and water quality of a ground-water augmented lake with two non-augmented lakes in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.; Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic effects associated with augmenting a lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer were examined in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida, from June 1996 through May 1999. The hydrogeology, ground-water flow patterns, water budgets, and water-quality characteristics were compared between a lake that has been augmented for more than 30 years (Round Lake) and two nearby nonaugmented lakes (Dosson Lake and Halfmoon Lake). Compared to the other study lakes, Round Lake is in a more leakage-dominated hydrogeologic setting. The intermediate confining unit is thin or highly breached, which increases the potential for vertical ground-water flow. Round Lake has the least amount of soft, organic lake-bottom sediments and the lake bottom has been dredged deeper and more extensively than the other study lakes, which could allow more leakage from the lake bottom. The area around Round Lake has experienced more sinkhole activity than the other study lakes. During this study, three sinkholes developed around the perimeter of the lake, which may have further disrupted the intermediate confining unit.Ground-water flow patterns around Round Lake were considerably different than the nonaugmented lakes. For most of the study, groundwater augmentation artificially raised the level of Round Lake to about 2 to 3 feet higher than the adjacent water table. As a result, lake water recharged the surficial aquifer around the entire lake perimeter, except during very wet periods when ground-water inflow occurred around part of the lake perimeter. The non-augmented lakes typically had areas of ground-water inflow and areas of lake leakage around their perimeter, and during wet periods, ground-water inflow occurred around the entire lake perimeter. Therefore, the area potentially contributing ground water to the non-augmented lakes is much larger than for augmented Round Lake. Vertical head loss within the surficial aquifer was greater at Round Lake than the other study

  5. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as 14 C, 36 Cl and 4 He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  6. Case study on ground water flow (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The report comprises research activities made in fiscal year 1997 under the contract of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Center and the main items are: (1) Evaluation of water permeability through discontinuous hard bedrock in deep strata in relevant with underground disposal of radioactive wastes, (2) Three dimensional analysis of permeated water in bedrock, including flow analysis in T ono district using neuro-network and modification of Evaporation Logging System, (3) Development of hydraulic tests and necessary equipment applicable to measurements of complex dielectric constants of contaminated soils using FUDR-V method, this giving information on soil component materials, (4) Investigation methods and modeling of hydraulics in deep strata, (5) Geological study of ground water using environmental isotopes such as {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 4}He, particularly measurement of ages of ground water using an accelerator-mass spectrometer, and (6) Re-submerging phenomena affecting the long-term geological stability. (S. Ohno)

  7. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  8. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  9. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  10. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  11. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  12. Environmental isotope observations on Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental isotope measurements have been conducted on the outputs of some of the main dewatering points in both north and south mining areas as well as on numerous other observation points in the Sishen compartment. The effect of the dykes bounding the compartment could be observed from the behaviour of the isotopic composition of ground waters in the conduit zone. Measurements were done on radiocarbon, tritium oxygen-18 and carbon-13

  13. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  15. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer

  16. Development of a three-dimensional ground-water model of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1995 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow was developed for the uppermost unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Development of the model is supported by the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is responsible for monitoring the sitewide movement of contaminants in ground water beneath the Hanford Site. Two objectives of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project are to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, and (2) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the Hanford Site through the ground-water pathway. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system are important tools for estimating future aquifer conditions and predicting the movement of contaminants through ground water. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project has supported development and maintenance of a two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer. This report describes upgrade of the two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional model. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional conceptual model that will be continually refined and updated as additional information becomes available. This report presents a description of the three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system and then discusses the cur-rent state of the three-dimensional numerical model

  17. Ground water movements around a repository. Rock mechanics analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1977-09-01

    The determination and rational assessment of groundwater flow around a repository depends upon the accurate analysis of several interdependent and coupled phenomenological events occuring within the rock mass. In particular, the groundwater flow pathways (joints) are affected by the excavation and thermomechanical stresses developed within the rock mass, and the properties, of the groundwater are altered by the temperature perturbations in the rock mass. The objective of this report is to present the results of the rock mechanics analysis for the repository excavation and the thermally-induced loadings. Qualitative analysis of the significance of the rock mechanics results upon the groundwater flow is provided in this report whenever such an analysis can be performed. Non-linear rock mechanics calculations have been completed for the repository storage tunnels and the global repository domain. The rock mass has been assumed to possess orthoganol joint sets or planes of weakness with finite strength characteristics. In the local analyses of the repository storage tunnels the effects of jointorientation and repository ventilation have been examined. The local analyses indicated that storage room support requirements and regions of strength failure are highly dependent upon joint orientation. The addition of storage tunnel ventilation was noted to reduce regions of strength failure, particularly during the 30 year operational phase of the repository. Examination of the local stresses around the storage tunnels indicated the potential for perturbed hydraulic permeabilities. The permeabilities can be expected to be altered to a greater degree by the stresses resulting from excavation than from stresses which are thermally induced. The thermal loading provided by the instantaneous waste emplacement resulted in stress states and displacements quite similar to those provided by the linear waste emplacement sequence

  18. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  19. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  20. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  1. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.

  2. Ground-water resources of Kings and Queens Counties, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1995-01-01

    The aquifers beneath Kings and Queens Counties supplied an average of more than 120 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) for industrial and public water supply during 1904-47, but this pumping caused saltwater intrusion and a deterioration of water quality that led to the cessation of pumping for public supply in Kings County in 1947 and in western Queens County in 1974. Since the cessation of pumping in Kings and western Queens Counties, ground-water levels have recovered steadily, and the saltwater has partly dispersed and become diluted. In eastern Queens County, where pumpage for public supply averages 60 Mgal/d, all three major aquifers contain a large cone of depression. The saltwater-freshwater interface in the Jameco-Magothy aquifer already extends inland in southeastern Queens County and is moving toward this cone of depression. The pumping centers' proximity to the north shore also warrants monitoring for saltwater intrusion in the Flushing Bay area. Urbanization and development on western Long Island since before the tum of this century have caused significant changes in the ground-water budget (total inflow and outflow) and patterns of movement. Some of the major causes are: ( 1) intensive pumping for industrial and public supply; (2) paving of large land-surface areas; (3) installation of a vast network of combined (stonn and sanitary) sewers; (4) leakage from a water-supply-line network that carries more than 750 Mgal/d; and (5) burial of stream channels and extensive wetland areas near the shore.Elevated nitrate and chloride concentrations throughout the upper glacial (water-table) aquifer indicate widespread contamination from land surface. Localized contamination in the underlying Jameco-Magothy aquifer is attributed to downward migration in areas of hydraulic connection between aquifers where the Gardiners Clay is absent A channel eroded through the Raritan confining unit provides a pathway for migration of surface contaminants to the Lloyd aquifer

  3. Exploring visitor movement patterns in natural recreational areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.; Bregt, A.K.; Ligtenberg, A.; Wachowicz, M.

    2012-01-01

    GPS technology is widely used to produce detailed data on the movement of people. Analysing massive amounts of GPS data, however, can be cumbersome. We present a novel approach to processing such data to aid interpretation and understanding of the aggregated movement of visitors in natural

  4. National water summary 1986; Hydrologic events and ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David W.; Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    water quality. The significant time lag between a waterquality change in one part of an aquifer system and the effects of that change at a downgradient site, such as a well, results from the generally slow movement of ground water. This lag between cause and observed effect needs to be considered in evaluating the effectiveness of current and future ground-water policies and remedial measures.Conclusive answers to questions about the location, extent, and severity of ground-water contamination, and about trends in ground-water quality, must await further collection and analysis of data from the Nation's aquifers. Generalizations, however, can be made, and the 1986 National Water Summary, which describes the natural quality of ground-water resources in each State and the major contamination problems that have been identified as of 1986, provides a national perspective of the ground-water-quality situation.The 1986 National Water Summary follows the format of previous volumes. It contains three parts, and the contents of each of these parts are highlighted below.

  5. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157

  6. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  7. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, P.A.; Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents, which have reached the unconfined ground water, contain low levels of radioactive and chemical substances. The movement of these constituents in the unconfined ground water is monitored as part of the Ground-Water Surveillance Program. During 1982, 324 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Tritium are the primary ones used to monitor the movement of the ground water. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium and nitrate plumes. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. The general plume configuration is much the same as in 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from an evaporation facility

  8. Modifying patterns of movement in people with low back pain -does it help? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird Robert A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapy for people with low back pain frequently includes assessment and modification of lumbo-pelvic movement. Interventions commonly aim to restore normal movement and thereby reduce pain and improve activity limitation. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate: (i the effect of movement-based interventions on movement patterns (muscle activation, lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural patterns of people with low back pain (LBP, and (ii the relationship between changes in movement patterns and subsequent changes in pain and activity limitation. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMI, CINAHL, Scopus, AMED, ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until January 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials of people with LBP were eligible for inclusion. The intervention must have been designed to influence (i muscle activity patterns, (ii lumbo-pelvic kinematic patterns or (iii postural patterns, and included measurement of such deficits before and after treatment, to allow determination of the success of the intervention on the lumbo-pelvic movement. Twelve trials (25% of retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently identified, assessed and extracted data. The PEDro scale was used to assess method quality. Intervention effects were described using standardised differences between group means and 95% confidence intervals. Results The included trials showed inconsistent, mostly small to moderate intervention effects on targeted movement patterns. There was considerable heterogeneity in trial design, intervention type and outcome measures. A relationship between changes to movement patterns and improvements in pain or activity limitation was observed in one of six studies on muscle activation patterns, one of four studies that examined the flexion relaxation response pattern and in two of three studies that assessed lumbo-pelvic kinematics or

  9. Modifying patterns of movement in people with low back pain -does it help? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L

    2012-09-07

    Physiotherapy for people with low back pain frequently includes assessment and modification of lumbo-pelvic movement. Interventions commonly aim to restore normal movement and thereby reduce pain and improve activity limitation. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate: (i) the effect of movement-based interventions on movement patterns (muscle activation, lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural patterns) of people with low back pain (LBP), and (ii) the relationship between changes in movement patterns and subsequent changes in pain and activity limitation. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMI, CINAHL, Scopus, AMED, ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until January 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials of people with LBP were eligible for inclusion. The intervention must have been designed to influence (i) muscle activity patterns, (ii) lumbo-pelvic kinematic patterns or (iii) postural patterns, and included measurement of such deficits before and after treatment, to allow determination of the success of the intervention on the lumbo-pelvic movement. Twelve trials (25% of retrieved studies) met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently identified, assessed and extracted data. The PEDro scale was used to assess method quality. Intervention effects were described using standardised differences between group means and 95% confidence intervals. The included trials showed inconsistent, mostly small to moderate intervention effects on targeted movement patterns. There was considerable heterogeneity in trial design, intervention type and outcome measures. A relationship between changes to movement patterns and improvements in pain or activity limitation was observed in one of six studies on muscle activation patterns, one of four studies that examined the flexion relaxation response pattern and in two of three studies that assessed lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural characteristics. Movement

  10. Pollution of south of Tehran ground waters with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmasi, R.; Tavassoli, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reuse of nutrients and organic matter in wastewater sludge via on agricultural lands application is a desirable goal. However, trace or heavy metals present in sludge pose the risk of human or phyto toxicity from land application. The aim of this research is possibility of ground water pollution of south of Tehran because of ten years irrigation with Ni, Cd and Pb borne waste water. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones from Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. The soils differed in their texture from sandy to clayey. Each soil sample in duplicate and uniformly packed into PVC columns. Soil samples were irrigated with Cd, Pb and Ni-added wastewater. After irrigating, the columns were cut and the soils separated from sectioned pieces and their heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cd and Ni) were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer y use of HNO 3 , 4N solution. Because of high sorption capacity of these elements by soils, these metals were accumulated in surface layer of the soils. Movement in the soils without lime and organic matter were as low as other samples. Ni has had the most accumulation or the least vertical movement, and Pb the opposite ones

  11. Active sensing via movement shapes spatiotemporal patterns of sensory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Sarah A; Roth, Eatai; Cowan, Noah J; Fortune, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    Previous work has shown that animals alter their locomotor behavior to increase sensing volumes. However, an animal's own movement also determines the spatial and temporal dynamics of sensory feedback. Because each sensory modality has unique spatiotemporal properties, movement has differential and potentially independent effects on each sensory system. Here we show that weakly electric fish dramatically adjust their locomotor behavior in relation to changes of modality-specific information in a task in which increasing sensory volume is irrelevant. We varied sensory information during a refuge-tracking task by changing illumination (vision) and conductivity (electroreception). The gain between refuge movement stimuli and fish tracking responses was functionally identical across all sensory conditions. However, there was a significant increase in the tracking error in the dark (no visual cues). This was a result of spontaneous whole-body oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) produced by the fish. These movements were costly: in the dark, fish swam over three times further when tracking and produced more net positive mechanical work. The magnitudes of these oscillations increased as electrosensory salience was degraded via increases in conductivity. In addition, tail bending (1.5 to 2.35 Hz), which has been reported to enhance electrosensory perception, occurred only during trials in the dark. These data show that both categories of movements - whole-body oscillations and tail bends - actively shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of electrosensory feedback.

  12. Assessment of the hydraulic connection between ground water and the Peace River, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelling, B.R.; Tihansky, A.B.; Kindinger, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic connection between the Peace River and the underlying aquifers along the length of the Peace River from Bartow to Arcadia was assessed to evaluate flow exchanges between these hydrologic systems. Methods included an evaluation of hydrologic and geologic records and seismic-reflection profiles, seepage investigations, and thermal infrared imagery interpretation. Along the upper Peace River, a progressive long-term decline in streamflow has occurred since 1931 due to a lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by as much as 60 feet because of intensive ground-water withdrawals for phosphate mining and agriculture. Another effect from lowering the potentiometric surface has been the cessation of flow at several springs located near and within the Peace River channel, including Kissengen Spring, that once averaged a flow of about 19 million gallons a day. The lowering of ground-water head resulted in flow reversals at locations where streamflow enters sinkholes along the streambed and floodplain. Hydrogeologic conditions along the Peace River vary from Bartow to Arcadia. Three distinctive hydrogeologic areas along the Peace River were delineated: (1) the upper Peace River near Bartow, where ground-water recharge occurs; (2) the middle Peace River near Bowling Green, where reversals of hydraulic gradients occur; and (3) the lower Peace River near Arcadia, where ground-water discharge occurs. Seismic-reflection data were used to identify geologic features that could serve as potential conduits for surface-water and ground-water exchange. Depending on the hydrologic regime, this exchange could be recharge of surface water into the aquifer system or discharge of ground water into the stream channel. Geologic features that would provide pathways for water movement were identified in the seismic record; they varied from buried irregular surfaces to large-scale subsidence flexures and vertical fractures or enlarged solution conduits

  13. Ground-water and geohydrologic conditions in Queens County, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, Julian

    1971-01-01

    Queens County is a heavily populated borough of New York City, at the western end of Long Island, N. Y., in which large amounts of ground water are used, mostly for public supply. Ground water, pumped from local aquifers, by privately owned water-supply companies, supplied the water needs of about 750,000 of the nearly 2 million residents of the county in 1967; the balance was supplied by New York City from surface sources outside the county in upstate New York. The county's aquifers consist of sand and gravel of Late Cretaceous and of Pleistocene ages, and the aquifers comprise a wedge-shaped ground-water reservoir lying on a southeastward-sloping floor of Precambrian(?) bedrock. Beds of clay and silt generally confine water in the deeper parts of the reservoir; water in the deeper aquifers ranges from poorly confined to well confined. Wisconsin-age glacial deposits in the uppermost part of the reservoir contain ground water under water-table conditions. Ground water pumpage averaged about 60 mgd (million gallons per day) in Queens County from about 1900 to 1967. Much of the water was used in adjacent Kings County, another borough of New York City, prior to 1950. The large ground-water withdrawal has resulted in a wide-spread and still-growing cone of depression in the water table, reflecting a loss of about 61 billion gallons of fresh water from storage. Significant drawdown of the water table probably began with rapid urbanization of Queens County in the 1920's. The county has been extensively paved, and storm and sanitary sewers divert water, which formerly entered the ground, to tidewater north and south of the county. Natural recharge to the aquifers has been reduced to about one half of the preurban rate and is below the withdrawal rate. Ground-water levels have declined more than 40. feet from the earliest-known levels, in 1903, to 1967, and the water table is below sea level in much of the county. The aquifers are being contaminated by the movement of

  14. Evaluation of ground-water flow and hydrologic budget for Lake Five-O, a seepage lake in northwestern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of ground-water inflow to, and leakage from Lake Five-O, a softwater, seepage lake in northwestern Florida, were evaluated using hydrologic data and simulation models of the shallow ground-water system adjacent to the lake. The simulation models indicate that ground-water inflow to the lake and leakage from the lake to the ground-water system are the dominant components in the total inflow (precipitation plus ground-water inflow) and total outflow (evaporation plus leakage) budgets of Lake Five-O. Simlulated ground-water inflow and leakage were approximately 4 and 5 times larger than precipitation inputs and evaporative losses, respectively, during calendar years 1989-90. Exchanges of water between Lake Five-O and the ground-water system were consistently larger than atmospheric-lake exchanges. A consistent pattern of shallow ground-water inflow and deep leakage was also evident throughout the study period. The mean time of travel from ground-water that discharges at Lake Five-O (time from recharge at the water table to discharge at the lake) was estimated to be within a range of 3 to 6 years. Flow-path evaluations indicated that the intermediate confining unit probably has a negligible influence on the geochemistry of ground-water inflow to Lake Five-O. The hydrologic budgets and flow-path evaluations provide critical information for developing geochemical budgets for Lake Five-O and for improving the understanding of the relative importance of various processes that regulate the acid-neutralizing capacity of softwater seepage lakes in Florida.

  15. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  16. Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity in a complex fluvial hydrogeologic system to evaluate migration in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.G.; Pavlik, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogeology and extent of ground water contamination were characterized at a site in northern California. Wood preserving compounds, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, have been detected in the soil and ground water. A plume of dissolved PCP up to 1.5 miles long has been identified south of the plant. The aquifer consists of a complex multizonal system of permeable gravels and sands composed of units from four geologic formations deposited by the ancestral Feather River. Fluvial channel gravels form the principal aquifer zones and contain overbank clay and silt deposits which locally form clay lenses or more continuous aquitards. The geometric mean horizontal hydraulic conductivities for channel gravels range between 120 to 530 feet/day. Mean vertical aquitard hydraulic conductivity is 0.07 feet/day. Ground water flow is generally southward with a velocity ranging from 470 to 1000 feet/year. The spatial distribution of dissolved PCP in the aquifer documents the interactions between major permeable zones. Hydrostratigraphic evidence pointing to the separation of aquifer zones is supported by the major ion chemistry of ground water. The sodium and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate-rich water present in the upper aquifer zones is significantly different in chemical composition from the predominantly sodium chloride-rich water present in the deeper permeable zone. This indicates that hydrodynamic separation exists between the upper and lower zones of the aquifer, limiting the vertical movement of the PCP plume. A numerical ground water model, based on this conceptual hydrogeologic model, was developed to evaluate groundwater transport pathways and for use in the design of a ground water extraction and treatment system. (9 refs., 7 figs., tab.)

  17. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  18. Ground water impact assessment report for the 216-B-3 Pond system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.G.; Law, A.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Evelo, S.D.; Barnett, D.B.; Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water impact assessments were required for a number of liquid effluent receiving sites according to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestones M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed upon by the US Department of Energy. This report is one of the last three assessments required and addresses the impact of continued discharge of uncontaminated wastewater to the 216-B-3C expansion lobe of the B Pond system in the 200 East Area until June 1997. Evaluation of past and projected effluent volumes and composition, geohydrology of the receiving site, and contaminant plume distribution patterns, combined with ground water modeling, were used to assess both changes in ground water flow regime and contaminant-related impacts

  19. Movement patterns of coastal bottlenose dolphins in the presence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence and movement of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus were investigated using shore-based observations made during a humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae migration survey at Cape Vidal, South Africa, undertaken between June and October 1988–1991. Occurrence was analysed as ...

  20. Emergent group level navigation: an agent-based evaluation of movement patterns in a folivorous primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler R Bonnell

    Full Text Available The foraging activity of many organisms reveal strategic movement patterns, showing efficient use of spatially distributed resources. The underlying mechanisms behind these movement patterns, such as the use of spatial memory, are topics of considerable debate. To augment existing evidence of spatial memory use in primates, we generated movement patterns from simulated primate agents with simple sensory and behavioral capabilities. We developed agents representing various hypotheses of memory use, and compared the movement patterns of simulated groups to those of an observed group of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus, testing for: the effects of memory type (Euclidian or landmark based, amount of memory retention, and the effects of social rules in making foraging choices at the scale of the group (independent or leader led. Our results indicate that red colobus movement patterns fit best with simulated groups that have landmark based memory and a follow the leader foraging strategy. Comparisons between simulated agents revealed that social rules had the greatest impact on a group's step length, whereas the type of memory had the highest impact on a group's path tortuosity and cohesion. Using simulation studies as experimental trials to test theories of spatial memory use allows the development of insight into the behavioral mechanisms behind animal movement, developing case-specific results, as well as general results informing how changes to perception and behavior influence movement patterns.

  1. Structure-Specific Movement Patterns in Patients With Chronic Low Back Dysfunction Using Lumbar Combined Movement Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monie, Aubrey P; Price, Roger I; Lind, Christopher R P; Singer, Kevin P

    2017-06-01

    A test-retest cohort study was conducted to assess the use of a novel computer-aided, combined movement examination (CME) to measure change in low back movement after pain management intervention in 17 cases of lumbar spondylosis. Additionally we desired to use a CME normal reference range (NRR) to compare and contrast movement patterns identified from 3 specific structural pathologic conditions: intervertebral disc, facet joint, and nerve root compression. Computer-aided CME was used before and after intervention, in a cohort study design, to record lumbar range of movement along with pain, disability, and health self-report questionnaires in 17 participants who received image-guided facet, epidural, and/or rhizotomy intervention. In the majority of cases, CME was reassessed after injection together with 2 serial self-reports after an average of 2 and 14 weeks. A minimal clinically important difference of 30% was used to interpret meaningful change in self-reports. A CME NRR (n = 159) was used for comparison with the 17 cases. Post hoc observation included subgrouping cases into 3 discrete pathologic conditions, intervertebral disc, facet dysfunction, and nerve root compression, in order to report intergroup differences in CME movement. Seven of the 17 participants stated that a "combined" movement was their most painful CME direction. Self-report outcome data indicated that 4 participants experienced significant improvement in health survey, 5 improved by ≥30% on low back function, and 8 reported that low back pain was more bothersome than stiffness, 6 of whom achieved the minimal clinically important difference for self-reported pain. Subgrouping of cases into structure-specific groups provided insight to different CME movement patterns. The use of CME assists in identifying atypical lumbar movement relative to an age and sex NRR. Data from this study, exemplified by representative case studies, provide preliminary evidence for distinct intervertebral disc

  2. Supra regional ground water modelling - in-depth analysis of the groundwater flow patterns in eastern Smaaland. Comparison with different conceptual descriptions; Storregional grundvattenmodellering - foerdjupad analys av floedesfoerhaallanden i oestra Smaaland. Jaemfoerelse av olika konceptuella beskrivningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Lars O. [Lars O Ericsson Consulting AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Holmen, Johan [Golder Associates, Uppsala (Sweden); Rhen, Ingvar; Blomquist, Niklas [SWECO VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    One of many geoscientific questions in connection with the siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden has to do with understanding the large-scale flow patterns of the naturally circulating groundwater. The recharge and discharge of the groundwater is therefore a subject for both SKB's research activities and the interest of the regulatory authorities. This report aims at providing an in-depth scientific analysis of the groundwater flow pattern based on the criteria and suitability indicators which SKB has previously presented with respect to recharge and discharge aspects in a supra regional perspective. The analysis was conducted within the framework of a project whose goals were to: evaluate conceptual simplifications and model uncertainties in supra regional groundwater modelling, and to carry out an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of regional flow conditions in eastern Smaaland. Achieving these goals has required an approach based on the use of available geoscientific data on the Smaaland region combined with an analysis of different conceptual assumptions and system descriptions. The following general conclusions can be drawn from the study and the applied methodology: The factor of greatest importance for the regional flow pattern (from repository depth) is the topography. The discharge areas are mainly found in the low-lying parts of the topography, along valleys, and the recharge areas occur on the heights. The topographic undulation is of greater importance than the properties of the conductivity field. Different lithological units, regional deformation zones, local heterogeneity, Quaternary deposits etc are of less importance than the undulation of the topography. For areas described and analyzed with the most realistic assumptions, the groundwater flow pattern can be described as a primarily local flow process. The median flow path length in the study is on the order of 2 km, and the fraction of supra regional flow paths

  3. The Effect of Core Stability Training on Functional Movement Patterns in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Sajad; Ghasempoor, Khodayar; Rahnama, Nader; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2018-02-06

    Pre-participation examinations are the standard approach for assessing poor movement quality that would increase musculoskeletal injury risk. However, little is known about how core stability influences functional movement patterns. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week core stability program on functional movement patterns in collegiate athletes. The secondary purpose was to determine if the core stability training program would be more effective in those with worse movement quality (i.e. ≤14 baseline FMS score). Quasi-experimental design. Athletic Training Facility. One-hundred collegiate athletes. Functional movement patterns included the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Lateral step down (LSD) and Y balance test (YBT) and were assessed before and after the 8-week program. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control. The intervention group was required to complete a core stability training program that met 3 times per week for 8-week. Significant group x time interactions demonstrated improvements in FMS, LSD and YBT scores in the experimental group relative to the control group (pcore stability training program enhances functional movement patterns and dynamic postural control in collegiate athletes. The benefits are more pronounced in collegiate athletes with poor movement quality.

  4. Big data analyses reveal patterns and drivers of the movements of southern elephant seals

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrí guez, J. P.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Thums, Michele; Hindell, Mark A.; Sequeira, Ana M. M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Costa, Daniel P.; Guinet, Christophe; Harcourt, R.; McMahon, Clive R.; Muelbert, Monica; Duarte, Carlos M.; Eguí luz, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    The growing number of large databases of animal tracking provides an opportunity for analyses of movement patterns at the scales of populations and even species. We used analytical approaches, developed to cope with

  5. Movement patterns of juvenile whale sharks tagged at an aggregation site in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.; Braun, Camrin D.; Cochran, Jesse; Skomal, Gregory B.; Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts aimed at the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, remain limited by a lack of basic information on most aspects of its ecology, including global population structure, population sizes and movement patterns. Here we report

  6. Big data analyses reveal patterns and drivers of the movements of southern elephant seals

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez, Jorge P.

    2017-03-02

    The growing number of large databases of animal tracking provides an opportunity for analyses of movement patterns at the scales of populations and even species. We used analytical approaches, developed to cope with

  7. Ground water quality evaluation in Beed city, Maharashtra, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters into consideration. The present investigation is aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of ground water and to assess the impact of pollutants due to agriculture ...

  8. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  9. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards

  10. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  11. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified in...

  12. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  13. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  14. Use of isotopically labeled fertilizer to trace nitrogen fertilizer contributions to surface, soil, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D.H.; Blevins, D.W.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The fate and transport of a single N fertilizer application through plants, soil, runoff, and the unsaturated and saturated zones was determined for four years at a field site under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) management. Claypan soils, which underlie the site, were hypothesized to restrict the movement of agrichemicals from the soil surface to ground water. However, N fertilizer moved rapidly through preferential flow paths in the soil and into the underlying glacial till aquifer. Most N transport occurred during the fall and winter when crops were not available to use excess N. Forty months after application, 33 percent of the fertilizer had been removed by grain harvests, 30 percent had been transpired to the atmosphere, and 33 percent had migrated to ground water. Although runoff volumes were 50 percent greater than infiltration, less than 2 percent of the fertilizer was lost to runoff. Small measured denitrification rates and large measured dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water favor the long-term stability of NO3-1 in ground water. Successive fertilizer applications, in areas that lack the ability to moderate N concentrations through consumptive N reactions, risk the potential of N-saturated ecosystems.

  15. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  16. Interacting noise sources shape patterns of arm movement variability in three-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apker, Gregory A; Darling, Timothy K; Buneo, Christopher A

    2010-11-01

    Reaching movements are subject to noise in both the planning and execution phases of movement production. The interaction of these noise sources during natural movements is not well understood, despite its importance for understanding movement variability in neurologically intact and impaired individuals. Here we examined the interaction of planning and execution related noise during the production of unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects performed sequences of two movements to targets arranged in three vertical planes separated in depth. The starting position for each sequence was also varied in depth with the target plane; thus required movement sequences were largely contained within the vertical plane of the targets. Each final target in a sequence was approached from two different directions, and these movements were made with or without visual feedback of the moving hand. These combined aspects of the design allowed us to probe the interaction of execution and planning related noise with respect to reach endpoint variability. In agreement with previous studies, we found that reach endpoint distributions were highly anisotropic. The principal axes of movement variability were largely aligned with the depth axis, i.e., the axis along which visual planning related noise would be expected to dominate, and were not generally well aligned with the direction of the movement vector. Our results suggest that visual planning-related noise plays a dominant role in determining anisotropic patterns of endpoint variability in three-dimensional space, with execution noise adding to this variability in a movement direction-dependent manner.

  17. Ground-water recharge from small intermittent streams in the western Mojave Desert, California: Chapter G in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Predmore, Steven; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Population growth has impacted ground-water resources in the western Mojave Desert, where declining water levels suggest that recharge rates have not kept pace with withdrawals. Recharge from the Mojave River, the largest hydrographic feature in the study area, is relatively well characterized. In contrast, recharge from numerous smaller streams that convey runoff from the bounding mountains is poorly characterized. The current study examined four representative streams to assess recharge from these intermittent sources. Hydraulic, thermal, geomorphic, chemical, and isotopic data were used to study recharge processes, from streamflow generation and infiltration to percolation through the unsaturated zone. Ground-water movement away from recharge areas was also assessed.Infiltration in amounts sufficient to have a measurable effect on subsurface temperature profiles did not occur in every year in instrumented study reaches. In addition to streamflow availability, results showed the importance of sediment texture in controlling infiltration and eventual recharge. Infiltration amounts of about 0.7 meters per year were an approximate threshold for the occurrence of ground-water recharge. Estimated travel times through the thick unsaturated zones underlying channels reached several hundred years. Recharging fluxes were influenced by stratigraphic complexity and depositional dynamics. Because of channel meandering, not all water that penetrates beneath the root zone can be assumed to become recharge on active alluvial fans.Away from study washes, elevated chloride concentrations and highly negative water potentials beneath the root zone indicated negligible recharge from direct infiltration of precipitation under current climatic conditions. In upstream portions of washes, generally low subsurface chloride concentrations and near-zero water potentials indicated downward movement of water toward the water table, driven primarily by gravity. Recharging conditions did not

  18. Observations of elk movement patterns on Fossil Butte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Soileau, Suzanna Carrithers.; Allen, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The elk herd that frequents Fossil Butte National Monument, a subset of the West Green River elk population, provides visitors with seasonal opportunities to view an iconic species of the western United States. Throughout the year, these elk range across a variety of private, State, and Federal lands within close proximity to the Monument. These lands are managed differently for various uses which can create challenging wildlife-management issues and influence the herd’s seasonal movements and distribution. Research lead by the USGS investigates some of the factors associated with these seasonal changes.

  19. Phase separation driven by density-dependent movement: A novel mechanism for ecological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Rietkerk, Max; Herman, Peter M J; Piersma, Theunis; Fryxell, John M; van de Koppel, Johan

    2016-12-01

    Many ecosystems develop strikingly regular spatial patterns because of small-scale interactions between organisms, a process generally referred to as spatial self-organization. Self-organized spatial patterns are important determinants of the functioning of ecosystems, promoting the growth and survival of the involved organisms, and affecting the capacity of the organisms to cope with changing environmental conditions. The predominant explanation for self-organized pattern formation is spatial heterogeneity in establishment, growth and mortality, resulting from the self-organization processes. A number of recent studies, however, have revealed that movement of organisms can be an important driving process creating extensive spatial patterning in many ecosystems. Here, we review studies that detail movement-based pattern formation in contrasting ecological settings. Our review highlights that a common principle, where movement of organisms is density-dependent, explains observed spatial regular patterns in all of these studies. This principle, well known to physics as the Cahn-Hilliard principle of phase separation, has so-far remained unrecognized as a general mechanism for self-organized complexity in ecology. Using the examples presented in this paper, we explain how this movement principle can be discerned in ecological settings, and clarify how to test this mechanism experimentally. Our study highlights that animal movement, both in isolation and in unison with other processes, is an important mechanism for regular pattern formation in ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Convergence of marine megafauna movement patterns in coastal and open oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Sequeira, A. M. M.; Rodrí guez, J. P.; Eguí luz, V. M.; Harcourt, R.; Hindell, M.; Sims, D. W.; Duarte, C. M.; Costa, D. P.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, J.; Ferreira, L. C.; Hays, G. C.; Heupel, M. R.; Meekan, M. G.; Aven, A.; Bailleul, F.; Baylis, A. M. M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Braun, C. D.; Burns, J.; Caley, M. J.; Campbell, R.; Carmichael, R. H.; Clua, E.; Einoder, L. D.; Friedlaender, Ari; Goebel, M. E.; Goldsworthy, S. D.; Guinet, C.; Gunn, J.; Hamer, D.; Hammerschlag, N.; Hammill, M.; Hü ckstä dt, L. A.; Humphries, N. E.; Lea, M.-A.; Lowther, A.; Mackay, A.; McHuron, E.; McKenzie, J.; McLeay, L.; McMahon, C. R.; Mengersen, K.; Muelbert, M. M. C.; Pagano, A. M.; Page, B.; Queiroz, N.; Robinson, P. W.; Shaffer, S. A.; Shivji, M.; Skomal, G. B.; Thorrold, S. R.; Villegas-Amtmann, S.; Weise, M.; Wells, R.; Wetherbee, B.; Wiebkin, A.; Wienecke, B.; Thums, M.

    2018-01-01

    The extent of increasing anthropogenic impacts on large marine vertebrates partly depends on the animals' movement patterns. Effective conservation requires identification of the key drivers of movement including intrinsic properties and extrinsic constraints associated with the dynamic nature of the environments the animals inhabit. However, the relative importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors remains elusive. We analyze a global dataset of ∼2.8 million locations from >2,600 tracked individuals across 50 marine vertebrates evolutionarily separated by millions of years and using different locomotion modes (fly, swim, walk/paddle). Strikingly, movement patterns show a remarkable convergence, being strongly conserved across species and independent of body length and mass, despite these traits ranging over 10 orders of magnitude among the species studied. This represents a fundamental difference between marine and terrestrial vertebrates not previously identified, likely linked to the reduced costs of locomotion in water. Movement patterns were primarily explained by the interaction between species-specific traits and the habitat(s) they move through, resulting in complex movement patterns when moving close to coasts compared with more predictable patterns when moving in open oceans. This distinct difference may be associated with greater complexity within coastal microhabitats, highlighting a critical role of preferred habitat in shaping marine vertebrate global movements. Efforts to develop understanding of the characteristics of vertebrate movement should consider the habitat(s) through which they move to identify how movement patterns will alter with forecasted severe ocean changes, such as reduced Arctic sea ice cover, sea level rise, and declining oxygen content.

  1. Convergence of marine megafauna movement patterns in coastal and open oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Sequeira, A. M. M.

    2018-02-26

    The extent of increasing anthropogenic impacts on large marine vertebrates partly depends on the animals\\' movement patterns. Effective conservation requires identification of the key drivers of movement including intrinsic properties and extrinsic constraints associated with the dynamic nature of the environments the animals inhabit. However, the relative importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors remains elusive. We analyze a global dataset of ∼2.8 million locations from >2,600 tracked individuals across 50 marine vertebrates evolutionarily separated by millions of years and using different locomotion modes (fly, swim, walk/paddle). Strikingly, movement patterns show a remarkable convergence, being strongly conserved across species and independent of body length and mass, despite these traits ranging over 10 orders of magnitude among the species studied. This represents a fundamental difference between marine and terrestrial vertebrates not previously identified, likely linked to the reduced costs of locomotion in water. Movement patterns were primarily explained by the interaction between species-specific traits and the habitat(s) they move through, resulting in complex movement patterns when moving close to coasts compared with more predictable patterns when moving in open oceans. This distinct difference may be associated with greater complexity within coastal microhabitats, highlighting a critical role of preferred habitat in shaping marine vertebrate global movements. Efforts to develop understanding of the characteristics of vertebrate movement should consider the habitat(s) through which they move to identify how movement patterns will alter with forecasted severe ocean changes, such as reduced Arctic sea ice cover, sea level rise, and declining oxygen content.

  2. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    was applied to detect people. To assess the quality of the trajectories generated by the CV software, a sample of Ground Truth (GT) trajectories were digitized manually for all individuals simultaneously present in the scene in parts of the video recorded. The manual digitization was done in the T......-Analyst software developed at Lund University. Tracks of people walking alone or in social groups of different sizes were recorded, as well as people waiting, people having a conversation, and people dragging their bikes or pushing prams or wheelchairs. The tracks of ‘facers’ working for a charity organization...... will be to develop advanced methods in GIS to enable extraction of behavioral parameters for different classes of tracks that can be used to calibrate models of pedestrian movement. Our approach to tracking urban public life should be seen as a supplement to the traditional qualitative and intuitive manual...

  3. Area-use patterns and diel movements of white steenbras ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean length of estuary used by the 15 individuals was 1 888 m (SD 666). There was a distinct diel activity pattern, with certain individuals utilising deeper parts of the estuary during the day and shallow regions at night. The results indicate that the shallow littoral zone is a critical habitat for juvenile white steenbras.

  4. Patterns of Intergenerational Occupational Movements: A Smallest-Space Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1974-01-01

    Data collected by the smallest-space analysis technique indicates a pattern of occupational inheritance from father to son and the tendency of sons to choose work offering their fathers' vocational experiences, which supports the hypothesis that attributes of fathers' occupations are related to values transmitted to sons and reflected in their…

  5. Movement and spatial proximity patterns of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo cow-calf pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare movement patterns of nursing vs. nonnursing mature cows and to characterize cow-calf proximity patterns in two herds of Raramuri Criollo cattle. Herds grazed rangeland pastures in southern New Mexico (4355 ha) and west-central Chihuahua, Mexico (633 ha)'' A...

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  8. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ''ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated

  9. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented

  10. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  11. Geohydrological and environmental isotope observation of Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Dziembowski, Z.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dewatering of Sishen Mine in the northern Cape Province supplies good quality water for the mine and surrounding areas. Using various approaches, attempts are made to quantify the remaining storage of ground water. Geohydrological observations provide an estimate based on extrapolating the thickness of dewatered rock. Environmental isotope observations on various borehole outputs show contrasts between different ground-water bodies and their mixtures and allows for some extrapolations of observed trends. Indications are that previous estimates of storage, based on ground-water level changes, are conservative

  12. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, P.L.; Duerden, S.L.; Atkins, K.M.; Majumdar, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  13. Movement patterns of stream-dwelling fishes from Mata Atlântica, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Rosana; Iglesias-Rios, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The identification of mechanisms of spatial-temporal variation, obtained from the quantification of natural populations, is a central topic of ecological research. Despite its importance to life-history theory, as well as to conservation and management of natural populations, no studies concerning movement patterns and home range of small stream-dwelling fishes from Brazilian rain forests are known. In the present study we aimed to describe the longitudinal pattern of long distance movement as well as local patterns of short movement (daily home-range) of fishes from a Mata Atlântica stream from Southeast Brazil. We gathered information about movement dynamic in order to discuss the relationship between swimming ability, fish morphology and home range. Long distance movement data were obtained in a mark-recapture experiment held in the field between June and September - 2008, on five sites along the Ubatiba stream. For this study, we had one day to mark fishes, on June-19, and 14 events for recapture. Considering the ten species that inhabit the study area, our study showed that four species: Astyanax janeiroensis, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Pimelodella lateristriga, moved at least 6 000m in 60 days. The other six species did not present long distance movements, as they were recaptured in the same site 90 days after being marked. For short distance study, movement data were obtained in one mark-recapture experiment held in a 100m long site subdivided into five 20m stretches where fishes were marked with different elastomer colours. We marked 583 specimens that after recapture showed two groups of different movement patterns. The first group was called "Long Movement Group" and the second one was called "Short Movement Group". The Long Movement Group showed, on average, 89.8% of moving fishes and 10.2% of non moving fishes, against 21.3% and 78.7%, respectively, for the Short Movement Group. It was concluded that fish movement could explain

  14. Movement patterns of stream-dwelling fishes from Mata Atlântica, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms of spatial-temporal variation, obtained from the quantification of natural populations, is a central topic of ecological research. Despite its importance to life-history theory, as well as to conservation and management of natural populations, no studies concerning movement patterns and home range of small stream-dwelling fishes from Brazilian rain forests are known. In the present study we aimed to describe the longitudinal pattern of long distance movement as well as local patterns of short movement (daily home-range of fishes from a Mata Atlântica stream from Southeast Brazil. We gathered information about movement dynamic in order to discuss the relationship between swimming ability, fish morphology and home range. Long distance movement data were obtained in a mark-recapture experiment held in the field between June and September - 2008, on five sites along the Ubatiba stream. For this study, we had one day to mark fishes, on June-19, and 14 events for recapture. Considering the ten species that inhabit the study area, our study showed that four species: Astyanax janeiroensis, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Pimelodella lateristriga, moved at least 6 000m in 60 days. The other six species did not present long distance movements, as they were recaptured in the same site 90 days after being marked. For short distance study, movement data were obtained in one mark-recapture experiment held in a 100m long site subdivided into five 20m stretches where fishes were marked with different elastomer colours. We marked 583 specimens that after recapture showed two groups of different movement patterns. The first group was called “Long Movement Group” and the second one was called “Short Movement Group”. The Long Movement Group showed, on average, 89.8% of moving fishes and 10.2% of non moving fishes, against 21.3% and 78.7%, respectively, for the Short Movement Group. It was concluded that

  15. MINTEQ, Geochemical Equilibria in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase. 2 - Method of solution: MINTEQ applies the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to solve geochemical equilibria from a set of mass balance equations, one for each component. Because the

  16. Environmental context explains Lévy and Brownian movement patterns of marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Nicolas E; Queiroz, Nuno; Dyer, Jennifer R M; Pade, Nicolas G; Musyl, Michael K; Schaefer, Kurt M; Fuller, Daniel W; Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Doyle, Thomas K; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Hays, Graeme C; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Wearmouth, Victoria J; Southall, Emily J; Sims, David W

    2010-06-24

    An optimal search theory, the so-called Lévy-flight foraging hypothesis, predicts that predators should adopt search strategies known as Lévy flights where prey is sparse and distributed unpredictably, but that Brownian movement is sufficiently efficient for locating abundant prey. Empirical studies have generated controversy because the accuracy of statistical methods that have been used to identify Lévy behaviour has recently been questioned. Consequently, whether foragers exhibit Lévy flights in the wild remains unclear. Crucially, moreover, it has not been tested whether observed movement patterns across natural landscapes having different expected resource distributions conform to the theory's central predictions. Here we use maximum-likelihood methods to test for Lévy patterns in relation to environmental gradients in the largest animal movement data set assembled for this purpose. Strong support was found for Lévy search patterns across 14 species of open-ocean predatory fish (sharks, tuna, billfish and ocean sunfish), with some individuals switching between Lévy and Brownian movement as they traversed different habitat types. We tested the spatial occurrence of these two principal patterns and found Lévy behaviour to be associated with less productive waters (sparser prey) and Brownian movements to be associated with productive shelf or convergence-front habitats (abundant prey). These results are consistent with the Lévy-flight foraging hypothesis, supporting the contention that organism search strategies naturally evolved in such a way that they exploit optimal Lévy patterns.

  17. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  18. Geology and ground-water resources of the Douglas basin, Arizona, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Donald Robert; Cushman, R.L.; Hatchett, James Lawrence

    1955-01-01

    The Douglas basin is part of a large northwest-trending intermontane valley, known as the Sulphur Spring Valley, which lies in southeastern Arizona, and extends into northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Maturely dissected mountains rise abruptly from long alluvial slopes and culminate in peaks 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the valley floor, Bedrock in the mountain areas confines drainage on the east and west, and an arc of low hills to the north separates the basin from the Willcox basin of the Sulphur Spring Valley. Drainage of the 1,200 square miles in the Douglas basin is southward into Mexico through Whitewater Draw. The mountains include igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks ranging in age from pre-Cambrian to Tertiary, including Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that total about 10,000 feet in thickness. The older rocks have been metamorphosed, and all the bedrock has been affected by igneous intrusion, largely in Mesozoic time, and by structural movements, largely in Cenozoic time and extending into the Quaternary period. By the early part of Cenozoic time the major structural features were formed, and mountain ranges had been uplifted above the valley trough along northwest-trending fault zones. Since that time the physiographic features have resulted through erosion of the mountain blocks and the deposition, in places, of more than 2,800 feet of unconsolidated rock debris in the valley. Ground-water supplies of the Douglas basin are developed largely in the saturated zone of the valley-fill sediments. The ground water in the valley fill occurs in thin lenses and strata of sand and gravel, which are interbedded with large thicknesses of silt and day. Scattered gypsum beds and extensive caliche deposits appear at the surface and occur within the valley fill at various depths. Although the valley-fill sediments are as much as 2,800 feet thick, the uppermost 300 feet or so are the most permeable. Ground water originates as precipitation in the mountain areas

  19. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  20. The use of census migration data to approximate human movement patterns across temporal scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Wesolowski

    Full Text Available Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable information on relatively long timescale relocations across countries, but do not capture the shorter-scale patterns, trips less than a year, that make up the bulk of human movement. Census-derived migration data may provide valuable proxies for shorter-term movements however, as substantial migration between regions can be indicative of well connected places exhibiting high levels of movement at finer time scales, but this has never been examined in detail. Here, an extensive mobile phone usage data set for Kenya was processed to extract movements between counties in 2009 on weekly, monthly, and annual time scales and compared to data on change in residence from the national census conducted during the same time period. We find that the relative ordering across Kenyan counties for incoming, outgoing and between-county movements shows strong correlations. Moreover, the distributions of trip durations from both sources of data are similar, and a spatial interaction model fit to the data reveals the relationships of different parameters over a range of movement time scales. Significant relationships between census migration data and fine temporal scale movement patterns exist, and results suggest that census data can be used to approximate certain features of movement patterns across multiple temporal scales, extending the utility of census-derived migration data.

  1. The use of census migration data to approximate human movement patterns across temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Buckee, Caroline O; Pindolia, Deepa K; Eagle, Nathan; Smith, David L; Garcia, Andres J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable information on relatively long timescale relocations across countries, but do not capture the shorter-scale patterns, trips less than a year, that make up the bulk of human movement. Census-derived migration data may provide valuable proxies for shorter-term movements however, as substantial migration between regions can be indicative of well connected places exhibiting high levels of movement at finer time scales, but this has never been examined in detail. Here, an extensive mobile phone usage data set for Kenya was processed to extract movements between counties in 2009 on weekly, monthly, and annual time scales and compared to data on change in residence from the national census conducted during the same time period. We find that the relative ordering across Kenyan counties for incoming, outgoing and between-county movements shows strong correlations. Moreover, the distributions of trip durations from both sources of data are similar, and a spatial interaction model fit to the data reveals the relationships of different parameters over a range of movement time scales. Significant relationships between census migration data and fine temporal scale movement patterns exist, and results suggest that census data can be used to approximate certain features of movement patterns across multiple temporal scales, extending the utility of census-derived migration data.

  2. The demographics of human and malaria movement and migration patterns in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindolia, Deepa K; Garcia, Andres J; Huang, Zhuojie; Smith, David L; Alegana, Victor A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-11-05

    The quantification of parasite movements can provide valuable information for control strategy planning across all transmission intensities. Mobile parasite carrying individuals can instigate transmission in receptive areas, spread drug resistant strains and reduce the effectiveness of control strategies. The identification of mobile demographic groups, their routes of travel and how these movements connect differing transmission zones, potentially enables limited resources for interventions to be efficiently targeted over space, time and populations. National population censuses and household surveys provide individual-level migration, travel, and other data relevant for understanding malaria movement patterns. Together with existing spatially referenced malaria data and mathematical models, network analysis techniques were used to quantify the demographics of human and malaria movement patterns in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Movement networks were developed based on connectivity and magnitudes of flow within each country and compared to assess relative differences between regions and demographic groups. Additional malaria-relevant characteristics, such as short-term travel and bed net use, were also examined. Patterns of human and malaria movements varied between demographic groups, within country regions and between countries. Migration rates were highest in 20-30 year olds in all three countries, but when accounting for malaria prevalence, movements in the 10-20 year age group became more important. Different age and sex groups also exhibited substantial variations in terms of the most likely sources, sinks and routes of migration and malaria movement, as well as risk factors for infection, such as short-term travel and bed net use. Census and survey data, together with spatially referenced malaria data, GIS and network analysis tools, can be valuable for identifying, mapping and quantifying regional connectivities and the mobility of different demographic

  3. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Patricia J; Vanak, Abi T; Muggeo, Vito M R; Ferreira, Salamon M; Slotow, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana), in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009). Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or other extrinsic shifts in ecological studies, rather than arbitrarily fixed definitions

  4. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana, in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009. Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities

  6. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  7. ground water quality evaluation in beed city, maharashtra, india

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khatib Afsar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical .... All ideal value s (Vio) are taken as zero for the drinking water ..... Conference: Ustron, Poland, 2004, Routledge, New York.

  8. Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cml

    2012-06-16

    Jun 16, 2012 ... Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which endangers ... include leakage of pipes, pollution from sewerage pipes ..... and Quality Control Authority, Karachi, Pakistan.

  9. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  10. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-01-01

    The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations ...

  11. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  12. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act

  13. A Social Network Analysis of Tourist Movement Patterns in Blogs: Korean Backpackers in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Chung Chung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given recent developments in information and communication technology, the number of individual tourists enjoying free travel without the advice of travel agencies is increasing. Therefore, such tourists can visit more tourist destinations and create more complex movement patterns than mass tourists. These tourist movement patterns are a key factor in understanding tourist behavior and they contain various information that is important for tourism marketers. In this vein, this study aims to investigate tourist movement patterns in Europe. We acquired 122 data points from posts on the NAVER blog, which is the most famous social media platform in Korea. These data were transformed into matrix data for social network analysis and analyzed for centrality. The results suggest that Korean backpackers in Europe tend to enter Europe through London and Paris. Venezia and Firenze are also key cities.

  14. Isotopic discontinuities in ground water beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckless, J.S.; Whelan, J.F.; Steinkampf, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical data for stable isotopes in ground water from beneath Yucca Mountain, when examined in map view, show areal patterns of heterogeneity that can be interpreted in terms of mixing of at least three end members. One end member must be isotopically heavy in terms of hydrogen and oxygen and have a young apparent 14 C age such as water found at the north end of Yucca Mountain beneath Fortymile Wash. A second end member must contain isotopically heavy carbon and have an old apparent 14 C age such as water from the Paleozoic aquifer. The third end member cannot be tightly defined. It must be isotopically lighter than the first with respect of hydrogen and oxygen and be intermediate to the first and second end members with respect to both apparent 14 C age and δ 13 C. The variable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that two of the end members are waters, but the variable carbon isotopic composition could represent either a third water end member or reaction of water with a carbon-bearing solids such as calcite. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Geology and ground water of the Luke area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulik, Ronald S.; Twenter, F.R.

    1964-01-01

    Luke Air Force Base, in the Salt River Valley in central Arizona. is within an intermontane basin--the Phoenix basin--in the Basin and Range lowlands province. The Luke area, the subject of this study, extends beyond the limits of the base. Ground-water resources of the Luke area were studied to determine the possibility of developing a water supply of optimum quantity and quality to supplement the base supply. Several wells drilled for this purpose, prior to the study, either produced an inadequate supply of water or produced ware-that had a high dissolved-solids content. The Phoenix basin is filled with unconsolidated to semiconsolidated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks that are referred to as valley fill. Although its total thickness is unknown, 2,784 feet of valley fill--primarily consisting of clay, silt, sand, and gravel--has been penetrated. Percentage-distribution maps of fine-grained materials indicate a gross-facies pattern and a selective depositional area of the valley-fill materials. The maps also indicate that the areal distribution of fine-grained materials increases with depth. In general, the better producing wells, regardless of depth, are in areas where tee valley fill is composed of less than 60 percent fine-grained materials. The water table in the area is declining because large quantities of water are withdrawn and recharge is negligible. The decline near Luke Air Force Base during the period 1941-61 was about 150 feet. Ground water was moving generally southwest in the spring of 1961. Locally, changes in the direction of movement indicate diversion toward two major depressions. The dissolved-solids content of the ground water ranged from about 190 to 6,300 ppm. The highest concentration of dissolved solids is in water from the southern part of the area and seems to come from relatively shallow depths; wells in the northern part generally yield water of good quality. After a reconnaissance of the area, the U.S. Geological Survey

  16. Handling the decline of ground water using artificial recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, Muhammad Shofi; Yoga, Kuncaraningrat Edi; Muslim, Dicky

    2017-11-01

    Jatinagor, a region with rapid growth cause increasing in water demand. The ground water surface in the observation area shows a decrease based on its potential. This deflation is mainly caused by the inequality between inputs and outputs of the ground water itself. The decrease of this ground water surface is also caused by the number of catchment areas that keeps decreasing. According to the data analysis of geology and hydrology, the condition of ground water in Jatinangor on 2015 had indicated a decrease compared to 2010. Nowadays, the longlivity of clean water can be ensure by the hydrogeology engineering, which is to construct an artificial recharge for ground water in use. The numerical method is aims to determine the number of ground water supply in Jatinangor. According to the research, the most suitable artificial recharge is in the form of a small dam located in the internment river. With the area of 209.000 m2, this dam will be able to contain 525 m3 runoff water with the intensity of maximum rainfall effectively 59,44 mm/hour. The increase of water volume generate by this artificial recharge, fulfilled the demand of clean water.

  17. Uranium mineralization by ground water in sedimentary rocks, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Hirono, S.; Sakamaki, Y.

    1975-01-01

    To solve the mechanism of uranium concentration in stratabound uranium deposits occurring in the basal part of Neogene sediments overlying granite basement, attention was paid to uranium leaching from weathered granite by circulating carbonated fissure waters, to effective adsorbents for fixing uranium from uraniferous ground waters, to structural features controlling the ground-water circulation, and other relevant factors. The evidence for uranium transportation by hydothermal solutions, including hot spring waters, is hard to observe. Conclusions are summarized as follows: Uranium in the deposits is supplied from surrounding source rocks, mostly from granite. Uranium is transported by circulating ground-water solutions. The uranium dissolved in ground water is fixed in minerals in various ways, the most important being adsorption by carbonaceous matter. Ore-grade uranium concentrated from very dilute solutions occurs by multiple repetition of a leaching-and-fixation cycle between minerals or adsorbents and circulating uraniferous ground water. Important factors for uranium mineralization are sufficient uranium, supplied mostly from granite, the existence of effective adsorbents such as carbonaceous matter in the host rocks, and favorable geological, geochemical, and geophysical environments. The last seem to require not only physical and chemical conditions but also correct flow and volume of ground water. (U.S.)

  18. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  19. CUE: counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based authentication via oculomotor plant characteristics and complex eye movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Karpov, Alexey; Holland, Corey D.

    2012-06-01

    The widespread use of computers throughout modern society introduces the necessity for usable and counterfeit-resistant authentication methods to ensure secure access to personal resources such as bank accounts, e-mail, and social media. Current authentication methods require tedious memorization of lengthy pass phrases, are often prone to shouldersurfing, and may be easily replicated (either by counterfeiting parts of the human body or by guessing an authentication token based on readily available information). This paper describes preliminary work toward a counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based (CUE) authentication method. CUE does not require any passwords (improving the memorability aspect of the authentication system), and aims to provide high resistance to spoofing and shoulder-surfing by employing the combined biometric capabilities of two behavioral biometric traits: 1) oculomotor plant characteristics (OPC) which represent the internal, non-visible, anatomical structure of the eye; 2) complex eye movement patterns (CEM) which represent the strategies employed by the brain to guide visual attention. Both OPC and CEM are extracted from the eye movement signal provided by an eye tracking system. Preliminary results indicate that the fusion of OPC and CEM traits is capable of providing a 30% reduction in authentication error when compared to the authentication accuracy of individual traits.

  20. Identifying compensatory movement patterns in the upper extremity using a wearable sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Wang, Rui; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2017-11-30

    Movement impairments such as those due to stroke often result in the nervous system adopting atypical movements to compensate for movement deficits. Monitoring these compensatory patterns is critical for improving functional outcomes during rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and validity of a wearable sensor system for detecting compensatory trunk kinematics during activities of daily living. Participants with no history of neurological impairments performed reaching and manipulation tasks with their upper extremity, and their movements were recorded by a wearable sensor system and validated using a motion capture system. Compensatory movements of the trunk were induced using a brace that limited range of motion at the elbow. Our results showed that the elbow brace elicited compensatory movements of the trunk during reaching tasks but not manipulation tasks, and that a wearable sensor system with two sensors could reliably classify compensatory movements (~90% accuracy). These results show the potential of the wearable system to assess and monitor compensatory movements outside of a lab setting.

  1. Ground-Water Hydrology and Projected Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1983-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mount...

  2. Modelling of the evolution of ground waters in a granite system at low temperature: the Stripa ground waters, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaud, D.; Michard, G.; Beaucaire, C.

    1990-01-01

    From chemical data on the Stripa ground waters we have tried to model the evolution of the chemical composition of a ground water in a granitic system at low temperature. The existence of two end-member ground water compositions made it possible first, to test the conventional model of a geothermal system according to which an overall equilibrium between the waters and a given mineral assemblage can be defined, and then to show that such a model could be extended to low temperatures (10 o C). Conversely, if we know the mineral assemblage, the equilibration temperature and the charge of the mobile ions (in this case, Cl), the composition of the solution is entirely fixed. In our model of the Stripa ground waters, the existence of two end-member ground water compositions can be explained by an evolution from a ''kaolinite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium to a ''prehnite-albite-laumontite'' equilibrium, the latter requiring less Al than the former. We have also emphasized the importance of the Cl ion concentrations of the ground waters, because they can be considered as indicators of the degree of reaction progress between rock and water, thus determining the degree of equilibration of the system. (author)

  3. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  4. Generalized Pareto for Pattern-Oriented Random Walk Modelling of Organisms' Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bertrand

    Full Text Available How organisms move and disperse is crucial to understand how population dynamics relates to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment. Random walk (RW models are typical tools to describe movement patterns. Whether Lévy or alternative RW better describes forager movements is keenly debated. We get around this issue using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD. GPD includes as specific cases Normal, exponential and power law distributions, which underlie Brownian, Poisson-like and Lévy walks respectively. Whereas previous studies typically confronted a limited set of candidate models, GPD lets the most likely RW model emerge from the data. We illustrate the wide applicability of the method using GPS-tracked seabird foraging movements and fishing vessel movements tracked by Vessel Monitoring System (VMS, both collected in the Peruvian pelagic ecosystem. The two parameters from the fitted GPD, a scale and a shape parameter, provide a synoptic characterization of the observed movement in terms of characteristic scale and diffusive property. They reveal and quantify the variability, among species and individuals, of the spatial strategies selected by predators foraging on a common prey field. The GPD parameters constitute relevant metrics for (1 providing a synthetic and pattern-oriented description of movement, (2 using top predators as ecosystem indicators and (3 studying the variability of spatial behaviour among species or among individuals with different personalities.

  5. Generalized Pareto for Pattern-Oriented Random Walk Modelling of Organisms' Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sophie; Joo, Rocío; Fablet, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    How organisms move and disperse is crucial to understand how population dynamics relates to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment. Random walk (RW) models are typical tools to describe movement patterns. Whether Lévy or alternative RW better describes forager movements is keenly debated. We get around this issue using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). GPD includes as specific cases Normal, exponential and power law distributions, which underlie Brownian, Poisson-like and Lévy walks respectively. Whereas previous studies typically confronted a limited set of candidate models, GPD lets the most likely RW model emerge from the data. We illustrate the wide applicability of the method using GPS-tracked seabird foraging movements and fishing vessel movements tracked by Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), both collected in the Peruvian pelagic ecosystem. The two parameters from the fitted GPD, a scale and a shape parameter, provide a synoptic characterization of the observed movement in terms of characteristic scale and diffusive property. They reveal and quantify the variability, among species and individuals, of the spatial strategies selected by predators foraging on a common prey field. The GPD parameters constitute relevant metrics for (1) providing a synthetic and pattern-oriented description of movement, (2) using top predators as ecosystem indicators and (3) studying the variability of spatial behaviour among species or among individuals with different personalities.

  6. Movement patterns and dispersal potential of Pecos bluntnose shiner (Notropis simus pecosensis) revealed using otolith microchemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Nathan M.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Carleton, Scott A.; Gould, William R.; Hobbs, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Natal origin and dispersal potential of the federally threatened Pecos bluntnose shiner (Notropis simus pecosensis) were successfully characterized using otolith microchemistry and swimming performance trials. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr:86Sr) of otoliths within the resident plains killifish (Fundulus zebrinus) were successfully used as a surrogate for strontium isotope ratios in water and revealed three isotopically distinct reaches throughout 297 km of the Pecos River, New Mexico, USA. Two different life history movement patterns were revealed in Pecos bluntnose shiner. Eggs and fry were either retained in upper river reaches or passively dispersed downriver followed by upriver movement during the first year of life, with some fish achieving a minimum movement of 56 km. Swimming ability of Pecos bluntnose shiner confirmed upper critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) as high as 43.8 cm·s−1 and 20.6 body lengths·s−1 in 30 days posthatch fish. Strong swimming ability early in life supports our observations of upriver movement using otolith microchemistry and confirms movement patterns that were previously unknown for the species. Understanding patterns of dispersal of this and other small-bodied fishes using otolith microchemistry may help redirect conservation and management efforts for Great Plains fishes.

  7. Spatio-temporal flow maps for visualizing movement and contact patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Ni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The advanced telecom technologies and massive volumes of intelligent mobile phone users have yielded a huge amount of real-time data of people’s all-in-one telecommunication records, which we call telco big data. With telco data and the domain knowledge of an urban city, we are now able to analyze the movement and contact patterns of humans in an unprecedented scale. Flow map is widely used to display the movements of humans from one single source to multiple destinations by representing locations as nodes and movements as edges. However, it fails the task of visualizing both movement and contact data. In addition, analysts often need to compare and examine the patterns side by side, and do various quantitative analysis. In this work, we propose a novel spatio-temporal flow map layout to visualize when and where people from different locations move into the same places and make contact. We also propose integrating the spatiotemporal flow maps into existing spatiotemporal visualization techniques to form a suite of techniques for visualizing the movement and contact patterns. We report a potential application the proposed techniques can be applied to. The results show that our design and techniques properly unveil hidden information, while analysis can be achieved efficiently. Keywords: Spatio-temporal data, Flow map, Urban mobility

  8. Acquisition of earthworm-like movement patterns of many-segmented peristaltic crawling robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Saga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been increasingly devoted to the development of rescue robots that can protect humans from the inherent risks of rescue work. Particularly, anticipated is the development of a robot that can move deeply through small spaces. We have devoted our attention to peristalsis, the movement mechanism used by earthworms. A reinforcement learning technique used for the derivation of the robot movement pattern, Q-learning, was used to develop a three-segmented peristaltic crawling robot with a motor drive. Characteristically, peristalsis can provide movement capability if at least three segments work, even if a segmented part does not function. Therefore, we had intended to derive the movement pattern of many-segmented peristaltic crawling robots using Q-learning. However, because of the necessary increase in calculations, in the case of many segments, Q-learning cannot be used because of insufficient memory. Therefore, we devoted our attention to a learning method called Actor–Critic, which can be implemented with low memory. Because Actor-Critic methods are TD methods that have a separate memory structure to explicitly represent the policy independent of the value function. Using it, we examined the movement patterns of six-segmented peristaltic crawling robots.

  9. Assessment of ground-water flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer using geostatistical filtering and hydrocarbon fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, S.A. Jr.; Smith, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional environmental investigations at tidally influenced hazardous waste sites such as marine fuel storage terminals have generally failed to characterize ground-water flow and chemical transport because they have been based on only a cursory knowledge of plume geometry, chemicals encountered, and hydrogeologic setting and synoptic ground-water level measurement. Single-time observations cannot be used to accurately determine flow direction and gradient in tidally fluctuating aquifers since these measurements delineate hydraulic head at only one point in time during a tidal cycle, not the net effect of the fluctuations. In this study, a more rigorous approach was used to characterize flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer at a marine fuel storage terminal using: (1) ground-water-level monitoring over three tidal cycles (72 hours), (2) geostatistical filtering of ground-water-level data using 25-hour and 71-hour filtering methods, and (3) hydrocarbon fingerprinting analysis. The results from the study indicate that naphtha released from one of the on-site naphtha tanks has been the predominant contributor to the hydrocarbon plume both on-site and downgradient off-site and that net ground-water and hydrocarbon movement has been to the southeast away from the tank since 1989

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  11. Speciation and transport of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the chemical speciation of a number of radionuclides migrating in a slightly contaminated ground water plume are identifying the most mobile species and providing an opportunity to test and/or validate geochemical models of radionuclide transport in ground waters. Results to date have shown that most of the migrating radionuclides are present in anionic or nonionic forms. These include anionic forms of 55 Fe, 60 Co, /sup 99m/Tc, 106 Ru, 131 I, and nonionic forms of 63 Ni and 125 Sb. Strontium-70 and a small fraction of the mobile 60 Co are the only cationic radionuclides which have been detected moving in the ground water plume beyond 30 meters from the source. A comparison of the observed chemical forms with the predicted species calculated from modeling thermodynamic data and ground water chemical parameters has indicated a good agreement for most of the radioelements in the system, including Tc, Np, Cs, Sr, Ce, Ru, Sb, Zn, and Mn. The discrepancies between observed and calculated solutions species were noted for Fe, Co, Ni and I. Traces of Fe, Co, and Ni were observed to migrate in anionic or nonionic forms which the calculations failed to predict. These anionic/nonionic species may be organic complexes having enhanced mobility in ground waters. The radioiodine, for example, was shown to behave totally as an anion but further investigation revealed that 49-57% of this anionic iodine was organically bound. The ground water and aqueous extracts of trench sediments contain a wide variety of organic compounds, some of which could serve as complexing agents for the radionuclides. These results indicate the need for further research at a variety of field sites in defining precisely the chemical forms of the mobile radionuclide species, and in better understanding the role of dissolved organic materials in ground water transport of radionuclides

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  13. Basin scale management of surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.C.; Al-Sharif, M.

    1993-01-01

    An important element in the economic development of many regions of the Great Plains is the availability of a reliable water supply. Due to the highly variable nature of the climate through out much of the Great Plains region, non-controlled stream flow rates tend to be highly variable from year to year. Thus, the primary water supply has tended towards developing ground water aquifers. However, in regions where shallow ground water is extracted for use, there exists the potential for over drafting aquifers to the point of depleting hydraulically connected stream flows, which could adversely affect the water supply of downstream users. To prevent the potential conflict that can arise when a basin's water supply is being developed or to control the water extractions within a developed basin requires the ability to predict the effect that water extractions in one region will have on water extractions from either surface or ground water supplies else where in the basin. This requires the ability to simulate ground water levels and stream flows on a basin scale as affected by changes in water use, land use practices and climatic changes within the basin. The outline for such a basin scale surface water-ground water model has been presented in Tracy (1991) and Tracy and Koelliker (1992), and the outline for the mathematical programming statement to aid in determining the optimal allocation of water on a basin scale has been presented in Tracy and Al-Sharif (1992). This previous work has been combined into a computer based model with graphical output referred to as the LINOSA model and was developed as a decision support system for basin managers. This paper will present the application of the LINOSA surface-ground water management model to the Rattlesnake watershed basin that resides within Ground Water Management District Number 5 in south central Kansas

  14. Multicomponent mass transport model: a model for simulating migration of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, J.F.; Kaszeta, F.E.; Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of the development of a one-dimensional radionuclide transport code, MMT2D (Multicomponent Mass Transport), for the AEGIS Program. Multicomponent Mass Transport is a numerical solution technique that uses the discrete-parcel-random-wald (DPRW) method to directly simulate the migration of radionuclides. MMT1D accounts for: convection;dispersion; sorption-desorption; first-order radioactive decay; and n-membered radioactive decay chains. Comparisons between MMT1D and an analytical solution for a similar problem show that: MMT1D agrees very closely with the analytical solution; MMT1D has no cumulative numerical dispersion like that associated with solution techniques such as finite differences and finite elements; for current AEGIS applications, relatively few parcels are required to produce adequate results; and the power of MMT1D is the flexibility of the code in being able to handle complex problems for which analytical solution cannot be obtained. Multicomponent Mass Transport (MMT1D) codes were developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to predict the movement of radiocontaminants in the saturated and unsaturated sediments of the Hanford Site. All MMT models require ground-water flow patterns that have been previously generated by a hydrologic model. This report documents the computer code and operating procedures of a third generation of the MMT series: the MMT differs from previous versions by simulating the mass transport processes in systems with radionuclide decay chains. Although MMT is a one-dimensional code, the user is referred to the documentation of the theoretical and numerical procedures of the three-dimensional MMT-DPRW code for discussion of expediency, verification, and error-sensitivity analysis

  15. Multi-segmental movement patterns reflect juggling complexity and skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Pacifici, Ilaria; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Federolf, Peter Andreas; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    The juggling action of six experts and six intermediates jugglers was recorded with a motion capture system and decomposed into its fundamental components through Principal Component Analysis. The aim was to quantify trends in movement dimensionality, multi-segmental patterns and rhythmicity as a function of proficiency level and task complexity. Dimensionality was quantified in terms of Residual Variance, while the Relative Amplitude was introduced to account for individual differences in movement components. We observed that: experience-related modifications in multi-segmental actions exist, such as the progressive reduction of error-correction movements, especially in complex task condition. The systematic identification of motor patterns sensitive to the acquisition of specific experience could accelerate the learning process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. GeoVisual Analytics for the Exploration of Complex Movement Patterns on Arterial Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Visualization of complex spatio-temporal traffic movements on the road network is a challenging task since it requires simultaneous representation of vehicle measurement characteristics and traffic network regulation rules. Previously proposed visual representations addressed issues related....... Arterial roads are important for the mobility and connectivity of modern society, but they also have traffic regulations that are not always followed by the vulnerable road users. In order to understand complex movement behaviors between vehicle drivers and pedestrians on the arterial roads, a Geo......Visual Analytics approach was developed in dialog with traffic experts. The exploratory interactive tools have assisted experts to extract unknown information about movement patterns from large traffic data at different levels of details. The results of the analysis revealed detailed patterns of speed variations...

  17. Predictive capabilities of a two-dimensional model in the ground water transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.; Beskid, N.J.; Marmer, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The discharge of low-level radioactive waste into tailings ponds is a potential source of ground water contamination. The estimation of the radiological hazards related to the ground water transport of radionuclides from tailings retention systems depends on reasonably accurate estimates of the movement of both water and solute. A two-dimensional mathematical model having predictive capability for ground water flow and solute transport has been developed. The flow equation has been solved under steady-state conditions and the mass transport equation under transient conditions. The simultaneous solution of both equations is achieved through the finite element technique using isoparametric elements, based on the Galerkin formulation. However, in contrast to the flow equation solution, the weighting functions used in the solution of the mass transport equation have a non-symmetric form. The predictive capability of the model is demonstrated using an idealized case based on analyses of field data obtained from the sites of operating uranium mills. The pH of the solution, which regulates the variation of the distribution coefficient (K/sub d/) in a particular site, appears to be the most important factor in the assessment of the rate of migration of the elements considered herein

  18. Parameter estimation techniques and uncertainty in ground water flow model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, D.A.; Davis, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantification of uncertainty in predictions of nuclear waste repository performance is a requirement of Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations governing the licensing of proposed geologic repositories for high-level radioactive waste disposal. One of the major uncertainties in these predictions is in estimating the ground-water travel time of radionuclides migrating from the repository to the accessible environment. The cause of much of this uncertainty has been attributed to a lack of knowledge about the hydrogeologic properties that control the movement of radionuclides through the aquifers. A major reason for this lack of knowledge is the paucity of data that is typically available for characterizing complex ground-water flow systems. Because of this, considerable effort has been put into developing parameter estimation techniques that infer property values in regions where no measurements exist. Currently, no single technique has been shown to be superior or even consistently conservative with respect to predictions of ground-water travel time. This work was undertaken to compare a number of parameter estimation techniques and to evaluate how differences in the parameter estimates and the estimation errors are reflected in the behavior of the flow model predictions. That is, we wished to determine to what degree uncertainties in flow model predictions may be affected simply by the choice of parameter estimation technique used. 3 refs., 2 figs

  19. Suitability of Kinect for measuring whole body movement patterns during exergaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wortche, Heinrich J.; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Exergames provide a challenging opportunity for home-based training and evaluation of postural control in the elderly population, but affordable sensor technology and algorithms for assessment of whole body movement patterns in the home environment are yet to be developed. The aim of the present

  20. Report on the first workshop on Movement Pattern Analysis MPA10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Olivier Laube

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the 1st Workshop on Movement Pattern Analysis, held as a pre-GIScience 2010 workshop in September 2010 in Zurich, Switzerland. The report outlines the scientific motivation for the event, summarizes its main contributions and outcomes, discusses the implications of the gathering, and indicates directions for the road ahead.

  1. The Positive Benefits of Negative Movement Patterns Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jesse C; Foreman, K Bo; LaStayo, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    Eccentric (negative) resistance exercise of the legs using specialized machines has been reported to be useful and often superior to standard exercise following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Movements that utilize body mass and gravity as a mode of eccentric resistance exercise in a more pragmatic rehabilitation paradigm may also be useful in reversing chronic muscle impairments observed years following surgery. This study explores whether an eccentrically biased, body mass resistance exercise induces greater magnitude of sagittal plane extensor angular impulse of the support torque and individual net joint torque contributions during both squatting and lunging movement patterns 6 weeks following TKA. Cross-sectional laboratory-based study design including 10 patients following primary unilateral TKA (6.5 ± 0.8 weeks.). All patients completed 3 trials of the squat and lunge movement pattern under both a concentric and an eccentric condition. Extensor angular impulse of the support torque and net joint torque contributions were calculated by integrating the joint torque versus time curves. A Two-way analysis of covariance was conducted and contracts of clinical interest were computed using Wald posttest. P Values for all pairwise comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity using Bonferroni multiple comparison procedure. The eccentric condition, compared to the concentric condition, displayed larger magnitude of extensor angular impulse during both the squat ( P movement patterns for the support torques. Similarly, the eccentric condition, compared to the concentric condition, displayed larger magnitude of extensor angular impulse of the hip, knee, and ankle ( P movement patterns. Eccentrically biased, body mass movement exercises can produce higher levels of extensor angular impulse on the surgical limb in patients early after TKA. Patients in this study were able to tolerate the higher extensor angular impulse demands and performed the eccentrically biased

  2. Ground-water resources data for Baldwin County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.; Moreland, Richard S.; Clark, Amy E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for 237 wells were collected, and water-levels in 223 wells in Baldwin and Escambia Counties were measured. Long-term water water-level data, available for many wells, indicate that ground-water levels in most of Baldwin County show no significant trends for the period of record. However, ground-water levels have declined in the general vicinity of Spanish Fort and Daphne, and ground-water levels in the Gulf Shores and Orange Beach areas are less than 5 feet above sea level in places. The quality of ground water generally is good, but problems with iron, sulfur, turbidity, and color occur. The water from most private wells in Baldwin County is used without treatment or filtration. Alabama public- health law requires that water from public-supply wells be chlorinated. Beyond that, the most common treatment of ground water by public-water suppliers in Baldwin County consists of pH adjustment, iron removal, and aeration. The transmissivity of the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer was determined at 10 locations in Baldwin County. Estimates of transmissivity ranged from 700 to 5,400 feet squared per day. In general, aquifer transmissivity was greatest in the southeastern part of the county, and least in the western part of the county near Mobile Bay. A storage coefficient of 1.5 x 10-3 was determined for the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer near Loxley.

  3. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  4. Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2004-09-01

    The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.

  5. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1994. Much of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  6. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ''pump-and-treat'' technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations

  8. Patterns of auxin and abscisic acid movement in the tips of gravistimulated primary roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Because both abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) have been suggested as possible chemical mediators of differential growth during root gravitropism, we compared with redistribution of label from applied 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA during maize root gravitropism and examined the relative basipetal movement of 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA applied to the caps of vertical roots. Lateral movement of 3H-ABA across the tips of vertical roots was non-polar and about 2-fold greater than lateral movement of 3H-IAA (also non-polar). The greater movement of ABA was not due to enhanced uptake since the uptake of 3H-IAA was greater than that of 3H-ABA. Basipetal movement of label from 3H-IAA or 3H-ABA applied to the root cap was determined by measuring radioactivity in successive 1 mm sections behind the tip 90 minutes after application. ABA remained largely in the first mm (point of application) whereas IAA was concentrated in the region 2-4 mm from the tip with substantial levels found 7-8 mm from the tip. Pretreatment with inhibitors of polar auxin transport decreased both gravicurvature and the basipetal movement of IAA. When roots were placed horizontally, the movement of 3H-IAA from top to bottom across the cap was enhanced relative to movement from bottom to top whereas the pattern of movement of label from 3H-ABA was unaffected. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in root gravitropism but contrary to the idea that gravi-induced asymmetric distribution of ABA contributes to the response.

  9. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  10. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  11. Neuromuscular-skeletal origins of predominant patterns of coordination in rhythmic two-joint arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rugy, Aymar; Riek, Stephan; Carson, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    The authors tested for predominant patterns of coordination in the combination of rhythmic flexion-extension (FE) and supination- (SP) at the elbow-joint complex. Participants (N=10) spontaneously established in-phase (supination synchronized with flexion) and antiphase (pronation synchronized with flexion) patterns. In addition, the authors used a motorized robot arm to generate involuntary SP movements with different phase relations with respect to voluntary FE. The involuntarily induced in-phase pattern was accentuated and was more consistent than other patterns. The result provides evidence that the predominance of the in-phase pattern originates in the influence of neuromuscular-skeletal constraints rather than in a preference dictated by perceptual-cognitive factors implicated in voluntary control. Neuromuscular-skeletal constraints involved in the predominance of the in-phase and the antiphase patterns are discussed.

  12. Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), prominently carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and halocarbons, have risen from fossil-fuel combustion, deforestation, agriculture, and industry. There is currently heated national and international debate about the consequences of such increasing concentrations of GHGs on the Earth's climate, and, ultimately, on life and society in the world as we know it. This paper reviews (i) long-term patterns of climate change, secular climatic variability, and predicted population growth and their relation to water resources management, and, specifically, to ground water resources management, (ii) means available for mitigating and adapting to trends of climatic change and climatic variability and their impacts on ground water resources. Long-term (that is, over hundreds of millions of years), global-scale, climatic fluctuations are compared with more recent (in the Holocene) patterns of the global and regional climates to shed light on the meaning of rising mean surface temperature over the last century or so, especially in regions whose historical hydroclimatic records exhibit large inter-annual variability. One example of regional ground water resources response to global warming and population growth is presented.

  13. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  14. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  15. Flip, flop and fly: modulated motor control and highly variable movement patterns of autotomized gecko tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P

    2010-02-23

    Many animals lose and regenerate appendages, and tail autotomy in lizards is an extremely well-studied example of this. Whereas the energetic, ecological and functional ramifications of tail loss for many lizards have been extensively documented, little is known about the behaviour and neuromuscular control of the autotomized tail. We used electromyography and high-speed video to quantify the motor control and movement patterns of autotomized tails of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). In addition to rhythmic swinging, we show that they exhibit extremely complex movement patterns for up to 30 min following autotomy, including acrobatic flips up to 3 cm in height. Unlike the output of most central pattern generators (CPGs), muscular control of the tail is variable and can be arrhythmic. We suggest that the gecko tail is well suited for studies involving CPGs, given that this spinal preparation is naturally occurring, requires no surgery and exhibits complex modulation.

  16. Identification of contaminants of concern in Hanford ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    More than 1,500 waste-disposal sites have been identified at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, these sites were aggregated into four administrative areas for listing on the National Priority List. Within the four aggregate areas, 646 inactive sites were selected for further evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS). Evaluation of inactive waste sites by HRS provided valuable insight to design a focused radiological- and hazardous-substance monitoring network. Hanford Site-wide ground-water monitoring was expanded to address not only radioactive constituents but also hazardous chemicals. The HRS scoring process considers the likelihood of ground-water contamination from past disposal practices at inactive waste sites. The network designed to monitor ground water at those facilities identified 129 I, 99 Tc, 90 Sr, uranium, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, and cyanide

  17. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  18. Report of analyses for light hydrocarbons in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, E.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report contains on microfiche the results of analyses for methane, ethane, propane, and butane in 11,659 ground water samples collected in 47 western and three eastern 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles of the National Topographic Map Series (Figures 1 and 2), along with a brief description of the analytical technique used and some simple, descriptive statistics. The ground water samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Further information on the ground water samples can be obtained by consulting the NURE data reports for the individual quadrangles. This information includes (1) measurements characterizing water samples (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and other measurements), and (3) elemental analyses

  19. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  20. Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-10-01

    From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and 90 Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and 90 Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km 2 . In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years

  1. Lateralization patterns of covert but not overt movements change with age: An EEG neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten; Frerichs, Stella; Maurer, Stefanie; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    The mental practice of movements has been suggested as a promising add-on therapy to facilitate motor recovery after stroke. In the case of mentally practised movements, electroencephalogram (EEG) can be utilized to provide feedback about an otherwise covert act. The main target group for such an intervention are elderly patients, though research so far is largely focused on young populations (study therefore aimed to examine the influence of age on the neural correlates of covert movements (CMs) in a real-time EEG neurofeedback framework. CM-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) was studied in young (mean age: 23.6 years) and elderly (mean age: 62.7 years) healthy adults. Participants performed covert and overt hand movements. CMs were based on kinesthetic motor imagery (MI) or quasi-movements (QM). Based on previous studies investigating QM in the mu frequency range (8-13Hz) QM were expected to result in more lateralized ERD% patterns and accordingly higher classification accuracies. Independent of CM strategy the elderly were characterized by a significantly reduced lateralization of ERD%, due to stronger ipsilateral ERD%, and in consequence, reduced classification accuracies. QM were generally perceived as more vivid, but no differences were evident between MI and QM in ERD% or classification accuracies. EEG feedback enhanced task-related activity independently of strategy and age. ERD% measures of overt and covert movements were strongly related in young adults, whereas in the elderly ERD% lateralization is dissociated. In summary, we did not find evidence in support of more pronounced ERD% lateralization patterns in QM. Our finding of a less lateralized activation pattern in the elderly is in accordance to previous research and with the idea that compensatory processes help to overcome neurodegenerative changes related to normal ageing. Importantly, it indicates that EEG neurofeedback studies should place more emphasis on the age of the potential end

  2. Spatial relationships and movement patterns of the air cargo industry in airport regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. van V. Coetzee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past few years, with the increase in air traffic and the expansion of airports, very few industries had such a large spatial development and movement impact as that of airport-related clusters or airport regions. Although much research was done on the various impacts of the airport industry, very little research was done on the air cargo industry in airport regions. Objectives: This article specifically explored the unique spatial relationships, impacts, trends and movement patterns of the air cargo industry within a typical airport region. Method: The article focused on the OR Tambo International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa, as a case study and was informed by an extensive quantitative spatial and land use analysis and modelling of the study area. Results: The article presented findings and insights on the movement patterns and relationships between (1 the airport facility and (2 the spatial configuration of air cargo industries in the particular airport region. These findings also provided some framework for a possible spatial model and guideline that could assist in steering and managing development and movement patterns in airport regions. Conclusion: The article provided new insights and understanding on the spatial dynamics of airport regions and the air cargo industry, ultimately addressing some gaps in this knowledge field. The article in the end highlighted the need for a different and novel approach to the planning and management of the air cargo industry in airport regions and a basis for further research.

  3. The Virginia Beach shallow ground-water study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionVirginia Beach is a rapidly growing city of more than 425,000 people. Sources of fresh water within the city, however, are limited. Prior to 1998, the Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department met the city's water needs by purchasing treated drinking water from the City of Norfolk. Because Norfolk had to meet its own requirements, the amount of water available to Virginia Beach was limited to about 30 million gallons per day (mgd) and even less during droughts. This water supply was supplemented with ground water from city-owned, community, and private wells. In many parts of the city, however, ground water cannot be used because of high concentrations of chloride, iron, and (or) sulfur, which give the water an unpleasant taste.In early 1998, a pipeline came on-line that can carry up to 45 mgd of water from Lake Gaston to Virginia Beach. The Gaston pipeline has alleviated concerns about water supply and quality for most residents living north of the "Green Line." These residents primarily use ground water only for small-scale domestic activities such as watering lawns, filling ponds and pools, and washing cars. City water and sewer services have been extended beyond the Green Line into the "Transition Area." Residents and businesses south of the Transition Area, however, continue to rely on ground water to meet most of their needs for potable and non-potable water. To help assure a continued, reliable supply of ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department, has begun an assessment of the shallow ground-water resources underlying the City of Virginia Beach.

  4. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    similar pattern: younger water discharges to small order streams in headwater basins and older water discharges to larger streams near the basin outlet.Factors affecting nitrogen transport in ground water include spatial and temporal variation in input sources, ground-water age, and aquifer processes that lead to denitrification. Spatial and temporal variations in nitrogen sources affect all the watersheds. Tributaries with higher inputs of nitrogen have higher concentrations in stream base flow. Areas where nitrogen application rates have increased over time show an age-nitrate relation in ground-water samples. The age-nitrate relation can be affected by denitrification, which occurs in Pocomoke and East Mahantango Creeks but is not evident in Polecat and Muddy Creeks. In East Mahantango Creek, the level of denitrification is significant in water with residence times greater than 20 years, but because this is a small component of overall ground-water discharge to a stream, it may not remove a significant quantity of nitrogen from the system. Denitrification in Pocomoke Creek is significant and appears to affect mostly older water discharging to streams. Therefore, if most of the nitrogen entering these two streams is associated with the discharge of younger ground water, denitrification may not greatly affect the overall nitrogen delivery to these streams.Other findings of this study show that nitrate in ground water discharging along preferential flow paths may not be affected by natural processes, such as denitrification or uptake by riparian vegetation. Seeps to swales and ditches beneath the north uplands at Polecat Creek indicate a shallow water table and discharge of young ground water whereas the absence of such seeps on the south side indicates a deep water table and a lack of young ground water. Similarly, discharge at the base of the slope and to the valley wetland south of the creek but not north of the creek indicates a different role for the

  5. Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Niño and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Niño and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area—the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east—provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge

  6. Cross-Coupled Eye Movement Supports Neural Origin of Pattern Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasia, Fatema F.; Shaikh, Aasef G.; Jacobs, Jonathan; Walker, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Pattern strabismus describes vertically incomitant horizontal strabismus. Conventional theories emphasized the role of orbital etiologies, such as abnormal fundus torsion and misaligned orbital pulleys as a cause of the pattern strabismus. Experiments in animal models, however, suggested the role of abnormal cross-connections between the neural circuits. We quantitatively assessed eye movements in patients with pattern strabismus with a goal to delineate the role of neural circuits versus orbital etiologies. Methods. We measured saccadic eye movements with high-precision video-oculography in 14 subjects with pattern strabismus, 5 with comitant strabismus, and 15 healthy controls. We assessed change in eye position in the direction orthogonal to that of the desired eye movement (cross-coupled responses). We used fundus photography to quantify the fundus torsion. Results. We found cross-coupling of saccades in all patients with pattern strabismus. The cross-coupled responses were in the same direction in both eyes, but larger in the nonviewing eye. All patients had clinically apparent inferior oblique overaction with abnormal excylotorsion. There was no correlation between the amount of the fundus torsion or the grade of oblique overaction and the severity of cross-coupling. The disconjugacy in the saccade direction and amplitude in pattern strabismics did not have characteristics predicted by clinically apparent inferior oblique overaction. Conclusions. Our results validated primate models of pattern strabismus in human patients. We found no correlation between ocular torsion or oblique overaction and cross-coupling. Therefore, we could not ascribe cross-coupling exclusively to the orbital etiology. Patients with pattern strabismus could have abnormalities in the saccade generators. PMID:26024072

  7. Apparatus for ground water chemistry investigations in field caissons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokal, E.J.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.; Nyhan, J.W.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos is currently in its second season of ground water chemistry and hydrology experimentation in a field facility that incorporates clusters of six, 3-meter-diameter by 6-meter-deep, soil-filled caissons and required ancillaries. Initial experience gained during the 1983 field season indicated the need for further development of the technology of this type of experimentation supporting hydrologic waste management research. Uniform field application of water/matrix solutions to the caisson, matrix and tracer solution blending/storage, and devices for ground water sampling are discussed

  8. Temporal variation of uranium in ground water with conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Chaudhury, Moushumi D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of uranium in drinking water sources is a matter of health concern since it has been proved to be chemo-toxic to humans. Uranium being a more soluble actinide is also very mobile in the environment. The effect of water quality parameters and their co-relation to uranium content in the water is an interesting study to understand and predict its behavior in ground water and subsequently to judge the hazard posed. Hence studies on spatial and temporal variation of uranium concentration with electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids and salinity in ground water was carried out. (author)

  9. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  10. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  11. Valuation of potential hazards to ground water from abandoned sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerndorff, H.; Schleyer, R.; Dieter, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    With a view to obtaining, for the large number of abandoned sites suspected of pollution, necessary information regarding the type and extent of possible ground water contamination with a minimum of effort and cost, a hierarchical investigation strategy was developed and successfully tested in more than 100 cases in Germany. As a decisive advantage, already the well-defined and simple investigation steps ''preliminary prospecting'' and ''screening'' permit to recognize polluted sites posing a hazard to ground water. The more specific and demanding investigation steps ''pollutant analysis'' and ''detailed investigations'' may be carried through if necessary. (orig./BBR). 27 figs., 36 tabs [de

  12. Movement patterns of stream-dwelling fishes from Mata Atlântica, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms of spatial-temporal variation, obtained from the quantification of natural populations, is a central topic of ecological research. Despite its importance to life-history theory, as well as to conservation and management of natural populations, no studies concerning movement patterns and home range of small stream-dwelling fishes from Brazilian rain forests are known. In the present study we aimed to describe the longitudinal pattern of long distance movement as well as local patterns of short movement (daily home-range of fishes from a Mata Atlântica stream from Southeast Brazil. We gathered information about movement dynamic in order to discuss the relationship between swimming ability, fish morphology and home range. Long distance movement data were obtained in a mark-recapture experiment held in the field between June and September - 2008, on five sites along the Ubatiba stream. For this study, we had one day to mark fishes, on June-19, and 14 events for recapture. Considering the ten species that inhabit the study area, our study showed that four species: Astyanax janeiroensis, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Pimelodella lateristriga, moved at least 6 000m in 60 days. The other six species did not present long distance movements, as they were recaptured in the same site 90 days after being marked. For short distance study, movement data were obtained in one mark-recapture experiment held in a 100m long site subdivided into five 20m stretches where fishes were marked with different elastomer colours. We marked 583 specimens that after recapture showed two groups of different movement patterns. The first group was called “Long Movement Group” and the second one was called “Short Movement Group”. The Long Movement Group showed, on average, 89.8% of moving fishes and 10.2% of non moving fishes, against 21.3% and 78.7%, respectively, for the Short Movement Group. It was concluded that

  13. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  14. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  15. A Physics-Inspired Mechanistic Model of Migratory Movement Patterns in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Christopher; Somveille, Marius

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we introduce a mechanistic model of migratory movement patterns in birds, inspired by ideas and methods from physics. Previous studies have shed light on the factors influencing bird migration but have mainly relied on statistical correlative analysis of tracking data. Our novel method offers a bottom up explanation of population-level migratory movement patterns. It differs from previous mechanistic models of animal migration and enables predictions of pathways and destinations from a given starting location. We define an environmental potential landscape from environmental data and simulate bird movement within this landscape based on simple decision rules drawn from statistical mechanics. We explore the capacity of the model by qualitatively comparing simulation results to the non-breeding migration patterns of a seabird species, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris). This minimal, two-parameter model was able to capture remarkably well the previously documented migration patterns of the Black-browed Albatross, with the best combination of parameter values conserved across multiple geographically separate populations. Our physics-inspired mechanistic model could be applied to other bird and highly-mobile species, improving our understanding of the relative importance of various factors driving migration and making predictions that could be useful for conservation.

  16. Forest and Land Fire Prevention Through the Hotspot Movement Pattern Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmudi, T.; Kardono, P.; Hartanto, P.; Ardhitasari, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has experienced a great forest fire disaster in 2015. The losses incurred were enormous. But actually the incidence of forest and land fires occurs almost every year. Various efforts were made to cope with the fire disaster. The appearance of a hotspot becomes an early indication of the fire incident both location and time. By studying the location and time of the hotspot's appearance indicates that the hotspot has certain movement patterns from year to year. This study aims to show the pattern of movement of hotspots from year to year that can be used for the prevention of forest and land fires. The method used is time series analysis of land cover and hotspot distribution. The data used were land cover data from 2005 to 2016, hotspot data from 2005 to 2016. The location of this study is the territory of Meranti Kepulauan District. The results show that the highest hotspot is 425 hotspots occurs in the shrubs and bushes. From year to year, the pattern of hotspot movement occurs in the shrubs and bushes cover. The hotspot pattern follows the direction of unused land for cultivation and is dominated by shrubs. From these results, we need to pay more attentiont for the land with the cover of shrubs adjacent to the cultivated land.

  17. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  18. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  19. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  20. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  1. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods

  2. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  3. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  5. Ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Enid, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, Stuart L.

    1948-01-01

    This memorandum summaries matter discussed at a meeting of the City Commission of Enid, Oklahoma, on Thursday, January 15, 1948, at which the write presented a brief analysis of the ground-water resources available to the City of Enid and answered questions brought up by the commissioners.

  6. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration

  7. Lateralization of brain activity pattern during unilateral movement in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Hallett, Mark; Zhang, Jiarong; Chan, Piu

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the lateralization of brain activity pattern during performance of unilateral movement in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with only right hemiparkinsonian symptoms. Functional MRI was obtained when the subjects performed strictly unilateral right hand movement. A laterality index was calculated to examine the lateralization. Patients had decreased activity in the left putamen and left supplementary motor area, but had increased activity in the right primary motor cortex, right premotor cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. The laterality index was significantly decreased in PD patients compared with controls (0.41 ± 0.14 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09). The connectivity from the left putamen to cortical motor regions and cerebellum was decreased, while the interactions between the cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and right putamen were increased. Our study demonstrates that in early PD, the lateralization of brain activity during unilateral movement is significantly reduced. The dysfunction of the striatum-cortical circuit, decreased transcallosal inhibition, and compensatory efforts from cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and the less affected striatum are likely reasons contributing to the reduced motor lateralization. The disruption of the lateralized brain activity pattern might be a reason underlying some motor deficits in PD, like mirror movements or impaired bilateral motor coordination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Eastern Coyote/Coywolf (Canis latrans x lycaon Movement Patterns: Lessons Learned in Urbanized Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G. Way

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity and movement patterns represent a fundamental aspect of a species natural history. Twenty four-hour movements of eastern coyotes or coywolves (Canis latrans x lycaon; hereafter eastern coyote for consistency purposes ranged up to 31.9 linear km and averaged 23.5 + 7.3 (SD km from 5-14 radio-fixes during each 24 hr monitoring period. Coyotes moved mostly at night and through altered open areas (e.g., powerlines, dumps more than expected when compared to residential and natural areas. Coyotes inhabiting urbanized areas generally use residential areas for traveling and/or foraging. With large daily (or more aptly, nightly movement patterns, resident coyotes can potentially be located anywhere within their large home ranges at any given time, as data revealed that one pack (3-4 individuals can cover a combined 75-100 km per night, in a territory averaging 20-30 km2. Transient movements from capture location to end location varied from 23.0—100.5 km and averaged 63.8 km for two females and 49.3 km for four males. Eastern coyotes travel long distances even in human-dominated areas, allowing transients to find vacant territories. Because of their ability to move through urban areas and to colonize and recolonize areas, management efforts should focus more on educating the public about actual coyote behavior and their life history needs than on killing them.

  9. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.

    2010-01-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  10. Identification of sources and mechanisms of salt-water pollution ground-water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.C.; Dutton, A.R.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on salinization of soils and ground water that is widespread in the Concho River watershed and other semiarid areas in Texas and the United States. Using more than 1,200 chemical analyses of water samples, the authors were able to differentiate various salinization mechanisms by mapping salinity patterns and hydrochemical facies and by analyzing isotopic compositions and ionic ratios. Results revealed that in Runnels County evaporation of irrigation water and ground water is a major salinization mechanism, whereas to the west, in Irion and Tom Green Counties, saline water appears to be a natural mixture of subsurface brine and shallowly circulating meteoric water recharged in the Concho River watershed. The authors concluded that the occurrence of poor-quality ground water is not a recent or single-source phenomenon; it has been affected by terracing of farmland, by disposal of oil-field brines into surface pits, and by upward flow of brine from the Coleman Junction Formation via insufficiently plugged abandoned boreholes

  11. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  12. Radon content in various types of ground water in south-eastern Sweden. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, G.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of investigation has been to study the radon content and its seasonal fluctuations in different types of ground water. The investigation was carried out in an area where the hydrogeological conditions are fairly well known. The geology is dominated by granitic bedrock and till. Water samples were collected from drilled wells in different rocks and from dug wells and springs in till and gravel. The seasonal fluctuations were studied in a small area. All radon measurements were made in the laboratory. The main results are following.(1) The highest radon content (max. 40 nCi/l) was observed in water from wells drilled granite. (2) The radon content in ground water from till never exceeds 8 nCi/l; the highest amount is normally found in springs situated in drumlin terrain with basel till and gravel lenses and beds (3-5 nCi/l) the contents in dug wells are 0.5-3.5 nCi/l.(3) Waters from gravel deposits have constantly low radon contents (0.1-3 nCi/l), and surface water has no radon.(4) The seasonal fluctuations in radon content are rather high and show a similar pattern to that of the fluctuations of the ground-water levels in till in the same area. (author)

  13. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  14. Muscle activation patterns in acceleration-based phases during reach-to-grasp movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Keisuke; Lee, Bumsuk; Shiihara, Yasufumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Wada, Naoki; Shirakura, Kenji; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] An earlier study divided reaching activity into characteristic phases based on hand velocity profiles. By synchronizing muscle activities and the acceleration profile, a phasing approach for reaching movement, based on hand acceleration profiles, was attempted in order to elucidate the roles of individual muscle activities in the different phases of the acceleration profile in reaching movements. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy volunteer subjects participated in this study. The aim was to electromyographically evaluate muscles around the shoulder, the upper trapezius, the anterior deltoid, the biceps brachii, and the triceps brachii, most of which have been used to evaluate arm motion, as well as the acceleration of the upper limb during simple reaching movement in the reach-to-grasp task. [Results] Analysis showed the kinematic trajectories of the acceleration during a simple biphasic profile of the reaching movement could be divided into four phases: increasing acceleration (IA), decreasing acceleration (DA), increasing deceleration (ID), and decreasing deceleration (DD). Muscles around the shoulder showed different activity patterns, which were closely associated with these acceleration phases. [Conclusion] These results suggest the important role of the four phases, derived from the acceleration trajectory, in the elucidation of the muscular mechanisms which regulate and coordinate the muscles around the shoulder in reaching movements.

  15. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Karangrowo Site, Undaan District, Kudus Sub Province Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Subiantoro; Priyo Sularto; Slamet Sudarto

    2009-01-01

    Kudus is one of sub province in central Java with have the fresh water availability problem Condition of insufficiency 'Standard Water has been recognized in some part of regional area, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process; due the ground water trapped character is briny or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of prospect area fur exploiting of ground water. Referring to that problem ''Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN'' means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, geohydrology and sub surface geophysical characterize, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain that target, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo electrical 2-D image measurement Base on the result of analyze, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential aquifer that happened at layer of sand sedimentary, in form of lens trapped in impermeable layer of clay sediment The layer of aquifer pattern follows of Old River in North-South and East-West direction. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement GF. A 4-14, AB 4-11 and B4. Physical characterized of aquifer, resistivity 9-19 Ωm with charge ability 13-53 milliseconds. (author)

  16. Brief Report: Eye-Movement Patterns during an Embedded Figures Test in Children with ASD

    OpenAIRE

    Keehn, Brandon; Brenner, Laurie A.; Ramos, Aurora I.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Marshall, Sandra P.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined fixation frequency and duration during an EFT in an effort to better understand the attentional and perceptual processes by which individuals with ASD achieve accelerated EFT performance. In particular, we aimed to elucidate differences in the patterns of eye-movement in ASD and TD children, thus providing evidence relevant to the competing weak central coherence and enhanced perceptual functioning theories. Consistent with prior EFT studies, we found accelerated RT...

  17. An equilibrium-point model of electromyographic patterns during single-joint movements based on experimentally reconstructed control signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Goodman, S R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a model of electromyographic (EMG) patterns during single-joint movements based on a version of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, a method for experimental reconstruction of the joint compliant characteristics, the dual-strategy hypothesis, and a kinematic model of movement trajectory. EMG patterns are considered emergent properties of hypothetical control patterns that are equally affected by the control signals and peripheral feedback reflecting actual movement trajectory. A computer model generated the EMG patterns based on simulated movement kinematics and hypothetical control signals derived from the reconstructed joint compliant characteristics. The model predictions have been compared to published recordings of movement kinematics and EMG patterns in a variety of movement conditions, including movements over different distances, at different speeds, against different-known inertial loads, and in conditions of possible unexpected decrease in the inertial load. Changes in task parameters within the model led to simulated EMG patterns qualitatively similar to the experimentally recorded EMG patterns. The model's predictive power compares it favourably to the existing models of the EMG patterns. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. New insights into turbulent pedestrian movement pattern in crowd-quakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Song, W G; Lo, S M; Fang, Z M

    2013-01-01

    Video recordings right before the Love Parade disaster have been quantitatively analyzed to explore the bursts of unusual crowd movement patterns, crowd-quakes. The pedestrian movement pattern in this incident was special for the reason that it happened in a congested counter flow scenario, where stopped pedestrians were involved. No one was believed to have pushed others intentionally at the beginning, however, under this situation, the body contacts among the pedestrians still induced a force spread, which then led to velocity fluctuation. As indicated by the individual velocity-related features, the densely crowded pedestrian movement displayed turbulent flow features. Further analyzing the overall flow field, we also found that the pedestrian flow field shared typical patterns with turbulent fluid flow. As a result of the turbulent state, different clusters of pedestrians displayed different velocity features. Thus crowd pressure which took into account the velocity and density information was proved to be a good indicator of crowd disasters. Based on these essential features of pedestrian crowd-quakes, a minimal model, i.e., a pedestrian crowd-quake model, was established. Effects including pedestrian gait, stress conservation level and personal intention to escape were explored. (paper)

  19. Arrangement and Applying of Movement Patterns in the Cerebellum Based on Semi-supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solouki, Saeed; Pooyan, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Biological control systems have long been studied as a possible inspiration for the construction of robotic controllers. The cerebellum is known to be involved in the production and learning of smooth, coordinated movements. Therefore, highly regular structure of the cerebellum has been in the core of attention in theoretical and computational modeling. However, most of these models reflect some special features of the cerebellum without regarding the whole motor command computational process. In this paper, we try to make a logical relation between the most significant models of the cerebellum and introduce a new learning strategy to arrange the movement patterns: cerebellar modular arrangement and applying of movement patterns based on semi-supervised learning (CMAPS). We assume here the cerebellum like a big archive of patterns that has an efficient organization to classify and recall them. The main idea is to achieve an optimal use of memory locations by more than just a supervised learning and classification algorithm. Surely, more experimental and physiological researches are needed to confirm our hypothesis.

  20. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Chapman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxXTM unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability.

  1. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  2. Processing rhythmic pattern during Chinese sentence reading: An eye movement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyi eLuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010. Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2+1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1+1] or [2+2]. This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader’s eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed, less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis

  3. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  4. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  5. Radiocarbon ages of ground water as a basis for the determination of safe limits of aquifer exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamers, M.A.; Stipp, J.J.; Weiner, R.

    1975-01-01

    Deep ground waters of the Biscayne aquifer of south Florida were studied with radiocarbon dating techniques. Dissolved carbonates served as the material for the age determinations. Limestone dilution corrections of the measured carbon-14 activities were made by comparison of the relative concentrations of bicarbonate and total carbonates. The deep well waters of the southern portion of the deposit have corrected radiocarbon contents indicating thermonuclear weapon testing contamination; they are, therefore, less than 20 years old. The ages of the ground waters generally increase in the northern direction. This is interpreted as due to the greater depth of the deposit of that region. A model is formulated for ground water movement in an unconfined producing hydrological unit and applied to the radiocarbon results of the most intensively exploited zone of the Biscayne aquifer. It is shown that the water which is extracted by the municipal wells in this area is limited to the bottom third of the deposit. The avoidance of pollution from the surrounding septic tanks in the shallower depths of the area is explained in this way. The model leads to an objective estimation of the safe limit for the ground water extraction rate in the zone. By application of radiocarbon dating, it is possible to obtain useful information without disturbing the water supply

  6. Ground-water resources of the El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Albert Nelson; Livingston, Penn Poore

    1945-01-01

    released from storage by the formation of the cone centering in the Mesa field was calculated at 22,000 acre-feet, but the total pumpage was estimated to have been 90,000 acre-feet. Thus, about one-fourth of the total pumpage was taken from storage; the remaining three-fourths and apparently was taken from recharge. About 210,000 acre-feet of water has been pumped from the cone of depression in the El Paso Valley in and near El Paso. The volume of this cone could not be determined because there are artesian conditions in this area. Computations were made of the amount of water that would be recovered from storage if, for a distance of 10 miles north of the Mesa well field, the water level in a series of wells were drawn down the same amount as the present drawdown in the wells in that field. The water that would be recovered from storage in the formation 0f this depression in the ground water surface was calculated at about 130,000 acre-feet, the equivalent of about 70 years' supply at the 1935 rate of pumping.It is, of course, available in addition to the annual recharge. The sudden increase in 1924 in the saltwater content of the water from El Paso well 3 (well 52), in the Montana well field, was shown to be the result of a leak in the casing at a depth of about 127 feet, and the well was successfully repaired during the investigation. However, the chloride content of all of the wells in the field has been increasing gradually. This may indicate that salty water is being pulled in from considerable distances or that the barriers between the fresh-water-bearing beds and the saltwater-bearing beds above-them are not capable of preventing vertical movement of the ground water. The fact that in the valley the static water level in the shallow beds yielding poor water is higher than that in the deeper beds is disquieting, and if the level in the lower beds continues to decline, seepage from the river will eventually force the shallow highly mineralized water

  7. Hidden Markov model analysis reveals the advantage of analytic eye movement patterns in face recognition across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    It remains controversial whether culture modulates eye movement behavior in face recognition. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding whether cultural differences in eye movement patterns exist, whether these differences affect recognition performance, and whether participants use similar eye movement patterns when viewing faces from different ethnicities. These inconsistencies may be due to substantial individual differences in eye movement patterns within a cultural group. Here we addressed this issue by conducting individual-level eye movement data analysis using hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each individual's eye movements were modeled with an HMM. We clustered the individual HMMs according to their similarities and discovered three common patterns in both Asian and Caucasian participants: holistic (looking mostly at the face center), left-eye-biased analytic (looking mostly at the two individual eyes in addition to the face center with a slight bias to the left eye), and right-eye-based analytic (looking mostly at the right eye in addition to the face center). The frequency of participants adopting the three patterns did not differ significantly between Asians and Caucasians, suggesting little modulation from culture. Significantly more participants (75%) showed similar eye movement patterns when viewing own- and other-race faces than different patterns. Most importantly, participants with left-eye-biased analytic patterns performed significantly better than those using either holistic or right-eye-biased analytic patterns. These results suggest that active retrieval of facial feature information through an analytic eye movement pattern may be optimal for face recognition regardless of culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal motor patterns in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis: a cause for dystonic movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Gutman, S R

    1994-01-01

    Until now, the equilibrium-point hypothesis (lambda model) of motor control has assumed nonintersecting force-length characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex for individual muscles. Limited data from animal experiments suggest, however, that such intersections may occur. We have assumed the possibility of intersection of the characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex and performed a computer simulation of movement trajectories and electromyographic patterns. The simulation has demonstrated, in particular, that a transient change in the slope of the characteristic of an agonist muscle may lead to temporary movement reversals, hesitations, oscillations, and multiple electromyographic bursts that are typical of movements of patients with dystonia. The movement patterns of three patients with idiopathic dystonia during attempts at fast single-joint movements (in the elbow, wrist, and ankle) were recorded and compared with the results of the computer simulation. This approach considers that motor disorders in dystonia result from faulty control patterns that may not correlate with any morphological or neurophysiological changes. It provides a basis for the high variability of dystonic movements. The uniqueness of abnormal motor patterns in dystonia, that precludes statistical analysis across patients, may result from subtle differences in the patterns of intersecting characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex. The applicability of our analysis to disordered multijoint movement patterns is discussed.

  9. A dual model approach to ground water recovery trench design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.L.; Crouch, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design of trenches for contaminated ground water recovery must consider several variables. This paper presents a dual-model approach for effectively recovering contaminated ground water migrating toward a trench by advection. The approach involves an analytical model to determine the vertical influence of the trench and a numerical flow model to determine the capture zone within the trench and the surrounding aquifer. The analytical model is utilized by varying trench dimensions and head values to design a trench which meets the remediation criteria. The numerical flow model is utilized to select the type of backfill and location of sumps within the trench. The dual-model approach can be used to design a recovery trench which effectively captures advective migration of contaminants in the vertical and horizontal planes

  10. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  11. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm - Local Search Method for Ground-Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-water management problems commonly are formulated as a mixed-integer, non-linear programming problem (MINLP). Relying only on conventional gradient-search methods to solve the management problem is computationally fast; however, the methods may become trapped in a local optimum. Global-optimization schemes can identify the global optimum, but the convergence is very slow when the optimal solution approaches the global optimum. In this study, we developed a hybrid optimization scheme, which includes a genetic algorithm and a gradient-search method, to solve the MINLP. The genetic algorithm identifies a near- optimal solution, and the gradient search uses the near optimum to identify the global optimum. Our methodology is applied to a conjunctive-use project in the Warren ground-water basin, California. Hi- Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-manager in the basin, plans to construct a wastewater treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the ground-water system. The treated wastewater instead will recharge the ground-water basin via percolation ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy, subject to State regulations (e.g. minimum distances and travel times). HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctive-use strategies that control ground-water levels, meet regulations, and identify new production-well locations. As formulated, the MINLP objective is to minimize water-delivery costs subject to constraints including pump capacities, available recharge water, water-supply demand, water-level constraints, and potential new-well locations. The methodology was demonstrated by an enumerative search of the entire feasible solution and comparing the optimum solution with results from the branch-and-bound algorithm. The results also indicate that the hybrid method identifies the global optimum within an affordable computation time. Sensitivity analyses, which include testing different recharge-rate scenarios, pond

  12. An equilibrium-point model for fast, single-joint movement: I. Emergence of strategy-dependent EMG patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Gottlieb, G L

    1991-09-01

    We describe a model for the regulation of fast, single-joint movements, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Limb movement follows constant rate shifts of independently regulated neuromuscular variables. The independently regulated variables are tentatively identified as thresholds of a length sensitive reflex for each of the participating muscles. We use the model to predict EMG patterns associated with changes in the conditions of movement execution, specifically, changes in movement times, velocities, amplitudes, and moments of limb inertia. The approach provides a theoretical neural framework for the dual-strategy hypothesis, which considers certain movements to be results of one of two basic, speed-sensitive or speed-insensitive strategies. This model is advanced as an alternative to pattern-imposing models based on explicit regulation of timing and amplitudes of signals that are explicitly manifest in the EMG patterns.

  13. Potential for saturated ground-water system contamination at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.; Ruggieri, M.R.; Rogers, L.L.; Emerson, D.O.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A program of hydrogeologic investigation has been carried out to determine the likelihood of contaminant movement to the saturated zone from near the ground surface at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A companion survey of potential contaminant sources was also conducted at the LLNL. Water samples from selected LLNL wells were analyzed to test the water quality in the uppermost part of the saturated zone, which is from 14 to 48 m (45 to 158 ft) beneath the surface. Only nitrate and tritium were found in concentrations above natural background. In one well, the nitrate was slightly more concentrated than the drinking water limit. The nitrate source has not been found. The tritium in all ground-water samples from wells was found far less concentrated than the drinking water limit. The extent of infiltration of surface water was traced with environmental tritium. The thickness and stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone beneath the LLNL, and nearby area, was determined with specially constructed wells and boreholes. Well hydrograph analysis indicated where infiltration of surface water reached the saturated ground-water system. The investigation indicates that water infiltrating from the surface, through alluvial deposits, reaches the saturated zone along the course of Arroyo Seco, Arroyo Las Positas, and from the depression near the center of the site where seasonal water accumulates. Several potential contaminant sources were identified, and it is likely that contaminants could move from near the ground surface to the saturated zone beneath LLNL. Additional ground-water sampling and analysis will be performed and ongoing investigations will provide estimates of the speed with which potential contaminants can flow laterally in the saturated zone beneath LLNL. 34 references, 61 figures, 16 tables

  14. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  15. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  16. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  17. Ground-water development and problems in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1954-01-01

    The development of groundwater for irrigation in Idaho, as most of you know, has proceeded at phenomenal rate since the Second World War. In the period 1907 to 1944 inclusive only about 328 valid permits and licenses to appropriate ground water were issued by the state. thereafter 28 permits became valid in 1945, 83 in 1946, and 121 in 1947. Sine 1947 permits and licenses have been issued at the rate of more than 400 a year.  

  18. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  19. Purification of arsenic contaminated ground water using hydrated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, N.; Swain, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed for the separation of arsenic from ground water using inorganic material in neutral medium. The separation procedure involves the quantitative retention of arsenic on hydrated manganese dioxide, in neutral medium. The validity of the separation procedure has been checked by a standard addition method and radiotracer studies. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), a powerful measurement technique, has been used for the quantitative determination of arsenic. (author)

  20. A contribution on the problem of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliox, L.; Muntzer, P.; Kresser, W.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present the underlying physics of processes relevant to the problem of ground water pollution. A series of models are discussed which include two-dimensional diffusion from a point source of pollution in a uniform homogeneous medium and the modifying effect of inhomogeneities, together with displacement processes for miscible liquids in saturated porous media. In conclusion an account of laboratory and theoretical investigations of these diffusion processes in layered media of different permeabilities is given. (J.R.B.)

  1. The isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    An intensive hydrological and geophysical survey of fresh water occurance in the Gordonia area, promoted a parallel study of the isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of both the fresh and saline ground waters of the area. Measurements of 14 C, 3 H, 13 C and 18 O as well of major element hydrochemistry were conducted on numerous samples. Radiocarbon concentrations range from 6 pmc to 111 pmc. Significant tritium is only observed in cases where 14 C concentrations are significantly higher than 90 pmc

  2. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow and Particle Pathline Analysis in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in Modesto, Eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Phillips, Steven P.; Dalgish, Barbara A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley is affected by high nitrate and uranium concentrations and frequent detections of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as a result of ground-water development and intensive agricultural and urban land use. A single public-supply well was selected for intensive study to evaluate the dominant processes affecting the vulnerability of public-supply wells in the Modesto area. A network of 23 monitoring wells was installed, and water and sediment samples were collected within the approximate zone of contribution of the public-supply well, to support a detailed analysis of physical and chemical conditions and processes affecting the water chemistry in the well. A three-dimensional, steady-state local ground-water-flow and transport model was developed to evaluate the age of ground water reaching the well and to evaluate the vulnerability of the well to nonpoint source input of nitrate and uranium. Particle tracking was used to compute pathlines and advective travel times in the ground-water flow model. The simulated ages of particles reaching the public-supply well ranged from 9 to 30,000 years, with a median of 54 years. The age of the ground water contributed to the public-supply well increased with depth below the water table. Measured nitrate concentrations, derived primarily from agricultural fertilizer, were highest (17 milligrams per liter) in shallow ground water and decreased with depth to background concentrations of less than 2 milligrams per liter in the deepest wells. Because the movement of water is predominantly downward as a result of ground-water development, and because geochemical conditions are generally oxic, high nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water are expected to continue moving downward without significant attenuation. Simulated long-term nitrate concentrations indicate that concentrations have peaked and will decrease in the public-supply well during the next 100 years

  3. Brief report: eye-movement patterns during an embedded figures test in children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehn, Brandon; Brenner, Laurie A; Ramos, Aurora I; Lincoln, Alan J; Marshall, Sandra P; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined fixation frequency and duration during an Embedded Figures Test (EFT) in an effort to better understand the attentional and perceptual processes by which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) achieve accelerated EFT performance. In particular, we aimed to elucidate differences in the patterns of eye-movement in ASD and typically developing (TD) children, thus providing evidence relevant to the competing theories of weak central coherence (WCC) and enhanced perceptual functioning. Consistent with prior EFT studies, we found accelerated response time (RT) in children with ASD. No group differences were seen for fixation frequency, but the ASD group made significantly shorter fixations compared to the TD group. Eye-movement results indicate that RT advantage in ASD is related to both WCC and enhanced perceptual functioning.

  4. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  5. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  6. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  7. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  8. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  9. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  10. Ground-Water System in the Chimacum Creek Basin and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction in Chimacum and Tarboo Creeks and the Big and Little Quilcene Rivers, Eastern Jefferson County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, F. William; Longpre, Claire I.; Justin, Greg B.

    2004-01-01

    throughout most of the year and the lower reaches have little or no gains. The Big Quilcene River generally gains water from the shallow ground-water system after it emerges from a bedrock canyon and loses water from the town of Quilcene to the mouth of the river in Quilcene Bay. The Little Quilcene River generally loses water to the shallow ground-water system, although two localized areas were found to have gaining conditions. The Big Quilcene and Little Quilcene Rivers incur significant losses on the alluvial plain at the head of Quilcene Bay. Each of the creeks examined had a unique pattern of gaining and losing reaches, owing to the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed material and the relative altitude of the surrounding water table. Although the magnitudes of gains and losses varied seasonally, the spatial distribution did not vary greatly, suggesting that patterns of gains and losses in surface-water systems depend greatly on the geology underlying the streambed.

  11. Post-release survival and movements patterns of roosterfish (Nematistius pectoralis off the Central American coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugey A Sepulveda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic telemetry was used to assess immediate post-release survival and track the short-term movement patterns of roosterfish Nematistius pectoralis between 2008 and 2010. Seven roosterfish (85 to 146 cm fork length, FL were continuously tracked along the Central American coastline for periods of up to 28 h following capture on recreational fishing tackle. All seven roosterfish were initially captured and spent the duration of the track period proximal to the coastline in waters <100 m of depth. From depth records and horizontal movements, it was determined that all seven roosterfish survived the acute effects of capture. The greatest depth achieved by any of the tracked individuals was 62 m and collectively roosterfish spent over 90% of the track records between the surface and 12 m. For all tracks, fish size showed no effect on maximum or average dive depth and the average day (7 ± 2 m and night (6 ± 2 m depths were similar among individuals. Mean water temperature for all tracks was 28 ± 1°C, with the lowest temperature experienced at depth being 23°C. Total horizontal movements from the roosterfish in this study ranged from 14.7 to 42.2 km and averaged 1.5 ± 0.4 km h-1. Data on movements in relation to bathymetry, prey presence and habitat structure are discussed. Collectively, these data provide insight into the immediate post-release disposition and short-term movements of this poorly studied species along the coast of Central America.

  12. Transient killer whale range - Satellite tagging of West Coast transient killer whales to determine range and movement patterns

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transient killers whales inhabit the West Coast of the United States. Their range and movement patterns are difficult to ascertain, but are vital to understanding...

  13. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  14. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  15. Using dynamic Brownian bridge movement modelling to measure temporal patterns of habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Clint McCoy, J; Hinton, Joseph W; Chamberlain, Michael J; Collier, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Accurately describing animal space use is vital to understanding how wildlife use habitat. Improvements in GPS technology continue to facilitate collection of telemetry data at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Application of the recently introduced dynamic Brownian bridge movement model (dBBMM) to such data is promising as the method explicitly incorporates the behavioural heterogeneity of a movement path into the estimated utilization distribution (UD). Utilization distributions defining space use are normally estimated for time-scales ranging from weeks to months, obscuring much of the fine-scale information available from high-volume GPS data sets. By accounting for movement heterogeneity, the dBBMM provides a rigorous, behaviourally based estimate of space use between each set of relocations. Focusing on UDs generated between individual sets of locations allows us to quantify fine-scale circadian variation in habitat use. We used the dBBMM to estimate UDs bounding individual time steps for three terrestrial species with different life histories to illustrate how the method can be used to identify fine-scale variations in habitat use. We also demonstrate how dBBMMs can be used to characterize circadian patterns of habitat selection and link fine-scale patterns of habitat use to behaviour. We observed circadian patterns of habitat use that varied seasonally for a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and coyote (Canis latrans). We found seasonal patterns in selection by the white-tailed deer and were able to link use of conifer forests and agricultural fields to behavioural state of the coyote. Additionally, we were able to quantify the date in which a Rio Grande wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) initiated laying as well as when during the day, she was most likely to visit the nest site to deposit eggs. The ability to quantify circadian patterns of habitat use may have important implications for research and management of wildlife

  16. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: Movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena; Ekblom, Björn; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed...... and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21...

  17. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  18. CrossFit athletes exhibit high symmetry of fundamental movement patterns. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Notarnicola, Angela; Monno, Antonello; Ferretti, Francesco; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    even if CrossFit training programs accounted actually more than 7500 gyms affiliated in the USA and more than 2000 in Europe and involved today more than 1 million of people, actually there were not several studies about the effect of the CrossFit on the health and sport performance. The aim of these research was to evaluate the performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a standardized methods, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). we enrolled three groups of athletes (age 17-40 years; >6 months of training programs): CrossFitters, body builders and professional weightlifters. FMS test was performed to all people enrolled. Scores of FMS test was examined comparing three groups. no differences in the three groups were showed in the mean score values of each test and in total score, except for shoulder mobility test (higher among CrossFitters) and trunk stability push-up test (higher among weightlifter). Agreement between the test performed on the two sides was higher in CrossFit groups for hurdle step (93.2%), in line lung (86%), rotary stability test (95.3%) and shoulder mobility (90.7%; pCrossFit seems to produce marked symmetry in some fundamental movements compared to weightlifting and bodybuilding.

  19. Movement patterns, habitat use, and survival of Lahontan cutthroat trout in the Truckee River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Alexander V.; Peacock, Mary M.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, hybridization, and competition with nonnative salmonids are viewed as major threats to Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi. Understanding Lahontan cutthroat trout behavior and survival is a necessary step in the reintroduction and establishment of naturally reproducing populations of Lahontan cutthroat trout. We used weekly radiotelemetry monitoring to examine movement patterns, habitat use, and apparent survival of 42 hatchery-reared Lahontan cutthroat trout in a 16.5-km stretch of the Truckee River, Nevada, across three reaches separated by barriers to upstream movement. We found differences in total movement distances and home range sizes of fish in different reaches within our study area. Fish used pool habitats more than fast water habitats in all reaches. Time of year, stream temperature, and fish standard length covariates had the strongest relationship with apparent survival. Monthly apparent survival was lowest in January, which coincided with the lowest flows and temperatures during the study period. Our results verify the mobility of Lahontan cutthroat trout and indicate that conditions during winter may limit the survival and reintroduction success in the portions of the Truckee River evaluated in this study.

  20. Movement patterns of juvenile whale sharks tagged at an aggregation site in the Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Berumen

    Full Text Available Conservation efforts aimed at the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, remain limited by a lack of basic information on most aspects of its ecology, including global population structure, population sizes and movement patterns. Here we report on the movements of 47 Red Sea whale sharks fitted with three types of satellite transmitting tags from 2009-2011. Most of these sharks were tagged at a single aggregation site near Al-Lith, on the central coast of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Individuals encountered at this site were all juveniles based on size estimates ranging from 2.5-7 m total length with a sex ratio of approximately 1∶1. All other known aggregation sites for juvenile whale sharks are dominated by males. Results from tagging efforts showed that most individuals remained in the southern Red Sea and that some sharks returned to the same location in subsequent years. Diving data were recorded by 37 tags, revealing frequent deep dives to at least 500 m and as deep as 1360 m. The unique temperature-depth profiles of the Red Sea confirmed that several whale sharks moved out of the Red Sea while tagged. The wide-ranging horizontal movements of these individuals highlight the need for multinational, cooperative efforts to conserve R. typus populations in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

  1. Movement patterns of juvenile whale sharks tagged at an aggregation site in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Michael L; Braun, Camrin D; Cochran, Jesse E M; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts aimed at the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, remain limited by a lack of basic information on most aspects of its ecology, including global population structure, population sizes and movement patterns. Here we report on the movements of 47 Red Sea whale sharks fitted with three types of satellite transmitting tags from 2009-2011. Most of these sharks were tagged at a single aggregation site near Al-Lith, on the central coast of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Individuals encountered at this site were all juveniles based on size estimates ranging from 2.5-7 m total length with a sex ratio of approximately 1∶1. All other known aggregation sites for juvenile whale sharks are dominated by males. Results from tagging efforts showed that most individuals remained in the southern Red Sea and that some sharks returned to the same location in subsequent years. Diving data were recorded by 37 tags, revealing frequent deep dives to at least 500 m and as deep as 1360 m. The unique temperature-depth profiles of the Red Sea confirmed that several whale sharks moved out of the Red Sea while tagged. The wide-ranging horizontal movements of these individuals highlight the need for multinational, cooperative efforts to conserve R. typus populations in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

  2. Movement patterns of juvenile whale sharks tagged at an aggregation site in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-07-30

    Conservation efforts aimed at the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, remain limited by a lack of basic information on most aspects of its ecology, including global population structure, population sizes and movement patterns. Here we report on the movements of 47 Red Sea whale sharks fitted with three types of satellite transmitting tags from 2009-2011. Most of these sharks were tagged at a single aggregation site near Al-Lith, on the central coast of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Individuals encountered at this site were all juveniles based on size estimates ranging from 2.5-7 m total length with a sex ratio of approximately 1:1. All other known aggregation sites for juvenile whale sharks are dominated by males. Results from tagging efforts showed that most individuals remained in the southern Red Sea and that some sharks returned to the same location in subsequent years. Diving data were recorded by 37 tags, revealing frequent deep dives to at least 500 m and as deep as 1360 m. The unique temperature-depth profiles of the Red Sea confirmed that several whale sharks moved out of the Red Sea while tagged. The wide-ranging horizontal movements of these individuals highlight the need for multinational, cooperative efforts to conserve R. typus populations in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. © 2014 Berumen et al.

  3. How landscape dynamics link individual- to population-level movement patterns: A multispecies comparison of ungulate relocation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas; Olson, K.A.; Dressler, G.; Leimgruber, Peter; Fuller, Todd K.; Nicholson, Craig; Novaro, A.J.; Bolgeri, M.J.; Wattles, David W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Calabrese, J.M.; Fagan, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim  To demonstrate how the interrelations of individual movements form large-scale population-level movement patterns and how these patterns are associated with the underlying landscape dynamics by comparing ungulate movements across species.Locations  Arctic tundra in Alaska and Canada, temperate forests in Massachusetts, Patagonian Steppes in Argentina, Eastern Steppes in Mongolia.Methods  We used relocation data from four ungulate species (barren-ground caribou, Mongolian gazelle, guanaco and moose) to examine individual movements and the interrelation of movements among individuals. We applied and developed a suite of spatial metrics that measure variation in movement among individuals as population dispersion, movement coordination and realized mobility. Taken together, these metrics allowed us to quantify and distinguish among different large-scale population-level movement patterns such as migration, range residency and nomadism. We then related the population-level movement patterns to the underlying landscape vegetation dynamics via long-term remote sensing measurements of the temporal variability, spatial variability and unpredictability of vegetation productivity.Results  Moose, which remained in sedentary home ranges, and guanacos, which were partially migratory, exhibited relatively short annual movements associated with landscapes having very little broad-scale variability in vegetation. Caribou and gazelle performed extreme long-distance movements that were associated with broad-scale variability in vegetation productivity during the peak of the growing season. Caribou exhibited regular seasonal migration in which individuals were clustered for most of the year and exhibited coordinated movements. In contrast, gazelle were nomadic, as individuals were independently distributed and moved in an uncoordinated manner that relates to the comparatively unpredictable (yet broad-scale) vegetation dynamics of their landscape.Main conclusions

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  6. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  7. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jana; Boklund, Anette; Halasa, Tariq H B; Toft, Nils; Lentz, Hartmut H K

    2017-01-01

    Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60-90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the calculation of network

  8. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schulz

    Full Text Available Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60-90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the

  9. Movement patterns of nilgai antelope in South Texas: Implications for cattle fever tick management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Aaron M; Goolsby, John A; Ortega-S, Alfonso; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Pérez de León, A; Singh, Nirbhay K; Schwartz, Andy; Ellis, Dee; Hewitt, David G; Campbell, Tyler A

    2017-10-01

    Wildlife, both native and introduced, can harbor and spread diseases of importance to the livestock industry. Describing movement patterns of such wildlife is essential to formulate effective disease management strategies. Nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus) are a free-ranging, introduced ungulate in southern Texas known to carry cattle fever ticks (CFT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. (B.) annulatus). CFT are the vector for the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis, a lethal disease causing high mortality in susceptible Bos taurus populations and severely affecting the beef cattle industry. Efforts to eradicate CFT from the United States have been successful. However, a permanent quarantine area is maintained between Texas and Mexico to check its entry from infested areas of neighboring Mexico states on wildlife and stray cattle. In recent years, there has been an increase in CFT infestations outside of the permanent quarantine area in Texas. Nilgai are of interest in understanding how CFT may be spread through the landscape. Thirty nilgai of both sexes were captured and fitted with satellite radio collars in South Texas to gain information about movement patterns, response to disturbances, and movement barriers. Median annual home range sizes were highly variable in males (4665ha, range=571-20,809) and females (1606ha, range=848-29,909). Female movement patterns appeared to be seasonal with peaks during June-August; these peaks appeared to be a function of break-ups in female social groups rather than environmental conditions. Nilgai, which reportedly are sensitive to disturbance, were more likely to relocate into new areas immediately after being captured versus four other types of helicopter activities. Nilgai did not cross 1.25m high cattle fences parallel to paved highways but did cross other fence types. Results indicate that females have a higher chance of spreading CFT through the landscape than males, but spread of CFT may be mitigated via

  10. Sixth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Outdoor Action Conference was comprised of three days of technical presentations, workshops, demonstrations, and an exhibition. The sessions were devoted to the following topics: Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Sampling Technology; Soil and Ground Water Remediation; and Surface and Borehole Geophysics. The meeting was sponsored by the National Ground Water Association. These papers were published exactly as submitted, without technical and grammatical editing or peer review

  11. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  12. "The cough game": are there characteristic urethrovesical movement patterns associated with stress incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Blaivas, Jerry; Clark, Amanda; McGuire, Edward J; Schaer, Gabriel; Tumbarello, Julie; Tunn, Ralf; DeLancey, John O L

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether five experts in female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) could discover a pattern of urethrovesical movement characteristic of SUI on dynamic perineal ultrasound. A secondary analysis of data from a case-control study was performed. Ultrasounds from 31 cases (daily SUI) and 42 controls (continent volunteers) of similar age and parity were analyzed. Perineal ultrasound was performed during a single cough. The five experts, blinded to continence status and urodynamics, classified each woman as stress continent or incontinent. Correct responses ranged from 45.7% to 65.8% (mean 57.4 +/- 7.6). Sensitivity was 53.0 +/- 8.8% and specificity 61.2 +/- 12.4%. The positive predictive value was 48.8 +/- 8.2% and negative predictive value was 65.0 +/- 7.3%. Inter-rater reliability, evaluated by Cohen's kappa statistic, averaged 0.47 [95% CI 0.40-0.50]. Experts could not identify a pattern of urethrovesical movement characteristic of SUI on ultrasound.

  13. [Rehabilitation evaluation on post-stroke abnormal movement pattern prevented and treated with acupuncture and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-min; Tang, Qiang

    2011-06-01

    To explore the impacts of acupuncture and rehabilitation on post-stroke abnormal patterns of limb movement and evaluate them via rehabilitation method. Ninety cases of post-stroke movement disorder were randomly divided into an acupuncture-rehabilitation group, a body acupuncture group and a medication group, 30 cases in each group. In medication group, the conventional medication in neurological department was administered. In acupuncture-rehabilitation group and body acupuncture group, on the basis of the therapy as medication group, scalp acupuncture (such as parietal area and anterior parietal area, etc.), rehabilitation training and traditional body acupuncture [such as Jianyu (LI 15) and Fengshi (GB 31),etc.] were supplemented. The continuous electric stimulation was applied in body acupuncture group. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks. The assessment of clinical efficacy, Fugl-Meyer score, Modified Ashworth scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) and shoulder pain score were taken as observation indices for rehabilitation evaluation before and after treatment in each group. The effective rate was 93.1% (27/29) in acupuncture-rehabilitation group, which was superior to 66.7% (20/30) in body acupuncture group and 57.1% (16/28) in control group (both Prehabilitation group were significantly superior to those in body acupuncture group and medication group (Prehabilitation therapy and traditional body acupuncture remarkably improve in post-stroke movement disorder. But acupuncture and rehabilitation therapy is apparently superior to traditional body acupuncture. This therapy can effectively prevent and treat post-stroke abnormal patterns and it is greatly significant in the improvement of survival quality for the patients.

  14. Is having similar eye movement patterns during face learning and recognition beneficial for recognition performance? Evidence from hidden Markov modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    The hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach for eye movement analysis is able to reflect individual differences in both spatial and temporal aspects of eye movements. Here we used this approach to understand the relationship between eye movements during face learning and recognition, and its association with recognition performance. We discovered holistic (i.e., mainly looking at the face center) and analytic (i.e., specifically looking at the two eyes in addition to the face center) patterns during both learning and recognition. Although for both learning and recognition, participants who adopted analytic patterns had better recognition performance than those with holistic patterns, a significant positive correlation between the likelihood of participants' patterns being classified as analytic and their recognition performance was only observed during recognition. Significantly more participants adopted holistic patterns during learning than recognition. Interestingly, about 40% of the participants used different patterns between learning and recognition, and among them 90% switched their patterns from holistic at learning to analytic at recognition. In contrast to the scan path theory, which posits that eye movements during learning have to be recapitulated during recognition for the recognition to be successful, participants who used the same or different patterns during learning and recognition did not differ in recognition performance. The similarity between their learning and recognition eye movement patterns also did not correlate with their recognition performance. These findings suggested that perceptuomotor memory elicited by eye movement patterns during learning does not play an important role in recognition. In contrast, the retrieval of diagnostic information for recognition, such as the eyes for face recognition, is a better predictor for recognition performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141... customer as follows: (i) Chemical disinfection—(A) Ground water systems serving greater than 3,300 people...

  16. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has not been affected by leakage from a regulated unit; (i) A determination of background ground-water...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... elevation each time ground water is sampled. (g) In detection monitoring or where appropriate in compliance...

  17. Simplified estimation technique for organic contaminant transport in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1984-05-01

    The analytical solution for one-dimensional dispersive-advective transport of a single solute in a saturated soil accompanied by adsorption onto soil surfaces and first-order reaction rate kinetics for degradation can be used to evaluate the suitability of potential sites for burial of organic chemicals. The technique can be used to the greatest advantage with organic chemicals that are present in ground waters in small amounts. The steady-state solution provides a rapid method for chemical landfill site evaluation because it contains the important variables that describe interactions between hydrodynamics and chemical transformation. With this solution, solute concentration, at a specified distance from the landfill site, is a function of the initial concentration and two dimensionless groups. In the first group, the relative weights of advective and dispersive variables are compared, and in the second group the relative weights of hydrodynamic and degradation variables are compared. The ratio of hydrodynamic to degradation variables can be rearranged and written as (a/sub L lambda)/(q/epsilon), where a/sub L/ is the dispersivity of the soil, lambda is the reaction rate constant, q is ground water flow velocity, and epsilon is the soil porosity. When this term has a value less than 0.01, the degradation process is occurring at such a slow rate relative to the hydrodynamics that it can be neglected. Under these conditions the site is unsuitable because the chemicals are unreactive, and concentrations in ground waters will change very slowly with distance away from the landfill site.

  18. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  19. Cost-effective sampling of ground water monitoring wells. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridley, M.; Johnson, V.

    1995-11-01

    CS is a systematic methodology for estimating the lowest-frequency sampling schedule for a given groundwater monitoring location which will still provide needed information for regulatory and remedial decision-making. Increases in frequency dictated by remedial actions are left to the judgement of personnel reviewing the recommendations. To become more applicable throughout the life cycle of a ground water cleanup project or for compliance monitoring, several improvements are envisioned, including: chemical signature analysis to identify minimum suites of contaminants for a well, a simple flow and transport model so that sampling of downgradient wells are increased before movement of contamination, and a sampling cost estimation capability. By blending qualitative and quantitative approaches, we hope to create a defensible system while retaining interpretation ease and relevance to decision making

  20. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The five projects discussed herein are: 300 Area Process Trenches; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins; 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds; Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill; Solid Waste Landfill. For each of the projects, there are included, as applicable, discussions of monitoring well installations, water-table measurements, background and/or downgradient water quality and results of chemical analysis, and extent and rate of movement of contaminant plumes. 14 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Geology and ground water in north-central Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    North-central Santa Cruz County is underlain mainly by folded sedimentary rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age that have been highly fractured by movements in the San Andreas fault system. Ground water is stored in fractures within shale and mudstone formations and in intergranular pore spaces within fine- to very fine-grained sandstone and siltstone formations. Fewer than 10% of the wells yield more than 15 gallons of water per minute. The water in most wells is moderately hard to very hard, is generally of a sodium bicarbonate or calcium bicarbonate type, and commonly has excessive concentrations of iron or manganese. Of the many geologic units in the study area, only the Purisima Formation of Pliocene age has the potential to sustain well yields greater than 100 gallons per minute. (USGS)

  2. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Ehrnsten, U.; Saario, T.

    1996-05-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  3. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  4. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibla, O.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO 3 ''-''-), nitrite (No 2 ''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO 4 ''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO 3 ''-''-,HCO 3 ''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from physical and chemical

  5. Electrochemistry of lead in simulated ground water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, E.A.; Devereux, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    Lead and lead alloys are used commonly as moisture barriers for underground cables. Lead exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in a variety of environments, but areas of localized attack have been found. These can result in able failures. The susceptibility of lead to pitting in several simulated ground water (SGW) environments was assessed using cyclic potentiodynamic pitting scans (PPS) and microscopy. Although general corrosion was observed, PPS demonstrated pitting did not occur in the same sense as in alloys known to be susceptible to pitting (i.e., very localized pit formation without general corrosion). However, areas of nonuniform general attack did occur, resulting in pitted surface morphologies

  6. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibla, O A.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Graduate Studies, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-01-15

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO{sub 3}''-''-), nitrite (No{sub 2}''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO{sub 4}''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO{sub 3}''-''-,HCO{sub 3}''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from

  7. Assessment of ground-water contamination near Lantana landfill, Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G.M.; Higer, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Lantana landfill located in Palm Beach County rises 40 to 50 feet above normal ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash, some below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate a contaminant plume along the eastern perimeter of the landfill that has migrated about 300 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride, ammonia, and nitrate were elevated within the plume. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of sand from 0 to about 68 feet, and sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone from 68 to 220 feet. A slight hydraulic gradient exists, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Analyses of geoelectric, lithologic, and water-quality data indicate that surface geophysical techniques were successful in determining the areal and vertical extent of leachate migration at this location.The Lantana landfill located in Palm Beach County rises 40 to 50 feet above normal ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash, some below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate a contaminant plume along the eastern perimeter of the landfill that has migrated about 300 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride, ammonia, and nitrate were elevated within the plume. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of sand from 0 to about 68 feet, and sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone from 68 to 220 feet. A slight hydraulic gradient exists, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Analyses of geoelectric, lithologic, and water-quality data indicate that surface geophysical techniques were successful in determining the areal and vertical extent of leachate migration at this location.

  8. Movement patterns of three arboreal primates in a Neotropical moist forest explained by LiDAR-estimated canopy structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLean, Kevin A.; Trainor, Anne M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Hopkins, Mariah E.; Campbell, Christina J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many arboreal mammals in Neotropical forests are important seed dispersers that influence the spatial patterns of tree regeneration via their movement patterns, which in turn are determined by the canopy structure of the forest itself. However, the relationship between arboreal mammal

  9. Status report: numerical modeling of ground-water flow in the Paleozoic formations, western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, D.B.; Thackston, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference numerical model was applied to simulate the ground-water flow pattern in Paleozoic strata within the western Paradox Basin region. The primary purpose of the modeling was to test the present conceptual hydrogeologic model and evaluate data deficiencies. All available data on ground-water hydrology, although sparse in this area, were utilized as input to the model. Permeability and potentiometric levels were estimated from petroleum company drill-stem tests and water-supply wells; formation thicknesses were obtained from geologic correlation of borehole geophysical logs. Hydrogeologic judgment weighed heavily in the assignment of hydrologic values to geologic features for this preliminary modeling study. Calibration of the model was accomplished through trial-and-error matching of simulated potentiometric contours with available head data. Hypothetical flow patterns, flux rates, recharge amounts, and surface discharge amounts were produced by the model. 34 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Litton, Creighton M; Hess, Steven C; Kellner, James R; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  11. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Litton, Creighton M.; Hess, Steve; Kellner, James; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world’s most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  12. Plutonium radionuclides in the ground waters at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Marsh, K.; Eagle, R.; Holladay, G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1974 a groundwater program was initiated at Eniwetok Atoll to study systematically the hydrology and the ground water geochemistry on selected islands of the Atoll. The program provides chemical and radiochemical data for assessment of water quality on those islands designated for rehabilitation. These and other data are used to interpret the mechanisms by which radionuclides are cycled in the soil-groundwater system. Because of the international concern over the long-term buildup, availability, and transport of plutonium in the environment, this program emphasizes analysis of the element. The results of the study show that on all islands sampled, small quantities of plutonium radionuclides have migrated through the soil columns and are redistributed throughout the groundwater reservoirs. The observed maximum surface concentrations are less than 0.02 percent of the maximal recommended concentration for drinking water. Concentrations of 137 Cs are found to correlate with water freshness, but those of 239 , 240 Pu show no such relationship. The mechanisms moving 239 , 240 Pu through the ground water reservoirs are independent of the processes controlling the cycling of 137 Cs and fresh water. A reasonable linear correlation is found between mean surface-water concentrations and soil burdens. This indicates that the quantities of 239 , 240 Pu migrating to the groundwater surface layers are, to a first approximation, independent of the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the islands. (auth)

  13. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.

    1998-03-01

    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted of a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.

  14. Altered movement patterns and muscular activity during single and double leg squats in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulsson, Anna; Miller, Michael; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Gummesson, Christina; Garwicz, Martin

    2015-02-13

    Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury often show altered movement patterns, suggested to be partly due to impaired sensorimotor control. Here, we therefore aimed to assess muscular activity during movements often used in ACL-rehabilitation and to characterize associations between deviations in muscular activity and specific altered movement patterns, using and further exploring the previously developed Test for substitution Patterns (TSP). Sixteen participants (10 women) with unilateral ACL rupture performed Single and Double Leg Squats (SLS; DLS). Altered movement patterns were scored according to TSP, and Surface Electromyography (SEMG) was recorded bilaterally in six hip, thigh and shank muscles. To quantify deviations in muscular activity, SEMG ratios were calculated between homonymous muscles on injured and non-injured sides, and between antagonistic muscles on the same side. Correlations between deviations of injured/non-injured side SEMG ratios and specific altered movement patterns were calculated. Injured/non-injured ratios were low at transition from knee flexion to extension in quadriceps in SLS, and in quadriceps and hamstrings in DLS. On injured side, the quadriceps/hamstrings ratio prior to the beginning of DLS and end of DLS and SLS, and tibialis/gastrocnemius ratio at end of DLS were lower than on non-injured side. Correlations were found between specific altered movement patterns and deviating muscular activity at transition from knee flexion to extension in SLS, indicating that the more deviating the muscular activity on injured side, the more pronounced the altered movement pattern. "Knee medial to supporting foot" correlated to lower injured/non-injured ratios in gluteus medius (rs = -0.73, p = 0.001), "lateral displacement of hip-pelvis-region" to lower injured/non-injured ratios in quadriceps (rs = -0.54, p = 0.03) and "displacement of trunk" to higher injured/non-injured ratios in gluteus medius (rs = 0.62, p = 0

  15. Ground-water protection activities of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report evaluates the internal consistency of NRC's ground-water protection programs. These programs have evolved consistently with growing public concerns about the significance of ground-water contamination and environmental impacts. Early NRC programs provided for protection of the public health and safety by minimizing releases of radionuclides. More recent programs have included provisions for minimizing releases of nonradiological constituents, mitigating environmental impacts, and correcting ground-water contamination. NRC's ground-water protection programs are categorized according to program areas, including nuclear materials and waste management (NMSS), nuclear reactor operation (NRR), confirmatory research and standards development (RES), inspection and enforcement (IE), and agreement state programs (SP). Based on analysis of existing ground-water protection programs within NRC, the interoffice Ground-water Protection Group has identified several inconsistencies between and within program areas. These inconsistencies include: (1) different definitions of the term ''ground-water,'' (2) variable regulation of nonradiological constituents in ground water, (3) different design periods for ground-water protection, and (4) different scopes and rigor of ground-water assessments. The second inconsistency stems from differences in statutory authority granted to the NRC. The third inconsistency is rationalized by recognizing differences in perceived risks associated with nuclear facilities. The Ground-water Protection Group will document its analysis of the remaining inconsistencies and make recommendations to reconcile or eliminate them in a subsequent report

  16. Effects of energy development on ground water quality: an overview and preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.M. III; Yin, S.C.L.; Davis, M.J.; Kutz, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    A preliminary national overview of the various effects on ground water quality likely to result from energy development. Based on estimates of present and projected energy-development activities, those regions of the country are identified where ground water quality has the potential for being adversely affected. The general causes of change in ground water quality are reviewed. Specific effects on ground water quality of selected energy technologies are discussed, and some case-history material is provided. A brief overview of pertinent legislation relating to the protection and management of ground water quality is presented. Six methodologies that have some value for assessing the potential effects on ground water quality of energy development activities are reviewed. A method of identifying regions in the 48 contiguous states where there is a potential for ground water quality problems is described and then applied

  17. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data

  18. Movement patterns of Mediterranean moray and European conger in a coastal MPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pessegueiro Island Marine Protected Area (MPA, SW coast of Portugal, was implemented in 2011 with the purpose of protect biodiversity and prevent over-exploitation of commercially important fish species. Amongst those species are the Mediterranean moray (Muraena helena and the European conger (Conger conger. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the importance of this MPA as a refuge/feeding area for these species and to evaluate its location and size adequacy. The study was carried out during the summer of 2013 and a total of 19 morays and 6 congers were tagged with acoustic transmitters. An array of 19 automatic receivers was deployed with a sampling design that spatially covered the entire MPA. The data from the receivers was analysed through multivariate statistics (PERMANOVA, Kernel Density Estimation (KDE and Network Analysis. Results showed that the Pessegueiro Island MPA is an important zone for both species since the tagged morays and congers spent 48% of the time within the area (average residency index. Also, KDE and Network Analysis showed that both species displayed relatively reduced home ranges, 20 ha in average for morays and 30 ha for congers, and the movements performed were limited to adjacent areas. Activity was more intense during night time for both species. Regarding morays, lunar cycle and sea conditions also seemed to influence their movement patterns. The data collected in this study highlight the importance of this MPA for the target species.

  19. Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Nolet, Bart A; Bankert, Daniëlle

    2006-09-01

    We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (below ground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series of short (1 m). Tuber biomass densities showed a positive spatial auto-correlation at a short distance (25 g/m2) and to a more distant patch (at 7-8 m) if the food density in the current patch had been low (3 m) from a low-density patch and a short distance (<3 m) from a high-density patch. The quantitative agreement between prediction and observation was greater for swans feeding in pairs than for solitary swans. The result of this movement strategy is that swans visit high-density patches at a higher frequency than on offer and, consequently, achieve a 38% higher long-term gain rate. Swans also take advantage of spatial variance in food abundance by regulating the time in patches, staying longer and consuming more food from rich than from poor patches. We can conclude that the shape of the foraging path is a reflection of the spatial pattern in the distribution of tuber densities and can be understood from an optimal foraging perspective.

  20. Location of Instability During a Bench Press Alters Movement Patterns and Electromyographical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Brian C; Sutherland, Chad A; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-11-01

    Instability training devices with the bench press exercise are becoming increasingly popular. Typically, the instability device is placed at the trunk/upper body (e.g., lying on a Swiss ball); however, a recent product called the Attitube has been developed, which places the location of instability at the hands by users lifting a water-filled tube. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different instability devices (location of instability) on kinematic and electromyographical patterns during the bench press exercise. Ten healthy males were recruited and performed 1 set of 3 repetitions for 3 different bench press conditions: Olympic bar on a stable bench (BENCH), Olympic bar on a stability ball (BALL), and Attitube on a stable bench (TUBE). The eccentric and concentric phases were analyzed in 10% intervals while electromyography was recorded from 24 electrode sites, and motion capture was used to track elbow flexion angle and 3-dimensional movement trajectories and vertical velocity of the Bar/Attitube. The prime movers tended to show a reduction in muscle activity during the TUBE trials; however, pectoralis major initially showed increased activation during the eccentric phase of the TUBE condition. The trunk muscle activations were greatest during the TUBE and smallest during the BAR. In addition, the TUBE showed decreased range of elbow flexion and increased medial-lateral movement of the Attitube itself. The results further support the notion that instability devices may be more beneficial for trunk muscles rather than prime movers.

  1. Patterns of movement behaviors and their association with overweight and obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Faulkner, Guy; Sabiston, Catherine M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-07-01

    To identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, and sleep in a large sample of Canadian youth and to examine the associations between the identified subgroups and overweight and obesity. The study is based on 19,831 youth aged 13-18 years from across Ontario, Canada in the COMPASS study. Participants self-reported their movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep), height and weight, and demographics. Latent class analysis and logistic regression models were conducted. Three underlying subgroups were identified in the total sample and male and female subsamples (i.e., unhealthiest movers, active screenies, healthiest movers). In the total sample, the active screenies subgroup was 1.19 (95 % CI 1.09-1.29) times and the unhealthiest movers subgroup was 1.24 (1.14-1.36) times more likely to be classified as overweight/obese compared to the healthiest movers subgroup. Similar associations were observed in the female subsample but not in the male subsample. Public health interventions targeting youth subgroups at increased risk of overweight and obesity through integrated approaches accounting for multiple movement behaviors should be considered, especially for females.

  2. Ground-water flow and quality in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Steven D.; Barringer, Julia L.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Clark, Jeffrey S.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    2001-01-01

    The regional, confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand is the principal source of water supply for coastal communities of southern New Jersey. In response to extensive use of the aquifer--nearly 21 million gallons per day in 1986--water levels have declined to about 100 feet below sea level near Atlantic City and remain below sea level throughout the coastal areas of southern New Jersey, raising concerns about the potential for saltwater intrusion into well fields. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand have declined in response to pumping from the aquifer since the 1890's. Water levels in the first wells drilled into the Atlantic City 800-foot sand were above land surface, and water flowed continuously from the wells. By 1986, water levels were below sea level throughout most of the coastal areas. Under current conditions, wells near the coast derive most of their supply from lateral flow contributed from the unconfined part of the aquifer northwest of the updip limit of the confining unit that overlies the Atlantic City 800- foot sand. Ground water also flows laterally from offshore areas and leaks vertically through the overlying and underlying confining units into the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. The decline in water levels upsets the historical equilibrium between freshwater and ancient saltwater in offshore parts of the aquifer and permits the lateral movement of saltwater toward pumping centers. The rate of movement is accelerated as the decline in water levels increases. The chloride concentration of aquifer water 5.3 miles offshore of Atlantic City was measured as 77 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in 1985 at a U.S. Geological Survey observation well. Salty water has also moved toward wells in Cape May County. The confined, regional nature of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand permits water levels in Cape May County to decline in response to pumping in Atlantic County and vice versa. Historically, chloride concentrations as great as 1 ,510 mg/L have been

  3. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  4. Determination of pesticides in surface and ground water used for human consumption in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knedel, W.; Chiquin, J.C.; Perez, J.; Rosales, S.

    1999-01-01

    A 15 month sampling and analysis programme was carried out to monitor concentrations of 37 targeted organochlorine, organophosphorus and organopyrethroid pesticides in surface and ground water in Guatemala. The 80 sampling points included 4 points in a lake, one point in each of the four lagoons, 10 municipal water systems of major towns, and 62 points along 52 rivers, most of which are located in the southern coast along borders with Mexico and El Salvador, and are one of the most productive areas in the country. The sampling used provided only preliminary information on the pattern of pesticide contamination of surface and ground water. It showed contamination of surface water in Los Esclavos watershed, Motagua river watershed as well as Villalobos, lake Amatitlan and Michatoya river watershed. Cypermethrin was the ubiquitous pesticides in some areas present in concentrations exceeding toxic levels for fish and other aquatic organisms. Several of the other targeted organophosphorus and ECD detectable pesticides were also detected in surface water. Some municipal water samples also had low levels of pesticides. (author)

  5. Residency and movement patterns of an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier at the Galapagos Marine Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Acuña-Marrero

    Full Text Available The potential effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs as a conservation tool for large sharks has been questioned due to the limited spatial extent of most MPAs in contrast to the complex life history and high mobility of many sharks. Here we evaluated the movement dynamics of a highly migratory apex predatory shark (tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier at the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR. Using data from satellite tracking passive acoustic telemetry, and stereo baited remote underwater video, we estimated residency, activity spaces, site fidelity, distributional abundances and migration patterns from the GMR and in relation to nesting beaches of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, a seasonally abundant and predictable prey source for large tiger sharks. Tiger sharks exhibited a high degree of philopatry, with 93% of the total satellite-tracked time across all individuals occurring within the GMR. Large sharks (> 200 cm TL concentrated their movements in front of the two most important green sea turtle-nesting beaches in the GMR, visiting them on a daily basis during nocturnal hours. In contrast, small sharks (< 200 cm TL rarely visited turtle-nesting areas and displayed diurnal presence at a third location where only immature sharks were found. Small and some large individuals remained in the three study areas even outside of the turtle-nesting season. Only two sharks were satellite-tracked outside of the GMR, and following long-distance migrations, both individuals returned to turtle-nesting beaches at the subsequent turtle-nesting season. The spatial patterns of residency and site fidelity of tiger sharks suggest that the presence of a predictable source of prey and suitable habitats might reduce the spatial extent of this large shark that is highly migratory in other parts of its range. This highly philopatric behaviour enhances the potential effectiveness of the GMR for their protection.

  6. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  7. EEG patterns in theta and gamma frequency range and their probable relation to human voluntary movement organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A; Krekule, I

    1999-05-21

    In experiments with EEG accompanying continuous slow goal-directed voluntary movements we found abrupt short-term transients (STs) of the coefficients of EEG time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) model. The onset of STs indicated (i) a positive EEG wave related to an increase of 3-7 Hz oscillations in time period before the movement start, (ii) synchronization of 35-40 Hz prior to movement start and during the movement when the target is nearly reached. Both these phenomena are expressed predominantly over supplementary motor area, premotor and parietal cortices. These patterns were detected after averaging of EEG segments synchronized to the abrupt changes of the TVAR coefficients computed in the time course of EEG single records. The results are discussed regarding the cognitive aspect of organization of goal-directed movements.

  8. INTER-RATER RELIABILITY FOR MOVEMENT PATTERN ANALYSIS (MPA: MEASURING PATTERNING OF BEHAVIORS VERSUS DISCRETE BEHAVIOR COUNTS AS INDICATORS OF DECISION-MAKING STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Connors

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA, an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective, inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = .89. Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring discrete behavioral counts versus patterning of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns.

  9. The “Lévy or Diffusion” Controversy: How Important Is the Movement Pattern in the Context of Trapping?

    OpenAIRE

    Danish A. Ahmed; Sergei V. Petrovskii; Paulo F. C. Tilles

    2018-01-01

    Many empirical and theoretical studies indicate that Brownian motion and diffusion models as its mean field counterpart provide appropriate modeling techniques for individual insect movement. However, this traditional approach has been challenged, and conflicting evidence suggests that an alternative movement pattern such as Lévy walks can provide a better description. Lévy walks differ from Brownian motion since they allow for a higher frequency of large steps, resulting in a f...

  10. The Effect of Aging on Muscular Dynamics Underlying Movement Patterns Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij, Carlijn A; Rao, Guillaume; Berton, Eric; Retornaz, Frédérique; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aging leads to alterations not only within the complex subsystems of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system, but also in the coupling between them. Here, we studied how aging affects functional reorganizations that occur both within and between the behavioral and muscular levels, which must be coordinated to produce goal-directed movements. Using unimanual reciprocal Fitts' task, we examined the behavioral and muscular dynamics of older adults (74.4 ± 3.7 years) and compared them to those found for younger adults (23.2 ± 2.0 years). Methods: To achieve this objective, we manipulated the target size to trigger a phase transition in the behavioral regime and searched for concomitant signatures of a phase transition in the muscular coordination. Here, muscular coordination was derived by using the method of muscular synergy extraction. With this technique, we obtained functional muscular patterns through non-negative matrix factorization of the muscular signals followed by clustering the resulting synergies. Results: Older adults showed a phase transition in behavioral regime, although, in contrast to young participants, their kinematic profiles did not show a discontinuity. In parallel, muscular coordination displayed two typical signatures of a phase transition, that is, increased variability of coordination patterns and a reorganization of muscular synergies. Both signatures confirmed the existence of muscular reorganization in older adults, which is coupled with change in dynamical regime at behavioral level. However, relative to young adults, transition occurred at lower index of difficulty (ID) in older participants and the reorganization of muscular patterns lasted longer (over multiple IDs). Discussion: This implies that consistent changes occur in coordination processes across behavior and muscle. Furthermore, the repertoire of muscular patterns was reduced and somewhat modified for older adults, relative to young participants. This suggests that

  11. Ground-water resources of the Alma area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlier, Kenneth E.

    1963-01-01

    The Alma area consists of 30 square miles in the northwestern part of Gratiot County, Mich. It is an area of slight relief gently rolling hills and level plains and is an important agricultural center in the State.The Saginaw formation, which forms the bedrock surface in part of the area, is of relatively low permeability and yields water containing objectionable amounts of chloride. Formations below the Saginaw are tapped for brine in and near the Alma area.The consolidated rocks of the Alma area are mantled by Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are as much as 550 feet thick where preglacial valleys were eroded into the bedrock. The glacial deposits consist of till, glacial-lake deposits, and outwash. Till deposits are at the surface along the south-trending moraines that cross the area, and they underlie other types of glacial deposits at depth throughout the area. The till deposits are of low permeability and are not a source of water to wells, though locally they include small lenses of permeable sand and gravel.In the western part of the area, including much of the city of Alma, the glacial-lake deposits consist primarily of sand and are a source of small supplies of water. In the northeastern part of the area the lake deposits are predominantly clayey and of low permeability.Sand and gravel outwash yields moderate and large supplies of water within the area. Outwash is present at the surface along the West Branch of the Pine River. A more extensive deposit of outwash buried by the lake deposits is the source of most of the ground water pumped at Alma. The presence of an additional deposit of buried outwash west and southwest of the city is inferred from the glacial history of the area. Additional water supplies that may be developed from these deposits are probably adequate for anticipated population and industrial growth.Water levels have declined generally in the vicinity of the city of Alma since 1920 in response to pumping for municipal and industrial

  12. How do cancer patients navigate the public information environment? Understanding patterns and motivations for movement among information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Romantan, Anca; Kelly, Bridget J; Stevens, Robin S; Gray, Stacy W; Hull, Shawnika J; Ramirez, A Susana; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how patients move among information sources to fulfill unmet needs. We interviewed 43 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified patterns and motivations for movement among information sources. Overall, patients reported using one source (e.g., newspaper) followed by the use of another source (e.g., Internet), and five key motivations for such cross-source movement emerged. Patients' social networks often played a central role in this movement. Understanding how patients navigate an increasingly complex information environment may help clinicians and educators to guide patients to appropriate, high-quality sources.

  13. Pike (Esox lucius L.) on the edge: consistent individual movement patterns in transitional waters of the western Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Bekkevold, Dorte; Berg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    salinity) would perform spawning- and feeding-related movements between areas with different salinity regimes. Twenty-two pike were caught prior to spawning, tagged with acoustic transmitters, and their movements were tracked for 18 months. Pike showed two main patterns of movements that were consistent......-varied with either length or condition factor. Despite the fact that the lagoon’s salinity is close to the reported upper limit for pike egg development, results indicated that all pike spawned in the lagoon. Correspondingly, genetic data showed that all fish belonged to the same reproductive population unit...

  14. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    ground water of salt at the top of the Salado Formation and of anhydrite within the Rustler Formation has removed thick sections of these rocks. A subsequent lowering of the land surface and differential collapse of the Rustler has formed many sinkholes and has created a karst topography over much of the western part of the area. Ground water is obtained from rocks of Permian, Triassic, Tertiary, and Quaternary age in the general region. However, the only aquifer at the Gnome site is the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian age. The aquifer is about 500 feet beneath the surface at the site and is about 30 feet thick. An aquifer, immediately above the top of the salt, contains a brine solution in Nash Draw, a few miles west of the Gnome site. This aquifer discharges into the Pecos River and is a major source of contamination of the river water. No potable water is known to be present in the area below the top of the salt of the Salado Formation. The ground water in the area is generally under artesian pressure. The general direction of ground-water movement is toward the Pecos River both east and west of the river. At the Gnome site the artesian head of the water in the Culebra Dolomite Member is about 7.5 feet. The water moves westward through the aquifer at a rate of about ? foot per day. The most widespread utilization of ground water east of the river is for stock use. Irrigation usage west of the Pecos River accounts for the largest withdrawal of water. Wells range in depth from a few tens of feet to nearly 800 feet. Water levels range from a few feet to about 500 feet below the surface. A test well at the Gnome site drawing water from the Culebra Dolomite Member was pumped at a rate of 100 gpm (gallons per minute); however, most wells east of the river yield only a few gpm. Irrigation wells west of the river yield as much as 3,500 gpm. Most of the water in the area is highly mineralized and is suitable only for use by livest

  15. Scale-free animal movement patterns: Levy walks outperform fractional Brownian motions and fractional Levy motions in random search scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A M

    2009-01-01

    The movement patterns of a diverse range of animals have scale-free characteristics. These characteristics provide necessary but not sufficient conditions for the presence of movement patterns that can be approximated by Levy walks. Nevertheless, it has been widely assumed that the occurrence of scale-free animal movements can indeed be attributed to the presence of Levy walks. This is, in part, because it is known that the super-diffusive properties of Levy walks can be advantageous in random search scenarios when searchers have little or no prior knowledge of target locations. However, fractional Brownian motions (fBms) and fractional Levy motions (fLms) are both scale-free and super-diffusive, and so it is possible that these motions rather than Levy walks underlie some or all occurrences of scale-free animal movement patterns. Here this possibility is examined in numerical simulations through a determination of the searching efficiencies of fBm and fLm searches. It is shown that these searches are less efficient than Levy walk searches. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some animals with scale-free movement patterns are executing fBm and fLm searches, but it does make Levy walk searches the more likely possibility.

  16. Evaluating the effects of urbanization and land-use planning using ground-water and surface-water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Steuer, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Why are the effects of urbanization a concern? As the city of Middleton, Wisconsin, and its surroundings continue to develop, the Pheasant Branch watershed (fig.l) is expected to undergo urbanization. For the downstream city of Middleton, urbanization in the watershed can mean increased flood peaks, water volume and pollutant loads. More subtly, it may also reduce water that sustains the ground-water system (called "recharge") and adversely affect downstream ecosystems that depend on ground water such as the Pheasant Branch Springs (hereafter referred to as the Springs). The relation of stormwater runoff and reduced ground-water recharge is complex because the surface-water system is coupled to the underlying ground-water system. In many cases there is movement of water from one system to the other that varies seasonally or daily depending on changing conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably determine the effects of urbanization on stream baseflow and spring flows without rigorous investigation. Moreover, mitigating adverse effects after development has occurred can be expensive and administratively difficult. Overlying these concerns are issues such as stewardship of the resource, the rights of the public, and land owners' rights both of those developing their land and those whose land is affected by this development. With the often- contradictory goals, a scientific basis for assessing effects of urbanization and effectiveness of mitigation measures helps ensure fair and constructive decision-making. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Middleton and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, completed a study that helps address these issues through modeling of the hydrologic system. This Fact Sheet discusses the results of this work.

  17. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent

  18. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic problem consists of a liner flexible structure situated at or near the surface of a soil half-space. In keeping with typical small strain seismic analyses, the soil skeleton is represented as a linear medium in which all potential nonlinearities are at most lumped together into an equivalent hysteretic damping modulus. In addition, the ground water level is located at some depth relatively close to the structure, and in a position to impact on the seismic response of the facility. In order to estimate the response of this oil-water system, the two-phased medium formulation of Biot was used to treat the response of the solids and water as two separate linear media, coupled together through soil permeability and volume effects. (orig./HP)

  19. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.

    1974-01-01

    This manual reviews the standard methods of surface geophysics applicable to ground-water investigations. It covers electrical methods, seismic and gravity methods, and magnetic methods. The general physical principles underlying each method and its capabilities and limitations are described. Possibilities for non-uniqueness of interpretation of geophysical results are noted. Examples of actual use of the methods are given to illustrate applications and interpretation in selected geohydrologic environments. The objective of the manual is to provide the hydrogeologist with a sufficient understanding of the capabilities, imitations, and relative cost of geophysical methods to make sound decisions as to when to use of these methods is desirable. The manual also provides enough information for the hydrogeologist to work with a geophysicist in designing geophysical surveys that differentiate significant hydrogeologic changes.

  20. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  1. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  3. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  4. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  5. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren eXu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain and complete/incomplete injury patients and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy.

  6. Diel and seasonal movement pattern of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus inside a marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Barbara; Pastor, Jérémy; Saragoni, Gilles; Dalias, Nicolas; Payrot, Jérôme; Lenfant, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Temporal movement patterns and spawning behaviour of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus were investigated using depth and temperature sensors combined to acoustic telemetry. Results showed that these fish are year-round resident, remaining inside the fully protected area of the marine reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls (65 ha) and display a diurnal activity pattern. Records from depth sensors revealed that groupers range inside small, distinct, and individual territories. Individual variations in habitat depth are only visible on a seasonal scale, i.e., between the spawning season and the rest of the year. In fact, during summer months when the seawater temperature exceeded 20 °C, tagged groupers made vertical spawning migrations of 4-8 m in amplitude. These vertical migrations are characteristic of the reproductive behaviour of dusky groupers, during which they release their gametes. The results are notable for the implementation of management rules in marine protected areas, such as reduced navigation speed, boating or attendance during spawning season. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ground water geochemistry in the vicinity of the Jabiluka deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, R.L.; Mann, A.W.; Giblin, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen exploration drill holes in the vicinity of the Jabiluka One and Jabiluka Two deposits were logged for Eh-pH and conductivity at 5 metre intervals to depths of up to 195 metres below ground surface. Forty-seven water samples from exploration drill holes, augered holes on the Magela flood plain and from two billabongs in the vicinity of the deposits were collected and analyzed. Analyses for pH and Fe were conducted in the field, and further analyses for major ions Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , SO 4 2- , Cl - , HCO 3 - and Si and minorelements Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and U were conducted in the laboratory. The in situ Eh-pH and conductivity measurements, and analyses for major and minor elements of ground waters suggest that deep-lying chlorite-graphite schists containing the uranium mineralization are well protected from, or do not react rapidly with, ground water under present-day conditions, i.e. the schists of the Cahill Formation are a stable host for uranium mineralization at depth. In the vicinity of the Magela flood plain where the Cahill Formation and the permanent water table are close to the surface, some samples were found to contain high concentrations of sulphate, zinc, lead and iron. These same samples were characterized by low pH's in the pH range 3.0-4.0. The anomalies suggest weathering of sulphides associated with the mineralized Cahill Formation, where the schists are at shallow depths and in an oxidizing environment. The anomalies are not, however, necessarily indicative of zones of uranium enrichment in this formation. (author)

  8. A new breed of innovative ground water modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Ziagos, J.; McKereghan, P.; Vogele, T.; Nelson, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Sparse data is a critical obstacle in every ground water remediation project. Lack of data necessitates non-unique interpolations that can distort modeled distributions of contaminants and essential physical properties (e.g., permeability, porosity). These properties largely determine the rates and paths that contaminants may take in migrating from sources to receptor locations. We apply both forward and inverse model estimates to resolve this problem because coupled modeling provides the only way to obtain constitutive property distributions that simultaneously simulate the flow and transport behavior observed in borehole measurements. Innovations in multidimensional modeling are a key to achieving more effective subsurface characterizations, remedial designs, risk assessments, and compliance monitoring in efforts to accelerate cleanup and reduce costs in national environmental remediations. Fundamentally new modeling concepts and novel software have emerged recently from two decades of research on self-adaptive solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs). We have tested a revolutionary software product, PDEase, applying it to coupled forward and inverse flow problems. In the Superfund cleanup effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site, the new modeling paradigm of PDEase enables ground water professionals to simply provide the flow equations, site geometry, sources, sinks, constitutive parameters, and boundary conditions. Its symbolic processors then construct the actual numerical solution code and solve it automatically. Powerful grid refinements that conform adaptively to evolving flow features are executed dynamically with iterative finite-element solutions that minimize numerical errors to user-specified limits. Numerical solution accuracy can be tested easily with the diagnostic information and interactive graphical displays that appear as the solutions are generated

  9. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  10. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  11. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J

    1986-04-01

    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  12. The right look for the job: decoding cognitive processes involved in the task from spatial eye-movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Magdalena Ewa; Król, Michał

    2018-02-20

    The aim of the study was not only to demonstrate whether eye-movement-based task decoding was possible but also to investigate whether eye-movement patterns can be used to identify cognitive processes behind the tasks. We compared eye-movement patterns elicited under different task conditions, with tasks differing systematically with regard to the types of cognitive processes involved in solving them. We used four tasks, differing along two dimensions: spatial (global vs. local) processing (Navon, Cognit Psychol, 9(3):353-383 1977) and semantic (deep vs. shallow) processing (Craik and Lockhart, J Verbal Learn Verbal Behav, 11(6):671-684 1972). We used eye-movement patterns obtained from two time periods: fixation cross preceding the target stimulus and the target stimulus. We found significant effects of both spatial and semantic processing, but in case of the latter, the effect might be an artefact of insufficient task control. We found above chance task classification accuracy for both time periods: 51.4% for the period of stimulus presentation and 34.8% for the period of fixation cross presentation. Therefore, we show that task can be to some extent decoded from the preparatory eye-movements before the stimulus is displayed. This suggests that anticipatory eye-movements reflect the visual scanning strategy employed for the task at hand. Finally, this study also demonstrates that decoding is possible even from very scant eye-movement data similar to Coco and Keller, J Vis 14(3):11-11 (2014). This means that task decoding is not limited to tasks that naturally take longer to perform and yield multi-second eye-movement recordings.

  13. Long-Term Ground-Water Levels and Transmissivity in the Blackstone River Basin, Northern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Church, Peter E.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water provides about 7.7 million gallons per day, or 28 percent of total water use in the Rhode Island part of the Blackstone River Basin. Primary aquifers in the basin are stratified glacial deposits, composed mostly of sand and gravel along valley bottoms. The ground-water and surface-water system in the Blackstone River Basin is under stress due to population growth, out-of-basin water transfers, industrialization, and changing land-use patterns. Streamflow periodically drops below the Aquatic Base Flow standard, and ground-water withdrawals add to stress on aquatic habitat during low-flow periods. Existing hydrogeologic data were reviewed to examine historical water-level trends and to generate contour maps of water-table altitudes and transmissivity of the sand and gravel aquifer in the Blackstone River Basin in Rhode Island. On the basis of data from four long-term observation wells, water levels appear to have risen slightly in the study area during the past 55 years. Analysis of available data indicates that increased rainfall during the same period is a likely contributor to the water-level rise. Spatial patterns of transmissivity are shown over larger areas and have been refined on the basis of more detailed data coverage as compared to previous mapping studies.

  14. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  15. Real-Time Subject-Independent Pattern Classification of Overt and Covert Movements from fNIRS Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Robinson

    Full Text Available Recently, studies have reported the use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS for developing Brain-Computer Interface (BCI by applying online pattern classification of brain states from subject-specific fNIRS signals. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test a real-time method for subject-specific and subject-independent classification of multi-channel fNIRS signals using support-vector machines (SVM, so as to determine its feasibility as an online neurofeedback system. Towards this goal, we used left versus right hand movement execution and movement imagery as study paradigms in a series of experiments. In the first two experiments, activations in the motor cortex during movement execution and movement imagery were used to develop subject-dependent models that obtained high classification accuracies thereby indicating the robustness of our classification method. In the third experiment, a generalized classifier-model was developed from the first two experimental data, which was then applied for subject-independent neurofeedback training. Application of this method in new participants showed mean classification accuracy of 63% for movement imagery tasks and 80% for movement execution tasks. These results, and their corresponding offline analysis reported in this study demonstrate that SVM based real-time subject-independent classification of fNIRS signals is feasible. This method has important applications in the field of hemodynamic BCIs, and neuro-rehabilitation where patients can be trained to learn spatio-temporal patterns of healthy brain activity.

  16. Generation-scale movement patterns of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) in a stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2011-01-01

    Movements by stream fishes have long been the subject of study and controversy. Although much discussion has focused on what proportion of fish adopt mobility within particular life stages, a larger issue involves the lifetime movements of individuals. I evaluated movements of different sizes and ages of Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus...

  17. Forest thinning changes movement patterns and habitat use by Pacific marten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Moriarty; Clinton W. Epps; William J. Zielinski

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simplifying stand structure to reduce fuel density is a high priority for forest managers; however, affects to Pacific marten (Martes caurina) movement and connectivity are unknown. We evaluated whether thinning forests to reduce fuels influenced movements of Pacific marten. We collected movement paths from 22 martens using global positioning system telemetry...

  18. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.

  19. MODELING NITRATE CONCENTRATION IN GROUND WATER USING REGRESSION AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Nacha; Krishnan, Palaniappa; Bernard, John C.; Ritter, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in ground water is a major problem in specific agricultural areas. Using regression and neural networks, this study models nitrate concentration in ground water as a function of iron concentration in ground water, season and distance of the well from a poultry house. Results from both techniques are comparable and show that the distance of the well from a poultry house has a significant effect on nitrate concentration in groundwater.

  20. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met

  1. Overwintering strategies of migratory birds: a novel approach for estimating seasonal movement patterns of residents and transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Kendall, William L.; Saracco, James F.; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of movement patterns in wildlife populations has played an important role in current ecological knowledge and can inform landscape conservation decisions. Direct measures of movement can be obtained using marked individuals, but this requires tracking individuals across a landscape or multiple sites.We demonstrate how movements can be estimated indirectly using single-site, capture–mark–recapture (CMR) data with a multi-state open robust design with state uncertainty model (MSORD-SU). We treat residence and transience as two phenotypic states of overwintering migrants and use time- and state-dependent probabilities of site entry and persistence as indirect measures of movement. We applied the MSORD-SU to data on eight species of overwintering Neotropical birds collected in 14 countries between 2002 and 2011. In addition to entry and persistence probabilities, we estimated the proportions of residents at a study site and mean residence times.We identified overwintering movement patterns and residence times that contrasted with prior categorizations of territoriality. Most species showed an evidence of residents entering sites at multiple time intervals, with transients tending to enter between peak resident movement times. Persistence and the proportion of residents varied by latitude, but were not always positively correlated for a given species.Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that migratory songbirds commonly move among habitats during the overwintering period. Substantial proportions of populations appear to be comprised of transient individuals, and residents tend to persist at specific sites for relatively short periods of time. This information on persistence and movement patterns should be explored for specific habitats to guide landscape management on the wintering grounds, such as determining which habitats are conserved or restored as part of certification programmes of tropical agroforestry crops. We suggest that

  2. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  3. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: potential risk factors related to thoracic muscle co-contraction and movement pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Knudsen, Archibald; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of exercise-induced rib stress fractures (RSFs) in elite rowers is unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate thoracic muscle activity, movement patterns and muscle strength in elite rowers. Electromyographic (EMG) and 2-D video analysis were performed during ergometer rowing...

  4. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-03-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems. La géochimie a contribué de façon importante à la compréhension des systèmes d'eaux souterraines pendant les 50 dernières années. Les avancées ont portées sur le développement du concept des faciès hydrochimiques, sur l'application de la théorie des équilibres, l'étude des processus d'oxydoréduction, et sur la datation au radiocarbone. D'autres concepts, outils et

  5. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches

  6. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting the proposed EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own unique set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. Implementing a PEIS alternative means applying a ground water compliance strategy or strategies at a specific site. It is the use of a strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  9. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  10. Influence of the throwing direction on biomechanics of movement patterns in handball throws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare players’ intra-individual variability in the movement pattern of four throwing directions, which were realized to one of the corners of the goal, in presence of the goalkeeper in handball. Five players participated at the first division of Spanish Handball. Each thrower completed 35 throws in different directions. 3D video techniques were used to determine the rectangular components of the spacial positions between 5 body markers and the ball. An analysis of variance was used to detect the changes produced by the direction of the throw. An additional analysis of variance was used to measure the temporary differences of the direction of the throw using the positions of the 5 body markers used by the 3 specialist throwers. The data showed that when the throw was directed to the left side, the time for the throw was significally longer, and when the throw was directed to lower zones, the time of release tended to increase even more, because the ball is released higher.

  11. Pollination potential of male bumble bees (Bombus impatiens: movement patterns and pollen-transfer efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Thomson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many plant species rely on female bumble bee workers for pollen transfer. However, male bumble bees, which differ both behaviourally and morphologically from female workers, also visit many species of flowering plants and may transfer pollen differently. Males can outnumber workers on some plants, particularly those that flower late in the season. In laboratory experiments, we compared the movement patterns of male bees and female workers on an artificial flower array. We also compared the pollen transfer efficiency of males and workers foraging on Brassica rapa flowers. Males travelled between patches of flowers more often than workers, which may be an effective method for reducing geitonogamy in plants. Males also had lower foraging rates, longer flower handling time, and transferred more pollen from one B. rapa flower to the next than workers did. These caste-based differences in pollinating behaviour suggest that, under certain circumstances and on a per-visit basis, male bumble bees may be better pollen vectors than female foragers. Furthermore, our results emphasize the need to avoid species-wide generalizations of pollinator effectiveness.

  12. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

  13. The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Krieber

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence, we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12. We found that (a reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.

  14. Numerical modeling of ground-water flow systems in the vicinity of the reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.; Beyeler, W.; Logsdon, M.; Coleman, N.; Brinster, K.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents south-central Washington State's Pasco Basin ground-water modeling studies. This work was done to support the NRC's review of hydrogeologic studies under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The report provides a brief overview of the geology, hydrology, and hydrochemistry of the Pasco Basin as a basis for the evaluation of previous conceptual and numerical ground-water flow models of the region. Numerical models were developed to test new conceptual models of the site and to provide a means of evaluating the Department of Energy's performance assessments and proposed hydrologic testing. Regional ground-water flow modeling of an area larger than the Pasco Basin revealed that current concepts on the existence and behavior of a hydrologic barrier west of the proposed repository location are inconsistent with available data. This modeling also demonstrated that the measured pattern of hydraulic heads cannot be produced with a model that (1) has uniform layer properties over the entire domain; (2) has zones of large conductivity associated with anticlinal structures; or (3) includes recharge from the industrial disposal ponds. Adequate representation of the measured hydraulic heads was obtained with a model that contained regions of larger hydraulic conductivity that corresponded to the presence of sedimentary interbeds. In addition, a detailed model of a region smaller than the Pasco Basin was constructed to provide the NRC staff with the ability to analyze proposed Department of Energy hydrologic tests. 62 refs., 145 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on

  16. Geocongress 84: 20. Geological congress of the Geological Society of South Africa. Abstracts: Pt. 2. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Only one article in the publication is relevant to INIS: Environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry in ground water studies. A very short review is given on the ground water resources of the Kalahari in Gordonia. Ground water in mining exploration and the geophysics of ground water and the methods used in the geophysics are discussed. The dolomitic aquifers, especially in the southern and western Transvaal and ground water models are also reviewed

  17. Radon concentrations of ground waters in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kawamura, Norihisa [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health has been collecting the data concerning the spacial distribution of Rn concentration of groundwater in Aichi Prefecture and its time course changes. In this report, the data was described chiefly from 1991 and the availability of newly developed polyethylene vessel was discussed. Determination of Rn concentration was performed at a total of 104 sites within the range from the horizon to the depth of 1800 m. The measurement has been repeatedly conducted for ca. 20 years. The maximum level of Rn was 896 Bq/l and the minimum was 0.3 Bq/l for the groundwater samples collected from different springs. Correlation of Rn concentration with other chemical and physical factors for ground water was investigated and a significant correlation was found only between Rn concentration and pH ({gamma}=0.304, p<0.01). No time course changes in Rn concentration was observed except for the water sample from the site affected by some newly dug wells. In addition, the newly developed extraction vessel was shown to be available for the determination and its operability in the field was superior to the conventional glass ware. (M.N.)

  18. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  20. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  1. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten

    2007-01-01

    homogeneity in farm-to-farm relationship should only be used for large-scale interpretation and for epidemic preparedness. The network approach, based on graph theory, can be used efficiently to express more precisely, on a local scale (premise), the heterogeneity of animal movements. This approach...... number of pigs was 24. The largest percentage of movements was from farm to abattoir (82.5%); the median number of pigs per movement was 24 and the maximum number was 2018. For the whole period the median and maximum Euclidean distances observed in farm-to-farm movements were 22 km and 289 km...... respectively, while in the farm-to-abattoir movements, they were 36.2 km and 285 km. The network related to one specific premise showed that the median number of premises was mainly away from slaughter pig farms (3) or breeder farms (26) and mainly to an abattoir (1535). The assumption that animal movements...

  2. EFFECT OF “FIFA 11+” ON THE PATTERN OF FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS IN UNDER-14 SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Baeza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Increasing youth participation in soccer has several benefits, but it also brings risks of injury. The use of neuromuscular techniques is effective in preventing injuries, especially in periods of growth as occurs in puberty, which coincides with the development of fundamental basic movements. Therefore, it is important to implement and evaluate prevention programs that focus on neuromuscular control during this stage. Objective: To determine the effect of the FIFA 11+ over a six-week training period in order to quickly improve fundamental movement patterns in under-14 soccer players. Method: A quasi-experimental study that evaluated the fundamental movement patterns through the Functional Movement Screen (FMS in 22 athletes who were divided into a control group (CG; N=11 and an experimental group (EG; N=11, submitted to the program FIFA 11+ for six weeks. The SPSS 20.0 program was used to analyze the data. Results: Statistically significant improvements were found in the in-line lunge (IL and in the post-intervention FMS total scores in EG, as well as intergroup improvements when testing the deep squat (DS in the EG, but not in both groups. Conclusions: The six week FIFA 11+ program did not produce significant improvements in players’ fundamental movements.

  3. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  4. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury.

  5. City of Flagstaff Project: Ground Water Resource Evaluation, Remote Sensing Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Pat S.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Bowell, Jo-Ann; Sides, Stuart C.; Gonzalez, Rosendo R.; Soltesz, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Many regions, cities, and towns in the Western United States need new or expanded water resources because of both population growth and increased development. Any tools or data that can help in the evaluation of an area's potential water resources must be considered for this increasingly critical need. Remotely sensed satellite images and subsequent digital image processing have been under-utilized in ground water resource evaluation and exploration. Satellite images can be helpful in detecting and mapping an area's regional structural patterns, including major fracture and fault systems, two important geologic settings for an area's surface to ground water relations. Within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Flagstaff Field Center, expertise and capabilities in remote sensing and digital image processing have been developed over the past 25 years through various programs. For the City of Flagstaff project, this expertise and these capabilities were combined with traditional geologic field mapping to help evaluate ground water resources in the Flagstaff area. Various enhancement and manipulation procedures were applied to the digital satellite images; the results, in both digital and hardcopy format, were used for field mapping and analyzing the regional structure. Relative to surface sampling, remotely sensed satellite and airborne images have improved spatial coverage that can help study, map, and monitor the earth surface at local and/or regional scales. Advantages offered by remotely sensed satellite image data include: 1. a synoptic/regional view compared to both aerial photographs and ground sampling, 2. cost effectiveness, 3. high spatial resolution and coverage compared to ground sampling, and 4. relatively high temporal coverage on a long term basis. Remotely sensed images contain both spectral and spatial information. The spectral information provides various properties and characteristics about the surface cover at a given location or pixel

  6. Natural isotope technique for the exploration and exploitation of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Abidin; Hudi Hastowo; Aang Hanafiah

    2007-01-01

    In line with the condition of climate and hydrology, Indonesia has a fast amount of aquifers which are sources of ground water. In several areas large number of springs occurred with small to large debits which is a sign of ground water potential. Ground water is a potential reservoir to be use at maximum for several purposes such as drinking water, industry and tourism. Large cities such as Jakarta, Bandung and others depend on ground water for their industries and hotels. The exploitation of ground water use has to be controlled and monitoring of a management system have to be done. Research carried out only on the exploitation of geophysics and hydrology showed that the amount of ground water reservoirs is not enough to be used when it comes to justification to explore it. Other parameters are still be needed which are the origins and dating of the ground water, these last two factors mentioned have to be taken into consideration in the system of conversion and balance of water. An alternative technology to determine the two factors mentioned in a short time is the natural isotope technique of 18 O, 2 H and 14 C. This technique is used to determine the origin of water, and isotope 14 C is carried out to determine the age of ground water. Isotopes 18 H and 2 H are stable isotopes in the form of water and is integrated in the hydrological cycle. Their specific concentrations in rain water at several elevations are used as fingerprints to locate the area of ground water supplement and its origin. Isotope 14 C is a natural radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5.730 years and is found in the hydrology cycle and enters the ground water system through CO 2 gas which is dissolved in water. 14 C isotope could determine the age of ground water and is also able to indicate the potential/amount of ground water. Studies of exploration and exploration monitoring of ground water should be an integrated study by geohydrology, geophysics and isotope and could be a solution of

  7. Robot-assisted adaptive training: custom force fields for teaching movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, James L; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2004-04-01

    Based on recent studies of neuro-adaptive control, we tested a new iterative algorithm to generate custom training forces to "trick" subjects into altering their target-directed reaching movements to a prechosen movement as an after-effect of adaptation. The prechosen movement goal, a sinusoidal-shaped path from start to end point, was never explicitly conveyed to the subject. We hypothesized that the adaptation would cause an alteration in the feedforward command that would result in the prechosen movement. Our results showed that when forces were suddenly removed after a training period of 330 movements, trajectories were significantly shifted toward the prechosen movement. However, de-adaptation occurred (i.e., the after-effect "washed out") in the 50-75 movements that followed the removal of the training forces. A second experiment suppressed vision of hand location and found a detectable reduction in the washout of after-effects, suggesting that visual feedback of error critically influences learning. A final experiment demonstrated that after-effects were also present in the neighborhood of training--44% of original directional shift was seen in adjacent, unpracticed movement directions to targets that were 60 degrees different from the targets used for training. These results demonstrate the potential for these methods for teaching motor skills and for neuro-rehabilitation of brain-injured patients. This is a form of "implicit learning," because unlike explicit training methods, subjects learn movements with minimal instructions, no knowledge of, and little attention to the trajectory.

  8. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for performing remedial action to bring surface and ground water contaminant levels at 24 inactive uranium processing sites into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. DOE is accomplishing this through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface and Ground Water Projects. Remedial action will be conducted with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the full participation of affected states and Indian tribes. Uranium processing activities at most of 24 the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels, the potential health and the environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently

  9. The “Lévy or Diffusion” Controversy: How Important Is the Movement Pattern in the Context of Trapping?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish A. Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many empirical and theoretical studies indicate that Brownian motion and diffusion models as its mean field counterpart provide appropriate modeling techniques for individual insect movement. However, this traditional approach has been challenged, and conflicting evidence suggests that an alternative movement pattern such as Lévy walks can provide a better description. Lévy walks differ from Brownian motion since they allow for a higher frequency of large steps, resulting in a faster movement. Identification of the ‘correct’ movement model that would consistently provide the best fit for movement data is challenging and has become a highly controversial issue. In this paper, we show that this controversy may be superficial rather than real if the issue is considered in the context of trapping or, more generally, survival probabilities. In particular, we show that almost identical trap counts are reproduced for inherently different movement models (such as the Brownian motion and the Lévy walk under certain conditions of equivalence. This apparently suggests that the whole ‘Levy or diffusion’ debate is rather senseless unless it is placed into a specific ecological context, e.g., pest monitoring programs.

  10. Statistical analysis of ground-water contamination at the alert apron and northern landfill areas of Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, P.; Naber, S.; Verducci, J.

    1988-07-01

    Two plumes of contamination are analyzed to determine their extent, composition, and movement. The large number of ground-water monitoring wells sampled over the past eight years at Wurtsmith AFB allow this analysis to be performed directly from empirical data, with minimal assumptions about solute transport mechanisms. Conclusions are drawn about the likely sources of contamination in the two plumes, the adequacy of the data for making risk assessments, and the likely consequences of alternative programs of remediation.

  11. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  12. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia A

    2013-06-21

    The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI), based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata) and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum) of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs), serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of static parameters

  13. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  14. Children's Eye Movements, Miscue Analysis Patterns, and Retellings When Reading a Counterpoint Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwanag, Maria Perpetua Socorro U.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Martens, Ray; Martens, Prisca

    2016-01-01

    This study incorporated eye movement miscue analysis to investigate two second-graders' oral reading and comprehension of a counterpoint picture book. Findings suggest the second-graders' strategies when reading the written and pictorial text affected their comprehension as opposed to the number and location of their eye movements. Specifically,…

  15. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem

    2015-12-01

    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  16. Trace Analysis of Heavy Metals in Ground Waters of Vijayawada Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiboyina, Ravisankar; Ptsrk, Prasada Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc., gives an attention to protect environment.one of the major source of contamination of ground water is improper discharge of industrial effluents these effluents contains so many heavy metals which…

  17. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting. 430.19 Section 430.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.19...

  18. Combined ion exchange / biological denitrification for nitrate removal from ground water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der J.P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for nitrate removal from ground water. High nitrate concentrations in ground water are a result of fertilization in agriculture. According to a directive of the European Community the maximum admissible concentration of nitrate in

  19. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Gunnison ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Gunnison processing site; and modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  20. Effects of uranium mining on ground water in Ambrosia Lake area, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.E.; Link, R.L.; Schipper, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of mining on the principal aquifer in the Ambrosia Lake area, the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. Loss of potentiometric head has resulted in interformational migration of ground water. This migration has produced local deterioration in chemical quality of the ground water. 7 refs

  1. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  2. Effects Disposal Condition and Ground Water to Leaching Rate of Radionuclides from Solidification Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlan Martono; Wati

    2008-01-01

    Effects disposal condition and ground water to leaching rate of radionuclides from solidification products have been studied. The aims of leaching test at laboratory to get the best composition of solidified products for continuous process or handling. The leaching rate of radionuclides from the many kinds of matrix from smallest to bigger are glass, thermosetting plastic, urea formaldehyde, asphalt, and cement. Glass for solidification of high level waste, thermosetting plastic and urea formaldehyde for solidification of low and intermediate waste, asphalt and cement for solidification of low and intermediate level waste. In shallow land burial, ground water rate is fast, debit is high, and high permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is occur. The pH of ground water increasing leaching rate, but cation in the ground water retard leaching rate. Effects temperature radiation and radiolysis to solidification products is not occur. In the deep repository, ground water rate is slow, debit is small, and low permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is very small. There are effect cooling time and distance between pits to rock temperature. Alfa radiation effects can be occur, but there is no contact between solidification products and ground water, so that there is not radiolysis. (author)

  3. Environmental isotopes as early warning tools to control the abstraction of deep ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, K.P.; Maloszewski, P.; Weise, S.M.; Loosli, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    Early warning system for the exploitation of ground water from the passive zone can not be based on the measurement of pollutant concentrations itself. The environmental tracer data are suggested to be used as indicators for changes in conservative mass transport processes from shallow to deep or very deep to deep ground waters

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  5. A visual analytics design for studying rhythm patterns from human daily movement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human’s daily movements exhibit high regularity in a space–time context that typically forms circadian rhythms. Understanding the rhythms for human daily movements is of high interest to a variety of parties from urban planners, transportation analysts, to business strategists. In this paper, we present an interactive visual analytics design for understanding and utilizing data collected from tracking human’s movements. The resulting system identifies and visually presents frequent human movement rhythms to support interactive exploration and analysis of the data over space and time. Case studies using real-world human movement data, including massive urban public transportation data in Singapore and the MIT reality mining dataset, and interviews with transportation researches were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of our system.

  6. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Lung, R.H.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The study of structural response to seismic inputs has been extensively studied and, particularly with the advent of the growth of digital computer capability, has lead to the development of numerical methods of analysis which are used as standard tools for the design of structures. One aspect of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) process which has not been developed to the same degree of sophistication is the impact of ground water (or pure water) on the response of the soil-structure system. There are very good reasons for his state of affairs, however, not the least of which is the difficulty of incorporating the true constitutive behavior of saturated soils into the analysis. At the large strain end of the spectrum, the engineer is concerned with the potential development of failure conditions under the structure, and is typically interested in the onset of liquefaction conditions. The current state of the art in this area is to a great extent based on empirical methods of analysis which were developed from investigations of limited failure data from specific sites around the world. Since it is known that analytic solutions are available for only the simplest of configurations, a numerical finite element solution process was developed. Again, in keeping with typical SSI analyses, in order to make the finite element approach yield resonable results, a comparable transmitting boundary formulation was included in the development. The purpose of the transmitting boundary is, of course, to allow for the treatment of extended soil/water half-space problems. For the calculations presented herein, a simple one dimensional transmitting boundary model was developed and utilized

  7. Completing the ground-water model: ''We need more data''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmeyer, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Computer modeling of geologic structures and groundwater flow has progressed from simple number crunching in the sixties to sophisticated and complex structure and flow models in the nineties (Hatheway, 1994). In the environmental field, a detailed knowledge of the subsurface geology is required and essential for successful ground-water remediation, planning, and investigations. Current options for determining shallow (0--400 ft) subsurface geology includes standard borings, cone penetrometer, ground penetrating radar (GPR), or resistivity surveys (RS). Standards borings are expensive coverage and the close spacing required for generating accurate model data. The cone penetrometer is less expensive and faster than conventional borings. However, both the cone penetrometer and borings are limited by access and are intrusive, providing additional paths for contaminant migration. While both standard GPR and RS are non-intrusive, they suffer from other limitations. A high conductivity soil (clay) will diminish the effectiveness of GPR. The signal is absorbed and dissipated in the first few inches of high conductivity soil. The depth of penetration of RS is better, but the vertical resolution for distinguishing between finely interbedded layers is much lower. An ideal system for subsurface geologic analysis would be non-intrusive, have the depth of penetration of RS, while offering the vertical resolution of GPR> Electromagnetic methods (EM) offer distinct advantages in helping to solve these problems: (a) they are non-intrusive, and (b) the technology to support EM probing-pulse generation, data collection--is well established. Quaternary Resource Investigations, Inc., (QRI) has developed such a system

  8. Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Dhamar City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefdallah Al Aizari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on groundwater at five fields (17 sampling wells located in Dhamar city, the central highlands of Yemen, was carried out. Samples were collected from the ground water supplies (tube wells during the year 2015. Physical parameters studied include (values between bracket s represents the measured mean values temperature (T, 25°, total dissolved solids (TDS, 271.47, pH (7.5, and electrical conductivity (EC, 424.18. The chemical parameters investigated include total hardness (TH, 127.45, calcium (Ca2+, 32.89, magnesium (Mg2+, 11.03, bicarbonate (HCO3̶, 143.84, sulphate (SO42-, 143.84, sodium (Na+, 35.11, potassium (K+, 6.28 and Chloride (Cl ̵, 22.69. The results were compared with drinking water quality standards issued by Yemen standards for drinking water. Except for T° and pH, all other measured parameters fall below the minimum permissible limits. The correlation between various physio-chemical parameters of the studied water wells was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. The obtained results show that all water samples are potable and can be safely used for both drinking and irrigation purposes. This comes in agreement with the public notion about groundwater of Dhamar Governorate. Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR values were calculated and found below 3 except for one drill. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 56-71

  9. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.

  10. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.

  11. Impact of severe climate variability on lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Tuqa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we were interested in understanding if droughts influence the home range of predators such as lions, and if it does, in what ways the droughts influenced lions to adjust their home range, in response to prey availability. We monitored movements of ten lions fitted with GPS-GSM collars in order to analyze their home range and movement patterns over a six year period (2007–2012. We assessed the impact of a severe drought on the lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem. There was a strong positive correlation between the home range size and distance moved in 24 h before and during the drought (2007–2009, while after the drought there was a significant negative correlation. A weak positive correlation was evident between the lion home range and rainfall amounts (2010–2012. The male and female home ranges varied over the study period. The home range size and movement patterns coincided with permanent swamps and areas of high prey density inside the protected area. Over the course of the dry season and following the drought, the ranges initially shrank and then expanded in response to decreasing prey densities. The lions spent considerable time outside the park boundaries, particularly after severe the drought. We conclude that under conditions of fragmented habitats, severe climate conditions create new challenges for lion conservation due to effects on prey availability and subsequent influences on carnivore species ranging patterns. Stochastic weather patterns can force wide-ranging species beyond current reserve boundaries, into areas where there will be greater conflicts with humans. Keywords: Climate change, African lion, Panthera leo

  12. Discrimination of gender-, speed-, and shoe-dependent movement patterns in runners using full-body kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Stirling, Lisa; Nigg, Benno M

    2012-05-01

    Changes in gait kinematics have often been analyzed using pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis (PCA). It is usually just the first few principal components that are analyzed, because they describe the main variability within a dataset and thus represent the main movement patterns. However, while subtle changes in gait pattern (for instance, due to different footwear) may not change main movement patterns, they may affect movements represented by higher principal components. This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) speed and gender differences can be observed in the first principal components, and (2) small interventions such as changing footwear change the gait characteristics of higher principal components. Kinematic changes due to different running conditions (speed - 3.1m/s and 4.9 m/s, gender, and footwear - control shoe and adidas MicroBounce shoe) were investigated by applying PCA and support vector machine (SVM) to a full-body reflective marker setup. Differences in speed changed the basic movement pattern, as was reflected by a change in the time-dependent coefficient derived from the first principal. Gender was differentiated by using the time-dependent coefficient derived from intermediate principal components. (Intermediate principal components are characterized by limb rotations of the thigh and shank.) Different shoe conditions were identified in higher principal components. This study showed that different interventions can be analyzed using a full-body kinematic approach. Within the well-defined vector space spanned by the data of all subjects, higher principal components should also be considered because these components show the differences that result from small interventions such as footwear changes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground-water resources of north-central Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum

    1964-01-01

    The term 'north-central Connecticut' in this report refers to an area of about 640 square miles within the central lowland of the Connecticut River basin north of Middletown. The area is mostly a broad valley floor underlain by unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age which mantle an erosional surface formed on consolidated rocks of pre-Triassic and Triassic age. The mean annual precipitation at Hartford, near the center of the area, is 42.83 inches and is uniformly distributed throughout the year. The average annual streamflow from the area is about 22 inches or about half the precipitation. The consolidated water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Triassic age and sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Newark group of Triassic age. The crystalline rocks include the Middletown gneiss, the Maromas granite gneiss, the Glastonbury granite-gneiss of Rice and Gregory (1906), and the Bolton schist which form the basement complex and the Eastern Upland of north-central Connecticut. Enough water for domestic, stock, and small commercial use generally can be obtained from the crystalline rocks. Recoverable ground water occurs in the interconnected joints and fracture zones and is yielded in amounts ranging from 29 to 35 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells ranging in depth from 29 to 550 feet. The sedimentary rocks of Triassic age underlie all the Connecticut River Lowland and are predominantly arkosic sandstone and shale. Water supplies sufficient for domestic, stock, and small commercial use can be obtained from shallow wells penetrating these rocks, and larger supplies sufficient for industries and smaller municipalities can probably be obtained from deeper wells. Reported yields range from ? to 578 gpm; the larger yields are generally obtained from wells between 300 and 600 feet in depth. Yields are larger where the overlying material is sand and gravel or where the rocks are well fractured. The igneous rocks of Triassic age are basalt and have

  14. Nitrogen-isotope ratios of nitrate in ground water under fertilized fields, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, W.J.; Bonner, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the 15N/14N ratios (??15N values) of fertilizer are increased during transit from land surface to ground water to an extent which would preclude use of this ratio to distinguish agricultural from animal sources of nitrate in ground water. Ground water at both sites contained a greater proportion of 15N than the fertilizers being applied. At the potato farm, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was 0.2???; the average ??15N value of the ground-water nitrate was 6.2???. At the golf course, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was -5.9???, and that of ground-water nitrate was 6.5???. The higher ??15N values of ground-water nitrate are probably caused by isotopic fractionation during the volatile loss of ammonia from nitrogen applied in reduced forms (NH4+ and organic-N). The ??15N values of most ground-water samples from both areas were less than 10???, the upper limit of the range characteristic of agricultural sources of nitrate; these sources include both fertilizer nitrate and nitrate derived from increased mineralization of soil nitrogen through cultivation. Previous studies have shown that the ??15N values of nitrate derived from human or animal waste generally exceed 10???. The nitrogen-isotope ratios of fertilizer-derived nitrate were not altered to an extent that would make them indistinguishable from animal-waste-derived nitrates in ground water.Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to

  15. Estimating Natural Recharge in a Desert Environment Facing Increasing Ground-Water Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.; Izbicki, J. A.; Hevesi, J. A.; Martin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin, and ground-water withdrawals averaging about 960 acre-ft/yr have resulted in as much as 35 ft of drawdown. As growth continues in the desert, ground-water resources may need to be supplemented using imported water. To help meet future demands, JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. To manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. To this end, field and numerical techniques were applied to determine the distribution and quantity of natural recharge. Field techniques included the installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Numerical techniques included the use of a distributed-parameter watershed model and a ground-water flow model. The results from the field techniques indicated that as much as 70 acre-ft/yr of water infiltrated downward through the two principal washes during the study period (2001-3). The results from the watershed model indicated that the average annual recharge in the ground-water subbasins is about 160 acre-ft/yr. The results from the calibrated ground-water flow model indicated that the average annual recharge for the same area is about 125 acre-ft/yr. Although the field and numerical techniques were applied to different scales (local vs. large), all indicate that natural recharge in the Joshua Tree area is very limited; therefore, careful management of the limited ground-water resources is needed. Moreover, the calibrated model can now be used to estimate the effects of different water-management strategies on the ground-water

  16. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments

  19. Using GeoVisual Analytics for understanding the distribution of complex movement patterns on the arterial roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    streets by igniting traffic rules. This will be studied on the basis of clusters of big unexplainable deviations from driving speed in FCD. The results will allow us to uncover meaningful patterns from complex traffic movements in populated areas, and provide some recommendations that are critical......Arterial roads have a particular operational significance and play a substantial role in the mobility and economic development of the modern society. They make up the majority of the road transport in urban and rural areas, and allow high-speed movement despite speed limitations and traffic...... controlling elements urban areas. In densely populated areas, where the presence of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) is high, a high-speed movement is problematic from a road safety perspective, since many VRUs do crossroads by ignoring regardless of regulation and design limitations of the road network...

  20. Stable isotope study of ground water recharge and movement in the Shogawa Fan, Toyama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Oda, Matsuhisa

    1983-01-01

    Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements of ground and river waters of the Shogawa Fan, Toyama, have been used to identify sources of water in aquifers in the Fan. A significant difference exists in deltaD and delta 18 O values between two major rivers flowing onto the Fan. On the basis of this difference, it is indicated that aquifers in the eastern half of the Fan are recharged from the Sho River and those in the western half of the Fan are from the Oyabe River. Chloride measurements of the waters support this identification of water sources. Contributions of other water sources to the aquifers are also indicated. The flow rate of infiltration from the Sho River is estimated to be 10-13 m/day in the confined aquifers in the northern part of the Fan. (author)

  1. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Saint Savage

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The patterning of the Arabidopsis root epidermis depends on a genetic regulatory network that operates both within and between cells. Genetic studies have identified a number of key components of this network, but a clear picture of the functional logic of the network is lacking. Here, we integrate existing genetic and biochemical data in a mathematical model that allows us to explore both the sufficiency of known network interactions and the extent to which additional assumptions about the model can account for wild-type and mutant data. Our model shows that an existing hypothesis concerning the autoregulation of WEREWOLF does not account fully for the expression patterns of components of the network. We confirm the lack of WEREWOLF autoregulation experimentally in transgenic plants. Rather, our modelling suggests that patterning depends on the movement of the CAPRICE and GLABRA3 transcriptional regulators between epidermal cells. Our combined modelling and experimental studies show that WEREWOLF autoregulation does not contribute to the initial patterning of epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis seedling root. In contrast to a patterning mechanism relying on local activation, we propose a mechanism based on lateral inhibition with feedback. The active intercellular movements of proteins that are central to our model underlie a mechanism for pattern formation in planar groups of cells that is centred on the mutual support of two cell fates rather than on local activation and lateral inhibition.

  2. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-06-01

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  3. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Public concern regarding the potential human health and environmental effects from uranium mill tailings led Congress to pass the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Public Law 95-604) in 1978. In the UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings at 24 abandoned uranium mill processing sites needing remedial action. Uranium processing activities at most of the 24 mill processing sites resulted in the formation of contaminated ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of hazardous constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting EPA-proposed standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated with constituents from UMTRA Project sites. A major first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of the alternatives, including the proposed action. These alternatives are programmatic in that they are plans for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. This PEIS is a planning document that will provide a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assess the potential programmatic and environmental impacts of conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project; provide a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provide data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses documents more efficiently

  4. Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdenzi Sandro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the weight loss in limestone tablets placed in the Grotta del Fiume (Frasassi, Italy provided data on the rate of limestone dissolution due to the sulfidic water and on the influence of local environmental conditions.A linear average corrosion rate of 24 mm ka-1 was measured in stagnant water, while the values were higher (68-119 mm ka-1 where the hydrologic conditions facilitate water movement and gas exchanges. In these zones the increase in water aggressivity is due to mixing with descending, O2-rich, seepage water and is also favored by easier gas exchange between ground-water and the cave atmosphere. Very intense corrosion was due to weakly turbulent flow, which caused evident changes in the tablets shape in few months. A comparison between the measured corrosion rates and the cave features showed that the values measured in the pools with stagnant water are too low to account for the largest solutional cave development, while the average values measured in the zones with moving water are compatible with the dimension of the cave rooms in the main cave levels, that must have developed when the base level was stable and hydrologic conditions favored the increase of water aggressivity.

  5. Restoration of Central Programmed Movement Pattern by Temporal Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Training in Patients with Spinal Cerebellar Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Chang, Yao-Shun; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wong, Alice M K; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted triphasic electromyography (EMG) patterns of agonist and antagonist muscle pairs during fast goal-directed movements have been found in patients with hypermetria. Since peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) and motor training may modulate motor cortical excitability through plasticity mechanisms, we aimed to investigate whether temporal ES-assisted movement training could influence premovement cortical excitability and alleviate hypermetria in patients with spinal cerebellar ataxia (SCA). The EMG of the agonist extensor carpi radialis muscle and antagonist flexor carpi radialis muscle, premovement motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the flexor carpi radialis muscle, and the constant and variable errors of movements were assessed before and after 4 weeks of ES-assisted fast goal-directed wrist extension training in the training group and of general health education in the control group. After training, the premovement MEPs of the antagonist muscle were facilitated at 50 ms before the onset of movement. In addition, the EMG onset latency of the antagonist muscle shifted earlier and the constant error decreased significantly. In summary, temporal ES-assisted training alleviated hypermetria by restoring antagonist premovement and temporal triphasic EMG patterns in SCA patients. This technique may be applied to treat hypermetria in cerebellar disorders. (This trial is registered with NCT01983670.).

  6. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    , Groundwater Section, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, initiated a multiyear study of ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces. The study began in 1999.Most of the study area is underlain by a complex, two-part, regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system. Thickness of the regolith throughout the study area is highly variable and ranges from 0 to more than 150 feet. The regolith consists of an unconsolidated or semiconsolidated mixture of clay and fragmental material ranging in grain size from silt to boulders. Because porosities range from 35 to 55 percent, the regolith provides the bulk of the water storage within the Blue Ridge and Piedmont ground-water system. At the base of the regolith is the transition zone where saprolite grades into unweathered bedrock. The transition zone has been identified as a potential conduit for rapid ground-water flow. If this is the case, the transition zone also may serve as a conduit for rapid movement of contaminants to nearby wells or to streams with channels that cut into 1 U.S. Geological Survey, Raleigh, North Carolina. 2 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, Groundwater Section. or through the transition zone. How rapidly a contaminant moves through the system largely may be a function of the characteristics of the transition zone. The transition zone is one of several topics identified during the literature review and data synthesis, for which there is a deficiency in data and understanding of the processes involved in the movement of ground water to surface water.Because the Blue Ridge and Piedmont study area is so large, and the hydrogeology diverse, it is not feasible to study all of the area in detail. A more feasible approach is to select areas that are most representative of the land use, geology, and hydrology to obtain an understanding of the hydrologic processes in the selected areas, and transfer the knowledge from these local "type

  7. Fish distribution and abundance in mediterranean streams:the role of habitat quality, spatial context, and movement patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Daniel Filipe Carvalho Miranda, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Patterns of fish distribution and abundance in streams are currently thought of as a product of multi-scale factors. Local habitats, spatial relationships and movement are increasingly emerging as drivers of population and assemblage dynamics, though the way in which these factors may interplay remains poorly addressed, particularly in temporary streams. This dissertation addressed the role of mu...

  8. Determination of uranium in ground water using different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Maity, Sukanta; Bhangare, R.C.; Pandit, G.G.; Sharma, D.N.

    2014-10-01

    The concern over presence of natural radionuclides like uranium in drinking water is growing recently. The contamination of aquifers with radionuclides depends on number of factors. The geology of an area is the most important factor along with anthropogenic activities like mining, coal ash disposal from thermal power plants, use of phosphate fertilizers etc. Whatever may be the source, the presence of uranium in drinking waters is a matter of great concern for public health. Studies show that uranium is a chemo-toxic and nephrotoxic heavy metal. This chemotoxicity affects the kidneys and bones in particular. Seeing the potential health hazards from natural radionuclides in drinking water, many countries worldwide have adopted the guideline activity concentration for drinking water quality recommended by the WHO (2011). For uranium, WHO has set a limit of 30μgL-1 in drinking water. The geological distribution of uranium and its migration in environment is of interest because the element is having environmental and exposure concerns. It is of great interest to use an analytical technique for uranium analysis in water which is highly sensitive especially at trace levels, specific and precise in presence of other naturally occurring major and trace metals and needs small amount of sample. Various analytical methods based on the use of different techniques have been developed in the past for the determination of uranium in the geological samples. The determination of uranium requires high selectivity due to its strong association with other elements. Several trace level wet chemistry analytical techniques have been reported for uranium determination, but most of these involve tedious and pain staking procedures, high detection limits, interferences etc. Each analytical technique has its own merits and demerits. Comparative assessment by different techniques can provide better quality control and assurance. In present study, uranium was analysed in ground water samples

  9. Analysis of the variability of occlusal function patterns in masticatory movement--use of the GEMAS software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordass, B

    2006-04-01

    Individual masticatory patterns are similar to chaotic tangles of tortuous paths and are characterized by variability. The analysis of such masticatory patterns is therefore difficult. The new GEMAS software--Greifswald Movement Analyzing System--with which the variability of the masticatory function can be examined, is presented. Intersecting planes are placed through the orbit of the chewing cycles with which it is possible to wonder from the intercuspal position up to the maximum mouth-opening position of the masticatory pattern. The opening and closing points are displayed in different colors. Zones where masticatory paths converge or diverge can be determined, including the fan or funnel-shaped entering and exiting movements close to the centric position and the extent of their spread. A special diagram visualizes the rhythmic sequence of entering and subsequent exiting movement. The relation between restricted variability or monotony and forms of disease of the masticatory system is indicated by reference to case examples. The more monotonous or stereotyped the chewing cycles are, the higher is the risk of permanent wear of anatomical structures. Attention should therefore also be paid to variability in the individual occlusal surface design of dental restorations.

  10. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater-quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective.In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Water-quality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinking water standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county.Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  11. Colloid Detection in Natural Ground Water from Ruprechtov by Laser-Induced Breakdown Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, W.; Geckeis, H.; Goetz, R. [FZK - Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Ka rlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: hauser@ine.fzk.de; Noseck, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Laciok, A. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc, Waste and Environmental Management Dept., Husinec-Rez, PSC 250 68 (Czech Republic)

    2007-06-15

    A borehole ground water sampling system and a mobile laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) equipment for colloid detection combined with a geomonitoring unit have been applied to characterize the natural background colloid concentration in ground waters of the Ruprechtov natural analogue site (Czech Republic). Ground water has been sampled using steel cylinders. To minimize artifacts during ground water sampling the contact to atmospheric oxygen has been excluded. The ground water samples collected in this way are transported to the laboratory where they have been connected to a series of flow-through detection cells. Argon gas is used to press the ground water through these detection cells for colloid analysis (LIBD), pH, Eh, electrical conductivity and oxygen content. After the above mentioned analysis additional samples are taken for chemical analysis by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, IC- and DOC-detection. Our data obtained by in-situ- and laboratory- measurements point out that the natural colloid concentration found at the Ruprechtov site is a strong function of the ground water ionic strength. The LIBD determined natural background colloid concentrations found at Ruprechtov are compared with data of studies performed in Aespoe (Sweden) and Grimsel (Switzerland)

  12. Covering Ground: Movement Patterns and Random Walk Behavior in Aquilonastra anomala Sea Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Amanda C; Evangelista, Dennis; Waldrop, Lindsay D; Mah, Christopher L; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-10-01

    The paths animals take while moving through their environments affect their likelihood of encountering food and other resources; thus, models of foraging behavior abound. To collect movement data appropriate for comparison with these models, we used time-lapse photography to track movements of a small, hardy, and easy-to-obtain organism, Aquilonastra anomala sea stars. We recorded the sea stars in a tank over many hours, with and without a food cue. With food present, they covered less distance, as predicted by theory; this strategy would allow them to remain near food. We then compared the paths of the sea stars to three common models of animal movement: Brownian motion, Lévy walks, and correlated random walks; we found that the sea stars' movements most closely resembled a correlated random walk. Additionally, we compared the search performance of models of Brownian motion, a Lévy walk, and a correlated random walk to that of a model based on the sea stars' movements. We found that the behavior of the modeled sea star walk was similar to that of the modeled correlated random walk and the Brownian motion model, but that the sea star walk was slightly more likely than the other walks to find targets at intermediate distances. While organisms are unlikely to follow an idealized random walk in all details, our data suggest that comparing the effectiveness of an organism's paths to those from theory can give insight into the organism's actual movement strategy. Finally, automated optical tracking of invertebrates proved feasible, and A. anomala was revealed to be a tractable, 2D-movement study system.

  13. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravotta, C.A. III

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (< 5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  17. Ground water conditions and the relation to uranium deposits in the Gas Hills area, Fremont and Natrona Counties, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L.Y.

    1978-03-01

    As ground water apparently leaches, transports, and deposits uranium in the Gas Hills area, central Wyoming, it is important to understand its distribution, movement, and relation to geology and ore bodies. Water table maps were prepared of the Wind River Basin; the most detailed work was in the Gas Hills area. The water table in the Gas Hills area slopes downward to the northwest, ranges in depth from near the ground surface to more than 200 feet, and has seasonal fluctuation of about five feet. Perched water tables and artesian conditions occur locally. The oxidized-unoxidized rock contact is probably roughly parallel to the water table, and averages about 25 feet above it; although locally the two surfaces are considerably farther apart and the oxidized-unoxidized contact may be below the water table. In many places the gradient of the water table changes near the contact between rocks of different permeability. It is conformable with the structure at some anticlines and its gradient changes abruptly near some faults. Most above-normal concentrations of uranium occur at local water table depressions or at water table terraces where the gradient of the water table flattens. At these places, the uraniferous ground water is slowed and is in contact with the reducing agents in the rocks for a relatively long time. This may allow reduction of soluble transported uranium (U +6 ) to insoluble U +4 ) so that uranium is precipitated

  18. Low relative error in consumer-grade GPS units make them ideal for measuring small-scale animal movement patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg A. Breed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer-grade GPS units are a staple of modern field ecology, but the relatively large error radii reported by manufacturers (up to 10 m ostensibly precludes their utility in measuring fine-scale movement of small animals such as insects. Here we demonstrate that for data collected at fine spatio-temporal scales, these devices can produce exceptionally accurate data on step-length and movement patterns of small animals. With an understanding of the properties of GPS error and how it arises, it is possible, using a simple field protocol, to use consumer grade GPS units to collect step-length