WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground-truth gpr surveys

  1. SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization Andrew Nicholas, Ted Finne, Ivan Galysh, Anthony Mai, Jim Yen Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...mission overview, ground truth characterization and unique SSA observation opportunities of the mission. 1. MISSION CONCEPT The Naval Research...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization 5a. CONTRACT

  2. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  3. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  4. Acoustic seafloor discrimination with echo shape parameters: A comparison with the ground truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walree, P.A. van; Tȩgowski, J.; Laban, C.; Simons, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Features extracted from echosounder bottom returns are compared with the ground truth in a North Sea survey area. The ground truth consists of 50 grab samples for which the grain size distribution, and the gravel and shell contents were determined. Echo envelopes are analysed for two single-beam ech

  5. Autonomous Rover for Polar GPR Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L.; Lever, J. H.; Courville, Z.; Walker, B.; Arcone, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We deployed Yeti, an 80-kg, 4WD battery-powered rover to conduct ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys over crevasse-ridden ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland. The rover navigated using GPS waypoint following and had 3 - 4 hr endurance at 5 km/hr while towing 60 - 70 kg of GPR equipment. Yeti's low ground pressure allowed it to cross thinly bridged crevasses without interrupting a survey. In Feb - Mar 2014, Yeti executed 23 autonomous GPR surveys covering 94 km of terrain on the ice transition to the main ice sheet in northwest Greenland. This was the first robotic effort directly to support manual crevasse surveys to map a safe route for vehicle travel, in this case a resupply traverse to Summit Station. Yeti towed a radar controller, 400 MHz antenna, GPS receiver and battery pack. Radar scan rate was 16 scans/m and pulse timing allowed good spatial resolution to about 20-m depth. The resulting data allowed us to map hundreds of subsurface crevasses and provide the results nightly to the manual survey team to compliment its efforts. We met our objectives: (a) to enhance operational efficiency of the concurrent manual surveys, and (b) to create a geo-referenced database of crevasse signatures to validate aerial- and satellite-based crevasse-mapping platforms. In Oct - Nov 2014, we deployed Yeti in Antarctica to conduct systematic GPR surveys across a crevasse-ridden section of the shear margin between the Ross and McMurdo ice shelves and thereby gain insight into its state of fracture and long-term stability. Yeti flawlessly executed a total of 613 km of autonomous GPR surveys at temperatures as low as - 33ºC. The rover towed a a radar controlling a 400 MHz and a 200 MHz antenna, the latter added to profile 160 m through the ice sheet. The main survey grid covered 5.7 km x 5.0 km, with survey lines at 50-m spacing oriented west-east across the Shear Zone (575 km total length). Yeti's tracks normally deviated only 1 - 2 m from a straight line between the two

  6. Ground truth and benchmarks for performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Shneier, Michael; Hong, Tsai Hong; Chang, Tommy; Scrapper, Christopher; Cheok, Geraldine S.

    2003-09-01

    Progress in algorithm development and transfer of results to practical applications such as military robotics requires the setup of standard tasks, of standard qualitative and quantitative measurements for performance evaluation and validation. Although the evaluation and validation of algorithms have been discussed for over a decade, the research community still faces a lack of well-defined and standardized methodology. The range of fundamental problems include a lack of quantifiable measures of performance, a lack of data from state-of-the-art sensors in calibrated real-world environments, and a lack of facilities for conducting realistic experiments. In this research, we propose three methods for creating ground truth databases and benchmarks using multiple sensors. The databases and benchmarks will provide researchers with high quality data from suites of sensors operating in complex environments representing real problems of great relevance to the development of autonomous driving systems. At NIST, we have prototyped a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) system with a suite of sensors including a Riegl ladar, GDRS ladar, stereo CCD, several color cameras, Global Position System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS), pan/tilt encoders, and odometry . All sensors are calibrated with respect to each other in space and time. This allows a database of features and terrain elevation to be built. Ground truth for each sensor can then be extracted from the database. The main goal of this research is to provide ground truth databases for researchers and engineers to evaluate algorithms for effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and robustness, thus advancing the development of algorithms.

  7. Ground Truth Collections at the MTI Core Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-01-25

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) selected 13 sites across the continental US and one site in the western Pacific to serve as the primary or core site for collection of ground truth data for validation of MTI science algorithms. Imagery and ground truth data from several of these sites are presented in this paper. These sites are the Comanche Peak, Pilgrim and Turkey Point power plants, Ivanpah playas, Crater Lake, Stennis Space Center and the Tropical Western Pacific ARM site on the island of Nauru. Ground truth data includes water temperatures (bulk and skin), radiometric data, meteorological data and plant operating data. The organizations that manage these sites assist SRTC with its ground truth data collections and also give the MTI project a variety of ground truth measurements that they make for their own purposes. Collectively, the ground truth data from the 14 core sites constitute a comprehensive database for science algorithm validation.

  8. Development of Mine Explosion Ground Truth Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF MINE EXPLOSION GROUND TRUTH SMART SENSORS Steven R. Taylor1, Phillip E. Harben1, Steve Jarpe2, and David B. Harris3 Rocky...improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the...National Laboratories and seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location

  9. Use of GPR technique in surveying gravel road wearing course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarenketo, Timo; Vesa, Heikki

    2000-04-01

    During summer 1998 a series of tests were conducted in Finland in order to find out how Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technology can be utilized at both the project and network level, when surveying the wearing course thickness of gravel roads. The second objective was to investigate the possibilities of applying dielectricity information obtained using the GPR surface reflection method when determining the quality of the gravel road wearing course. In this study GPR was tested at the project level on highway 9241 Simo in Northern Finland, where the information provided by the GPR and laboratory research was used in designing and proportioning a new wearing course. In the network level studies, performed in the maintenance areas of Kemi and Karstula in Northern and Central Finland the goal for using GPR was to inspect the condition and thickness of the wearing course and evaluate the need for additional wearing course material. The total length of the roads under survey was approximately 200 km and both a 1.5 GHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna were tested in this study. The research results show that GPR can be used to measure the thickness of the wearing course, the average measuring error against reference drilling measurements being 25 mm, which is considerably larger than the error of radar measurements in paved roads. To a great extent this is due to the fact that the thickness of the wearing course varies greatly even in the road's cross-section and thus a single reference thickness does not represent the actual thickness of the area measured with the GPR. The wearing course can often get mixed up with lower layers, which makes it difficult to determine the exact layer interfaces. For this reason reference information must always be used along with the GPR measurement results. Of the two GPR antennae tested, the horn antenna proved to be the more effective in measurements. The dielectric value of the wearing course, measured using the horn

  10. A comparison of GPR performance at various frequencies - a guide to improved survey design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, Thabang E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate, through practical examples and numerical modelling, the trade-off between range and resolution in ground penetrating radar (GPR) prospecting. GPR surveys can easily fail when the target and host rock properties...

  11. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    Oceanographic upwelling studies required ground truth measurements of meteorological parameters and sea surface temperature to be made from a research vessel which did not have the necessary facilities. A ship-borne station was therefore designed...

  12. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  13. Precast concrete unit assessment through GPR survey and FDTD modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Precast concrete elements are widely used within United Kingdom house building offering ease in assembly and added values as structural integrity, sound and thermal insulation; most common concrete components include walls, beams, floors, panels, lintels, stairs, etc. The lack of respect of the manufacturer instruction during assembling, however, may induce cracking and short/long term loss of bearing capacity. GPR is a well-established not destructive technique employed in the assessment of structural elements because of real-time imaging, quickness of data collecting and ability to discriminate finest structural details. In this work, GPR has been used to investigate two different precast elements: precast reinforced concrete planks constituting the roof slab of a school and precast wood-cement blocks with insulation material pre-fitted used to build a perimeter wall of a private building. Visible cracks affected both constructions. For the assessment surveys, a GSSI 2.0 GHz GPR antenna has been used because of the high resolution required and the small size of the antenna case (155 by 90 by 105mm) enabling scanning up to 45mm from any obstruction. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical modelling was also performed to build a scenario of the expected GPR signal response for a preliminary real-time interpretation and to help solve uncertainties due to complex reflection patterns: simulated radargrams were built using Reflex Software v. 8.2, reproducing the same GPR pulse used for the surveys in terms of wavelet, nominal frequency, sample frequency and time window. Model geometries were derived from the design projects available both for the planks and the blocks; the electromagnetic properties of the materials (concrete, reinforcing bars, air-filled void, insulation and wooden concrete) were inferred from both values reported in literature and a preliminary interpretation of radargrams where internal layer interfaces were clearly recognizable and

  14. Is our Ground-Truth for Traffic Classification Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carela-Español, Valentín; Bujlow, Tomasz; Barlet-Ros, Pere

    2014-01-01

    The validation of the different proposals in the traffic classification literature is a controversial issue. Usually, these works base their results on a ground-truth built from private datasets and labeled by techniques of unknown reliability. This makes the validation and comparison with other...... solutions an extremely difficult task. This paper aims to be a first step towards addressing the validation and trustworthiness problem of network traffic classifiers. We perform a comparison between 6 well-known DPI-based techniques, which are frequently used in the literature for ground-truth generation....... In order to evaluate these tools we have carefully built a labeled dataset of more than 500 000 flows, which contains traffic from popular applications. Our results present PACE, a commercial tool, as the most reliable solution for ground-truth generation. However, among the open-source tools available...

  15. The ground truth about metadata and community detection in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Peel, Leto; Clauset, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Across many scientific domains, there is common need to automatically extract a simplified view or a coarse-graining of how a complex system's components interact. This general task is called community detection in networks and is analogous to searching for clusters in independent vector data. It is common to evaluate the performance of community detection algorithms by their ability to find so-called \\textit{ground truth} communities. This works well in synthetic networks with planted communities because such networks' links are formed explicitly based on the planted communities. However, there are no planted communities in real world networks. Instead, it is standard practice to treat some observed discrete-valued node attributes, or metadata, as ground truth. Here, we show that metadata are not the same as ground truth, and that treating them as such induces severe theoretical and practical problems. We prove that no algorithm can uniquely solve community detection, and we prove a general No Free Lunch the...

  16. Seismic Monitoring System Calibration Using Ground Truth Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Winston; Wagner, Robert

    2002-12-22

    Calibration of a seismic monitoring system remains a major issue due to the lack of ground truth information and uncertainties in the regional geological parameters. Rapid and accurate identification of seismic events is currently not feasible due to the absence of a fundamental framework allowing immediate access to ground truth information for many parts of the world. Precise location and high-confidence identification of regional seismic events are the primary objectives of monitoring research in seismology. In the Department of Energy Knowledge Base (KB), ground truth information addresses these objectives and will play a critical role for event relocation and identification using advanced seismic analysis tools. Maintaining the KB with systematic compilation and analysis of comprehensive sets of geophysical data from various parts of the world is vital. The goal of this project is to identify a comprehensive database for China using digital seismic waveform data that are currently unavailable. These data may be analyzed along with ground truth information that becomes available. To date, arrival times for all regional phases are determined on all events above Mb 4.5 that occurred in China in 2000 and 2001. Travel-time models are constructed to compare with existing models. Seismic attenuation models may be constructed to provide better understanding of regional wave propagation in China with spatial resolution that has not previously been obtained.

  17. A user friendly interface for microwave tomography enhanced GPR surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Affinito, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems are nowadays widely used in civil applications among which structural monitoring is one of the most critical issues due to its importance in terms of risks prevents and cost effective management of the structure itself. Despite GPR systems are assessed devices, there is a continuous interest towards their optimization, which involves both hardware and software aspects, with the common final goal to achieve accurate and highly informative images while keeping as low as possible difficulties and times involved in on field surveys. As far as data processing is concerned, one of the key aims is the development of imaging approaches capable of providing images easily interpretable by not expert users while keeping feasible the requirements in terms of computational resources. To satisfy this request or at least improve the reconstruction capabilities of data processing tools actually available in commercial GPR systems, microwave tomographic approaches based on the Born approximation have been developed and tested in several practical conditions, such as civil and archeological investigations, sub-service monitoring, security surveys and so on [1-3]. However, the adoption of these approaches is subjected to the involvement of expert workers, which have to be capable of properly managing the gathered data and their processing, which involves the solution of a linear inverse scattering problem. In order to overcome this drawback, aim of this contribution is to present an end-user friendly software interface that makes possible a simple management of the microwave tomographic approaches. In particular, the proposed interface allows us to upload both synthetic and experimental data sets saved in .txt, .dt and .dt1 formats, to perform all the steps needed to obtain tomographic images and to display raw-radargrams, intermediate and final results. By means of the interface, the users can apply time gating, back-ground removal or both to

  18. On the ground truth problem of malicious DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    DNS is often abused by Internet criminals in order to provide flexible and resilient hosting of malicious content and reliable communication within their network architecture. The majority of detection methods targeting alicious DNS traffic are data-driven, most commonly having machine learning...... algorithms at their core. These methods require accurate ground truth of both malicious and benign DNS traffic for model training as well as for the performance evaluation. This paper elaborates on the problem of obtaining such a ground truth and evaluates practices employed by contemporary detection methods....... Building upon the evaluation results, we propose a novel semi-manual labeling practice targeting agile DNS mappings, i.e. DNS queries that are used to reach a potentially malicious server characterized by fast changing domain names or/and IP addresses. The proposed approach is developed with the purpose...

  19. GPR Surveying in the kernel area of Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zemin; TAN Zhi; AI Songtao; LIU Haiyan; CHE Guowei

    2014-01-01

    The Grove Mountains, located between the Zhongshan Station and Dome A, are a very important area in inland Antarctic research. China has organized ifve investigations of the Grove Mountains, encompassing the geological structure, ancient climate, meteorites, ice-movement monitoring, basic mapping, meteorological observations, and other multi-disciplinary observational studies. During the 26th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition in 2010, the Grove Mountains investigation team applied specialized ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to survey subglacial topography in the eastern kernel area of the Grove Mountains. In this paper, we processed GPS and GPR data gathered in the ifeld and drew, for the ifrst time, two subglacial topographic maps of the Grove Mountains kernel area using professional graphics software. The preliminary results reveal the mystery of the nunatak landform of this area, give an exploratory sense of the real bedrock landforms, and indicate a possible sedimentary basin under the Pliocene epoch fossil ice in the Grove Mountains area. Additionally, it has been proven from cross-sectional analysis between Mount Harding and the Zakharoff ridge that the box-valley shape between two nunataks has already matured.

  20. Aeolian dunes as ground truth for atmospheric modeling on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R.K.; Titus, T.N.; Michaels, T.I.; Fenton, L.K.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Martian aeolian dunes preserve a record of atmosphere/surface interaction on a variety of scales, serving as ground truth for both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and mesoscale climate models, such as the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). We hypothesize that the location of dune fields, expressed globally by geographic distribution and locally by dune centroid azimuth (DCA), may record the long-term integration of atmospheric activity across a broad area, preserving GCM-scale atmospheric trends. In contrast, individual dune morphology, as expressed in slipface orientation (SF), may be more sensitive to localized variations in circulation, preserving topographically controlled mesoscale trends. We test this hypothesis by comparing the geographic distribution, DCA, and SF of dunes with output from the Ames Mars GCM and, at a local study site, with output from MRAMS. When compared to the GCM: 1) dunes generally lie adjacent to areas with strongest winds, 2) DCA agrees fairly well with GCM modeled wind directions in smooth-floored craters, and 3) SF does not agree well with GCM modeled wind directions. When compared to MRAMS modeled winds at our study site: 1) DCA generally coincides with the part of the crater where modeled mean winds are weak, and 2) SFs are consistent with some weak, topographically influenced modeled winds. We conclude that: 1) geographic distribution may be valuable as ground truth for GCMs, 2) DCA may be useful as ground truth for both GCM and mesoscale models, and 3) SF may be useful as ground truth for mesoscale models. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. The ground truth about metadata and community detection in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Leto; Larremore, Daniel B; Clauset, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    Across many scientific domains, there is a common need to automatically extract a simplified view or coarse-graining of how a complex system's components interact. This general task is called community detection in networks and is analogous to searching for clusters in independent vector data. It is common to evaluate the performance of community detection algorithms by their ability to find so-called ground truth communities. This works well in synthetic networks with planted communities because these networks' links are formed explicitly based on those known communities. However, there are no planted communities in real-world networks. Instead, it is standard practice to treat some observed discrete-valued node attributes, or metadata, as ground truth. We show that metadata are not the same as ground truth and that treating them as such induces severe theoretical and practical problems. We prove that no algorithm can uniquely solve community detection, and we prove a general No Free Lunch theorem for community detection, which implies that there can be no algorithm that is optimal for all possible community detection tasks. However, community detection remains a powerful tool and node metadata still have value, so a careful exploration of their relationship with network structure can yield insights of genuine worth. We illustrate this point by introducing two statistical techniques that can quantify the relationship between metadata and community structure for a broad class of models. We demonstrate these techniques using both synthetic and real-world networks, and for multiple types of metadata and community structures.

  2. Comparison of algorithms for ultrasound image segmentation without ground truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Karan; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    Image segmentation is a pre-requisite to medical image analysis. A variety of segmentation algorithms have been proposed, and most are evaluated on a small dataset or based on classification of a single feature. The lack of a gold standard (ground truth) further adds to the discrepancy in these comparisons. This work proposes a new methodology for comparing image segmentation algorithms without ground truth by building a matrix called region-correlation matrix. Subsequently, suitable distance measures are proposed for quantitative assessment of similarity. The first measure takes into account the degree of region overlap or identical match. The second considers the degree of splitting or misclassification by using an appropriate penalty term. These measures are shown to satisfy the axioms of a quasi-metric. They are applied for a comparative analysis of synthetic segmentation maps to show their direct correlation with human intuition of similar segmentation. Since ultrasound images are difficult to segment and usually lack a ground truth, the measures are further used to compare the recently proposed spectral clustering algorithm (encoding spatial and edge information) with standard k-means over abdominal ultrasound images. Improving the parameterization and enlarging the feature space for k-means steadily increased segmentation quality to that of spectral clustering.

  3. GPR as a Low Impact Paleontogical Survey Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, G. C.; Leverence, R.; Stewart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Deweyville Formation, a Pleistocene fluvial sandstone, is a prolific source of megafaunal fossils from periods of low stand environmental conditions. GPR was employed in an environmentally sensitive area in close proximity to a salt dome in Northwest Harris County, Texas as a method of evaluating the probable paleo-depositional environment and to prospect for potential further site development of two distinct fossiliferous zones. The primary zone of interest is a lag gravel bounded sand responsible for producing a regionally unique fossil assemblage including South American megafauna (Lundelius et al, 2013). The secondary zone of interest contains undisturbed mammoth remains housed in coarse white sand emplaced on top of a clay drape which has been hypothesized to represent an oxbow lake formed by the meandering paleo-Brazos river. With an accurate map of the paleo-channel planning future activity can focus on maximizing fossil recovery and minimizing site impact. Pulse EKKO 250 MHz, 400MHz, and 1GHz system was employed in a prospect area proximal to the secondary site to calibrate and evaluate these systems for their resolution and penetration depth in the modern sediments. The data was processed using EKKO Mapper and EKKO View Deluxe software packages, 3d volumes were produced and sliced. Preliminary results from the 250 MHz demonstrate successful imaging of the sand-clay interface. After these surveys were run a small portion of the site was excavated to confirm the estimated velocities, the observed anomalies, and refine our modeling and interpretation, and improve grid design for further surveys. It was confirmed that the sand-clay interface was easily observable using GPR, however the grid spacing proved to be too wide, leading to artifacts in the 3d volume produced.

  4. Compositional Ground Truth of Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon affords us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" thermal infrared (i.e. 3 to 25 micron) observations of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessable member of the most abundant class of solar system bodies, which includes Mercury, astroids, and icy satellites. The Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. And the Diviner Lunar Radiometer (Diviner) is the first instrument to globally map the spectral thermal emission of an airless body. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo sites to compositional and spectral measurements of Apollo lunar soil samples in simulated lunar environment (SLE).

  5. Fish farms at sea: the ground truth from Google Earth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Trujillo

    Full Text Available In the face of global overfishing of wild-caught seafood, ocean fish farming has augmented the supply of fresh fish to western markets and become one of the fastest growing global industries. Accurate reporting of quantities of wild-caught fish has been problematic and we questioned whether similar discrepancies in data exist in statistics for farmed fish production. In the Mediterranean Sea, ocean fish farming is prevalent and stationary cages can be seen off the coasts of 16 countries using satellite imagery available through Google Earth. Using this tool, we demonstrate here that a few trained scientists now have the capacity to ground truth farmed fish production data reported by the Mediterranean countries. With Google Earth, we could examine 91% of the Mediterranean coast and count 248 tuna cages (circular cages >40 m diameter and 20,976 other fish cages within 10 km offshore, the majority of which were off Greece (49% and Turkey (31%. Combining satellite imagery with assumptions about cage volume, fish density, harvest rates, and seasonal capacity, we make a conservative approximation of ocean-farmed finfish production for 16 Mediterranean countries. Our overall estimate of 225,736 t of farmed finfish (not including tuna in the Mediterranean Sea in 2006 is only slightly more than the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports. The results demonstrate the reliability of recent FAO farmed fish production statistics for the Mediterranean as well as the promise of Google Earth to collect and ground truth data.

  6. Fish farms at sea: the ground truth from Google Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Pablo; Piroddi, Chiara; Jacquet, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In the face of global overfishing of wild-caught seafood, ocean fish farming has augmented the supply of fresh fish to western markets and become one of the fastest growing global industries. Accurate reporting of quantities of wild-caught fish has been problematic and we questioned whether similar discrepancies in data exist in statistics for farmed fish production. In the Mediterranean Sea, ocean fish farming is prevalent and stationary cages can be seen off the coasts of 16 countries using satellite imagery available through Google Earth. Using this tool, we demonstrate here that a few trained scientists now have the capacity to ground truth farmed fish production data reported by the Mediterranean countries. With Google Earth, we could examine 91% of the Mediterranean coast and count 248 tuna cages (circular cages >40 m diameter) and 20,976 other fish cages within 10 km offshore, the majority of which were off Greece (49%) and Turkey (31%). Combining satellite imagery with assumptions about cage volume, fish density, harvest rates, and seasonal capacity, we make a conservative approximation of ocean-farmed finfish production for 16 Mediterranean countries. Our overall estimate of 225,736 t of farmed finfish (not including tuna) in the Mediterranean Sea in 2006 is only slightly more than the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports. The results demonstrate the reliability of recent FAO farmed fish production statistics for the Mediterranean as well as the promise of Google Earth to collect and ground truth data.

  7. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  8. Ground-Truthing a Next Generation Snow Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S.; Brozena, J. M.; Gogineni, P. S.; Abelev, A.; Gardner, J. M.; Ball, D.; Liang, R.; Newman, T.

    2016-12-01

    During the early spring of 2016 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a test of a next generation airborne snow radar over ground truth data collected on several areas of fast ice near Barrow, AK. The radar was developed by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) at the University of Kansas, and includes several improvements compared to their previous snow radar. The new unit combines the earlier Ku-band and snow radars into a single unit with an operating frequency spanning the entire 2-18 GHz, an enormous bandwidth which provides the possibility of snow depth measurements with 1.5 cm range resolution. Additionally, the radar transmits on dual polarizations (H and V), and receives the signal through two orthogonally polarized Vivaldi arrays, each with 128 phase centers. The 8 sets of along-track phase centers are combined in hardware to improve SNR and narrow the beamwidth in the along-track, resulting in 8 cross-track effective phase centers which are separately digitized to allow for beam sharpening and forming in post-processing. Tilting the receive arrays 30 degrees from the horizontal also allows the formation of SAR images and the potential for estimating snow-water equivalent (SWE). Ground truth data (snow depth, density, salinity and SWE) were collected over several 60 m wide swaths that were subsequently overflown with the snow radar mounted on a Twin Otter. The radar could be operated in nadir (by beam steering the receive antennas to point beneath the aircraft) or side-looking modes. Results from the comparisons will be shown.

  9. Visualization of ground truth tracks for the video 'Tracking a "facer's" behavior in a public plaza'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager.......The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager....

  10. Visualization of ground truth tracks for the video 'Tracking a "facer's" behavior in a public plaza'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager.......The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager....

  11. Ground Truth Collections for Explosions in Northern Fennoscandia and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B; Ringdal, F; Kremenetskaya, E; Mykkeltveit, S; Schweitzer, J.; Hauk, T; Asming, V; Rock, D; Lewis, P

    2003-07-28

    This project is providing ground-truth information on explosions conducted at the principal mines within 500 kilometers of the ARCES station, and is assembling a seismic waveform database for these events from local and regional stations. The principal mines of interest are in northwest Russia (Khibiny Massif, Olenogorsk, Zapolyamy, and Kovdor groups) and Sweden (Malmberget, Kiruna). These mines form a natural laboratory for examining the variation of mining explosion observations with source type, since they include colocated surface and underground mines and mines conducting a variety of different shot types. In September 2002 we deployed two lines of temporary stations from the Khibiny Massif through and to the north of the ARCES station. This deployment is producing data that will allow researchers to examine the variation of discriminants caused by varying source-receiver distance and the diversity of explosion types. To date, we have collected ground-truth information on 1,118 explosions in the Kola Peninsula, and have assembled waveform data for approximately 700 of these. The database includes waveforms from instruments temporarily deployed in the Khibiny Massif mines, from the Apatity network just outside of the Massif, from LVZ, KEV and ARCES, and from the stations deployed along the two lines into northern Norway. In this paper we present representative waveforms for several types of shots recorded at various regional distances. We have conducted a preliminary study of the variation of phase ratios as a function of source type. This study shows significant differences in Pd/Sn and Pd/Lg ratios for two types of mining explosions: surface ripple-fired explosions and compact underground explosions. Compact explosions are, typically, underground explosions of a few tons with only one or two short delays, and are the closest approximation to single, well-tamped explosions available in the Khibiny mines. The surface shots typically are much larger (ranging up

  12. Ground truth and detection threshold from WWII naval clean-up in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The sea bed below the Danish territorial waters is still littered with unexploded mines and other ammunition from World War II. The mines were air dropped by the RAF and the positions of the mines are unknown. As the mines still pose a potential threat to fishery and other marine activities, the Admiral Danish Fleet under the Danish Navy searches for the mines and destroy them by detonation, where they are found. The largest mines destroyed in this manner in 2012 are equivalent to 800 kg TNT each. The Seismological Service at the National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland is notified by the navy when ammunition in excess of 100 kg TNT is detonated. The notifications include information about position, detonation time and the estimated amount of explosives. The larger explosions are clearly registered not only on the Danish seismographs, but also on seismographs in the neighbouring countries. This includes the large seismograph arrays in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Until recently the information from the Danish navy was only utilized to rid the Danish earthquake catalogue of explosions. But the high quality information provided by the navy enables us to use these ground truth events to assess the quality of our earthquake catalogue. The mines are scattered though out the Danish territorial waters, thus we can use the explosions to test the accuracy of the determined epicentres in all parts of the country. E.g. a detonation of 135 kg in Begstrup Vig in the central part of Denmark was located using Danish, Norwegian and Swedish stations with an accuracy of less than 2 km from ground truth. A systematic study of the explosions will sharpen our understanding of the seismicity in Denmark, and result in a more detailed understanding of the detection threshold. Furthermore the study will shed light on the sensitivity of the network to various seismograph outages.

  13. A guidelines handbook for GPR surveys in tunnels: a COST Action TU1208 contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Alani, Amir M.; Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    A significant open issue concerning the reliability of geophysical methods and in particular of ground penetrating radar (GPR), both in research and professional context, is a general lack of international standards. This is a major problem to be faced, in order to gain scientific strictness for the GPR practices, and to easily extend to the international community the results achieved within the area of single virtuous countries. Producing international guidelines can represent an important step forward, in this sense. In the memorandum of understanding of the COST Action TU1208 is clearly stated that one of the main purposes of the Action is the "development of innovative protocols and guidelines which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European Standards, for an effective GPR application in CE tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols". Of course this is not a simple task to be accomplished. Firstly, survey procedures are highly dependent on the objective of the survey itself. On the basis of the objective of each geophysical test, the GPR system, the antenna configuration, and even the processing procedures may change. Besides, these procedures are also influenced by the environmental conditions in which the tests are performed. This affects several aspects spanning from hardware to software, but including, for instance, also safety issues. Due to these reasons, one of the main goal of the COST Action TU1208 is the development of several guidelines related to the main applications of GPR in the field of civil engineering. In this work, the structure of a guidelines handbook for GPR activities in tunnels is outlined. In the first sections, the principal references in the field are provided, and the most common GPR equipment and complementary technologies are described. Subsequently, the survey methodologies are explained. Particular attention is paid to the preliminary activities to be carried

  14. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  15. Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evers, T.K.; Smyre, J.L.; King, A.L.

    1997-06-01

    This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL`s Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A.

  16. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust, and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases, such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection, an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame, which allows us efficient estimation of nonuniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multiscene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored, and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed algorithm to outperform the state of the art across several measures and shadow categories. To complement our data set, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  17. Improvement of Ground Truth Classification of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.; Bergman, E.

    2016-12-01

    From the 1960's through the late 1980's, the Soviet Union conducted 122 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions across its territory. These PNEs are now very important to the seismological community as so-called Ground Truth (GT) events. The PNE locations are widely distributed, thus GT0-1 locations, meaning that true location is known to within 1 km or better, are used as calibration events for developing seismic velocity models, model validation, seismic discrimination, etc. The nuclear monitoring/verification community generally utilizes published lists of PNE locations as known or verified GT events, though in reality there are errors and some PNEs are poorly located. We have determined or validated GT0-1 locations for 85 of the Soviet PNEs. Some PNEs published as GT1 or better also have larger errors. Our locations were determined using an integrated approach encompassing published open literature, analysis of satellite imagery and regional seismic data. We have visited and verified 10 PNE sites across Kazakhstan and Ukraine, allowing GPS coordinates to be obtained in the field.

  18. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases: such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame which allows us efficient estimation of non-uniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multi-scene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed new algorithm to outperform the state-of-the-art across several measures and shadow category. To complement our dataset, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  19. Combined GPR and ERT exploratory geophysical survey of the Medieval Village of Pancorbo Castle (Burgos, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; Rubio-Melendi, David; Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio; González-Quirós, Andrés; Cimadevilla-Fuente, David

    2017-09-01

    Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) have been fruitfully employed for archaeological purposes. An area at the Pancorbo medieval site in Burgos (Spain) has been jointly explored by GPR and ERT in the search for the buried remains of the Pancorbo medieval village. After data collection, quality control and merging, a shallow depth of interest was identified and studied in detail. 3D resistivity simulation, considering sensible geometrical structures of the targets helped discover anomalies present in the area. On the other hand, visual GPR inspection was considerably enhanced by trace energy attribute analysis which provided a plan view of the existing anomalies. Two posterior archaeological excavations have a very good correlation between the identified anomalies and the excavated remains. The survey also provides hints for the continuation of the excavation.

  20. Ground Truth Creation for Complex Clinical NLP Tasks - an Iterative Vetting Approach and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer J; Tsou, Ching-Huei; Devarakonda, Murthy V

    2017-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) holds the promise of effectively analyzing patient record data to reduce cognitive load on physicians and clinicians in patient care, clinical research, and hospital operations management. A critical need in developing such methods is the "ground truth" dataset needed for training and testing the algorithms. Beyond localizable, relatively simple tasks, ground truth creation is a significant challenge because medical experts, just as physicians in patient care, have to assimilate vast amounts of data in EHR systems. To mitigate potential inaccuracies of the cognitive challenges, we present an iterative vetting approach for creating the ground truth for complex NLP tasks. In this paper, we present the methodology, and report on its use for an automated problem list generation task, its effect on the ground truth quality and system accuracy, and lessons learned from the effort.

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of a developing sinkhole using GPR and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Gaines, Andrew; Nobes, David

    2016-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging is one of the most promising non-destructive and non-invasive methods that have offered new opportunities for mapping shallow subsurface disturbances in urbanized and industrialized zones. However, difficulties often arise in choosing the optimum antenna frequency to image subsurface features. While high frequency antennas may provide lots of detail, lower frequency antennas may provide information on larger-scale features that provide more site context. In this study, we performed GPR surveys to investigate a zone of subtle surface subsidence and pavement cracking on reclaimed land at a quayside. A 3-stage approach was used, and included: (1) a 250 MHz antenna survey to delineate the spatial extent of the area of interest; (2) a 500 MHz antenna survey to yield greater detail; and (3) direct verification of some of the key features using dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) testing to "ground-truth" anomalies. This staged approach proved successful in imaging the sub-grade, and minor voids within approximately 2 m depth. Moreover, the quality of the data can be further improved by using GPR-Slice software in conjunction with DCP data to develop a 3D ground model. Through this approach, a combination of GPR survey and direct testing, we demonstrate the efficiency and quality of this method in mapping shallow subsidence features. An interpretation of the process-origin of the collapse feature is also proposed.

  2. GPR survey, as one of the best geophysical methods for social and industrial needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Anatolii

    2016-04-01

    This paper is about ways and methods of applying non-invasive geophysical method - Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in different spheres of science, industry, social life and culture. Author would like to show that geological methods could be widely used for solving great variety of industrial, human safety and other problems. In that article, we take GPR survey as an example of such useful geophysical methods. It is a fact that investigation of near surface underground medium is important process, which influence on development of different spheres of science and social life: investigation of near surface geology (layering, spreading of rock types, identification of voids, etc.), hydrogeology (depth to water horizons, their thickness), preparation step for construction of roads and buildings (civil geology, engineering geology), investigation of cultural heritage (burial places, building remains,...), ecological investigations (land slides, variation in underground water level, etc.), glaciology. These tasks can be solved by geological methods, but as usual, geophysical survey takes a lot of time and energy (especially electric current and resistivity methods, seismic survey). Author claims that GPR survey can be performed faster than other geophysical surveys and results of GPR survey are informative enough to make proper conclusions. Some problems even cannot be solved without GPR. For example, identification of burial place (one of author's research objects): results of magnetic and electric resistivity tomography survey do not contain enough information to identify burial place, but according to anomalies on GPR survey radarograms, presence of burial place can be proven. Identification of voids and non-magnetic objects also hardly can be done by another non-invasive geophysics surveys and GPR is applicable for that purpose. GPR can be applied for monitoring of dangerous processes in geological medium under roads, buildings, parks and other places of human

  3. Reconciling Radar Remote-Sensing with MER Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Larsen, K. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Golombek, M. P.

    2004-11-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) carried out Earth-based delay-Doppler radar observations of Mars with four receiving stations during the oppositions in 2001 and 2003, supporting Mars Exploration Rover landing site selection. This interferometric technique demonstrated radar mapping of Mars with a 5 km to 10 km spatial resolution. The data for both Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum indicated smooth terrains, consistent with, but somewhat different from, previous lower spatial resolution Earth-based radar data. Now, with quantitative ground-truth roughness measurements by Spirit and Opportunity, along with THEMIS visible camera images, we can begin to reconcile these differing remote-sensing observations. For Gusev crater, older λ =3.5 cm wavelength data did not directly sample the crater but were of nearby terrain of the same map unit as Gusev's floor. The reported Hagfors scattering model parameters were θ rms=4.7±1.6 degrees, and ρ 0=0.04±0.02. These quasi-specular parameters refer to roughness in the range 10 λ to 100 λ . The higher resolution data from 2003, averaged over the whole MER Gusev ellipse were θ rms=1.3+1.0-0.5 degrees and ρ 0=0.02±0.01. The ρ 0 for the 5 km pixel where Spirit landed was like the average, but θ rms=1.6+1.0-0.5. The roughness derived from stereo images from Spirits first 30 sols, available on the PDS, implies near-nadir scattering from 3 m scales is dominant. We examine the spatial coverage of the older data, as well as other radar data to reconcile the differing observations. For Meridiani, GSSR made direct observations at 3.5 cm at both 5 km resolution and at 10×150 km resolution in 2001. We will carry out our comparative analyses once rover navigation data beyond Eagle crater, obtained after Sol 58, are released to the PDS, and expect to have them for presentation at the meeting.

  4. Full 3D Microwave Tomography enhanced GPR surveys: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Affinito, Antonio; Hugenschmidt, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems are well assessed non-invasive diagnostic tools capable of providing high resolution images of the inner structure of the probed spatial region. Owing to this capability, GPR systems are nowadays more and more considered in the frame of civil engineering surveys since they may give information on constructive details as well as on the aging and risk factors affecting the healthiness of an infrastructure. In this frame, accurate, reliable and easily interpretable images of the probed scenarios are mandatory in order to support the management of maintenance works and assure the safety of structures. Such a requirement motivates the use of different and sophisticated data processing approaches in order to compare more than one image of the same scene, thus improving the reliability and objectiveness of the GPR survey results. Among GPR data processing procedures, Microwave Tomography approaches based on the Born approximation face the imaging as the solution of a linear inverse problem, which is solved by using the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition as a regularized inversion scheme [1]. So far, an approach exploiting a 2D scalar model of the scattering phenomenon have been adopted to process GPR data gathered along a single scan. In this case, 3D images are obtained by interpolating 2D reconstructions (this is referred commonly as pseudo 3D imaging). Such an imaging approach have provided valuable results in several real cases dealing with not only surveys for civil engineering but also archeological prospection, subservice monitoring, security surveys and so on [1-4]. These encouraging results have motivated the development of a full 3D Microwave Tomography approach capable of accounting for the vectorial nature of the wave propagation. The reconstruction capabilities of this novel approach have been assessed mainly against experimental data collected in laboratory controlled conditions. The obtained results corroborate

  5. Ground truth delineation for medical image segmentation based on Local Consistency and Distribution Map analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Irene; Sun, Xinyao; Alsufyani, Noura; Xiong, Zhihui; Major, Paul; Basu, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being increasingly deployed for medical applications in recent years with the goal to speed up tedious tasks and improve precision. Among others, segmentation is an important component in CAD systems as a preprocessing step to help recognize patterns in medical images. In order to assess the accuracy of a CAD segmentation algorithm, comparison with ground truth data is necessary. To-date, ground truth delineation relies mainly on contours that are either manually defined by clinical experts or automatically generated by software. In this paper, we propose a systematic ground truth delineation method based on a Local Consistency Set Analysis approach, which can be used to establish an accurate ground truth representation, or if ground truth is available, to assess the accuracy of a CAD generated segmentation algorithm. We validate our computational model using medical data. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of our approach. In contrast to current methods, our model also provides consistency information at distributed boundary pixel level, and thus is invariant to global compensation error.

  6. Ground truth management system to support multispectral scanner /MSS/ digital analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, J. C.; Ungar, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized geographic information system for management of ground truth has been designed and implemented to relate MSS classification results to in situ observations. The ground truth system transforms, generalizes and rectifies ground observations to conform to the pixel size and shape of high resolution MSS aircraft data. These observations can then be aggregated for comparison to lower resolution sensor data. Construction of a digital ground truth array allows direct pixel by pixel comparison between classification results of MSS data and ground truth. By making comparisons, analysts can identify spatial distribution of error within the MSS data as well as usual figures of merit for the classifications. Use of the ground truth system permits investigators to compare a variety of environmental or anthropogenic data, such as soil color or tillage patterns, with classification results and allows direct inclusion of such data into classification operations. To illustrate the system, examples from classification of simulated Thematic Mapper data for agricultural test sites in North Dakota and Kansas are provided.

  7. Ground Truth Creation for Complex Clinical NLP Tasks – an Iterative Vetting Approach and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer J.; Tsou, Ching-Huei; Devarakonda, Murthy V.

    2017-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) holds the promise of effectively analyzing patient record data to reduce cognitive load on physicians and clinicians in patient care, clinical research, and hospital operations management. A critical need in developing such methods is the “ground truth” dataset needed for training and testing the algorithms. Beyond localizable, relatively simple tasks, ground truth creation is a significant challenge because medical experts, just as physicians in patient care, have to assimilate vast amounts of data in EHR systems. To mitigate potential inaccuracies of the cognitive challenges, we present an iterative vetting approach for creating the ground truth for complex NLP tasks. In this paper, we present the methodology, and report on its use for an automated problem list generation task, its effect on the ground truth quality and system accuracy, and lessons learned from the effort. PMID:28815130

  8. Microwave tomography enhanced GPR surveys in Centaur’s Domus, Regio VI of Pompeii, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, I.; Crocco, L.; Di Napoli, R.; Soldovieri, F.; Brancaccio, A.; Pesando, F.; Aiello, A.

    2012-08-01

    The archaeological area of Pompeii (Naples, Italy) is known worldwide as one of the most remarkable examples of a Roman Empire town, but its origins are prior to the Roman age and there is a huge archeological interest in discovering the history of the forma urbis. With respect to this framework, the paper presents results from microwave tomography enhanced ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys carried out in the Centaur’s Domus, Regio VI, one of the most ancient housing areas of Pompeii. The GPR prospections aimed at addressing and driving the archeological excavation campaign performed in this area in October 2010. The results of stratigraphic assays are used to assess the reliability of the tomographic images obtained.

  9. Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Govindaswamy, Priya [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Abramoff, M.D. [University of Iowa

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  10. Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya [ORNL

    2009-09-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  11. GPR Investigation of an Earlier Romanesque Foundation Beneath the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, Villeveyrac, South of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Paul, V. L.; Warden, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is widely used in archeology as it is a very high resolution and nondestructive geophysical method. Information obtained from GPR provides detailed images of near-surface buried objects. GPR or other nondestructive imaging techniques are essential to permit minimal excavation of a historically sensitive building for which archeological investigation is planned. A 3-D GPR survey with 500- and 800-MHz antennas was performed on the fine gravel floor of the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, near Montpellier, south of France. The whole floor area of the abbey including aisle, choir, transept, and nave was surveyed. Processed 2-D GPR profiles and time slice images of both 500- and 800-MHz data on a known buried limestone pier of earlier Romanesque construction within the survey area show distinct anomalies corresponding to the location of the object. The Romanesque pier abuts a present-day Gothic pillar inside the transept of the abbey. Several other GPR anomalies were also found. For example, n intriguing row of periodically-spaced buried objects can be seen down the center of nave which may be related to an earlier Romanesque wall. Imaging the foundations is very challenging due to low dielectric constant between foundations and host soil. Therefore the next stage is to attempt to apply 3-D seismic coherency techniques to the 3-D GPR data to better image the near subsurface structures inside the abbey. Our results shall be used to guide archeological ground-truthing and provide constraints on architectural historical models of Cistercian abbey construction.

  12. Improving GPR Surveys Productivity by Array Technology and Fully Automated Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Marco; Ercoli, Emanuele; Mazzucchelli, Paolo; Cottino, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The realization of network infrastructures with lower environmental impact and the tendency to use digging technologies less invasive in terms of time and space of road occupation and restoration play a key-role in the development of communication networks. However, pre-existing buried utilities must be detected and located in the subsurface, to exploit the high productivity of modern digging apparatus. According to SUE quality level B+ both position and depth of subsurface utilities must be accurately estimated, demanding for 3D GPR surveys. In fact, the advantages of 3D GPR acquisitions (obtained either by multiple 2D recordings or by an antenna array) versus 2D acquisitions are well-known. Nonetheless, the amount of acquired data for such 3D acquisitions does not usually allow to complete processing and interpretation directly in field and in real-time, thus limiting the overall efficiency of the GPR acquisition. As an example, the "low impact mini-trench "technique (addressed in ITU - International Telecommunication Union - L.83 recommendation) requires that non-destructive mapping of buried services enhances its productivity to match the improvements of new digging equipment. Nowadays multi-antenna and multi-pass GPR acquisitions demand for new processing techniques that can obtain high quality subsurface images, taking full advantage of 3D data: the development of a fully automated and real-time 3D GPR processing system plays a key-role in overall optical network deployment profitability. Furthermore, currently available computing power suggests the feasibility of processing schemes that incorporate better focusing algorithms. A novel processing scheme, whose goal is the automated processing and detection of buried targets that can be applied in real-time to 3D GPR array systems, has been developed and fruitfully tested with two different GPR arrays (16 antennas, 900 MHz central frequency, and 34 antennas, 600 MHz central frequency). The proposed processing

  13. Soil moisture ground truth: Steamboat Springs, Colorado, site and Walden, Colorado, site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs and Walden, Colorado in support of the NASA missions in these areas during the period March 8, 1976 through March 11, 1976 was presented. This includes the following information: snow course data for Steamboat Springs and Walden, snow pit and snow quality data for Steamboat Springs, and soil moisture report.

  14. Designing of Ground Truth Annotated DBT-TU-JU Breast Thermogram Database towards Early Abnormality Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Gogoi, Usha Rani; Majumdar, Gautam; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Datta, Dhritiman; Ghosh, Anjan Kumar

    2017-08-17

    The advancement of research in a specific area of clinical diagnosis crucially depends on the availability and quality of the radiology and other test related databases accompanied by ground truth and additional necessary medical findings. The paper describes the creation of the Department of Biotechnology-Tripura University-Jadavpur University (DBT-TU-JU) breast thermogram database. The objective of creating the DBT-TU-JU database is to provide a breast thermogram database that is annotated with the ground truth images of the suspicious regions. Along with the result of breast thermography, the database comprises of the results of other breast imaging methodologies. A standard breast thermogram acquisition protocol suite comprising of several critical factors has been designed for the collection of breast thermograms. Currently, the DBT-TU-JU database contains 1100 breast thermograms of 100 subjects. Due to the necessity of evaluating any breast abnormality detection system, this study emphasizes the generation of the ground truth images of the hotspot areas, whose presence in a breast thermogram signifies the presence of breast abnormality. With the generated ground truth images, we compared the results of six state-of-the-art image segmentation methods using five supervised evaluation metrics to identify the proficient segmentation methods for hotspot extraction. Based on the evaluation results, the Fractional-Order Darwinian particle swarm optimization, Region growing, Mean shift and Fuzzy c-means clustering are found to be more efficient in comparison to k-means clustering and Threshold based segmentation methods.

  15. A new benchmark for pose estimation with ground truth from virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlette, Christian; Buch, Anders Glent; Aksoy, Eren Erdal

    2014-01-01

    assembly tasks. Following the eRobotics methodology, a simulatable 3D representation of this platform was modelled in virtual reality. Based on a detailed camera and sensor simulation, we generated a set of benchmark images and point clouds with controlled levels of noise as well as ground truth data...

  16. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 2 - GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Derobert, Xavier; Fontul, Simona; Govedarica, Miro; Gregoire, Colette; Loizos, Andreas; Perez-Gracia, Vega; Plati, Christina; Ristic, Aleksandar; Tosti, Fabio; Van Geem, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 2 "GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The principal goal of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 300 Members from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. The most interesting achievements of WG2 include: 1. The state of the art on the use of GPR in civil engineering was composed and open issues were identified. The few existing international/national guidelines/protocols for GPR inspection in civil engineering were reviewed and discussed. Academic end-users, private companies and stakeholders presented their point of view and needs. 2. Guidelines for investigating flexible pavement by using GPR were prepared, with particular regard to layer-thickness assessment, moisture-content sensing, pavement-damage detection and classification, and other main GPR-based investigations in pavement engineering. 3. Guidelines for GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids were prepared, with a main focus on urban areas. 4. Guidelines for GPR assessment of concrete structures, with particular regard to inspections in bridges and tunnels, were prepared. 5. A report was composed, including a series of practical suggestions and very useful information to guide GPR users during building inspection. 6. WG2 Members carried out a plethora of case studies where GPR was used to survey roads, highways, airport runways, car

  17. Comparison of MTI Water Temperatures with Ground Truth Measurements at Crater Lake, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-09

    Water surface temperatures calculated with the Los Alamos National Laboratory Robust algorithm were compared with ground truth water temperature measurements near the Oregon State University buoy in Crater Lake, OR. Bulk water measurements at the OSU buoy were corrected for the skin temperature depression and temperature gradient in the top 10 cm of the water to find the water surface temperature for 18 MTI images for June 2000 to Feb 2002. The MTI robust temperatures were found to be biased by 0.1C, with an RMS error of 1.9C compared with the ground truth water surface temperatures. When corrected for the errors in the buoy temperatures the RMS was reduced to 1.3C. This RMS difference is greater than the 1C found at the Pacific Island of Nauru because of the greater variability in the lake temperature and the atmosphere at Crater Lake and the much smaller target area used in the comparison.

  18. ERTS-1 DCS technical support provided by Wallops Station. [ground truth stations and DCP repair depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    1975-01-01

    Wallops Station accepted the tasks of providing ground truth to several ERTS investigators, operating a DCP repair depot, designing and building an airborne DCP Data Acquisition System, and providing aircraft underflight support for several other investigators. Additionally, the data bank is generally available for use by ERTS and other investigators that have a scientific interest in data pertaining to the Chesapeake Bay area. Working with DCS has provided a means of evaluating the system as a data collection device possibly applicable to ongoing Earth Resources Program activities in the Chesapeake Bay area as well as providing useful data and services to other ERTS investigators. The two areas of technical support provided by Wallops, ground truth stations and repair for DCPs, are briefly discussed.

  19. More efficient ground truth ROI image coding technique :implementation and wavelet based application analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUMARAYAPA Ajith; ZHANG Ye

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, more efficient, low-complexity and reliable region of interest (ROI) image codec for compressing smooth low texture remote sensing images is proposed. We explore the efficiency of the modified ROI codec with respect to the selected set of convenient wavelet filters, which is a novel method. Such ROI coding experiment analysis representing low bit rate lossy to high quality lossless reconstruction with timing analysis is useful for improving remote sensing ground truth surveillance efficiency in terms of time and quality. The subjective [i.e. fair, five observer (HVS) evaluations using enhanced 3D picture view Hyper memory display technology] and the objective results revealed that for faster ground truth ROI coding applications, the Symlet-4 adaptation performs better than Biorthogonal 4.4 and Biorthogonal 6.8. However, the discrete Meyer wavelet adaptation is the best solution for delayed ROI image reconstructions.

  20. Ground Truth Events with Source Geometry in Eurasia and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    in Saudi Arabia, 5 in Ethiopia, and 10 in Tanzania with magnitudes of 3 or greater. Source parameters were obtained through moment tensor inversions...TERMS seismic location; seismic ground truth; seismic moment tensor 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...Arabia ..................... 4 Figure 2. Results from the grid search and moment tensor inversion for source mechanisms for events in Saudi Arabia

  1. SuReSim: simulating localization microscopy experiments from ground truth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Varun; Herrmannsdörfer, Frank; Heilemann, Mike; Kuner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a widely used tool in many areas of research. However, designing and validating super-resolution experiments to address a research question in a technically feasible and scientifically rigorous manner remains a fundamental challenge. We developed SuReSim, a software tool that simulates localization data of arbitrary three-dimensional structures represented by ground truth models, allowing users to systematically explore how changing experimental parameters can affect potential imaging outcomes.

  2. A dataset of stereoscopic images and ground-truth disparity mimicking human fixations in peripersonal space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Andrea; Gibaldi, Agostino; Chessa, Manuela; Fato, Marco; Solari, Fabio; Sabatini, Silvio P.

    2017-03-01

    Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion. The virtual environment we developed relies on highly accurate 3D virtual models, and its full controllability allows us to obtain the stereoscopic pairs together with the ground-truth depth and camera pose information. We thus created a stereoscopic dataset: GENUA PESTO—GENoa hUman Active fixation database: PEripersonal space STereoscopic images and grOund truth disparity. The dataset aims to provide a unified framework useful for a number of problems relevant to human and computer vision, from scene exploration and eye movement studies to 3D scene reconstruction.

  3. VERIFICATION & VALIDATION OF A SEMANTIC IMAGE TAGGING FRAMEWORK VIA GENERATION OF GEOSPATIAL IMAGERY GROUND TRUTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Ferrell, Regina Kay [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed [ORNL; Dema, Mesfin A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    As a result of increasing geospatial image libraries, many algorithms are being developed to automatically extract and classify regions of interest from these images. However, limited work has been done to compare, validate and verify these algorithms due to the lack of datasets with high accuracy ground truth annotations. In this paper, we present an approach to generate a large number of synthetic images accompanied by perfect ground truth annotation via learning scene statistics from few training images through Maximum Entropy (ME) modeling. The ME model [1,2] embeds a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) to model object attribute variations with Markov Random Fields (MRF) with the final goal of modeling contextual relations between objects. Using this model, 3D scenes are generated by configuring a 3D object model to obey the learned scene statistics. Finally, these plausible 3D scenes are captured by ray tracing software to produce synthetic images with the corresponding ground truth annotations that are useful for evaluating the performance of a variety of image analysis algorithms.

  4. A dataset of stereoscopic images and ground-truth disparity mimicking human fixations in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Andrea; Gibaldi, Agostino; Chessa, Manuela; Fato, Marco; Solari, Fabio; Sabatini, Silvio P

    2017-03-28

    Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion. The virtual environment we developed relies on highly accurate 3D virtual models, and its full controllability allows us to obtain the stereoscopic pairs together with the ground-truth depth and camera pose information. We thus created a stereoscopic dataset: GENUA PESTO-GENoa hUman Active fixation database: PEripersonal space STereoscopic images and grOund truth disparity. The dataset aims to provide a unified framework useful for a number of problems relevant to human and computer vision, from scene exploration and eye movement studies to 3D scene reconstruction.

  5. Ground truth : vertical seismic profile data enables geophysicists to image ahead of the drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S. [SR ECO Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    This paper presented a new technology which makes it possible to obtain a vertical seismic profile (VSP) of a wellbore via a wireline tool. Downhole seismic is of extreme importance in cases when there is a discrepancy between the geology in the well and surface seismic data and when drilling has gone deeper than the prognosis for oil or gas. Once VSP data are interpreted, the decision can be made to either abandon the well or sidetrack it to an optimum target position. The VSP data give the geophysicist the opportunity to recalibrate the processing of conventional 2-D or 3-D surface seismic data while drilling. Crucial assumptions for the velocity fields can be tested. This new technology links geology and geophysics, making it possible to quantify subsurface reservoir parameters and to obtain downhole seismic that provides a higher frequency and spatial resolution than conventional surface seismic surveys. The energy source for downhole seismic is situated at ground level. The signal then travels down into the earth where it is recorded in the subsurface by a vertical array of geophones situated in the wellbore. Some of the signal travels past the bottom of the borehole, through the underlying layers that still have to be drilled. Geophysicists with PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. and Baker Atlas state that a VSP gives ground truth because the acquired data enables the geophysicist to image ahead of the drill bit. VSP is the ultimate tool in interval velocity and time to depth conversion. Downhole seismic has 25 per cent higher frequencies than surface seismic. The technology has been successfully used by Talisman Energy Inc., to drill Foothills wells in the Monkman Pass area of northeastern British Columbia. VSP data can be used to predict formation pressures, porosities, lithologies or rock types, and fluid content. The technology has been useful in the drilling of hostile holes offshore Sable Island in Nova Scotia where wells can cost up to $30 million. VSPs are

  6. Medway Tunnel Road Pavement Survey Using Different Frequency GPR Antenna Systems - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Morteza Amir; Banks, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    This presentation reports on an extensive survey carried out on a section (just outside the westbound end of the tunnel portal) of the Medway Tunnel in North Kent, UK. The Medway Tunnel provides a dual carriageway road crossing under the River Medway between Chatham and Strood. It is 725 metres long from portal to portal and consists of three sections. The appearance of repeated cracking of the road surface in this particular section of the tunnel suggested either a steady movement of the ground or possible undermining due to an underground watercourse. Ironically, the design and construction of the road had been realised to prevent any form of structural movement. It was deemed necessary to perform a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey in order to confirm underground construction details of the road in this section of the tunnel. This presentation reports on the detailed survey and the challenges encountered during the operation, which utilised four different frequency GPR systems including 2GHz, 900MHz, 600MHz and 200MHz antennas. The presentation will also describe how decisions were made to carry out supplementary surveys based on results obtained on-site (via primary data processing) and observations made during the survey. A summary of results will be presented individually for each antenna system used, as well as comparisons between each antenna system. Results will then be mapped against the design drawings available for confirmation of construction configurations. In conclusion, the presentation will demonstrate that the tunnel road pavement is not constructed as per the information provided (design drawings). Results will clearly indicate that there is no second reinforced concrete layer present in this particular section of the road pavement (contrary to what was originally believed) and will present the actual road construction in comparison with the design drawings. The results will confirm that there is no underground watercourse present in this

  7. Archaeogeophysical data acquisition and analysis at Tel Burna, Israel: a valuable opportunity for ongoing ground-truth investigation and collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    , acquired in a zigzag east-west direction, proceeding south. The area extended from the present excavation border to the north and east. The following paper will discuss the method of data acquisition, post-processing, and analysis of the results. The final conclusions of the survey show a continuation of several key walls to the east, a valuable sub-surface tracing of the limestone bedrock, and the limit to which the archaeological material is present spatially in Area B to the north. These results play a major role in determining where to focus excavation efforts in the 2014 excavation season. This unique collaboration with the archaeological team and ongoing opportunity for archaeological ground-truthing will be documented and published as the site develops. As there is a limited presence of such data within the corpus of published archaeogeophysical research, we look forward to further investigations at the site in the coming years.

  8. Reference-free ground truth metric for metal artifact evaluation in CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, Baerbel; Ens, Svitlana; Mueller, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M. [Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT), metal objects in the region of interest introduce data inconsistencies during acquisition. Reconstructing these data results in an image with star shaped artifacts induced by the metal inconsistencies. To enhance image quality, the influence of the metal objects can be reduced by different metal artifact reduction (MAR) strategies. For an adequate evaluation of new MAR approaches a ground truth reference data set is needed. In technical evaluations, where phantoms can be measured with and without metal inserts, ground truth data can easily be obtained by a second reference data acquisition. Obviously, this is not possible for clinical data. Here, an alternative evaluation method is presented without the need of an additionally acquired reference data set. Methods: The proposed metric is based on an inherent ground truth for metal artifacts as well as MAR methods comparison, where no reference information in terms of a second acquisition is needed. The method is based on the forward projection of a reconstructed image, which is compared to the actually measured projection data. Results: The new evaluation technique is performed on phantom and on clinical CT data with and without MAR. The metric results are then compared with methods using a reference data set as well as an expert-based classification. It is shown that the new approach is an adequate quantification technique for artifact strength in reconstructed metal or MAR CT images. Conclusions: The presented method works solely on the original projection data itself, which yields some advantages compared to distance measures in image domain using two data sets. Beside this, no parameters have to be manually chosen. The new metric is a useful evaluation alternative when no reference data are available.

  9. Reverse Classification Accuracy: Predicting Segmentation Performance in the Absence of Ground Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valindria, Vanya V; Lavdas, Ioannis; Bai, Wenjia; Kamnitsas, Konstantinos; Aboagye, Eric O; Rockall, Andrea G; Rueckert, Daniel; Glocker, Ben

    2017-08-01

    When integrating computational tools, such as automatic segmentation, into clinical practice, it is of utmost importance to be able to assess the level of accuracy on new data and, in particular, to detect when an automatic method fails. However, this is difficult to achieve due to the absence of ground truth. Segmentation accuracy on clinical data might be different from what is found through cross validation, because validation data are often used during incremental method development, which can lead to overfitting and unrealistic performance expectations. Before deployment, performance is quantified using different metrics, for which the predicted segmentation is compared with a reference segmentation, often obtained manually by an expert. But little is known about the real performance after deployment when a reference is unavailable. In this paper, we introduce the concept of reverse classification accuracy (RCA) as a framework for predicting the performance of a segmentation method on new data. In RCA, we take the predicted segmentation from a new image to train a reverse classifier, which is evaluated on a set of reference images with available ground truth. The hypothesis is that if the predicted segmentation is of good quality, then the reverse classifier will perform well on at least some of the reference images. We validate our approach on multi-organ segmentation with different classifiers and segmentation methods. Our results indicate that it is indeed possible to predict the quality of individual segmentations, in the absence of ground truth. Thus, RCA is ideal for integration into automatic processing pipelines in clinical routine and as a part of large-scale image analysis studies.

  10. Ground Truth Studies - A hands-on environmental science program for students, grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, John; Chappell, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the background and the objectives of the Ground Truth Studies (GTSs), an activity-based teaching program which integrates local environmental studies with global change topics, utilizing remotely sensed earth imagery. Special attention is given to the five key concepts around which the GTS programs are organized, the pilot program, the initial pilot study evaluation, and the GTS Handbook. The GTS Handbook contains a primer on global change and remote sensing, aerial and satellite images, student activities, glossary, and an appendix of reference material. Also described is a K-12 teacher training model. International participation in the program is to be initiated during the 1992-1993 school year.

  11. Empirical prediction of mechanical properties of flexible pavement through GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Benedetto, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    To date, it is well known that the frequency of accidental events recorded on a road, is related to the deterioration rate of its pavement. In this sense, the monitoring of the pavement health over a road network is a crucial task for the administrations, to define a priority scale for maintenance works, and accordingly to lower the risk of accidents. Several studies suggest the possibility to employ Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) to overcome the limits of traditional bearing tests, which due to their low productivity and high costs, can only give a discrete knowledge about the strength of the pavement. This work presents a GPR-based empirical model for the prediction of the bearing capacity of a road pavement, expressed as Young's Modulus. The model exploits the GPR to extract information on the thickness of the base course and the clay content, by referring to the signal velocity and attenuation, respectively. To test the effectiveness of the model, experimental activities have been accounted for. In particular, multi-frequency GPR tests have been performed along road sections of rural roads, composed of a flexible pavement, for a total of 45 Km. As ground-truth, light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) and Curviameter have been employed. Both the electromagnetic and the mechanical datasets have been properly processed, in order to reduce misinterpretations and to raise the statistical significance of the procedure. Hence, the calibration of the parameters composing the model was run in a subsection, equal to 8% of the total length, randomly selected within the surveyed track. Finally, as validation, the model has been applied to the whole analysed dataset. As a result, the empirical model showed a good effectiveness in predicting the mechanical response of the pavement, with a normalised root mean squared deviation equal to 0.27. Finally, by averaging the measured and predicted mechanical data every 50 m and sorting the results into strength classes, a

  12. New Ground Truth Capability from InSAR Time Series Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, S; Vincent, P; Yang, D

    2005-07-13

    We demonstrate that next-generation interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) processing techniques applied to existing data provide rich InSAR ground truth content for exploitation in seismic source identification. InSAR time series analyses utilize tens of interferograms and can be implemented in different ways. In one such approach, conventional InSAR displacement maps are inverted in a final post-processing step. Alternatively, computationally intensive data reduction can be performed with specialized InSAR processing algorithms. The typical final result of these approaches is a synthesized set of cumulative displacement maps. Examples from our recent work demonstrate that these InSAR processing techniques can provide appealing new ground truth capabilities. We construct movies showing the areal and temporal evolution of deformation associated with previous nuclear tests. In other analyses, we extract time histories of centimeter-scale surface displacement associated with tunneling. The potential exists to identify millimeter per year surface movements when sufficient data exists for InSAR techniques to isolate and remove phase signatures associated with digital elevation model errors and the atmosphere.

  13. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Thermal Discharge Retrievals with Ground Truth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-06

    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at a mid-latitude cold-water site along the Atlantic coast near Plymouth, MA. In contrast to the relative uniformity of the sea-surface temperature in the open ocean the water temperature near Pilgrim exhibits strong spatial gradients and temporal variability. This made it critical that all images be accurately registered in order to extract temperature values at the six buoy locations. Sixteen images during a one-year period from August 2000 to July 2001 were selected for the study. The RMS error of Pilgrim water temperature is about 3.5 C for the 4 buoys located in open water. The RMS error of the combined temperatures from 3 of the open-water buoys is 2.8 C. The RMS error includes errors in the ground truth. The magnitude of this error is estimated to range between 0.8 and 2.3 C. The two main components of this error are warm-layer effect and spatial variability. The actual error in the MTI retrievals for Pilgrim daytime conditions is estimated to be between 2.7 and 3.4 C for individual buoys and between 1.7 and 2.7 C for the combined open-water buoys.

  14. Phantom-based ground-truth generation for cerebral vessel segmentation and pulsatile deformation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetelig, Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Sedlacik, Jan; Kording, Fabian; Werner, René

    2016-03-01

    Hemodynamic and mechanical factors of the vascular system are assumed to play a major role in understanding, e.g., initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Among those factors, cardiac cycle-related pulsatile motion and deformation of cerebral vessels currently attract much interest. However, imaging of those effects requires high spatial and temporal resolution and remains challenging { and similarly does the analysis of the acquired images: Flow velocity changes and contrast media inflow cause vessel intensity variations in related temporally resolved computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography data over the cardiac cycle and impede application of intensity threshold-based segmentation and subsequent motion analysis. In this work, a flow phantom for generation of ground-truth images for evaluation of appropriate segmentation and motion analysis algorithms is developed. The acquired ground-truth data is used to illustrate the interplay between intensity fluctuations and (erroneous) motion quantification by standard threshold-based segmentation, and an adaptive threshold-based segmentation approach is proposed that alleviates respective issues. The results of the phantom study are further demonstrated to be transferable to patient data.

  15. FIELD GROUND TRUTHING DATA COLLECTOR – A MOBILE TOOLKIT FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  16. First- and third-party ground truth for key frame extraction from consumer video clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Kathleen; Luo, Jiebo

    2007-02-01

    Extracting key frames (KF) from video is of great interest in many applications, such as video summary, video organization, video compression, and prints from video. KF extraction is not a new problem. However, current literature has been focused mainly on sports or news video. In the consumer video space, the biggest challenges for key frame selection from consumer videos are the unconstrained content and lack of any preimposed structure. In this study, we conduct ground truth collection of key frames from video clips taken by digital cameras (as opposed to camcorders) using both first- and third-party judges. The goals of this study are: (1) to create a reference database of video clips reasonably representative of the consumer video space; (2) to identify associated key frames by which automated algorithms can be compared and judged for effectiveness; and (3) to uncover the criteria used by both first- and thirdparty human judges so these criteria can influence algorithm design. The findings from these ground truths will be discussed.

  17. Recent advances in the evaluation of the strength and deformation properties of flexible pavements using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    Even though there is plenty of literature contributions related to the non-destructive evaluation of road pavements using ground-penetrating radar (GPR), with several purposes spanning from the layer thicknesses evaluation to the detection of highly wet spots in the subsurface, there is still a lack of highly-reliable results concerning the mechanical assessment of road pavements, by using this technology. This work endeavours to face this topic and proposes a semi-empirical model for predicting the elastic modulus of a flexible pavement, by employing GPR. Data were collected over three different road sections within the districts of Madrid and Guadalajara, Spain. In particular, GPR surveys were carried out at the speed of traffic over the roads N320 and N211 in the district of Gadalajara and the road N320 in the district of Madrid, for a total of 39 kilometers, approximately. In particular, air-coupled radar systems with a 1000 MHz center frequency antenna and two different 2000 MHz center frequency antennas, mounted onto an instrumented vehicle, were here employed. The calibration of the model was then performed by exploiting ground-truth data coming from other non-destructive technologies. In more details, an instrumented lorry equipped with a curviameter, namely, a deflection tool capable to collect and process continuously and in real time the mechanical response of the flexible pavement, was used in the above road sections. Promising results are here presented, and the potential of GPR for monitoring the mechanical performances of a road network is also proved. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  18. Ground Truth Collection for Mining Explosions in Northern Fennoscandia and Northwestern Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B; Ringdal, R; Kremenetskaya, E; Mykkeltveit, S; Rock, D W; Maercklin, N; Schweitzer, J; Hauk, T F; Lewis, J P

    2005-07-13

    We concluded comprehensive ground truth collection at the Khibiny, Olenegorsk, Kovdor, and Zapolyarnyi mines, and have basic information on 2,052 explosions. In the past two years we used this ground truth information to extract waveform data from the ARCES array and a number of regional stations (KEV, LVZ, APA) as well as from six stations that we deployed along two lines stretching between the Khibiny Massif mines and the region around the ARCES array. We calculated P/S ratios using the ARCES array data for many of these events comprising several source types (compact underground explosions, underground ripple-fired explosions, surface ripple-fired explosions). We found that the P/S ratios of small compact underground explosions in mines of the Khibiny Massif are systematically lower than the P/S ratios of large ripple-fired surface explosions. We had anticipated that smaller underground shots would appear more like single well-coupled explosions, thus having higher P/S ratios than large ripple-fired explosions. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the compact underground explosions in these mines are designed to fracture and drop a large quantity of ore from the ceiling of a horizontal shaft. The potential energy released by the falling ore may express as shear wave energy, which may be considerably greater than the (P wave) energy released directly by the explosive. We concluded the deployment of the six stations along the Khibiny-ARCES lines this past summer; this year we are examining the data from these stations to see how P/S ratios vary with range from the source. We have an update on the P/S ratio analysis contrasting different source types, with the addition of an analysis of range dependence using data from the temporary stations. The portable stations were redeployed in the fall of 2004 to the Kiruna and Malmberget underground mines in northern Sweden. The stations deployed in Malmberget also record events from the surface mining

  19. SIR-C/X-SAR data calibration and ground truth campaign over the NASA-CB1 test-site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notarnicola, C.; Posa, F.; Refice, A.; Sergi, R.; Smacchia, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Casarano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, MT (Italy); De Carolis, G.; Mattia, F. [Istituto di Tecnologia Informatica Spaziale-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Centro di Geodesia Spaziale G. Colombo, Terlecchia, MT (Italy); Schena, V.D. [Alenia Spazio, Rome (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    During the Space Shuttle Endeavour mission in October 1994, a remote-sensing campaign was carried out with the objectives of both radiometric and polarimetric calibration and ground truth data acquisition of bare soils. This paper presents the results obtained in the experiment. Polarimetric cross-talk and channel imbalance values, as well as radiometric calibration parameters, have been found to be within the science requirements for SAR images. Regarding ground truth measurements, a wide spread in the height rms values and correlation lengths has been observed, which was motivated a critical revisiting of surface parameters descriptors.

  20. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  1. Objective Performance Evaluation of Video Segmentation Algorithms with Ground-Truth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高波; 张兆扬

    2004-01-01

    While the development of particular video segmentation algorithms has attracted considerable research interest, relatively little effort has been devoted to provide a methodology for evaluating their performance. In this paper, we propose a methodology to objectively evaluate video segmentation algorithm with ground-truth, which is based on computing the deviation of segmentation results from the reference segmentation. Four different metrics based on classification pixels, edges, relative foreground area and relative position respectively are combined to address the spatial accuracy. Temporal coherency is evaluated by utilizing the difference of spatial accuracy between successive frames. The experimental results show the feasibility of our approach. Moreover, it is computationally more efficient than previous methods. It can be applied to provide an offline ranking among different segmentation algorithms and to optimally set the parameters for a given algorithm.

  2. The IMPACT project Polish Ground-Truth texts as a Djvu corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz S. Bień

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The IMPACT project Polish Ground-Truth texts as a Djvu corpus The purpose of the paper is twofold. First, to describe the already implemented idea of DjVu corpora, i.e. corpora which consist of both scanned images and a transcription of the texts with the words associated with their occurrences in the scans. Secondly, to present a case study of a corpus consisting of almost 5 000 pages of Polish historical texts dating from 1570 to 1756 (it is practically the very first corpus of historical Polish. The tools described have universal character and are freely available under the GNU GPL license, hence they can be used also for other purposes.

  3. Towards a repository for standardized medical image and signal case data annotated with ground truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Thomas M; Welter, Petra; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Validation of medical signal and image processing systems requires quality-assured, representative and generally acknowledged databases accompanied by appropriate reference (ground truth) and clinical metadata, which are composed laboriously for each project and are not shared with the scientific community. In our vision, such data will be stored centrally in an open repository. We propose an architecture for a standardized case data and ground truth information repository supporting the evaluation and analysis of computer-aided diagnosis based on (a) the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) provided by the NASA Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (ISO 14721:2003), (b) the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) Element Set (ISO 15836:2009), (c) the Open Archive Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, and (d) the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework. In our implementation, a portal bunches all of the functionalities that are needed for data submission and retrieval. The complete life cycle of the data (define, create, store, sustain, share, use, and improve) is managed. Sophisticated search tools make it easier to use the datasets, which may be merged from different providers. An integrated history record guarantees reproducibility. A standardized creation report is generated with a permanent digital object identifier. This creation report must be referenced by all of the data users. Peer-reviewed e-publishing of these reports will create a reputation for the data contributors and will form de-facto standards regarding image and signal datasets. Good practice guidelines for validation methodology complement the concept of the case repository. This procedure will increase the comparability of evaluation studies for medical signal and image processing methods and applications.

  4. Towards improved characterization of northern wetlands (or other landscapes) by remote sensing - a rapid approach to collect ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, Magnus; Karlson, Martin; Crill, Patrick; Bastviken, David

    2017-04-01

    The calibration and validation of remote sensing land cover products is highly dependent on accurate ground truth data, which are costly and practically challenging to collect. This study evaluates a novel and efficient alternative to field surveys and UAV imaging commonly applied for this task. The method consists of i) a light weight, water proof, remote controlled RGB-camera mounted on an extendable monopod used for acquiring wide-field images of the ground from a height of 4.5 meters, and ii) a script for semi-automatic image classification. In the post-processing, the wide-field images are corrected for optical distortion and geometrically rectified so that the spatial resolution is the same over the surface area used for classification. The script distinguishes land surface components by color, brightness and spatial variability. The method was evaluated in wetland areas located around Abisko, northern Sweden. Proportional estimates of the six main surface components in the wetlands (wet and dry Sphagnum, shrub, grass, water, rock) were derived for 200 images, equivalent to 10 × 10 m field plots. These photo plots were then used as calibration data for a regional scale satellite based classification which separates the six wetland surface components using a Sentinel-1 time series. The method presented in this study is accurate, rapid, robust and cost efficient in comparison to field surveys (time consuming) and drone mapping (which require low wind speeds and no rain, suffer from battery limited flight times, have potential GPS/compass errors far north, and in some areas are prohibited by law).

  5. Micro-earthquakes"Justunderneath"Seismic Stations as Ground Truth Events1 Application to the 2008 Wenchuan Aftershock Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chun; Wu Zhongliang; Jiang Changsheng

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the aftershock sequence of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake,we considered 26 microearthquakes"just underneath"seismic stations.Making use of such special station-event configurations to determine the depth of these micro-earthquakes provided accurate relocation of aftershocks with a reference set of"ground truth (GT) events".

  6. An Upscaling Algorithm to Obtain the Representative Ground Truth of LAI Time Series in Heterogeneous Land Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechan Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upscaling in situ leaf area index (LAI measurements to the footprint scale is important for the validation of medium resolution remote sensing products. However, surface heterogeneity and temporal variation of vegetation make this difficult. In this study, a two-step upscaling algorithm was developed to obtain the representative ground truth of LAI time series in heterogeneous surfaces based on in situ LAI data measured by the wireless sensor network (WSN observation system. Since heterogeneity within a site usually arises from the mixture of vegetation and non-vegetation surfaces, the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation and land cover types were separately considered. Representative LAI time series of vegetation surfaces were obtained by upscaling in situ measurements using an optimal weighted combination method, incorporating the expectation maximum (EM algorithm to derive the weights. The ground truth of LAI over the whole site could then be determined using area weighted combination of representative LAIs of different land cover types. The algorithm was evaluated using a dataset collected in Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWater experiment. The proposed algorithm can effectively obtain the representative ground truth of LAI time series in heterogeneous cropland areas. Using the normal method of an average LAI measurement to represent the heterogeneous surface produced a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.69, whereas the proposed algorithm provided RMSE = 0.032 using 23 sampling points. The proposed ground truth derived method was implemented to validate four major LAI products.

  7. Ground Truth Collection for Mining Explosions in Northern Fennoscandia and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D; Ringdal, F; Kremenetskaya, E; Mykkeltveit, S; Rock, D E; Schweitzer, J; Hauk, T; Lewis, J

    2004-07-15

    Analysis of data from our deployments and ground truth collection in northern Fennoscandia and northwestern Russia shows systematic variations in the P/S ratios of different types of explosions. The fact that this fundamental discriminant varies with firing practice is not in itself surprising - such variations probably contribute to the spread in P/S ratios normally observed for ripple-fired explosions. However, the nature of the variations is sometimes counterintuitive. Last year [Harris, 2003] we found that the P/S ratios of small compact underground explosions in mines of the Khibiny Massif are systematically lower than the P/S ratios of large ripple-fired surface explosions. We had anticipated that smaller underground shots would be more like single well-coupled explosions, thus having higher P/S ratios than large ripple-fired explosions. We now are performing a more extensive analysis of the data including compact and large ripple-fired explosions at additional mines and different types of explosions: small surface shots and large ripple-fired underground explosions. Our data are more complete as a result of an additional year of collection and allow a more complete sampling of the signals in range from the source. As of this writing we have measured Pn/Lg ratios on a larger number of explosions of three types: compact underground explosions, surface ripple-fired explosions and now underground ripple-fired explosions. We find that both types of underground explosions have systematically lower P/S ratios than surface ripple-fired shots; this effect is most pronounced in the 4-8 Hz frequency band. This result appears to be due to relatively diminished shear wave excitation by the surface explosions. We speculate that the relatively large shear phases in underground explosions may be caused by large amounts of rockfall in these events, which are designed to collapse the ceilings of tunnels. We have continued comprehensive ground truth collection at the Khibiny

  8. Ground Truth Observations of the Interior of a Rockglacier as Validation for Geophysical Monitoring Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbich, C.; Roer, I.; Hauck, C.

    2007-12-01

    Monitoring the permafrost evolution in mountain regions is currently one of the important tasks in cryospheric studies as little data on past and present changes of the ground thermal regime and its material properties are available. In addition to recently established borehole temperature monitoring networks, techniques to determine and monitor the ground ice content have to be developed. A reliable quantification of ground ice is especially important for modelling the thermal evolution of frozen ground and for assessing the hazard potential due to thawing permafrost induced slope instability. Near surface geophysical methods are increasingly applied to detect and monitor ground ice occurrences in permafrost areas. Commonly, characteristic values of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity are used as indicators for the presence of frozen material. However, validation of the correct interpretation of the geophysical parameters can only be obtained through boreholes, and only regarding vertical temperature profiles. Ground truth of the internal structure and the ice content is usually not available. In this contribution we will present a unique data set from a recently excavated rockglacier near Zermatt/Valais in the Swiss Alps, where an approximately 5 m deep trench was cut across the rockglacier body for the construction of a ski track. Longitudinal electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography profiles were conducted prior to the excavation, yielding data sets for cross validation of commonly applied geophysical interpretation approaches in the context of ground ice detection. A recently developed 4-phase model was applied to calculate ice-, air- and unfrozen water contents from the geophysical data sets, which were compared to the ground truth data from the excavated trench. The obtained data sets will be discussed in the context of currently established geophysical monitoring networks in permafrost areas. In addition to the

  9. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Hawley

    2002-10-01

    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  10. An Empirical Study of Atmospheric Correction Procedures for Regional Infrasound Amplitudes with Ground Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on improving methods of accounting for atmospheric effects on infrasound amplitudes observed on arrays at regional distances in the southwestern United States. Recordings at ranges of 150 to nearly 300 km from a repeating ground truth source of small HE explosions are used. The explosions range in actual weight from approximately 2000-4000 lbs. and are detonated year-round which provides signals for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Three methods of correcting the observed amplitudes for atmospheric effects are investigated with the data set. The first corrects amplitudes for upper stratospheric wind as developed by Mutschlecner and Whitaker (1999) and uses the average wind speed between 45-55 km altitudes in the direction of propagation to derive an empirical correction formula. This approach was developed using large chemical and nuclear explosions and is tested with the smaller explosions for which shorter wavelengths cause the energy to be scattered by the smaller scale structure of the atmosphere. The second approach isa semi-empirical method using ray tracing to determine wind speed at ray turning heights where the wind estimates replace the wind values in the existing formula. Finally, parabolic equation (PE) modeling is used to predict the amplitudes at the arrays at 1 Hz. The PE amplitudes are compared to the observed amplitudes with a narrow band filter centered at 1 Hz. An analysis is performed of the conditions under which the empirical and semi-empirical methods fail and full wave methods must be used.

  11. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  12. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  13. The Gold Standard Paradox in Digital Image Analysis: Manual Versus Automated Scoring as Ground Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeffner, Famke; Wilson, Kristin; Martin, Nathan T; Black, Joshua C; Hendriks, Cris L Luengo; Bolon, Brad; Rudmann, Daniel G; Gianani, Roberto; Koegler, Sally R; Krueger, Joseph; Young, G Dave

    2017-09-01

    - Novel therapeutics often target complex cellular mechanisms. Increasingly, quantitative methods like digital tissue image analysis (tIA) are required to evaluate correspondingly complex biomarkers to elucidate subtle phenotypes that can inform treatment decisions with these targeted therapies. These tIA systems need a gold standard, or reference method, to establish analytical validity. Conventional, subjective histopathologic scores assigned by an experienced pathologist are the gold standard in anatomic pathology and are an attractive reference method. The pathologist's score can establish the ground truth to assess a tIA solution's analytical performance. The paradox of this validation strategy, however, is that tIA is often used to assist pathologists to score complex biomarkers because it is more objective and reproducible than manual evaluation alone by overcoming known biases in a human's visual evaluation of tissue, and because it can generate endpoints that cannot be generated by a human observer. - To discuss common visual and cognitive traps known in traditional pathology-based scoring paradigms that may impact characterization of tIA-assisted scoring accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. - This manuscript reviews the current literature from the past decades available for traditional subjective pathology scoring paradigms and known cognitive and visual traps relevant to these scoring paradigms. - Awareness of the gold standard paradox is necessary when using traditional pathologist scores to analytically validate a tIA tool because image analysis is used specifically to overcome known sources of bias in visual assessment of tissue sections.

  14. GPR120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, B.; Huang, Q.; Jie, Q.

    2015-01-01

    also mediates osteogenesis and regulates BMMSCs remain unclear. In this study, we showed that GPR120 targeted the bi-potential differentiation of BMMSCs in a ligand dose-dependent manner. High concentrations of TUG-891 (a highly selective agonist of GPR120) promoted osteogenesis via the Ras-ERK1...

  15. On Solving the Problem of Identifying Unreliable Sensors Without a Knowledge of the Ground Truth: The Case of Stochastic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazidi, Anis; Oommen, B John; Goodwin, Morten

    2016-04-28

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a solution to an extremely pertinent problem, namely, that of identifying unreliable sensors (in a domain of reliable and unreliable ones) without any knowledge of the ground truth. This fascinating paradox can be formulated in simple terms as trying to identify stochastic liars without any additional information about the truth. Though apparently impossible, we will show that it is feasible to solve the problem, a claim that is counter-intuitive in and of itself. One aspect of our contribution is to show how redundancy can be introduced, and how it can be effectively utilized in resolving this paradox. Legacy work and the reported literature (for example, in the so-called weighted majority algorithm) have merely addressed assessing the reliability of a sensor by comparing its reading to the ground truth either in an online or an offline manner. Unfortunately, the fundamental assumption of revealing the ground truth cannot be always guaranteed (or even expected) in many real life scenarios. While some extensions of the Condorcet jury theorem [9] can lead to a probabilistic guarantee on the quality of the fused process, they do not provide a solution to the unreliable sensor identification problem. The essence of our approach involves studying the agreement of each sensor with the rest of the sensors, and not comparing the reading of the individual sensors with the ground truth-as advocated in the literature. Under some mild conditions on the reliability of the sensors, we can prove that we can, indeed, filter out the unreliable ones. Our approach leverages the power of the theory of learning automata (LA) so as to gradually learn the identity of the reliable and unreliable sensors. To achieve this, we resort to a team of LA, where a distinct automaton is associated with each sensor. The solution provided here has been subjected to rigorous experimental tests, and the results presented are, in our opinion, both novel and

  16. A Comprehensive Laboratory Study to Improve Ground Truth Calibration of Remotely Sensed Near-Surface Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, E.; Tuller, M.; Sadeghi, M.; Sheng, W.; Jones, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Optical satellite and airborne remote sensing (RS) have been widely applied for characterization of large-scale surface soil moisture distributions. However, despite the excellent spatial resolution of RS data, the electromagnetic radiation within the optical bands (400-2500 nm) penetrates the soil profile only to a depth of a few millimeters; hence obtained moisture estimates are limited to the soil surface region. Furthermore, moisture sensor networks employed for ground truth calibration of RS observations commonly exhibit very limited spatial resolution, which consequently leads to significant discrepancies between RS and ground truth observations. To better understand the relationship between surface and near-surface soil moisture, we employed a benchtop hyperspectral line-scan imaging system to generate high resolution surface reflectance maps during evaporation from soil columns filled with source soils covering a wide textural range and instrumented with a novel time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensor array that allows monitoring of near surface moisture at 0.5-cm resolution. A recently developed physical model for surface soil moisture predictions from shortwave infrared reflectance was applied to estimate surface soil moisture from surface reflectance and to explore the relationship between surface and near-surface moisture distributions during soil drying. Preliminary results are very promising and their applicability for ground truth calibration of RS observations will be discussed.

  17. Sunrise-driven movements of dust on the Moon: Apollo 12 Ground-truth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.; Hollick, Monique

    2015-12-01

    The first sunrise after Apollo 12 astronauts left the Moon caused dust storms across the site where rocket exhausts had disrupted about 2000 kg of smooth fine dust. The next few sunrises started progressively weaker dust storms, and the Eastern horizon brightened, adding to direct sunlight for half an hour. These Ground truth measurements were made 100 cm above the surface by the 270 g Apollo 12 Dust Detector Experiment we invented in 1966. Dust deposited on the horizontal solar cell during two lunar days after the first sunrise was almost 30% of the total it then measured over 6 years. The vertical east-facing solar cell measured horizon brightening on 14 of the first 17 lunations, with none detected on the following 61 Lunar Days. Based on over 2 million such measurements we propose a new qualitative model of sunrise-driven transport of individual dust particles freed by Apollo 12 activities from strong particle-to-particle cohesive forces. Each sunrise caused sudden surface charging which, during the first few hours, freshly mobilised and lofted the dust remaining free, microscopically smoothing the disrupted local areas. Evidence of reliability of measurements includes consistency among all 6 sensors in measurements throughout an eclipse. We caution Google Lunar XPrize competitors and others planning missions to the Moon and large airless asteroids that, after a spacecraft lands, dust hazards may occur after each of the first few sunrises. Mechanical problems in its first such period stranded Chinese lunar rover Yutu in 2014, although we would not claim yet that the causes were dust. On the other hand, sunrise-driven microscopic smoothing of disturbed areas may offer regular natural mitigations of dust consequences of mining lunar resources and reduce fears that many expeditions might cause excessive fine dust globally around the Moon.

  18. Using tissue residues in aquatic animals to ground-truth ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, T.M. [EA Engineering, Science and Technology, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ecological risks are often estimated by comparing expected environmental exposures (EEE) to a toxicity benchmark (TB). This comparison is expressed quantitatively as a Hazard Quotient (HQ) by dividing the TB into the EEE. HQs are designed to be environmentally conservative to minimize false negatives. This conservatism allows risk managers to conclude with a high degree of certainty that HQs < 1.0 represent acceptable ecological risks. HQs > 1.0, however, are more difficult to interpret. Current state-of-the-practice is to conduct a weight-of-evidence analysis where multiple lines of information are considered in addition to the HQ results. This analysis indicates to the risk manager what level of certainty he or she should place in the HQ results. One line of evidence is the presence/absence of chemicals of concern in the tissues of field-collected receptors. This presentation will demonstrate how residue data were used to ground-truth HQs generated for an ecological risk assessment conducted at a DOD facility in the southeastern US. For some receptor-chemical combinations, tissue residues rescind substantial ecological risks suggested by elevated HQs. In other instances, tissue residues corroborated the HQ results suggesting where true ecological hazards exist. Specific examples will be given for when the use of tissue residue data is inappropriate. Finally, this presentation will suggest how tissue residue data can be incorporated in a weight-of-evidence Risk Characterization that is consistent with EPA`s Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment and draft Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund.

  19. Ground-Truthing Seismic Refraction Tomography for Sinkhole Detection in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, D. R.; Hudyma, N.; Quigley, T. P.; Samakur, C.

    2007-12-01

    In order to provide effective return of storm water runoff to the subsurface aquifer, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) constructs detention basins adjacent to its transportation facilities. These basins serve as a collection point for runoff within a local drainage area, and the overburden soil above the aquifer provides a natural filter for contaminants in the surface runoff water. However, the geologic setting for many of these basins in Florida is karst, limestone bedrock at shallow depth, and the concentration of water flow in these basins leads to frequent development of sinkholes. These sinkholes are an environmental hazard, as they provide a direct, open conduit for contaminant-laden runoff water to return to the aquifer rather than percolate through the overburden soil. Consequently, FDOT is keenly interested in all aspects of sinkholes, including factors leading to formation, methods of early detection, and effective methods for rapid repair. Recently, FDOT has engaged in a research effort to evaluate the capabilities of a wide range of geophysical investigation tools with regard to detection of sinkhole-prone areas within sites being considered for construction of detention ponds. The geophysical techniques evaluated have included ground penetrating radar (GPR), multi- electrode electrical resistivity (MER), seismic MASW, and seismic refraction tomography. In addition to geophysical testing at the research sites, extensive traditional geotechnical site characterization has been conducted, including boring and sampling of soil and rock, standard penetration tests (SPT), and cone penetration tests (CPT). The proposed paper will evaluate the capabilities of seismic refraction tomography. Comparisons between refraction tomograms and borehole logs, SPT soundings, and CPT soundings suggest that the refraction method can map the laterally-variable top of bedrock surface typical of karst terrane. During a recent ground proving exercise at the

  20. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  1. LRO Camera Imaging of the Moon: Apollo 17 and other Sites for Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Wiseman, S. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S.; Denevi, B. W.; Bell, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    One of the fundamental goals of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the determination of mineralogic and compositional distributions and their relation to geologic features on the Moon’s surface. Through a combination of imaging with the LRO narrow-angle cameras and wide-angle camera (NAC, WAC), very fine-scale geologic features are resolved with better than meter-per-pixel resolution (NAC) and correlated to spectral variations mapped with the lower resolution, 7-band WAC (400-m/pix, ultraviolet bands centered at 321 and 360 nm; 100-m/pix, visible bands centered at 415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm). Keys to understanding spectral variations in terms of composition, and relationships between compositional variations and surface geology, are ground-truth sites where surface compositions and mineralogy, as well as geology and geologic history, are well known. The Apollo 17 site is especially useful because the site geology includes a range of features from high-Ti mare basalts to Serenitatis-Basin-related massifs containing basin impact-melt breccia and feldspathic highlands materials, and a regional black and orange pyroclastic deposit. Moreover, relative and absolute ages of these features are known. In addition to rock samples, astronauts collected well-documented soil samples at 22 different sample locations across this diverse area. Many of these sample sites can be located in the multispectral data using the co-registered NAC images. Digital elevation data are used to normalize illumination geometry and thus fully exploit the multispectral data and compare derived compositional parameters for different geologic units. Regolith characteristics that are known in detail from the Apollo 17 samples, such as maturity and petrography of mineral, glass, and lithic components, contribute to spectral variations and are considered in the assessment of spectral variability at the landing site. In this work, we focus on variations associated with the ilmenite content

  2. How Precise Are Preinterventional Measurements Using Centerline Analysis Applications? Objective Ground Truth Evaluation Reveals Software-Specific Centerline Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegen, Philipp; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Liao, Wei; Rohr, Karl; Schmitt, Matthias; Rengier, Fabian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate different centerline analysis applications using objective ground truth from realistic aortic aneurysm phantoms with precisely defined geometry and centerlines to overcome the lack of unknown true dimensions in previously published in vivo validation studies. Three aortic phantoms were created using computer-aided design (CAD) software and a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. Computed tomography angiograms (CTAs) of phantoms and 3 patients were analyzed with 3 clinically approved and 1 research software application. The 3D centerline coordinates, intraluminal diameters, and lengths were validated against CAD ground truth using a dedicated evaluation software platform. The 3D centerline position mean error ranged from 0.7±0.8 to 2.9±2.5 mm between tested applications. All applications calculated centerlines significantly different from ground truth. Diameter mean errors varied from 0.5±1.2 to 1.1±1.0 mm among 3 applications, but exceeded 8.0±11.0 mm with one application due to an unsteady distortion of luminal dimensions along the centerline. All tested commercially available software tools systematically underestimated centerline total lengths by -4.6±0.9 mm to -10.4±4.3 mm (maximum error -14.6 mm). Applications with the highest 3D centerline accuracy yielded the most precise diameter and length measurements. One clinically approved application did not provide reproducible centerline-based analysis results, while another approved application showed length errors that might influence stent-graft choice and procedure success. The variety and specific characteristics of endovascular aneurysm repair planning software tools require scientific evaluation and user awareness.

  3. Implementation of a ground truth process for development of a submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) mapping protocol using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert W.

    2006-09-01

    Protocol development for science based mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) requires comprehensive ground truth data describing the full range of variability observed in the target. The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, extends along 250 km of the east central Florida coast adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon crosses the transition zone between the Caribbean and Carolinian zoogeographic provinces making it highly diverse. For large scale mapping and management of SAV four common and three uncommon species of seagrass (Tracheophyta) and three broad groups of macroalgae; red algae (Rhodophyta), green algae (Chlorophyta), and brown algae (Phaeophyta) are recognized. Based on technical and cost limitations we established twenty, 7-10 km long flight transects for collection of 1.2 m2 spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery covering the length of the lagoon. Emphasis was placed on the area near the Sebastian River and adjacent Sebastian Inlet. Twenty six 40 m long ground truth transects were established in the lagoon using 1 m2 white panels to mark each transect end. Each transect target was located in the field using high precision GPS. Transects were positioned to cover a range of depths, SAV densities, mixed and monotypic species beds, water quality conditions and general sediment types. A 3 m wide by 30 m long grid was centered on each transect to avoid spectral influences of the white targets. Water depth, species of seagrasses, estimates of vegetation cover percentage, estimates of epiphytic density, and measured canopy height were made for each 1 m2 (n=90). This target based grid arrangement allows for identification and extraction of pixel based hyperspectral signatures corresponding to individual ground truth grid cells without significant concern for rectification and registration error.

  4. LIF LiDAR high resolution ground truth data, suitable to validate medium-resolution bands of MODIS/Terra radiometer in case of inner waterbody ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelevin, Vadim; Zavialov, Peter; Zlinszky, Andras; Khimchenko, Elizaveta; Toth, Viktor; Kremenetskiy, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    The report is based on field measurements on the lake Balaton (Hungary) in September 2008 as obtained by Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) portable LiDAR UFL-8. It was tested in natural lake waters and validated by contact conventional measurements. We had opportunity to compare our results with the MODIS/Terra spectroradiometer satellite images received at the satellite monitoring station of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) to make an attempt of lidar calibration of satellite medium-resolution bands data. Water quality parameters were surveyed with the help of UFL-8 in a time interval very close to the satellite overpass. High resolution maps of the chlorophyll-a, chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total suspended sediments spatial distributions were obtained. Our results show that the resolution provided by laboratory measurements on a few water samples does not resemble actual conditions in the lake, and it would be more efficient to measure these parameters less accurately but in a better spatial distribution with the LiDAR. The UFL instrument has a great potential for being used for collecting ground truth data for satellite remote sensing of these parameters. Its measurement accuracy is comparable to classic water sample measurements, the measurement speed is high and large areas can be surveyed in a time interval very close to the satellite overpass.

  5. Using the UFL-8 UV fluorescent LIDAR to collect ground truth data for calibrating MODIS based CDOM, chlorophyll and suspended sediment measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, A.; Pelevin, V.; Goncharenko, I.; Soloviev, D.; Molnár, G.

    2009-04-01

    the corresponding MODIS bands. MODIS TERRA images of the study area on the measurement days were received at the satellite tracking station of the Eötvös Loránd University. After atmospheric correction and geolocation, the band 9 was used for estimating CDOM, the ratio of bands 3 and 4 for chlorophyll, and band 1 for suspended sediment. This allows for a spatial resolution of 1 km for CDOM, 500*500 m for chlorophyll, and 250*250 m for suspended sediment. The measured CDOM concentrations did not show a strong correlation with the CDOM concentrations estimated from the MODIS images, which is probably caused by the wide range of CDOM concentrations and the low number of satellite data points due to low resolution. Chlorophyll concentrations measured by LIDAR and estimated from MODIS images showed a relatively strong correlation, and the relatively fine spatial resolution makes detection of patterns possible, although cross-track striping artefacts occurring in the used bands have to be corrected. Suspended sediment concentrations measured by LIDAR and estimated from MODIS band 1 show a remarkably strong correlation, and the 250*250 meter spatial resolution shows fine patterns of local currents and eddies. The successful test measurements and calibrations show that the UFL-8 LIDAR is suitable for quick surveying of high resolution maps of dissolved organics, chlorophyll and suspended sediment spatial distributions, which can be used as ground truth for calibrating satellite measurements. The high accuracy and spatial resolution of the instrument opens the possibility of quickly measuring large numbers of ground truth data during relatively short expeditions.

  6. Advanced seismic and GPR survey of a rock glacier in the Upper Choapa Valley, semi-arid Andes of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, S.; Bodet, L.; Camerlynck, C. M.; Dhemaied, A.; Galibert, P.; Kinnard, C.; Vitale, Q.; Saéz, R.

    2011-12-01

    In semi-arid to arid contexts, rock glaciers, as other prominent permafrost features, can represent critical permanent resources of solid water. It is thus important to analyze their internal structure and estimate their ice content, especially in mining areas where human activities may have an impact on permafrost features. In the upper Choapa Valley, semi-arid Andes of Chile (31.59°S, 70.50°W), we investigate a small rock glacier located in an open-pit copper mine, using data from two boreholes and advanced geophysical methods. The two boreholes, performed using diamond drill hole technique, reveal relatively low ice content (order of magnitude: 20-25%) in the rock glacier. Seismic and ground-penetrating (GPR) radar surveys were performed on the surface of the rock glacier. P- and S-wave refraction seismics were employed along two profiles. The ground-penetrating radar operation mode was quite new and innovative for a rock glacier site; it consisted, (1) for three-dimensional imaging, of a rectangular grid of 25 evenly (2 m) spaced constant-offset (2 m) profiles, and (2) for velocity analysis, of a 150 m-long profile performed many times in constant-offset mode with offset varying between 0.5 and 16 m. The processing of the acquired data permits to obtain an accurate representation of the internal structure and an estimation of the overall ice content in the rock glacier.

  7. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  8. High-Resolution Precipitation Mapping in a Mountainous Watershed: Ground Truth for Evaluating Uncertainty in a National Precipitation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C.; Slater, M. E.; Roberti, J. A.; Laseter, S. H.; Swift, L. W.

    2016-12-01

    A 69-station, densely-spaced rain gauge network was maintained over the period 1951-1958 in the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, located in the southern Appalachians in western North Carolina, USA. This unique dataset was used to develop the first digital seasonal and annual precipitation maps for the Coweeta basin, using elevation regression functions and residual interpolation. It was found that a 10-m elevation grid filtered to an approximately 7-km effective wavelength explained the most variance in precipitation (R2 = 0.82-0.95). A "dump zone" of locally high precipitation a short distance downwind from the mountain crest marking the southern border of the basin was the main feature that was not explained well by the precipitation-elevation relationship. These data and maps provided a rare "ground-truth" for estimating uncertainty in the national-scale Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation grids for this location and time period. Differences between PRISM and ground-truth were compared to uncertainty estimates produced by the PRISM model and cross-validation errors. Potential sources of uncertainty in the national PRISM grids were evaluated, including the effects of coarse grid resolution, limited station data, and imprecise station locations. The PRISM national grids matched closely (within five percent) with the Coweeta dataset. The PRISM regression prediction interval, which includes the influence of stations in an area of tens of km around a given location, overestimated the local error at Coweeta (12-20 percent). Offsetting biases and generally low error rates made it difficult to isolate major sources of uncertainty in the PRISM grids. However, station density and selection, and mis-location of stations were identified as likely sources of error. The methods used in this study can be repeated in other areas where high-density data exist to gain a more comprehensive picture of the uncertainties in national

  9. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Retrievals with Ground Truth from the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station Cooling Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-09

    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at the Squaw Creek reservoir at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station near Granbury Texas. Temperatures calculated for thirty-four images covering the period May 2000 to March 2002 are compared with water temperatures measured at 10 instrumented buoy locations supplied by the Savannah River Technology Center. The data set was used to examine the effect of image quality on temperature retrieval as well as to document any bias between the sensor chip arrays (SCA's). A portion of the data set was used to evaluate the influence of proximity to shoreline on the water temperature retrievals. This study found errors in daytime water temperature retrievals of 1.8 C for SCA 2 and 4.0 C for SCA 1. The errors in nighttime water temperature retrievals were 3.8 C for SCA 1. Water temperature retrievals for nighttime appear to be related to image quality with the largest positive bias for the highest quality images and the largest negative bias for the lowest quality images. The daytime data show no apparent relationship between water temperature retrieval error and image quality. The average temperature retrieval error near open water buoys was less than corresponding values for the near-shore buoys. After subtraction of the estimated error in the ground truth data, the water temperature retrieval error was 1.2 C for the open-water buoys compared to 1.8 C for the near-shore buoys. The open-water error is comparable to that found at Nauru.

  10. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  11. GPR in Ramboll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringgaard, Jørgen; Wisén, Roger

    2014-05-01

    The Ramboll Group is a large (10.000 employees worldwide) engineering and consultancy company, with offices in 21 countries. Ramboll has been working with geophysics for about 20 years and at the time of writing there are about 25 geophysicist employed in the group, 20 of these are employed in Ramboll Denmark. Ramboll offers an extensive range of geophysical methods: different types of seismic, borehole wireline logging, electric and electromagnetic surveys, magnetic resonance soundings and well as marine geophysical and hydrographic surveys. The geophysical group at Ramboll operates in different industries comprising: Infrastructure, environmental assessments, mineral exploration, energy and offshore constructions. In the recent years our GPR activities has increased significantly. Today Ramboll Denmark owns three separate GPR systems: One GSSI SIR-3000 with antennas ranging from 16MHz to 2GHz, One Mala geoscience ProEx system with a 100MHz RTA antenna and one 3D-radar Geoscope MKIV system with two DX antennas of different size. The main services are geological mapping with our ProEx system from Malå Geoscience, road mapping with a GSSI system and different shallow mapping with our 3D system from 3D Radar. With our 2D systems we have performed mapping of peat in different places in Norway, mapping of sediments at various places in the Nordic countries and mapping of glacier thickness in Greenland. In this type of investigations we often combine GPR with resistivity imaging (CVES) and refraction seismic to ensure a more reliable interpretation. We have performed occasional utility or UXO surveys where GPR has been used together with EM or magnetic measurements. The mapping on roads with the GSSI system is performed by our RST (Road Surface Testing) department in Malmö, Sweden. The measurements on roads are often combined with laser scanning and photo registration of the surface. Various software have been developed to automatize the interpretation. The RST group

  12. Snow measurement system for airborne snow surveys (GPR system from helicopter) in high mountian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, Hilleborg K.

    2010-05-01

    In the hydropower industry, it is important to have precise information about snow deposits at all times, to allow for effective planning and optimal use of the water. In Norway, it is common to measure snow density using a manual method, i.e. the depth and weight of the snow is measured. In recent years, radar measurements have been taken from snowmobiles; however, few energy supply companies use this method operatively - it has mostly been used in connection with research projects. Agder Energi is the first Norwegian power producer in using radar tecnology from helicopter in monitoring mountain snow levels. Measurement accuracy is crucial when obtaining input data for snow reservoir estimates. Radar screening by helicopter makes remote areas more easily accessible and provides larger quantities of data than traditional ground level measurement methods. In order to draw up a snow survey system, it is assumed as a basis that the snow distribution is influenced by vegetation, climate and topography. In order to take these factors into consideration, a snow survey system for fields in high mountain areas has been designed in which the data collection is carried out by following the lines of a grid system. The lines of this grid system is placed in order to effectively capture the distribution of elevation, x-coordinates, y-coordinates, aspect, slope and curvature in the field. Variation in climatic conditions are also captured better when using a grid, and dominant weather patterns will largely be captured in this measurement system.

  13. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  14. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  15. Science Results from a Mars Drilling Simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and Ground Truth for Remote Science Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. Science results. Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (˜1:1, ˜1:2, and ˜1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (Corg <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (Corg ˜3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (Corg ˜0.23 wt %). Ground truth vs. remote science analysis. Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5‧-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated

  16. Ground-Truth Observations of Ice-Covered North Slope Lakes Imaged by Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Cold regions Radar Ice Water supplies 2 A STRACT ( Candu s revers ebb N necoew ad identli by block numbet) Field observations support the interpretation...strong returns (depths > 1.7 m). Inspection of the base maps used to prepare thisfigure (U.S. Geological Survey Maps Teshekpuk C-1, C-2, D-1, D-2 [1...search and Engineering Laboratory; Springfield, Va.: available from National Technical Information Service , 1981. iii, 20 p., illus.; 28 cm. ( CRREL

  17. GPR Prospecting and Endoscopic Investigation in a Renaissance Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Bianco, Nadia; Masini, Nicola; Leopizzi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    and migration in time domain. The propagation velocity of the electromagnetic waves has been estimated from the diffraction hyperbolas. The processing has been performed making use of the commercial code GPRslice, thanks to which also horizontal slices have been retrieved. As a less conventional aspect, moreover, some ground truthing has been performed on the basis of the horizontal slices by means of a drill with an extension and of an endoscopic survey within the holes made with the drill. This has allowed a more refined interpretation of some of the anomalies, as will be shown at the conference. The noticeable point is that this kind of ground truthing is minimally invasive, much faster than an excavation and of course much cheaper, and so it can be an alternative to it, when possible. References [1] F. Gabellone, G. Leucci, N. Masini, R. Persico, G. Quarta, F. Grasso, Nondestructive Prospecting and virtual reconstruction of the chapel of the Holy Spirit in Lecce, Italy, Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 11, n. 2, pp. 231-238, April 2013. [2] E. Utsi, The shrine of edward the confessor: A study in multi-frequency gpr investigation, proc. of 13th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, DOI: 10.1109/ICGPR.2010.5550263. [3] N. Masini, R. Persico, E. Rizzo, A. Calia, M. T. Giannotta, G. Quarta, A. Pagliuca, "Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy)." Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 8 (5), pp. 423-432, 2010. [4] G. Leucci, N. Masini, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri." GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration : the case of the Cathedral of Tricarico", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, vol. 8, pp. S76-S92, Aug. 2011. [5] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C. Atzeni, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, Advanced Processing Techniques for Step-frequency Continuous-Wave Penetrating Radar: the Case Study of "Palazzo Vecchio" Walls (Firenze, Italy), Research on

  18. A large dataset of synthetic SEM images of powder materials and their ground truth 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L; Holm, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    This data article presents a data set comprised of 2048 synthetic scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of powder materials and descriptions of the corresponding 3D structures that they represent. These images were created using open source rendering software, and the generating scripts are included with the data set. Eight particle size distributions are represented with 256 independent images from each. The particle size distributions are relatively similar to each other, so that the dataset offers a useful benchmark to assess the fidelity of image analysis techniques. The characteristics of the PSDs and the resulting images are described and analyzed in more detail in the research article "Characterizing powder materials using keypoint-based computer vision methods" (B.L. DeCost, E.A. Holm, 2016) [1]. These data are freely available in a Mendeley Data archive "A large dataset of synthetic SEM images of powder materials and their ground truth 3D structures" (B.L. DeCost, E.A. Holm, 2016) located at http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/tj4syyj9mr.1[2] for any academic, educational, or research purposes.

  19. On the construction of a ground truth framework for evaluating voxel-based diffusion tensor MRI analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Sijbers, Jan; De Backer, Steve; Poot, Dirk; Parizel, Paul M; Leemans, Alexander

    2009-07-01

    Although many studies are starting to use voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods to compare diffusion tensor images between healthy and diseased subjects, it has been demonstrated that VBA results depend heavily on parameter settings and implementation strategies, such as the applied coregistration technique, smoothing kernel width, statistical analysis, etc. In order to investigate the effect of different parameter settings and implementations on the accuracy and precision of the VBA results quantitatively, ground truth knowledge regarding the underlying microstructural alterations is required. To address the lack of such a gold standard, simulated diffusion tensor data sets are developed, which can model an array of anomalies in the diffusion properties of a predefined location. These data sets can be employed to evaluate the numerous parameters that characterize the pipeline of a VBA algorithm and to compare the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of different post-processing approaches quantitatively. We are convinced that the use of these simulated data sets can improve the understanding of how different diffusion tensor image post-processing techniques affect the outcome of VBA. In turn, this may possibly lead to a more standardized and reliable evaluation of diffusion tensor data sets of large study groups with a wide range of white matter altering pathologies. The simulated DTI data sets will be made available online (http://www.dti.ua.ac.be).

  20. Seasonal variations of infrasonic arrivals from long-term ground truth observations in Nevada and implication for event location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negraru, Petru; Golden, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Long-term ground truth observations were collected at two infrasound arrays in Nevada to investigate how seasonal atmospheric variations affect the detection, traveltime and signal characteristics (azimuth, trace velocity, frequency content and amplitudes) of infrasonic arrivals at regional distances. The arrays were located in different azimuthal directions from a munition disposal facility in Nevada. FNIAR, located 154 km north of the source has a high detection rate throughout the year. Over 90 per cent of the detonations have traveltimes indicative of stratospheric arrivals, while tropospheric waveguides are observed from only 27 per cent of the detonations. The second array, DNIAR, located 293 km southeast of the source exhibits strong seasonal variations with high stratospheric detection rates in winter and the virtual absence of stratospheric arrivals in summer. Tropospheric waveguides and thermospheric arrivals are also observed for DNIAR. Modeling through the Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space atmospheric sound speeds leads to mixed results: FNIAR arrivals are usually not predicted to be present at all (either stratospheric or tropospheric), while DNIAR arrivals are usually correctly predicted, but summer arrivals show a consistent traveltime bias. In the end, we show the possible improvement in location using empirically calibrated traveltime and azimuth observations. Using the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization we show that we can decrease the area enclosed by the 90 per cent credibility contours by a factor of 2.5.

  1. Semi-automatic ground truth generation using unsupervised clustering and limited manual labeling: Application to handwritten character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Szilárd; Rangoni, Yves; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    For training supervised classifiers to recognize different patterns, large data collections with accurate labels are necessary. In this paper, we propose a generic, semi-automatic labeling technique for large handwritten character collections. In order to speed up the creation of a large scale ground truth, the method combines unsupervised clustering and minimal expert knowledge. To exploit the potential discriminant complementarities across features, each character is projected into five different feature spaces. After clustering the images in each feature space, the human expert labels the cluster centers. Each data point inherits the label of its cluster's center. A majority (or unanimity) vote decides the label of each character image. The amount of human involvement (labeling) is strictly controlled by the number of clusters - produced by the chosen clustering approach. To test the efficiency of the proposed approach, we have compared, and evaluated three state-of-the art clustering methods (k-means, self-organizing maps, and growing neural gas) on the MNIST digit data set, and a Lampung Indonesian character data set, respectively. Considering a k-nn classifier, we show that labeling manually only 1.3% (MNIST), and 3.2% (Lampung) of the training data, provides the same range of performance than a completely labeled data set would.

  2. Ground Truth for Diffusion MRI in Cancer: A Model-Based Investigation of a Novel Tissue-Mimetic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Damien J; Zhou, Fenglei; Cristinacce, Penny L Hubbard; Naish, Josephine H; Parker, Geoffrey J M

    2015-01-01

    This work presents preliminary results on the development, characterisation, and use of a novel physical phantom designed as a simple mimic of tumour cellular structure, for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) applications. The phantom consists of a collection of roughly spherical, micron-sized core-shell polymer 'cells', providing a system whose ground truth microstructural properties can be determined and compared with those obtained from modelling the DW-MRI signal. A two-compartment analytic model combining restricted diffusion inside a sphere with hindered extracellular diffusion was initially investigated through Monte Carlo diffusion simulations, allowing a comparison between analytic and simulated signals. The model was then fitted to DW-MRI data acquired from the phantom over a range of gradient strengths and diffusion times, yielding estimates of 'cell' size, intracellular volume fraction and the free diffusion coefficient. An initial assessment of the accuracy and precision of these estimates is provided, using independent scanning electron microscope measurements and bootstrap-style simulations. Such phantoms may be useful for testing microstructural models relevant to the characterisation of tumour tissue.

  3. Seasonal variations of infrasonic arrivals from long term ground truth observations in Nevada and implication for event location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negraru, Petru; Golden, Paul

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYLong term ground truth observations were collected at two infrasound arrays in Nevada to investigate how seasonal atmospheric variations affect the detection, travel time and signal characteristics (azimuth, trace velocity, frequency content and amplitudes) of infrasonic arrivals at regional distances. The arrays were located in different azimuthal directions from a munition disposal facility in Nevada. FNIAR, located 154 km north of the source has a high detection rate throughout the year. Over 90% of the detonations have travel times indicative of stratospheric arrivals, while tropospheric waveguides are observed from only 27% of the detonations. The second array, DNIAR, located 293 km southeast of the source exhibits strong seasonal variations with high stratospheric detection rates in winter and the virtual absence of stratospheric arrivals in summer. Tropospheric waveguides and thermospheric arrivals are also observed for DNIAR. Modelling through the Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space (G2S) atmospheric sound speeds leads to mixed results: FNIAR arrivals are usually not predicted to be present at all (either stratospheric or tropospheric), while DNIAR arrivals are usually correctly predicted, but summer arrivals show a consistent travel time bias. In the end we show the possible improvement in location using empirically calibrated travel time and azimuth observations. Using the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization we show that we can decrease the area enclosed by the 90% credibility contours by a factor of 2.5.

  4. A large dataset of synthetic SEM images of powder materials and their ground truth 3D structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. DeCost

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents a data set comprised of 2048 synthetic scanning electron microscope (SEM images of powder materials and descriptions of the corresponding 3D structures that they represent. These images were created using open source rendering software, and the generating scripts are included with the data set. Eight particle size distributions are represented with 256 independent images from each. The particle size distributions are relatively similar to each other, so that the dataset offers a useful benchmark to assess the fidelity of image analysis techniques. The characteristics of the PSDs and the resulting images are described and analyzed in more detail in the research article “Characterizing powder materials using keypoint-based computer vision methods” (B.L. DeCost, E.A. Holm, 2016 [1]. These data are freely available in a Mendeley Data archive “A large dataset of synthetic SEM images of powder materials and their ground truth 3D structures” (B.L. DeCost, E.A. Holm, 2016 located at http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/tj4syyj9mr.1 [2] for any academic, educational, or research purposes.

  5. Performance of hybrid and single-frequency impulse GPR antennas on USGA sporting greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of employing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technologies for environmental surveys can vary, depending upon the physical properties of the site. Environmental conditions can fluctuate, altering soil properties. Operator proficiency and survey methodology will also influence GPR findings....

  6. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  7. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  8. Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated acquisitions during the project provide insights for the preparation of future astrobiology-driven Mars missions.

  9. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  10. Benthic Surveys for Ground Truthing of Coastal Benthic Mapping in the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands 2001 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) initiated a coral reef research program in 1999 to map, assess, inventory,...

  11. Investigation of HMA compactability using GPR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Georgiou, Panos; Loizos, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    . Actually, the prediction is not regulated by any standards or specifications, although the practice is considered to be workable. In view of the above, an extensive experiment was carried out in both the laboratory and the field based on a trial asphalt pavement section under construction. In the laboratory, the study focused on the estimation of the density of HMA specimens achieved through three different roller compaction modes (static, vibratory and a combination of both) targeted to simulate field compaction and assess the asphalt mix compactability. In the field, the different compaction modes were successively implemented on three subsections of the trial pavement section. Along each subsection, GPR data was collected in order to determine the new material's dielectric properties and based on that, to predict its density using proper algorithm. Thus, cores were extracted to be used as ground truth data. The comparison of the new asphalt material compactability as obtained from the laboratory specimens, the predictions based on GPR data and the field cores provided useful information that facilitated the selection of the most effective compaction mode yielding the proper compaction degree in the field. This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  12. Validation of ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY columnar methane by solar FTIR spectrometry at the Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane total-vertical column retrievals from ground-based solar FTIR measurements at the Permanent Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E, 2964 m a.s.l., Germany are used to validate column averaged methane retrieved from ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY spectra by WFM-DOAS (WFMD version 0.4 and 0.41 for 153 days in 2003. Smoothing errors are estimated to be below 0.10% for FTIR and 0.14% for SCIAMACHY-WFMD retrievals and can be neglected for the assessment of observed bias and day-to-day-scatter. In order to minimize the altitude-difference effect, dry-air column averaged mixing ratios (XCH4 have been utilized. From the FTIR-time series of XCH4 an atmospheric day-to-day variability of 1% was found, and a sinusoidal annual cycle with a ≈1.6% amplitude. To obtain the WFMD bias, a polynomial fitted to the FTIR series was used as a reference. The result is WFMD v0.4/FTIR=1.008±0.019 and WFMD v0.41/FTIR=1.058±0.008. WFMD v0.41 was significantly improved by a time-dependent bias correction. It can still not capture the natural day-to-day variability, i.e., the standard deviation calculated from the daily-mean values is 2.4% using averages within a 2000-km radius, and 2.7% for a 1000-km radius. These numbers are dominated by a residual time-dependent bias in the order of 3%/month. The latter can be reduced, e.g., from 2.4% to 1.6% as shown by an empirical time-dependent bias correction. Standard deviations of the daily means, calculated from the individual measurements of each day, are excluding time-dependent biases, thus showing the potential precision of WFMD daily means, i.e., 0.3% for a 2000-km selection radius, and 0.6% for a 1000-km selection radius. Therefore, the natural variability could be captured under the prerequisite of further advanced time-dependent bias corrections, or the use of other channels, where the icing issue is less prominent.

  13. GROUND TRUTH, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A

    2006-07-10

    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  14. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  15. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-05-01

    The canopy height of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or lidar. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI). The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. It is found that for undisturbed forest and a variety of disturbed forests situations AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB=a·hb) with an r2~60% for a spatial resolution of 20 m×20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The regression is becoming significant better for the hectare wide analysis of the disturbed forest sites (r2=91%). There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2~60%) between AGB and the area fraction in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot data from the same region and with the large-scale forest inventory in Lambir. We conclude that the spaceborne remote sensing techniques have the potential to

  16. Curiosity's traverse through the upper Murray formation (Gale crater): ground truth for orbital detections of Martian clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Erwin; Carter, John; Gasnault, Olivier; Pinet, Patrick; Daydou, Yves; Gondet, Brigitte; Mangold, Nicolas; Johnson, Jeffrey; Arvidson, Raymond; Maurice, Sylvestre; Wiens, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Orbital observations from visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometers have shown that hydrated clay minerals are widespread on the surface of Mars (e.g., Carter et al., JGR, 2013), but implications in terms of past environmental conditions are debated. In this context, in situ missions can play a crucial role by providing "ground truth" and detailed geological setting for orbital signatures. Since its landing in 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has found evidence for clay minerals in several sedimentary formations within Gale crater. The first clays were encountered at Yellowknife Bay, where results from the CheMin X-ray diffractometer (XRD) showed the presence of 20 wt% tri-octahedral, Fe/Mg-bearing smectites (Vaniman et al., Science, 2014). However, due to dust cover, this location lacks any signature of clay minerals in orbital VNIR observations. Smaller amounts of clay minerals were found later in the rover's traverse, but again at locations with no specific signature from orbit. More recently, Curiosity reached the upper Murray formation, a sedimentary layer consisting primarily of mudstones and belonging to the basal part of Aeolis Mons (or Mt Sharp), the central mound of Gale crater. There, for the first time, orbital signatures of clay minerals can be compared to laterally-equivalent samples that were analyzed by Curiosity's payload. Orbital VNIR spectra suggest the prevalence of di-octahedral, Al/Fe-bearing smectites, clearly distinct from the tri-octahedral, Fe/Mg-bearing species of Yellowknife Bay (Carter et al., LPSC, 2016). Preliminary results from XRD and EGA analyses performed by the CheMin and SAM instruments at Marimba, Quela and Sebina drill sites are broadly consistent with such interpretation. However, and perhaps unsurprisingly, in situ data show more complexity than orbital observations. In particular, in situ data suggest the possible presence of an illitic component as well as the possible co-existence of both di

  17. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy height of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or lidar. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. It is found that for undisturbed forest and a variety of disturbed forests situations AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB=a·hb with an r2~60% for a spatial resolution of 20 m×20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The regression is becoming significant better for the hectare wide analysis of the disturbed forest sites (r2=91%. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2~60% between AGB and the area fraction in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot data from the same region and with the large-scale forest inventory in

  18. Estimation of snowpack matching ground-truth data and MODIS satellite-based observations by using regression kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is essential for an appropriate assessment of the available water resources in Alpine catchment. The hydrologic regime in these areas is dominated by the storage of water in the snowpack, which is discharged to rivers throughout the melt season. An accurate estimation of the resources will be necessary for an appropriate analysis of the system operation alternatives using basin scale management models. In order to obtain an appropriate estimation of the SWE we need to know the spatial distribution snowpack and snow density within the Snow Cover Area (SCA). Data for these snow variables can be extracted from in-situ point measurements and air-borne/space-borne remote sensing observations. Different interpolation and simulation techniques have been employed for the estimation of the cited variables. In this paper we propose to estimate snowpack from a reduced number of ground-truth data (1 or 2 campaigns per year with 23 observation point from 2000-2014) and MODIS satellite-based observations in the Sierra Nevada Mountain (Southern Spain). Regression based methodologies has been used to study snowpack distribution using different kind of explicative variables: geographic, topographic, climatic. 40 explicative variables were considered: the longitude, latitude, altitude, slope, eastness, northness, radiation, maximum upwind slope and some mathematical transformation of each of them [Ln(v), (v)^-1; (v)^2; (v)^0.5). Eight different structure of regression models have been tested (combining 1, 2, 3 or 4 explicative variables). Y=B0+B1Xi (1); Y=B0+B1XiXj (2); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj (3); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2XjXl (4); Y=B0+B1XiXk+B2XjXl (5); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl (6); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3XlXk (7); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl+B4Xk (8). Where: Y is the snow depth; (Xi, Xj, Xl, Xk) are the prediction variables (any of the 40 variables); (B0, B1, B2, B3) are the coefficients to be estimated. The ground data are employed to calibrate the multiple regressions. In

  19. Ground Truth Location of Earthquakes by Use of Ambient Seismic Noise From a Sparse Seismic Network: A Case Study in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Xie, Jun; Ni, Sidao

    2015-06-01

    The estimated Green's function (EGF) extracted from the ambient seismic noise cross-correlation function (NCF) enables valuable calibration of surface wave propagation along the path connecting seismic stations. Such calibration is adopted in a new method for ground truth location of earthquakes, achieved from the location relative to a seismic station. The surface wave group travel times were obtained from the NCFs between a station near the earthquake and remote stations. The differential travel times from the NCFs and the surface wave of the earthquake were used in a relative location procedure. When this method was applied to earthquake location with only six seismic stations in western Australia, the location of the Mw 4.1 Kalannie (September 21, 2005) earthquake was found to be accurate to within 2 km compared with the ground truth location with InSAR for which azimuth coverage of seismic stations is preferable. Synthetic tests suggest that the group travel time is slightly affected by focal mechanism and focal depth, thus unknown earthquake source parameters did not introduce substantial bias to earthquake location with the group travel time method.

  20. A multivariate analytical method to characterize sediment attributes from high-frequency acoustic backscatter and ground-truthing data (Jade Bay, German North Sea coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Manuela; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    One of the burning issues on the topic of acoustic seabed classification is the lack of solid, repeatable, statistical procedures that can support the verification of acoustic variability in relation to seabed properties. Acoustic sediment classification schemes often lead to biased and subjective interpretation, as they ultimately aim at an oversimplified categorization of the seabed based on conventionally defined sediment types. However, grain size variability alone cannot be accounted for acoustic diversity, which will be ultimately affected by multiple physical processes, scale of heterogeneity, instrument settings, data quality, image processing and segmentation performances. Understanding and assessing the weight of all of these factors on backscatter is a difficult task, due to the spatially limited and fragmentary knowledge of the seabed from of direct observations (e.g. grab samples, cores, videos). In particular, large-scale mapping requires an enormous availability of ground-truthing data that is often obtained from heterogeneous and multidisciplinary sources, resulting into a further chance of misclassification. Independently from all of these limitations, acoustic segments still contain signals for seabed changes that, if appropriate procedures are established, can be translated into meaningful knowledge. In this study we design a simple, repeatable method, based on multivariate procedures, with the scope to classify a 100 km2, high-frequency (450 kHz) sidescan sonar mosaic acquired in the year 2012 in the shallow upper-mesotidal inlet of the Jade Bay (German North Sea coast). The tool used for the automated classification of the backscatter mosaic is the QTC SWATHVIEWTMsoftware. The ground-truthing database included grab sample data from multiple sources (2009-2011). The method was designed to extrapolate quantitative descriptors for acoustic backscatter and model their spatial changes in relation to grain size distribution and morphology. The

  1. A Fusion of GPR- and LiDAR-Data for Surveying and Visualisation of Archaeological Structures - a case example of an archaeological site in Strettweg, District of Murtal, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Nicole; Russ, Stefan; Sass, Oliver; Tiefengraber, Georg; Tiefengraber, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Strettweg is a small community located in Upper Styria in the valley of the Mur. It is seen as one of the most outstanding prehistoric archaeological sites in Austria. In 1851 the "Strettweger Opferwagen" (~ 600 BC) was discovered and is considered one of the most important Hallstatt find of Austria. More than 160 years later Airborne LiDAR and modern geophysical methods like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and/or Magnetics have made it possible to find additional burial mounds and map the largest prehistoric settlement in the southeastern Alps (Falkenberg). These modern techniques have provided an auxiliary tool for the archaeological team's project "Hallstattzeitlicher Fürstensitz Falkenberg/Strettweg". GPR allows for a fast and non-invasive surveying of structures and anomalies of the sub surface, by using electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The active remote sensing technique LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging, also known as Laser Scanning), measures the runtime of discrete light pulses in order to map objects and structures on the surface of the earth. In the course of this archaeological project GPR (Mala ProEx - 500 MHz antenna) and terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl LMS Z620) were applied by the University of Graz, Department of Geography and Regional Science, ALADYN work group (Univ.-Prof. Dr. Oliver Sass) to collect data of a testing site with 2500 m². The existence of archaeological structures was crucial for choosing this area. The area is surrounded by fine sediments, which originated by fluviatile transportation, making the remnants of these archaeological structures easier to detect. A standard GPR-processing-workflow does not allow for a 3-dimensional visualisation of the results and complicates the detection of archaeological structures. Unlike, LiDAR which does allow for a 3-dimensional visualisation. A fusion of both techniques, by using Python scripts and the software packages REFLEXW - Sandmeier Scientific Software and LASTools

  2. Up-Scaling Field Observations to Ground Truth Seismic Interpretations and Test Dynamic Models of Deep Water Rifted Margins: What are the Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatschal, G.; Nirrengarten, M.; Epin, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances on the study of rifted margins resulted from the development of new, high-resolution seismic imaging methods and dynamic modelling that enable to image the crustal scale structure of rifted margins and experiment under what conditions they formed. However, both the used parameter space as well as the seismic interpretations and model results need to be ground truth by direct observations and data. In the case of deep-water rifted margins, the problem is that drill hole data is expensive, rare and only available from a handful of examples worldwide. In contrast, remnants preserving kilometre-scale outcrops of former deep-water rifted margins have been described from the Alps and the Pyrenees in Western Europe. These large-scale outcrops provide a direct access to mantle and crustal rocks and the associated sedimentary sequences and magmatic additions. The combination of world-class outcrops, classical, field-based mapping and analytical methods can provide the missing data that is necessary to calibrate and test dynamic models as well as to ground truth seismic interpretations. In my presentation I will use observations and data from key outcrops from the most distal fossil Alpine Tethys margins exposed in SE Switzerland with the aim to describe the deformation processes and conditions during final rifting and to test rift modes (semi-ductile flow vs. brittle poly-phase faulting). I will in particular focus on the way strain is distributed and the bulk rheology evolves during hyper-extension and mantle exhumation and compare the observations with model results and seismic interpretations. Up-and down scaling observations/data and bridging multiple spatial and temporal scales is a key to understand the large-scale extensional processes that are at the origin of the formation of hyper-extend and exhumed mantle domains. The major challenge is to understand how the learnings obtained from the well-documented examples in the Alps and Pyrenees can be used

  3. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  4. Gebiss: an ImageJ plugin for the specification of ground truth and the performance evaluation of 3d segmentation algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Kwo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image segmentation is a crucial step in quantitative microscopy that helps to define regions of tissues, cells or subcellular compartments. Depending on the degree of user interactions, segmentation methods can be divided into manual, automated or semi-automated approaches. 3D image stacks usually require automated methods due to their large number of optical sections. However, certain applications benefit from manual or semi-automated approaches. Scenarios include the quantification of 3D images with poor signal-to-noise ratios or the generation of so-called ground truth segmentations that are used to evaluate the accuracy of automated segmentation methods. Results We have developed Gebiss; an ImageJ plugin for the interactive segmentation, visualisation and quantification of 3D microscopic image stacks. We integrated a variety of existing plugins for threshold-based segmentation and volume visualisation. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of Gebiss to the segmentation of nuclei in live Drosophila embryos and the quantification of neurodegeneration in Drosophila larval brains. Gebiss was developed as a cross-platform ImageJ plugin and is freely available on the web at http://imaging.bii.a-star.edu.sg/projects/gebiss/.

  5. A study of National Lightning Detection Network responses to natural lightning based on ground truth data acquired at LOG with emphasis on cloud discharge activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Rakov, V. A.; Tran, M. D.; Nag, A.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) detection efficiency (DE) and classification accuracy (CA) for cloud discharge (IC) activity (identified here by a sequence of non-return-stroke-type electric field pulses not accompanied by channels to ground) were evaluated using optical and electric field data acquired at the LOG (Lightning Observatory in Gainesville), Florida. Our ground truth "IC events" include 26 "isolated IC events" (complete IC flashes), 58 "IC events before first return stroke," and 69 "IC events after first return stroke." For the total of 153 IC events, 33% were detected by the NLDN, and the classification accuracy was 86%. For complete IC flashes, the detection efficiency and classification accuracy were 73% and 95%, respectively, and the average number of NLDN-reported cloud pulses was 2.9 per detected event. For 24 preliminary breakdown pulse trains in CG flashes, the detection efficiency and classification accuracy were 46% and 82%, respectively. We have additionally estimated the DE and CA for return strokes in CG flashes. Irrespective of stroke order and polarity, the DE was 92% (339/367), and the CA was also 92% (312/339). The DEs for negative first and subsequent strokes were 98% and 90%, respectively.

  6. Comparing different methods for assessing ground truth of rover data analysis for the 2005 season of the Life in the Atacama Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G. W.; Peate, I. Ukstins; Nakamoto, J.; Pudenz, E.; Glasgow, J.; Bretthauer, J.; Cabrol, N.; Wettergreen, D.; Grin, E.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Piatek, J. L.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Hock, A. N.; Weinstein, S.; Fisher, G.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Minkley, N.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Smith, T.; Stubb, K.; Wagner, M.; Waggoner, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    The scientific success of a remote exploration rover mission depends on the right combination of technology, teamwork and scientific insight. In order to quantitatively evaluate the success of a rover field trial, it is necessary to assess the accuracy of scientific interpretations made during the field test. This work compares three structured approaches to assessing the ground truth of scientific findings from a science team conducting a remote investigation of a locale using an autonomous rover. For the first approach, independent assessment, the daily science summaries were analyzed and reduced to a series of 1082 factual statements, which were treated as hypotheses. An independent scientist traveled to the field area to assess these hypotheses. For the second approach, guided self-study, the mission scientists themselves traveled to the field area and evaluated their own scientific interpretations. The third approach, discrepancy investigation, searched for the root causes of differences between the scientific interpretations made in the control room and those made in the field. The independent investigation provided sensitive, quantitative data, but suffered from the lack of context and continuity developed in the mission control room. The guided evaluation benefited from the context of the mission, but lacked clarity and consistency. The discrepancy investigation provided insight into the root causes behind the discrepancies, but was expensive and time consuming. The independent investigation method yielded particularly compelling results, but each method offers advantages and a comprehensive rover field trial assessment should include a combination of all three.

  7. GPR Use and Activities in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringgaard, Jørgen; Wisén, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Academic work on GPR in Denmark is performed both by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the University of Copenhagen (KU). The work at DTU includes development of antennas and systems, e.g. an airborne ice-sounder GPR system (POLARIS) that today is in frequent use for monitoring of ice thickness in Greenland. DTU often collaborates with ESA (European Space Agency) regarding electromagnetic development projects. At KU there is an ongoing work with GPR applied to water resources. The main objective is to study flux of water and matter across different hydrological domains. There are several recent publications from KU describing research for data analysis and modelling as well as hydro geophysical applications. Also the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) performs frequent geological mapping with GPR. There have been mainly two actors on the Danish commercial market for several years: FalkGeo and Ramboll. Falkgeo has been active for many years acquiring data for several different applications such as archeology, utilities and roads. Their equipment pool comprises both a multichannel Terravision system form GSSI and a 2D system from Mala Geoscience with a comprehensive range of antennas. Ramboll has performed GPR surveys for two decades mainly with 2D systems from GSSI. In recent years Ramboll has also obtained a system with RTA antennas from Mala Geoscience and a multichannel system from 3D-Radar. These systems have opened markets both for deeper geological mapping and for shallow mapping. The geological mapping with the Mala system has often been combined with resistivity imaging (CVES) and refraction seismic. The 3D system has been applied in airports and on road for mapping of layer thicknesses, delamination and for control of asphalt works. Other areas comprise bridge deck evaluation and utility mapping. Ramboll also acts as client advisor for BaneDanmark, a state owned company who operates and develops the Danish state railway network

  8. Estimating Daily Maximum and Minimum Land Air Surface Temperature Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and Ground Truth Data in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thanh Noi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate quantitatively the land surface temperature (LST derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD11A1 and MYD11A1 Collection 5 products for daily land air surface temperature (Ta estimation over a mountainous region in northern Vietnam. The main objective is to estimate maximum and minimum Ta (Ta-max and Ta-min using both TERRA and AQUA MODIS LST products (daytime and nighttime and auxiliary data, solving the discontinuity problem of ground measurements. There exist no studies about Vietnam that have integrated both TERRA and AQUA LST of daytime and nighttime for Ta estimation (using four MODIS LST datasets. In addition, to find out which variables are the most effective to describe the differences between LST and Ta, we have tested several popular methods, such as: the Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise, Bayesian information criterion (BIC, adjusted R-squared and the principal component analysis (PCA of 14 variables (including: LST products (four variables, NDVI, elevation, latitude, longitude, day length in hours, Julian day and four variables of the view zenith angle, and then, we applied nine models for Ta-max estimation and nine models for Ta-min estimation. The results showed that the differences between MODIS LST and ground truth temperature derived from 15 climate stations are time and regional topography dependent. The best results for Ta-max and Ta-min estimation were achieved when we combined both LST daytime and nighttime of TERRA and AQUA and data from the topography analysis.

  9. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition are associated with better potential spatial access to the ground-truthed food environment in a large rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Little is known about spatial inequalities and potential access to the food environment in rural areas. In this study, we assessed the food environment in a 6-county rural region of Texas (11,567 km2) through ground-truthed methods that included direct observation and on-site Global Positioning System technology to examine the relationship between neighborhood inequalities (e.g., socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition) and network distance from all 101 rural neighborhoods to the nearest food store (FS). Neighborhood deprivation was determined from socioeconomic characteristics using 2000 census block group (CBG) data. Network distances were calculated from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supermarket, grocery, convenience, and discount store. Multiple regression models examined associations among deprivation, minority composition, population density, and network distance to the nearest FS. The median distance to the nearest supermarket was 14.9 km one way (range 0.12 to 54.0 km). The distance decreased with increasing deprivation, minority composition, and population density. The worst deprived neighborhoods with the greatest minority composition had better potential spatial access to the nearest FS. For >20% of all rural residents, their neighborhoods were at least 17.7 km from the nearest supermarket or full-line grocery or 7.6 km from the nearest convenience store. This makes food shopping a challenge, especially in rural areas that lack public transportation and where many have no vehicular access. Knowledge of potential access to the food environment is essential for combining environmental approaches and health interventions so that families, especially those in rural areas, can make healthier food choices.

  10. Addressing the social dimensions of citizen observatories: The Ground Truth 2.0 socio-technical approach for sustainable implementation of citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehn, Uta; Joshi, Somya; Pfeiffer, Ellen; Anema, Kim; Gharesifard, Mohammad; Momani, Abeer

    2017-04-01

    Owing to ICT-enabled citizen observatories, citizens can take on new roles in environmental monitoring, decision making and co-operative planning, and environmental stewardship. And yet implementing advanced citizen observatories for data collection, knowledge exchange and interactions to support policy objectives is neither always easy nor successful, given the required commitment, trust, and data reliability concerns. Many efforts are facing problems with the uptake and sustained engagement by citizens, limited scalability, unclear long-term sustainability and limited actual impact on governance processes. Similarly, to sustain the engagement of decision makers in citizen observatories, mechanisms are required from the start of the initiative in order to have them invest in and, hence, commit to and own the entire process. In order to implement sustainable citizen observatories, these social dimensions therefore need to be soundly managed. We provide empirical evidence of how the social dimensions of citizen observatories are being addressed in the Ground Truth 2.0 project, drawing on a range of relevant social science approaches. This project combines the social dimensions of citizen observatories with enabling technologies - via a socio-technical approach - so that their customisation and deployment is tailored to the envisaged societal and economic impacts of the observatories. The projects consists of the demonstration and validation of six scaled up citizen observatories in real operational conditions both in the EU and in Africa, with a specific focus on flora and fauna as well as water availability and water quality for land and natural resources management. The demonstration cases (4 EU and 2 African) cover the full 'spectrum' of citizen-sensed data usage and citizen engagement, and therefore allow testing and validation of the socio-technical concept for citizen observatories under a range of conditions.

  11. Reflection processing of crosshole GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Tronicke, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Crosshole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are frequently used for obtaining a detailed understanding of the subsurface as it is required in many hydrological and engineering applications. Such surveys are typically evaluated based on various tomographic approaches resulting in smoothed models of the governing subsurface physical parameters. On the contrary, reflection-based imaging methods provide information on subsurface structures by interpreting distinct reflection events originating from subsurface interfaces. Therefore, both methods provide complementary information for subsurface characterization. However, the additional information originating from reflected events is rarely used to improve the interpretation of crosshole GPR data sets. We present a processing approach for crosshole GPR data that provides a subsurface image of the reflected energy between two boreholes. Our approach is largely based on concepts known from crosshole seismic imaging at the reservoir scale. Our major processing steps include the application of fk-based wavefield separation of up- and down going events and the application of a generalized form of the Kirchhoff integral to migrate the reflected energy back to its origin. We evaluate our processing approach using synthetic examples of varying complexity and demonstrate its applicability to a field data example recorded at a well known geophysical testing site. Furthermore, we compare our reflection processing result with the results of a travel-time tomography.

  12. Portuguese experience on the use of GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco; Pais, Jorge; Gonçalves, Luísa

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been used for several decades in a wide range of applications, from pure research towards structural diagnostics and infrastructure survey. This method has proven to be very useful for fast and nondestructive quality check of structures, especially road pavements. Due to this fact, the use of this method is mandatory in a number of countries (United States, United Kingdom, Norway, etc.) before any digging operation or for the quality inspection of bituminous road beds, for example. In those countries, national guidelines exist to regulate the use of these equipments as well as rules and protocols to be followed by the professionals that provide those kinds of services. In Portugal, despite the advanced level of the structural engineering and construction professionals, and the existence of complex structures, the use of ground penetrating radar has exhibited a rather low penetration rate, comparatively to other European countries. This situation is due in part to the fact that GPR services are still more expensive than a more traditional way, which generally does not have the same degree of precision or implies the destruction of a part of the inspected area, and also because of the nature of Portuguese professionals. There is also a lack of national rules to regulate the use of GPR, which is the responsibility of ANACOM, as well as a certain lack of knowledge from national and regional authorities in order to make it mandatory in particular applications, namely in the case of intervention in the underground and road infrastructure. Despite this situation, GPR has been used in Portugal in recent years, although being mostly confined to the academic world. Thus, this communication presents several examples of the Portuguese experience on the use of GPR, which ranges from academic research towards structural and infrastructure inspection, to archaeological survey. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering

  13. Benthic Surveys for Ground Truthing of Coastal Benthic Mapping in the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands 2001-2002 (NODC Accession 0001329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) initiated a coral reef research program in 1999 to map, assess, inventory,...

  14. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-08-01

    The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI) and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb) with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91%) if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60%) between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot (PSP) data from the same region and with the

  15. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91% if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60% between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a

  16. GPR Diagnostics of columns in archaeological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola; Persico, Raffaele; Catapano, Ilaria

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade the use of Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) applied to cultural heritage has been strongly increasing thanks to both technological development of sensors and softwares for data processing and cultural reasons such as the increasing awareness of conservators and archaeologist of the benefits of this method in terms of reduction of costs and time and risk associated with restoration works. This made GPR a mature technique for investigating different types of works of art and building elements of historical interest, including masonry structures, frescoes, mosaics [1-3], in the context of scientific projects, decision support activities aimed at the diagnosis of decay pathologies, and educational activities. One of the most complex building elements to be investigated by GPR are the columns both for the geometry of the object and for the several expected features to be detected including fractures, dishomogeneities and metallic connection elements. The work deals with the Ground Penetrating Radar diagnostic surveys at the prestigious archaeological site of Pompei. In particular, GPR surveys were carried out in two different areas, Palestra Grande and Tempio di Giove. The first campaign was carried out also as educational activity of the "International School "GEOPHYSICS AND REMOTE SENSING FOR ARCHAEOLOGY". The School aimed at giving the opportunity to scholars, PhD students, researchers and specialists in Geophysics, Remote Sensing and Archaeology to deepen their knowledge and expertise with geophysical and remote sensing techniques for archaeology and cultural heritage documentation and management. This survey was carried on two kinds of columns, with circular and rectangular section in order to detect possible hidden defects affecting their integrity. The second survey was carried out at Tempio di Giove, on request of the Soprintendenza Pompei, in order to gain information about the presence of reinforcement structures, which may be put inside the

  17. GPR application to investigate soil crack persistence in Cianjur landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, S.; Aly, R. R.; Syahputra, R.; Kristyanto, T. H. W.; Tempesy, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    Cianjur region, located in West Java, is one of regions in Indonesia with high intensity of rain, where medium land movement may be inevitable. The presence of joints on sandstone outcrops conducts as water access and accelerates weathering process. The survey aims to study the continuity of the soil cracks that develop in the body of slope its density. This survey used Ground Penetrating Radar method to study landslides in both favorable and unfavorable light. Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR, is the method that adopts electromagnetic wave propagation to map subsurface properties. GPR is one of the effective methods to delineate subsurface with the highest resolution in the shallow depth, even it has highly variation results corresponded to complex of geological features and clay-rich materials. The result section showed soil crack continuation into deeper part of the layer with GPR's frequency 40MHz, most of section then showed the crack occurrence is dominated in the upper 200 ns. Crack density could be affected by mineral composition and other factors. This study resulted two lines GPR data which has different altitude. Line A which is lower than Line B has loose crack density rather than B, about approximately 40%. The area was approximately affected by landslides that usually exhibited dramatic spatial and temporal variations of lithological and hydrogeological conditions. It will need further survey to know the effect of soil crack toward the sliding surface of the landslide from other surveys.

  18. Analysis of thin fractures with GPR: from theory to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Whenever we perform a GPR survey to investigate a rocky medium, being the ultimate purpose of the survey either to study the stability of a rock slope or to determine the soundness of a quarried rock block, we would like mainly to detect any fracture within the investigated medium and, possibly, to estimate the parameters of the fractures, namely thickness and filling material. In most of the practical cases, rock fracture thicknesses are very small when compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation generated by the GPR systems. In such cases, fractures are to be considered as thin beds, i.e. two interfaces whose distance is smaller than GPR resolving capability, and the reflected signal is the sum of the electromagnetic reverberation within the bed. According to this, fracture parameters are encoded in the thin bed complex response and in this work we propose a methodology based on deterministic deconvolution to process amplitude and phase information in the frequency domain to estimate fracture parameters. We first present some theoretical aspects related to thin bed response and a sensitivity analysis concerning fracture thickness and filling. Secondly, we deal with GPR datasets collected both during laboratory experiments and in the facilities of quarrying activities. In the lab tests fractures were simulated by placing materials with known electromagnetic parameters and controlled thickness in between two small marble blocks, whereas field GPR surveys were performed on bigger quarried ornamental stone blocks before they were submitted to the cutting process. We show that, with basic pre-processing and the choice of a proper deconvolving signal, results are encouraging although an ambiguity between thickness and filling estimates exists when no a-priori information is available. Results can be improved by performing CMP radar surveys that are able to provide additional information (i.e., variation of thin bed response versus offset) at the expense

  19. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  20. GPR scan assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Salah, Hany; Massoud, Usama; Fouad, Mona; Abdel-Hafez, Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD). The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m) with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  1. Investigating a damaging buried sinkhole cluster in an urban area (Zaragoza city, NE Spain) integrating multiple techniques: Geomorphological surveys, DInSAR, DEMs, GPR, ERT, and trenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonel, Domingo; Rodríguez-Tribaldos, Verónica; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; McCalpin, James P.; Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This contribution analyses a complex sinkhole cluster buried by urban elements in the mantled evaporite karst of Zaragoza city, NE Spain, where active subsidence has caused significant economic losses (~ 0.3 million Euro). The investigation, conducted after the development of the area, has involved the application of multiple surface and subsurface techniques. A detailed map of modern surface deformation indicates two active coalescing sinkholes, whereas the interpretation of old aerial photographs reveals the presence of two additional dormant sinkholes beneath human structures that might reactivate in the near future. DInSAR (Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar) displacement data have limited spatial coverage mainly due to high subsidence rates and surface changes (re-pavement), and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and trenching investigations were severely restricted by the presence of urban elements. Nonetheless, the three techniques consistently indicate that the area affected by subsidence is larger than that defined by surface deformation features. The performance of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique was adversely affected by the presence of highly conductive and massive anthropogenic deposits, but some profiles reveal that subsidence in the central sector of one of the sinkholes is mainly accommodated by sagging. The stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench dug across the topographic margin of one of the sinkholes may be alternatively interpreted by three collapse events of around 0.6 m that occurred after 290 yr BP, or by progressive fault displacement combined with episodic anthropogenic excavation and fill. Average subsidence rates of > 6.6 mm/yr and 40 mm/yr have been calculated using stratigraphic markers dated by the radiocarbon method and historical information, respectively. This case study illustrates the need of conducting thorough investigations in sinkhole areas during the pre

  2. GPR119 as a fat sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    acting through, for example, GPR40, but is also probably mediated in large part through the luminal formation of 2-monoacylglycerol acting on the 'fat sensor' GPR119. In the pancreas GPR119 may also be stimulated by 2-monoacylglycerol generated from local turnover of pancreatic triacylglycerol. Knowledge...

  3. Omega 3 Fatty Acids and GPR120

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Da Young; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

    2012-01-01

    Human loss-of-function gene variants in GPR120 have recently been identified that confer increased risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome. In addition, GPR120 KO mice develop obesity, increased inflammation, and insulin resistance, consistent with a role for GPR120 signaling in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

  4. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  5. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  6. Accuracy assessment of NOGGIN Plus and MALÅ RAMAC X3M single channel ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) for underground utility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazali Hashim, Mas; Nizam Saip, Saiful; Hani, Nurfauziah; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) becomes a popular device in investigation of the underground utilities in recent years. GPR analyses the type and position of utility objects. However, the performance accuracy of GPR models is an important issue that should be considered. This study conducts the accuracy analysis between two models of single channel GPR; NOGGIN PLUS and MALÅ RAMAC X3M, by focusing on the basic principles of single channel GPR, accuracy analysis and calibration methods implemented on GPR. The survey work has been performed to identify the most accurate instrument to detect underground utility objects. In addition, data analysis was carried out to compare between two models of single channel GPR. This study provides proper guidelines and assists surveyors to select the suitable instruments regarding on applications especially on utility mapping in terms of accuracy.

  7. Objective Performance Evaluation of Video Segmentation Algorithms with Ground-Truth%一种客观的视频对象分割算法性能评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高波; 张兆扬

    2004-01-01

    While the development of particular video segmentation algorithms has attracted considerable research interest, relatively little effort has been devoted to provide a methodology for evaluating their performance.In this paper, we propose a methodology to objectively evaluate video segmentation algorithm with ground-truth, which is based on computing the deviation of segmentation results from the reference segmentation.Four different metrics based on classification pixels, edges, relative foreground area and relative position respectively are combined to address the spatial accuracy.Temporal coherency is evaluated by utilizing the difference of spatial accuracy between successive frames.The experimental results show the feasibility of our approach.Moreover, it is computationally more efficient than previous methods.It can be applied to provide an offline ranking among different segmentation algorithms and to optimally set the parameters for a given algorithm.

  8. 4D GPR Experiments--Towards the Virtual Lysimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmueck, M.; Viggiano, D. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Drasdis, J. B.; Kruse, S. E.; Or, D.

    2006-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of infiltration, water flow and retention in the vadose zone currently rely primarily on invasive methods, which irreversibly disturb original soil structure and alter its hydrologic behavior in the vicinity of the measurement. For example, use of lysimeters requires extraction and repacking of soil samples, and time- domain reflectometry (TDR) requires insertion of probes into the soil profile. This study investigates the use of repeated high-density 3D ground penetrating radar surveys (also known as 4D GPR) as a non-invasive alternative for detailed visualization and quantification of water flow in the vadose zone. Evaluation of the 4D GPR method was based on a series of controlled point-source water injection experiments into undisturbed beach sand deposits at Crandon Park in Miami, Florida. The goal of the GPR surveys was to image the shape and evolution of a wet-bulb as it propagates from the injection points (~0.5 m) towards the water table at 2.2 m depth. The experimental design was guided by predictive modeling using Hydrus 2D and finite-difference GPR waveform codes. Input parameters for the modeling were derived from hydrologic and electromagnetic characterization of representative sand samples. Guided by modeling results, we injected 30 to 40 liters of tap water through plastic-cased boreholes with slotted bottom sections (0.1 m) located 0.4 to 0.6 m below the surface. During and after injection, an area of 25 m2 was surveyed every 20 minutes using 250 and 500 MHz antennas with a grid spacing of 0.05 x 0.025 m. A total of 20 3D GPR surveys were completed over 3 infiltration sites. To confirm wet-bulb shapes measured by GPR, we injected 2 liters of "brilliant blue" dye (~100 mg/l) along with a saline water tracer towards the end of one experiment. After completion of GPR scanning, a trench was excavated to examine the distribution of the saltwater and dye using TDR and visual inspection, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the 4D GPR

  9. GPR use and activities in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryk, Josef; Matula, Radek

    2014-05-01

    In the field of civil engineering applications in the Czech Republic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used particularly for the diagnostics of roads and bridges. There is no producer of GPR in the Czech Republic, sets of different producers are used, particularly Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (USA) and MALÅ GeoScience (Sweden). The measurement results are mostly processed by software Radan, Road Doctor Pro, ReflexW and RadEx. The only technical specification in the Czech Republic is TP 233 issued by the Ministry of Transport, which describes the diagnostics of roads by GPR. Apart from a basic description of the method and a measurement system, it mentions possible applications. The only application where accuracy is mentioned is the locating of dowels and tie bars in concrete road pavements, which states that if calibration is performed, the expected depth accuracy is up to 1.0 cm. The following R&D project is currently in progress: New diagnostics methods as a supporting decision tool for maintenance and repair of road pavements - their contribution and ways of their usage (2012-2014) The project aims to test possible non-destructive methods (particularly GPR and laser scanning), make recommendations when and how to use specific methods for individual applications and for changes in technical specifications. The following R&D projects have been recently completed: Position of dowels and tie bars in rigid pavements and importance of their correct placement to pavement performance and service life (2012-2013) The project included an analysis of individual NDT methods used for the location of dowels and tie bars and for testing of their accuracy - GPR, MIT-scan and GPR in combination with a metal detector. Multichannel ground penetrating radar as a tool for monitoring of road and bridge structures (2009-2011) The project included detection of hollow spaces under non-reinforced concrete pavements, detection of excessive amount of water in road construction

  10. Beach dynamics and oscillations of shoreline position in recent years at Miramar Beach, Goa, India: a study from a GPR survey.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Iyer, S.D.; Udayaganesan, P.; Luis, R.A.A.; Gaonkar, S.S.; Chithrabhanu, P.; Tirodkar, G.; Singhvi, A.K.

    .0, User Manual: Geophysical Survey Systems Inc., USA Hede MU, Bendixen M, Clemmensen LB, Kroon A, Nielson L (2013) Joint interpretation of beach-ridge architecture and coastal topography show the validity of sea-level markers observed in ground... Y, Zhang L, Kuang R (2014)Shoreline change of Chongming Dongtan and response to river sediment load: A remote sensing assessment. J Hydrol 511:432-442 14    Lindhorst S, Betzler C, Hass HC (2008) The sedimentary architecture of a Holocene barrier...

  11. Integrated magnetic, gravity, and GPR surveys to locate the probable source of hydrocarbon contamination in Sharm El-Sheikh area, south Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mona; Rashed, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Sharm El-Sheikh waters were suddenly hit by hydrocarbon spills which created a serious threat to the prosperous tourism industry in and around the city. Analysis of soil samples, water samples, and seabed samples collected in and around the contaminated bay area showed anomalous levels of hydrocarbons. An integrated geophysical investigation, using magnetic, gravity, and ground penetrating radar geophysical tools, was conducted in the headland overlooking the contaminated bay in order to delineate the possible subsurface source of contamination. The results of the geophysical investigations revealed three underground manmade reinforced concrete tanks and a complicated network of buried steel pipes in addition to other unidentified buried objects. The depths and dimensions of the discovered objects were determined. Geophysical investigations also revealed the presence of a north-south oblique slip fault running through the eastern part of the studied area. Excavations, conducted later on, confirmed the presence of one of the tanks delineated by the geophysical surveys.

  12. Analyses and Measures of GPR Signal with Superimposed Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicarella, Simone; Ferrara, Vincenzo; D'Atanasio, Paolo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara; Pavoncello, Settimio; Prontera, Santo; Tedeschi, Nicola; Zambotti, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The influence of EM noises and environmental hard conditions on the GPR surveys has been examined analytically [1]. In the case of pulse radar GPR, many unwanted signals as stationary clutter, non-stationary clutter, random noise, and time jitter, influence the measurement signal. When GPR is motionless, stationary clutter is the most dominant signal component due to the reflections of static objects different from the investigated target, and to the direct antenna coupling. Moving objects like e.g. persons and vehicles, and the swaying of tree crown, produce non-stationary clutter. Device internal noise and narrowband jamming are e.g. two potential sources of random noises. Finally, trigger instabilities generate random jitter. In order to estimate the effective influence of these noise signal components, we organized some experimental setup of measurement. At first, we evaluated for the case of a GPR basic detection, simpler image processing of radargram. In the future, we foresee experimental measurements for detection of the Doppler frequency changes induced by movements of targets (like physiological movements of survivors under debris). We obtain image processing of radargram by using of GSSI SIR® 2000 GPR system together with the UWB UHF GPR-antenna (SUB-ECHO HBD 300, a model manufactured by Radarteam company). Our work includes both characterization of GPR signal without (or almost without) a superimposed noise, and the effect of jamming originated from the coexistence of a different radio signal. For characterizing GPR signal, we organized a measurement setup that includes the following instruments: mod. FSP 30 spectrum analyser by Rohde & Schwarz which operates in the frequency range 9 KHz - 30 GHz, mod. Sucoflex 104 cable by Huber Suhner (10 MHz - 18 GHz), and HL050 antenna by Rohde & Schwarz (bandwidth: from 850 MHz to 26.5 GHz). The next analysis of superimposed jamming will examine two different signal sources: by a cellular phone and by a

  13. Preliminary Results of GPR Surveys in two Mesoamerican Archaeological Sites: Ixcaquixtla, Puebla and El Opeño, Michoacán, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ramirez, J.; Maillol, J.; Bandy, W.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C.; Carreta, N.; Nunez-Garcia, U.

    2005-05-01

    We present the results of Ground Penetrating Radar surveys conducted during two field seasons in 2002 and 2004 on the archaeological sites of San Juan Ixcaquixtla, Puebla, in Central Mexico and El Opeño, Michoacán, in the western part of the country. In both sites a SIR-2 system was used with 300 MHz and 900 MHz fixed antennas. Radan software was used for data processing with 3D QuickDraw and Interactive 3D modules. The first site corresponds to the Classic Period and is located in a carbonate environment with caliche. The second site is from the Early Formative Period and is found in volcanic tuffs. In both cases the main objective was the detection and recognition of buried archaeological remains, particularly tombs. Data processing including spatial 2D filtering, and the display of three-dimensional data volumes and time slices allowed us to identify two major anomalies in each of the sites that could correspond to tombs. These preliminary results will be verified when archaeological excavations are conducted.

  14. Using ground penetrating radar for roof hazard detection in underground mines. Report of investigations/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinda, G.M.; Monaghan, W.D.; Mowrey, G.L.; Persetic, G.F.

    1996-08-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is being investigated for the potential to determine roof hazards in underground mines. GPR surveys were conducted at four field sites with accompanying ground truth in order to determine the value of GPR for roof hazard detection. The resolution of the current system allows detection of gross roof fractures (>1/4 in zone) or rider beds in coal measure roof. Differences in data quality are discussed, as well as suggestions for collecting improved data.

  15. Combining structure-from-motion derived point clouds from satellites and unmanned aircraft systems images with ground-truth data to create high-resolution digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu, M.; Thatcher, C.; Danielson, J.; Gesch, D. B.; Poppenga, S.; Kottermair, M.; Jalandoni, A.; Carlson, E.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal topographic and bathymetric (topobathymetric) data with high spatial resolution (1-meter or better) and high vertical accuracy are needed to assess the vulnerability of Pacific Islands to climate change impacts, including sea level rise. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports, low-lying atolls in the Pacific Ocean are extremely vulnerable to king tide events, storm surge, tsunamis, and sea-level rise. The lack of coastal topobathymetric data has been identified as a critical data gap for climate vulnerability and adaptation efforts in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). For Majuro Atoll, home to the largest city of RMI, the only elevation dataset currently available is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data which has a 30-meter spatial resolution and 16-meter vertical accuracy (expressed as linear error at 90%). To generate high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in the RMI, elevation information and photographic imagery have been collected from field surveys using GNSS/total station and unmanned aerial vehicles for Structure-from-Motion (SfM) point cloud generation. Digital Globe WorldView II imagery was processed to create SfM point clouds to fill in gaps in the point cloud derived from the higher resolution UAS photos. The combined point cloud data is filtered and classified to bare-earth and georeferenced using the GNSS data acquired on roads and along survey transects perpendicular to the coast. A total station was used to collect elevation data under tree canopies where heavy vegetation cover blocked the view of GNSS satellites. A subset of the GPS / total station data was set aside for error assessment of the resulting DEM.

  16. Advances Towards The Discovery of GPR55 Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Paula; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was identified in 1999. It was proposed as a novel member of the endocannabinoid system due to the fact that some endogenous, plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoid ligands act on GPR55. However, the complexity of the cellular downstream signaling pathways related to GPR55 activation delayed the discovery of selective GPR55 ligands. It was only a few years ago that the high throughput screening of libraries of pharmaceutical companies and governmental organizations allowed to identify selective GPR55 agonists and antagonists. Since then, several GPR55 modulator scaffolds have been reported. The relevance of GPR55 has been explored in diverse physiological and pathological processes revealing its role in inflammation, neuropathic pain, bone physiology, diabetes and cancer. Considering GPR55 as a new promising therapeutic target, there is a clear need for new selective and potent GPR55 modulators. This review will address a current structural update of GPR55 ligands.

  17. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atya, M. A.; AL Khateeb, S. O.; Ahmed, S. B.; Musa, M. F.; Gaballa, M.; Abbas, A. M.; Shaaban, F. F.; Hafez, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A) includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B) includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C) includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  18. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Atya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  19. Ground Truth in Building Human Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    2011, equipped with a laptop computer and a digital camera, I accompanied a team implementing the USAID-funded Title Registration and Microfinance ...security or collateral for a microfinance loan, typically $100 to $500 USD for six months, to buy a sewing machine, basket weaving material, or other...equipment and supplies for an in- home business.82 The Title Registration and Microfinance Project ad- dresses the dual challenges of conducting land

  20. Remote sensing surveys design in regional agricultural inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, G. G.; Djemardian, Y. A.; Ezkov, V. V.; Sazanov, N. V.

    In this paper, we consider the methodology problems of remote sensing surveys design in regional agricultural inventories. The strategy of samples, based on the combined use of multispectral aerospace data and ground truth data obtained on test sites in the region under supervision, is used. The strategy of samples includes: selection of areas, which are statistically homogenous with certain agricultural parameters under research, identification of representative test sites grid; remote sensing from aerospace platforms and ground truth data acquisition on test sites as well. The ground measurements of biometrical parameters of certain agricultural crops under research are taken at test sites, maps of anomalies are compiled, spectrometrical and other optico-physical characteristics of vegetation canopies and soils are defined. The derived data are used in automatic interactive imagery processing at the training stages of the procedures of classification and application of thematical remote sensing data processing results to the entire region.

  1. Disease-associated mutations prevent GPR56-collagen III interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Luo

    Full Text Available GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Mutations in GPR56 cause a devastating human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP. Using the N-terminal fragment of GPR56 (GPR56(N as a probe, we have recently demonstrated that collagen III is the ligand of GPR56 in the developing brain. In this report, we discover a new functional domain in GPR56(N, the ligand binding domain. This domain contains four disease-associated mutations and two N-glycosylation sites. Our study reveals that although glycosylation is not required for ligand binding, each of the four disease-associated mutations completely abolish the ligand binding ability of GPR56. Our data indicates that these four single missense mutations cause BFPP mostly by abolishing the ability of GPR56 to bind to its ligand, collagen III, in addition to affecting GPR56 protein surface expression as previously shown.

  2. Prediction of GPR performance in landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Mohammad; Tavangar, Amirhossein

    2009-03-01

    The contrast in the dielectric constant between a landmine and the surrounding soil is one of the most important parameters to be considered when using ground penetrating radar (GPR) for landmine detection. In this paper, we discuss available models for the prediction of the dielectric constant from soil physical properties including bulk density, particles density soil texture, and water content. We predict the effects of such properties on the antipersonnel (AP) landmine detection performance of GPR in an application in Iran. Initially, available soil geophysical information was used from four types of soil selected from Iranian mine-affected areas. Subsequently, a pedotransfer model was developed to predict whether or not field conditions are appropriate for use of GPR instruments. The predictions outcome obtained through usage of this model was based on different soil textures at various soil water contents. Knowledge of soil texture, dry bulk density, and water content are necessary to determine whether soil conditions are suitable for utilization of GPR mine detection. The developed model presented here can be useful for making this determination. Finally, the graphical user interface (GUI) of the pedotransfer model was calculated and presented herein. This software package facilitates the analysis of complex dielectric constant of soil as well as attenuation of GPR signals. The developed package is also capable of plotting the complex dielectric constant of soil coupled with attenuation of GPR signals versus soil physical properties.

  3. Study of time-reversal-based signal processing applied to polarimetric GPR detection of elongated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vinicius Rafael N.; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2017-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a useful sensing modality for mapping and identification of underground infrastructure networks, such as metal and concrete pipes (gas, water or sewer), phone conduits or cables, and other buried objects. Due to the polarization-dependent response of typical targets, it is of interest to investigate the optimum antenna arrangement and/or combination of arrangements that maximize the detection and classification capabilities of polarimetric GPR imaging systems. Here, we provide a preliminary study of time-reversal-based techniques applied to target detection by GPR utilizing different relative orientations of linear-polarized antenna elements (with respect to each other, as well as to the targets). We modeled three different pipe materials (metallic, plastic and concrete) and GPR systems operating at center frequencies of 100 MHz and 200 MHz. Full-wave numerical simulations are adopted to account for mutual coupling between targets. This type of assessment study may contribute to the improvement of GPR data interpretation of infrastructure networks in urban area surveys and in other engineering studies.

  4. GPR data processing for 3D fracture mapping in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, G.; Gourry, J. C.

    1996-11-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been successfully applied to detect and map fractures in marble quarries. The aim was to distinguish quickly intact marketable marble areas from fractured ones in order to improve quarry management. The GPR profiling method was chosen because it is non destructive and quickly provides a detailed image of the subsurface. It was performed in domains corresponding to future working areas in real quarry-exploitation conditions. Field surveying and data processing were adapted to the local characteristics of the fractures: E-W orientation, sub-vertical dip, and karst features. After the GPR profiles had been processed, using methods adapted from seismics (amplitude compensation, filtering and Fourier migration), the interpreted fractures from a 12 × 24 × 15 m zone were incorporated into a 3D model. Due to the low electrical conductivity of the marble, GPR provides penetration depths of about 8 and 15 m, and resolutions of about 1 and 5 cm for frequencies of 900 and 300 MHz respectively. The detection power thus seems to be sufficient to recommend use of this method. As requested by the quarriers, the 3D representation can be used directly by themselves to locate high- or low-quality marble areas. Comparison between the observed surface fractures and the fractures detected using GPR showed reasonable correlation.

  5. Recent accumulation rates of an Alpine glacier derived from repeated airborne GPR and firn cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sold, Leo; Huss, Matthias; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski, Margit; Hoelzle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The topmost areas of glaciers contain a valuable record of their past accumulation rates. The water equivalent of annual firn layers can be used to initiate or extend existing time series of local mass balance and, ultimately, to consolidate the knowledge on the response of glaciers to changing climatic conditions. Measurements of the thickness and density of firn layers typically involve drilling in remote areas and core analysis and are thus expensive in terms of time and effort. Here, we discuss measurements from 2012 on Findelengletscher, Switzerland, a large Alpine valley glacier, using two in-situ firn cores and airborne Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). The firn cores were analysed regarding their density, major ions and deuterium concentration. The ammonium (NH4+) concentration is known to show seasonality due to a higher source activity and pronounced vertical transportation in the atmosphere in summer. The deuterium concentration serves as a proxy for air temperature during precipitation formation. Together, they provide depth and dating of annual summer surfaces. GPR has previously been used for a non-destructive assessment of internal layers in snow, firn and ice. Signal reflections indicate changes in the dielectric properties of the material, e.g. density changes at former summer surfaces. Airborne surveys allow measurements to be taken in remote and inaccessible areas. However, to transfer information from the GPR pulse travel time to the depth domain, the dielectric permittivity of the material is required, that changes with density of the firn. We observed a good agreement of the GPR signal with pronounced changes in the density profile, ice layers and peak contents of major ions. This underlines the high potential of GPR for detecting firn layers. However, not all peak-densities and thick ice layers represent a former glacier summer surface but can also be due to melting and refreezing during winter. We show that up to four years of annual

  6. A Novel Multi-carrier Radar for High-speed Wide-bandwidth Stepped-Frequency GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoo Kim, Dong; Choi, Young Woo; Kang, Do Wook

    2015-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the non-destructive testing methods for studying underground situations by using the electro-magnetic wave radiation effect. Two classical sensing techniques, impulsive GPR and stepped-frequency GPR, are used for a long time in various GPR applications. Signal bandwidths generated by the two techniques ranges from several hundred MHz to several GHz. For the research area of pavement survey the surveying speed is emphasized, thus impulsive GPR has been preferred to stepped-frequency GPR. To make a complete single scan operation, stepped-frequency GPR needs over hundreds of different frequency continuous wave (CW) radiations within its signal bandwidth which is the main time taking process. In case of impulsive GPR, it needs also several repeated pulses, for example from 64 to 512 repeated pulses, to do a complete single scan operation. Although the two techniques need several repeated internal operation processes, impulsive GPR is generally considered to be fast than stepped-frequency GPR. On the other hand, many studies of stepped-frequency GPR emphasizes that high-resolution scanning accuracy can be achieved by controlling each frequency component differently, such as frequency power profile, flexible bandwidth control. In case of pavement survey area, high-accuracy scanning is required within one meter deep as well as high-speed survey. The required accuracy is up to several centimeter in the material where dielectric constant is about 10. When surveying pavement, multi-element array antenna gives advantages to the measurement accuracy enhancement, where the scanning region of a 3 meters wide paved road is divided into several sub-regions as the number of the antenna element. For example, when stepped-frequency GPR requires 6msec for single scan operation and 15-element antenna is considered, the survey speed is limited to 15km/h in order to scan the road every 5cm, which is slow compared with common driving condition on

  7. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Barzaghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles.

  8. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi Emanuela; Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based) method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles. PMID:26805842

  9. Structural characterization of a karstified limestone formation using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, D.; Sénéchal, G.; Gaffet, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit (LSBB) at Rustrel - Pays d'Apt, France, is an Inter-disciplinary Underground Science and Technology Laboratory buried in a karstified limestone formation. A multidisciplinary program focused on water circulation monitoring is presently performed inside the tunnels. This program comprises the investigation of faults, fractures, karstification and stratigraphy ofthe limestone massif using GPR. We present the main results obtained from these data. The tunnel has been dug in lower cretaceous limestone which is characterized by a low clay content, high electrical resistivity which results in generally very low attenuation of electro-magnetic waves. 90% of the tunnels floor are made of concrete whereas other are made of bare limestone. This experimental site offers a unique opportunity of perfoming measurements within an unweathered limestone massif. The whole 3km long tunnel has been investigated using single offset shielded 250 MHz antennas in May 2009. Processing includes : DC and very low frequency removal, amplitude compensation preserving lateral variations, migration and time to depth conversion. When necessary predictive deconvolution has been applied to remove ringing effects. These data sets are characterized by good signal to noise ratio and a signal penetration down to 18 meters. These data allow us to accurately map the stratigraphy of the surrounding rocks across the concrete walls of the tunnel. Some 20 m deep vertical wells have been drilled inside the tunnel through observed reflectors. This is a strong validation of the GPR images. The estimated resolution is centimetric to decimetric and matches the required geologic accuracy. The GPR data set allows to extend previous geological results in depth, particularly in the concrete coated parts of the tunnel where conventional geological surveying is impossible. Thanks to the processing which preserves lateral amplitude variations, GPR sections exhibit prominent

  10. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulven, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber pr...

  11. Improvement of the energetic properties of the GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Ruban, Vadim P.; Kholod, Pavlo V.; Shuba, Alexander A.; Pochanin, Alexander G.; Orlenko, Alexander A.

    2014-05-01

    increase the duration of the samples with the distance. In this way, a smoothing of the noise and an increase of the recorded energy at each subsequent sampling were achieved. The next opportunity to improve the signal to noise ratio is the coherent accumulation of the signal that can be carried out both in digital and analog forms. Due to the fast ADC, it became possible to accumulate a large number of signals in an acceptable survey period. In practice, the amount of accumulated signals is limited by jitter. Thus, to achieve accumulation and re- ception of signals without distortion the authors have suggested and implemented GPR improvements allowing to get the instability of sampling below 3.5 ps. Owing to increase of the pulse-repetition frequency up to 1 MHz and data transmission via Ethernet, it was also possible to provide a fast GPR survey. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This research has been performed partly owing to EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157) "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)." The Authors thank COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" for its networking activities.

  12. Regulation of energy homeostasis via GPR120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhiko eIchimura

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Free fatty acids (FFAs are fundamental units of key nutrients. FFAs exert various biological functions, depending on the chain length and degree of desaturation. Recent studies have shown that several FFAs act as ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, activate intracellular signaling and exert physiological functions via these GPCRs. GPR120 (also known as free fatty acid receptor 4, FFAR4 is activated by unsaturated medium- to long-chain FFAs and has a critical role in various physiological homeostasis mechanisms such as incretin hormone secretion, food preference, anti-inflammation and adipogenesis. Recent studies showed that a lipid sensor GPR120 has a key role in sensing dietary fat in white adipose tissue and regulates the whole body energy homeostasis in both humans and rodents. Genetic study in human identified the loss-of-functional mutation of GPR120 associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, dysfunction of GPR120 has been linked as a novel risk factor for diet-induced obesity. This review aims to provide evidence from the recent development in physiological function of GPR120 and discusses its functional roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and its potential as drug targets.

  13. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  14. Landmine detection by 3D GPR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Yokota, Yuya; Takahashi, Kazunori; Grasmueck, Mark

    2012-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for detection of small buried objects such as landmine and UXO, conducted demonstration tests by using the 3DGPR system, which is a GPR system combined with high accuracy positing system using a commercial laser positioning system (iGPS). iGPS can provide absolute and better than centimetre precise x,y,z coordinates to multiple mine sensors at the same time. The developed " 3DGPR" system is efficient and capable of high-resolution 3D shallow subsurface scanning of larger areas (25 m2 to thousands of square meters) with irregular topography . Field test by using a 500MHz GPR system equipped with 3DGPR system was conducted. PMN-2 and Type-72 mine models have been buried at the depth of 5-20cm in sand. We could demonstrate that the 3DGPR can visualize each of these buried land mines very clearly.

  15. GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Singewald, Nicolas; Holst, Birgitte;

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is a trace element released from glutamatergic terminals, and modulates the pre- and postsynaptic areas, giving a diverse biological response. Zinc is a natural ligand that inhibits the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and regulates the excessive release of glutamate. Moreover, zinc...... exhibits an antidepressant-like profile, as demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. Recent reports indicate that the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor is an important target for zinc “transmission” (its activation modulates/induces diverse biochemical pathways involved in neuroprotection......). Preclinical studies provide evidence that zinc deficiency leads to depressive-like behavior related to down-regulation of the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor. Zinc binds to the GPR39 and triggers signals, leading to CRE-dependent gene transcription, resulting in increases in proteins such as brain...

  16. Waveform Analysis of UWB GPR Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Armesto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR systems fall into the category of ultra-wideband (UWB devices. Most GPR equipment covers a frequency range between an octave and a decade by using short-time pulses. Each signal recorded by a GPR gathers a temporal log of attenuated and distorted versions of these pulses (due to the effect of the propagation medium plus possible electromagnetic interferences and noise. In order to make a good interpretation of this data and extract the most possible information during processing, a deep knowledge of the wavelet emitted by the antennas is essential. Moreover, some advanced processing techniques require specific knowledge of this signal to obtain satisfactory results. In this work, we carried out a series of tests in order to determine the source wavelet emitted by a ground-coupled antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency.

  17. Waveform Analysis of UWB GPR Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Fernando I; Lorenzo, Henrique; Pereira, Manuel; Armesto, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems fall into the category of ultra-wideband (UWB) devices. Most GPR equipment covers a frequency range between an octave and a decade by using short-time pulses. Each signal recorded by a GPR gathers a temporal log of attenuated and distorted versions of these pulses (due to the effect of the propagation medium) plus possible electromagnetic interferences and noise. In order to make a good interpretation of this data and extract the most possible information during processing, a deep knowledge of the wavelet emitted by the antennas is essential. Moreover, some advanced processing techniques require specific knowledge of this signal to obtain satisfactory results. In this work, we carried out a series of tests in order to determine the source wavelet emitted by a ground-coupled antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency.

  18. On-site inspections of pavement damages evolution using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Benedetto, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is being increasingly used for pavements maintenance due to the wide range of applications spanning from physical to geometrical inspections, thereby allowing for a reliable diagnosis of the main causes of road structural damages. In this work, an off-ground GPR system was used to investigate a large-scale rural road network. Two sets of surveys were carried out in different time periods, with the main goals to i) localize the most critical sections; ii) monitor the evolution of previous damages and localize newborn deep faults, although not revealed at the pavement surface level; iii) analyze the causes of both evolution and emergence of faults by considering environmental and human factors. A 1-GHz GPR air-launched antenna was linked to an instrumented van for collecting data at traffic speed. Other support techniques (e.g. GPS data logger, odometer, HD video camera) were used for cross-checking,. Such centre frequency of investigation along with a 25-ns time window allow for a signal penetration of 900 mm, consistent with the deepest layer interfaces. The bottom of the array was 400 mm over the surface, with a minimum distance of 1200 mm from the van body. Scan length of maximum 10 km were provided for avoiding heavy computational loads. The rural road network was located in the District of Rieti, 100 km north from Rome, Italy, and mostly develops in a hilly and mountainous landscape. In most of the investigated roads, the carriageway consists in two lanes of 3.75 meters wide and two shoulders of 0.50 meters wide. A typical road section includes a HMA layer (65 mm average thickness), a base layer (100 mm average thickness), and a subbase layer (300 mm average thickness), as described by pavement design charts. The first set of surveys was carried out in two days at the beginning of spring in moderately dry conditions. Overall, 320-km-long inspections were performed in both travel directions, thereby showing a productivity of

  19. OPTIMAL SIGNAL PROCESSING METHODS IN GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Karamzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, a lot of various applications of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR took place in real life. There are important challenges of this radar in civil applications and also in military applications. In this paper, the fundamentals of GPR systems will be covered and three important signal processing methods (Wavelet Transform, Matched Filter and Hilbert Huang will be compared to each other in order to get most accurate information about objects which are in subsurface or behind the wall.

  20. GPR applications in Civil Engineering in Spain - state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gracia, Vega; Solla, Mercedes; Santos-Assunçao, Sonia; Lorenzo, Henrique

    2014-05-01

    assistance to various administrations, public institutions and private companies. What is more, some of the existing private companies have also minor test sites to analyze the behavior of the signal and its propagation depending on the type of asphalt concrete. GPR is used mainly in detection of pipes and urban services and various private companies are specialized in these tasks. Another widespread application is archaeological survey; one private company is also specialized in archaeology evaluations, using GPR combined with magnetometer. Forensic examinations are also common applications in Spain. Other less common applications are: regular inspection of roads, bridges and tunnels, cultural heritage buildings assessment, shallow geology studies and quality control in civil engineering. Acknowledgment The study is a contribution to the EU funded COST Action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".

  1. Using GPR early-time amplitude analysis to monitor variations in soil water content at a clay-rich agricultural site in response to irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algeo, Jonathan; Van Dam, Remke; Slater, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical methods are increasingly used to analyze spatial variation in soil water content (SWC). Electrical resistivity (ER), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) have all been applied to this problem. However, TDR is limited in terms of its ability to provide good spatial coverage over large areas, ER can be very time consuming depending on the survey, and GPR direct wave and reflection methods are ineffective in clay-rich environments. We employed a relatively new GPR methodology, early-time amplitude analysis, during an infiltration experiment conducted in a clay-rich agricultural field. The research took place at the Samford Ecological Research Facility, Queensland, Australia, with the goal of monitoring changes in SWC in response to irrigation. We hypothesize that early-time analysis can be used to detect and monitor infiltration in clay-rich soils where direct wave and reflection GPR fails, thus opening new avenues of hydrogeophysical research in the increasingly important field of water resource management. Initial field work showed that traditional methods of using GPR reflection surveys and ground wave velocity analysis were ineffective due to the excessive signal attenuation caused by the clay-rich soil at the site. GPR and TDR datasets were collected over a 20 meter by 15 meter section of the field. GPR datasets were collected once daily, at 10 am, and TDR measurements were collected once daily at 11 am from Thursday, August 28th, 2014 until Monday, September 1st, 2014. A sprinkler irrigation was carried out on the evening of Thursday, August 28th. The results suggest that the early-time GPR method is capable of monitoring the resulting changes in SWC due to infiltration in clayey soils despite the failure of reflection and ground wave velocity analysis. The early time GPR results are consistent with moisture content estimates from TDR and gravimetric analysis of soil cores taken in the field.

  2. GPR measurements to assess the Emeelt active fault's characteristics in a highly smooth topographic context, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Rémi; Bano, Maksim; Schlupp, Antoine; Ferry, Matthieu; Munkhuu, Ulziibat; Tsend-Ayush, Nyambayar; Enkhee, Bayarsaikhan

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the seismic hazard, the geometry (dip, length and orientation) and the dynamics (type of displacements and amplitude) of the faults in the area of interest need to be understood. In this paper, in addition to geomorphologic observations, we present the results of two ground penetrating radar (GPR) campaigns conducted in 2010 and 2011 along the Emeelt fault in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar, capital of Mongolia, located in an intracontinental region with low deformation rate that induces long recurrence time between large earthquakes. As the geomorphology induced by the fault activity has been highly smoothed by erosion processes since the last event, the fault location and geometry is difficult to determine precisely. However, by using GPR first, a non-destructive and fast investigation, the fault and the sedimentary deposits near the surface can be characterized and the results can be used for the choice of trench location. GPR was performed with a 50 MHz antenna over 2-D lines and with a 500 MHz antenna for pseudo-3-D surveys. The 500 MHz GPR profiles show a good consistency with the trench observations, dug next to the pseudo-3-D surveys. The 3-D 500 MHz GPR imaging of a palaeochannel crossed by the fault allowed us to estimate its lateral displacement to be about 2 m. This is consistent with a right lateral strike-slip displacement induced by an earthquake around magnitude 7 or several around magnitude 6. The 2-D 50 MHz profiles, recorded perpendicular to the fault, show a strong reflection dipping to the NE, which corresponds to the fault plane. Those profiles provided complementary information on the fault such as its location at shallow depth, its dip angle (from 23° to 35°) and define its lateral extension.

  3. GPR35 as a novel therapeutic target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eMacKenzie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs remain the best studied class of cell surface receptors and the most tractable family of proteins for novel small molecule drug discovery. Despite this, a considerable number of GPCRs remain poorly characterised and in a significant number of cases, endogenous ligand(s that activate them remain undefined or of questionable physiological relevance. GPR35 was initially discovered over a decade ago but has remained an ‘orphan’ receptor. Recent publications have highlighted novel ligands, both endogenously produced and synthetic, which demonstrate significant potency at this receptor. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating which highlights potential roles for GPR35 in disease and therefore, efforts to characterise GPR35 more fully and develop it as a novel therapeutic target in conditions that range from diabetes, hypertension to asthma are increasing. Recently identified ligands have shown marked species selective properties, indicating major challenges for future drug development. As we begin to understand these issues, the continuing efforts to identify novel agonist and antagonist ligands for GPR35 will help to decipher its true physiological relevance; translating multiple assay systems in vitro, to animal disease systems in vivo and finally to man.

  4. GPR in shallow subsurface studies: case Umbozero mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho; Johansson, Peter; Kivilompolo, Janne; Pihlaja, Jouni; Väisänen, Ulpu; Konukhin, Vladimir; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Alakangas, Lena

    2014-05-01

    Geophysical methods, including ground penetrating radar, can play an important role in dynamic field studies. In this case study, GPR was used to determine characteristics and thickness of the soil and conditions of groundwater and also to find out the possible locations of the faults and other major structures in bedrock under the thin (1-5 meters) layers of soil. Studies were carried out in the area of Umbozero mine site, which is located in the north-western part of Russia, in the western slopes of Lovozero alkaline massive. The underground mine was closed in 2004. Field studies were executed in several periods in 2012 and 2013 with Finnish, Russian and Swedish experts. Studies also included soil and water sampling for collecting new data from the closed mine site to improve the methods of the mine closure process. GPR survey was focused on two different types of areas: the tailings pond and the wide slope area above the underground mine. At the tailings, the survey was also made along the dam to find out the original structure of the dam. The instrument used was Swedish Malå ProEx with 100MHz antenna, which proved to be accurate enough with sufficient range of depth. XY-location of the profiles was sharp, but without more specific elevation data, the vertical level was more or less relative. Results of the survey varied, depending on the measured area. On the tailings pond, layers of imported material were thick and mostly saturated with groundwater, and the texture of the material was partly very fine-grained. Thus the penetration of the GPR pulse was poor and it was not possible to reach the original level of the ground surface with this method. However, some structures and general outlook of the material can be seen from the profiles. Above the underground mine, where soil layer cover was only 1-5 meters and material mostly coarse, dry moraine, thickness and structure of soil and some structures of the bedrock surface were clearly interpretable

  5. Comparative analysis of short and long GPR pulses for landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temlioǧlu, Eyyup; Nazlı, Hakkı; Aksoy, Serkan

    2016-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most popular subsurface sensing devices. It has a wide range of applications such as landmine detection, archeological investigations, road condition survey and so on. Hardware and software requirements of the GPR system are strongly dependent on type of applications. Principally, lower frequencies provide deeper penetration and low resolution, but higher frequencies are able to detect shallow objects with high resolution. As a fundamental design criterion, there is a trade-off between penetration depth and vertical resolution. In impulse radar, pulse duration (frequency related) is a key parameter because it affects the system detection performance. Specially, optimization of the pulse duration is a challenging problem for landmine detection because the GPR performance has been strongly affected from mine types, varying terrain and environmental conditions. In this work, two GPR systems with pulse durations of 650 ps and 870 ps are compared for evaluation of their detection performance. The pulses are tested with extensive data sets collected from different soil types by using surrogate mines and other objects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the system is also calculated. It seems that the 650 ps pulse duration gives better performance than the 870 ps pulse duration for the shallow landmine detection.

  6. GPR measurements and estimation for road subgrade damage caused by neighboring train vibration load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Lu, Gang; Ge, Shuangcheng

    2015-04-01

    Generally, road can be simplified as a three-layer structure, including subgrade, subbase and pavement. Subgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road. It is commonly compacted before the road construction, and sometimes stabilized by the addition of asphalt, lime or other modifiers. As the mainly supporting structure, subgrade damage would lead in pavement settlement, displacement and crack. Assessment and monitoring of the subgrade condition currently involves trial pitting and subgrade sampling. However there is a practical limit on spatial density at which trail pits and cores can be taken. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been widely used to characterize highway pavement profiling, concrete structure inspection and railroad track ballast estimation. GPR can improve the economics of road maintenance. Long-term train vibration load might seriously influence the stability of the subgrade of neighboring road. Pavement settlement and obvious cracks have been found at a municipal road cross-under a railway with culvert box method. GPR test was conducted to estimate the subgrade and soil within 2.0 m depth for the further road maintenance. Two survey lines were designed in each lane, and total 12 GPR sections have been implemented. Considering both the penetrating range and the resolution, a antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency was chosen for on-site GPR data collection. For data acquisition, we used the default operating environment and scanning parameters for the RAMAC system: 60kHz transmission rate, 50 ns time window, 1024 samples per scan and 0.1 m step-size. Continuous operation was used; the antenna was placed on the road surface and slowly moved along the road. The strong surrounding disturbance related to railroad and attachments, might decrease the reliability of interpretation results. Some routine process methods (including the background removing, filtering) have been applied to suppress the background noise. Additionally, attribute

  7. A case study to detect the leakage of underground pressureless cement sewage water pipe using GPR, electrical, and chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanqun; Jia, Yonggang; Liu, Hongjun; Qiu, Hanxue; Qiu, Dongling; Shan, Hongxian

    2002-03-01

    The exploration and determination of leakage of underground pressureless nonmetallic pipes is difficult to deal with. A comprehensive method combining Ground Penetrating Rader (GPR), electric potential survey and geochemical survey is introduced in the leakage detection of an underground pressureless nonmetallic sewage pipe in this paper. Theoretically, in the influencing scope of a leakage spot, the obvious changes of the electromagnetic properties and the physical-chemical properties of the underground media will be reflected as anomalies in GPR and electrical survey plots. The advantages of GPR and electrical survey are fast and accurate in detection of anomaly scope. In-situ analysis of the geophysical surveys can guide the geochemical survey. Then water and soil sampling and analyzing can be the evidence for judging the anomaly is caused by pipe leakage or not. On the basis of previous tests and practical surveys, the GPR waveforms, electric potential curves, contour maps, and chemical survey results are all classified into three types according to the extent or indexes of anomalies in orderto find out the leakage spots. When three survey methods all show their anomalies as type I in an anomalous spot, this spot is suspected as the most possible leakage location. Otherwise, it will be down grade suspected point. The suspect leakage spots should be confirmed by referring the site conditions because some anomalies are caused other factors. The excavation afterward proved that the method for determining the suspected location by anomaly type is effective and economic. Comprehensive method of GRP, electric potential survey, and geochemical survey is one of the effective methods in the leakage detection of underground nonmetallic pressureless pipe with its advantages of being fast and accurate.

  8. GPR55: a new member of the cannabinoid receptor clan?

    OpenAIRE

    Pertwee, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Ryberg et al. present convincing in vitro evidence that the orphan GPCR, GPR55, is a cannabinoid receptor. GPR55 was activated by a range of plant, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids and blocked by the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol. Their experiments have revealed several differences between the pharmacology of GPR55 and the established cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. For example, the CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251, ...

  9. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Signore

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

  10. A linear signal transmission system calibration method of wideband GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhao, Kai; Gu, Ling-jia; Cao, Qiong; Li, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Xing-ming

    2016-09-01

    In VHF pulse Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) system, the echo pass through the antenna and transmission line circuit, then reach the GPR receiver. Thus the reflection coefficient at the receiver sampling gate interface, which is at the end of the transmission line, is different from the real reflection coefficient of the media at the antenna interface, which could cause the GPR receiving error. The pulse GPR receiver is a wideband system that can't be simply described as traditional narrowband transmission line model. Since the GPR transmission circuit is a linear system, the linear transformation method could be used to analyze the characteristic of the GPR receiving system. A GPR receiver calibration method based on transmission line theory is proposed in this paper, which analyzes the relationship between the reflection coefficients of theory calculation at antenna interface and the measuring data by network analyzer at the sampling gate interface. Then the least square method is introduced to calibrate the transfer function of the GPR receiver transmission circuit. This calibration method can be useful in media quantitative inversion by GPR. When the reflection coefficient at the sampling gate is obtained, the real reflection coefficient of the media at the antenna interface can be easily determined.

  11. Discovery and pharmacological effects of a novel GPR142 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Michiko; Kuwabara, Harumi; Nagasaki, Miyuki; Xiong, Yu Mei; Reagan, Jeff D; Maeda, Hiroaki; Nara, Futoshi

    2017-06-01

    GPR142 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), whose most potent and efficacious ligand has been reported as being the natural amino acid l-tryptophan. GPR142 is highly expressed in pancreatic β-cells and immune cells, suggesting the receptor may play a role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetes or inflammatory diseases. In a previous report, we developed GPR142 agonists as insulin secretagogues. In this report, we show the discovery of a selective, potent small-molecule GPR142 antagonist, CLP-3094, and its pharmacological characteristics. These data support targeting this receptor for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Implementation of GPR Signals De-Noising Based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-li; TIAN Mao; ZHOU Hui-lin

    2005-01-01

    An important issue of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals analysis is de-noising that is the guarantee of acquiring good detecting effect. The paper illustrates a successful application of digital single processor (DSP) based on wavelet shrinkage algorithm. In order to realize real-time GPR signals analysis, some key issues are discussed such as the realization of fast wavelet transformation, the selection of CPU chip and the optimization of data movement. Experimental results show that the DSP based application not only basically meets the real-time requirement of GPR signals analysis, but also assures the quality of the GPR signals analysis.

  13. Gpr125 modulates Dishevelled distribution and planar cell polarity signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Roszko, Isabelle; Sepich, Diane S; Ni, Mingwei; Hamm, Heidi E; Marlow, Florence L; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2013-07-01

    During vertebrate gastrulation, Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling orchestrates polarized cell behaviors underlying convergence and extension (C&E) movements to narrow embryonic tissues mediolaterally and lengthen them anteroposteriorly. Here, we have identified Gpr125, an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, as a novel modulator of the Wnt/PCP signaling system. Excess Gpr125 impaired C&E movements and the underlying cell and molecular polarities. Reduced Gpr125 function exacerbated the C&E and facial branchiomotor neuron (FBMN) migration defects of embryos with reduced Wnt/PCP signaling. At the molecular level, Gpr125 recruited Dishevelled to the cell membrane, a prerequisite for Wnt/PCP activation. Moreover, Gpr125 and Dvl mutually clustered one another to form discrete membrane subdomains, and the Gpr125 intracellular domain directly interacted with Dvl in pull-down assays. Intriguingly, Dvl and Gpr125 were able to recruit a subset of PCP components into membrane subdomains, suggesting that Gpr125 may modulate the composition of Wnt/PCP membrane complexes. Our study reveals a role for Gpr125 in PCP-mediated processes and provides mechanistic insight into Wnt/PCP signaling.

  14. Signaling via G proteins mediates tumorigenic effects of GPR87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arfelt, Kristine Niss; Fares, Suzan; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander H.;

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large protein family of seven transmembrane (7TM) spanning proteins that regulate multiple physiological functions. GPR87 is overexpressed in several cancers and plays a role in tumor cell survival. Here, the basal activity of GPR87 was investigated...... in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, revealing ligand-independent coupling to Gαi, Gαq and Gα12/13. Furthermore, GPR87 showed a ligand-independent G protein-dependent activation of the downstream transcription factors CREB, NFκB, NFAT and SRE. In tetracycline-induced Flp-In T-Rex-293 cells, GPR87 induced...

  15. Regulation of energy homeostasis by GPR41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eInoue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Imbalances in energy regulation lead to metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Diet plays an essential role in the maintenance of body energy homeostasis by acting not only as energy source but also as a signaling modality. Excess energy increases energy expenditure, leading to a consumption of them. In addition to glucose, mammals utilize short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, which are produced by colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, as a metabolic fuel. The roles of SCFAs in energy regulation have remained unclear, although the roles of glucose are well studied. Recently, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR deorphanizing strategy successfully identified GPR41 (also called free fatty acid receptor 3 or FFAR3 as a receptor for SCFAs. GPR41 is expressed in adipose tissue, gut, and the peripheral nervous system, and it is involved in SCFA-dependent energy regulation. In this mini-review, we focus on the role of GPR41 in host energy regulation.

  16. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, David, E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu; Margetan, Frank J., E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu; Pavel, Brittney, E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups.

  17. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets

    OpenAIRE

    Ulven, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health. The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptors...

  18. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets

    OpenAIRE

    Trond eUlven

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84 and GPR120 made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health. The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane receptors free fatty...

  19. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  20. E2GPR - Edit your geometry, Execute GprMax2D and Plot the Results!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, Daniele; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    In order to predict correctly the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) response from a particular scenario, Maxwell's equations have to be solved, subject to the physical and geometrical properties of the considered problem and to its initial conditions. Several techniques have been developed in computational electromagnetics, for the solution of Maxwell's equations. These methods can be classified into two main categories: differential and integral equation solvers, which can be implemented in the time or spectral domain. All of the different methods present compromises between computational efficiency, stability, and the ability to model complex geometries. The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique has several advantages over alternative approaches: it has inherent simplicity, efficiency and conditional stability; it is suitable to treat impulsive behavior of the electromagnetic field and can provide either ultra-wideband temporal waveforms or the sinusoidal steady-state response at any frequency within the excitation spectrum; it is accurate and highly versatile; and it has become a mature and well-researched technique. Moreover, the FDTD technique is suitable to be executed on parallel-processing CPU-based computers and to exploit the modern computer visualisation capabilities. GprMax [1] is a very well-known and largely validated FDTD software tool, implemented by A. Giannopoulos and available for free public download on www.gprmax.com, together with examples and a detailled user guide. The tool includes two electromagnetic wave simulators, GprMax2D and GprMax3D, for the full-wave simulation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional GPR models. In GprMax, everything can be done with the aid of simple commands that are used to define the model parameters and results to be calculated. These commands need to be entered in a simple ASCII text file. GprMax output files can be stored in ASCII or binary format. The software is provided with MATLAB functions, which

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulates expression of the anti-lipolytic G-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81/Gpr81)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeninga, Ellen H; Bugge, Anne Skovsø; Nielsen, Ronni

    2009-01-01

    effect of TZDs on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The coordinated PPARgamma-mediated regulation of the GPR81/Gpr81 and GPR109A/Gpr109A genes (and GPR109B in humans) presents a novel mechanism by which TZDs may reduce circulating free fatty acid levels and perhaps ameliorate insulin resistance in obese......The ligand-inducible nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a key role in the differentiation, maintenance, and function of adipocytes and is the molecular target for the insulin-sensitizing thiazoledinediones (TZDs). Although a number of PPARgamma......), GPR109A, and the (human-specific) GPR109B genes as well as the mouse Gpr81 and Gpr109A genes as novel TZD-induced genes in mature adipocytes. GPR81/Gpr81 is a direct PPARgamma target gene, because mRNA expression of GPR81/Gpr81 (and GPR109A/Gpr109A) increased in mature human and murine adipocytes...

  2. Determining the relative impact of electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity on the GPR early-time signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algeo, J.; Slater, L. D.; Binley, A. M.; Van Dam, R. L.; Watts, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    We employ early-time amplitude analysis, a recently developed ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methodology, in conjunction with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to determine the relative impact of dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity on the GPR early-time signal (ETS). Early-time amplitude analysis uses changes in the amplitude of the overlapping GPR air- and ground-waves to resolve the electromagnetic properties of the subsurface. It has been employed to assess the water content of geologic materials at laboratory and field scales. As the amplitude of the ETS is dependent on both conductivity and permittivity, both of which can be affected by changes in soil water content, it is important to understand the relative magnitude of the impacts of these two parameters on GPR amplitude. Previous work in this field has related the early-time signal to conductivity and permittivity changes in a field setting, however these variations in electromagnetic properties were caused by changes in both lithology and water content. We carried out an irrigation experiment at the Butt Close and Honey Pot field sites in Woburn, Bedfordshire, UK, managed by Rothamstead Research, to explore how changes in conductivity and permittivity, caused by changes in water content, impact the ETS. Our GPR data provide early-time information and a measurement of permittivity from reflections off of a plow pan layer located at a constant depth in the subsurface. Data from the ERT survey provide a measurement of electrical conductivity. We modified the conductivity and permittivity of the subsurface by irrigating with groundwater. We carry out a multiple regression analysis to determine the relative impacts of changing conductivity and permittivity at the Butt Close and Honey Pot sites, and what effect these changes might have on estimates of soil water content. The results of our investigation help in the development of GPR ETS techniques for mapping and monitoring water content

  3. Screening for GPR101 defects in pediatric pituitary corticotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellin, Giampaolo; Correa, Ricardo R; Batsis, Maria; Faucz, Fabio R; Chittiboina, Prashant; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Larco, Darwin O; Quezado, Martha; Daly, Adrian F; Stojilkovic, Stanko S; Wu, T John; Beckers, Albert; Lodish, Maya; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-03-09

    Cushing disease (CD) in children is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. Germline or somatic mutations in genes such as MEN1, CDKIs, AIP, and USP8 have been identified in pediatric CD, but the genetic defects in a significant percentage of cases are still unknown. We investigated the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR101, a gene known to be involved in somatotropinomas, for its possible involvement in corticotropinomas. We performed GPR101 sequencing, expression analyses by RT-qPCR and immunostaining, and functional studies (cell proliferation, pituitary hormones secretion, and cAMP measurement) in a series of patients with sporadic CD secondary to ACTH-secreting adenomas in whom we had peripheral and tumor DNA (N=36). No increased GPR101 expression was observed in tumors compared to normal pituitary (NP) tissues, nor did we find a correlation between GPR101 and ACTH expression levels. Sequence analysis revealed a very rare germline heterozygous GPR101 variant (p.G31S) in one patient with CD. Overexpression of the p.G31S variant did not lead to increased growth and proliferation, although modest effects on cAMP signaling were seen. GPR101 is not overexpressed in ACTH-secreting tumors compared to NPs. A rare germline GPR101 variant was found in one patient with CD but in vitro studies did not support a consistent pathogenic effect. GPR101 is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of CD.

  4. GPR30 Signaling and Regulation in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    GPCR ), GPR30, was shown to elicit E2-dependent signaling in SKBr3 cells, which lack both classical E2 receptors [4]. In 2005, our group and...we have determined by immunofluorescent antibody staining that they are GPR30 positive. We also used a PyMT cell line derived from the tumor of a

  5. GPR study of a prehistoric archaeological site near Point Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R. B.; Jensen, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) study was performed on the prehistoric Thule cemetery site near Point Barrow, Alaska. The goals of this study were (a) to test this technology in this type of polar environment, and (b) to search for burials and other archaeological features in a location in imminent danger from ocean erosion. The Nuvuk site is currently eroding at an average rate measured at over 6 m/year. Prior archaeological work at the site had recovered over 80 burials with nearly 100 individuals represented, all of which were less than 1 m below surface, and detectable with small test pits. In addition, the first coastal Ipiutak occupation known north of Point Hope had been recently discovered, at a depth of nearly 2m below surface, in the erosion face. The occupation appeared to have been terminated by a large storm which overwashed the site, leaving a strandline immediately superimposed on the living surface. After that, approximately 1.5 m of sterile gravels had been deposited before the surface on which the Thule people were living formed. Both occupations are of considerable scientific interest. The matrix at the site consists of unconsolidated beach gravels, which necessitates opening large surface areas or use of shoring to test even small units to the depths of the Ipiutak deposit (approximately 8m x 8m at the surface to test 1m x 1m at 2m depth). Such excavations promote erosion, and are very costly in terms of time and labor, so a means to detect features buried at depths greater than those exposed by shovel test pits was desirable. GPR seemed a likely candidate, but it had not been used in such conditions before, and thus it was necessary to test it thoroughly prior to relying on GPR to eliminate areas from physical testing. The GPR imaged the subsurface to a depth of 3 meters at a frequency of 500MHz. Meter-deep test pits were placed at 2-meter intervals in the survey area in a grid pattern since the efficacy of the technology had yet to be shown

  6. GPR120 agonism as a countermeasure against metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, Lauren M; Mathai, Michael L; Hryciw, Deanne H; McAinch, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease are at epidemic proportions in developed nations globally, representing major causes of ill-health and premature death. The search for drug targets to counter the growing prevalence of metabolic diseases has uncovered G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120). GPR120 agonism has been shown to improve inflammation and metabolic health on a systemic level via regulation of adiposity, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, taste preference and glucose homeostasis. Therefore, GPR120 agonists present as a novel therapeutic option that could be exploited for the treatment of impaired metabolic health. This review summarizes the current knowledge of GPR120 functionality and the potential applications of GPR120-specific agonists for the treatment of disease states such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

  7. GPR119 agonists: a promising approach for T2DM treatment? A SWOT analysis of GPR119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Uk

    2013-12-01

    Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program.

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors, GPR40 and GPR120, are expressed in the hypothalamus and control energy homeostasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragano, Nathalia R V; Solon, Carina; Ramalho, Albina F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial...... surgery to place an indwelling cannula into the right lateral ventricle. intracerebroventricular (icv)-cannulated mice were treated twice a day for 6 days with 2.0 μL saline or GPR40 and GPR120 agonists: GW9508, TUG1197, or TUG905 (2.0 μL, 1.0 mM). Food intake and body mass were measured during......, a non-specific agonist for both receptors, reduced energy efficiency and the expression of inflammatory genes in the hypothalamus. Reducing GPR120 hypothalamic expression using a lentivirus-based approach resulted in the loss of the anti-inflammatory effect of GW9508 and increased energy efficiency...

  9. Using ground penetrating radar for roof hazard detection in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinda, G.M.; Monaghan, W.P.; Mowrey, G.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is being investigated for the potential to determine roof hazards in underground mines. GPR surveys were conducted at four field sites with accompanying ground truth in order to determine the value of GPR for roof hazard detection. The resolution of the current system allows detection of gross roof fractures (>{1/4} in zone) or rider beds in coal measure roof. Data quality is not yet sufficient to detect small bed separations or subtle lithologic changes in the roof. Differences in data quality are discussed, as well as suggestions for collecting improved data.

  10. Using ground penetrating radar for roof hazard detection in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinda, G.M.; Monaghan, W.P.; Mowrey, G.L.; Persetic, G.F. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is being investigated for the potential to determine roof hazards in underground mines. GPR surveys were conducted at four field sites with accompanying ground truth in order to determine the value of GPR for roof hazard detection. The resolution of the current system allows detection of gross roof fractures (>63 cm (>1/4 in) zone) or rider beds in coal measure roof. Data quality is not yet sufficient to detect small bed separations or subtle lithologic changes in the roof. Differences in data quality are discussed, as well as suggestions for collecting improved data.

  11. Gpr177 regulates pulmonary vasculature development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Ku, Wei-yao; Fu, Jiang; Offermanns, Stefan; Hsu, Wei; Que, Jianwen

    2013-09-01

    Establishment of the functional pulmonary vasculature requires intimate interaction between the epithelium and mesenchyme. Previous genetic studies have led to inconsistent conclusions about the contribution of epithelial Wnts to pulmonary vasculature development. This discrepancy is possibly due to the functional redundancy among different Wnts. Here, we use Shh-Cre to conditionally delete Gpr177 (the mouse ortholog of Drosophila Wntless, Wls), a chaperon protein important for the sorting and secretion of Wnt proteins. Deletion of epithelial Gpr177 reduces Wnt signaling activity in both the epithelium and mesenchyme, resulting in severe hemorrhage and abnormal vasculature, accompanied by branching defects and abnormal epithelial differentiation. We then used multiple mouse models to demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not only required for the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchyme, but also is important for the maintenance of smooth muscle cells through the regulation of the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (Klf2). Together, our studies define a novel mechanism by which epithelial Wnts regulate the normal development and maintenance of pulmonary vasculature. These findings provide insight into the pathobiology of congenital lung diseases, such as alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD), that have abnormal alveolar development and dysmorphic pulmonary vasculature.

  12. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    . [9]. This document is a Harmonized European Standard (Telecommunications series). 4. ETSI EN 302/066-2 v1.2.1, Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Ground- and Wall- Probing Radar applications (GPR/WPR) imaging systems; Part 2: Harmonized EN covering essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive, Dec. 2007, open access on www.etsi.org, Ref. REN/ERM-TG31A-0113-2, 12 pp. [10]. This document is a Harmonized European Standard (Telecommunications series). 5. ETSI EG 202 730 v1.1.1, Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Code of Practice in respect of the control, use and application of Ground Probing Radar (GPR) and Wall Probing Radar (WPR) systems and equipment, Sept. 2009, open access on www.etsi.org, Ref. DEG/ERM-TGUWB-010, 11 pp. [11]. This document is currently (May 2015) an ETSI guide. Few National GPR Guidelines and Standards exist in Europe. In France, the National standard NF S 70-003, Parts 1-3, is concerned with the use of GPR to detect buried utilities. Still in France, Cerema/Ifsttar produced protocols for road inspection. In Germany, the DGZfP e.V. (German Society for Non-Destructive Testing) published a fact sheet called "Merkblatt B10" on the radar method for non-destructive testing in civil engineering (2008). Still in Germany, there is a BASt (Federal Highway Administration) instruction sheet on the use of GPR to gain inventory data of road structure (2003). In Poland, the national regulation of September 24, 1998 (Dz.U. Nr 126 poz. 839) cites 'georadar testing' as a method to investigate the soil structure. In Scandinavia, recommendations for guidelines were developed during the MARA NORD Project (2010-2012) on the use of GPR in asphalt air voids content measurements, in road construction quality control, in bridge deck surveys, in road rehabilitation projects and in site investigations. Acknowledgement This work stems from the research activities of COST (European COoperation in Science

  13. Different effects of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 on cell motile activity of highly migratory osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Kaori; Onishi, Yuka; Node, Yusuke; Inui, Karin; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2017-03-11

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 are members of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors and mediate a variety of biological responses through binding of medium- and long-chain FFAs. Recently, it has been reported that GPR120 and GPR40 regulated cellular functions of cancer cells. In the present study, to assess whether GPR120 and GPR40 are involved in the enhancement of cell motile activity of osteosarcoma cells, we established highly migratory (MG63-R7) cells from osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. The expression level of GPR120 gene was significantly higher in MG63-R7 cells than in MG-63 cells, while no change of GPR40 expression was observed. In cell motility assay, the cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells was approximately 200 times higher than that of MG-63 cells. The cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells was stimulated by GW9508, which is an agonist of GPR120 and GPR40. Moreover, a GPR40 antagonist GW1100 elevated the cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells in the presence of GW9508. To confirm the effects of GPR120 and GPR40 on the cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells, GPR120 knockdown cells were generated from MG63-R7 cells. The cell motile activity of MG63-R7 cells was markedly suppressed by GPR120 knockdown. These results indicated that GPR120 enhanced and GPR40 inhibited the cell motile activity of highly migratory osteosarcoma cells.

  14. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 affects osteoclast function in vitro and bone mass in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Lauren S.; Ryberg, Erik; Sims, Natalie A.; Ridge, Susan A.; Mackie, Ken; Greasley, Peter J.; Ross, Ruth A.; Rogers, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor recently shown to be activated by certain cannabinoids and by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). However, the physiological role of GPR55 remains unknown. Given the recent finding that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 affect bone metabolism, we examined the role of GPR55 in bone biology. GPR55 was expressed in human and mouse osteoclasts and osteoblasts; expression was higher in human osteoclasts than in macrophage progenitors. Although the GPR55 agonis...

  15. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  16. Identification of Three Novel Splicing Variants and Expression Analysis of Chicken GPR1 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyou Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GPR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays critical roles in eukaryotic cells: typically, response to glucose stimulation, lipid accumulation, and transmitting nutrition signals to cAMP pathway. However, the alternative splicing of the GPR1 gene and its expression pattern in chicken tissues and ovarian follicles were unknown. In our current study, we used RACE-PCR to identify three GPR1 variants, including the full-length variant (GPR1-va1 and two alternatively spliced variants (GPR1-va2, GPR1-vb. Quantitative real-time PCR examined the expression pattern of GPR1 mRNA in chicken tissues and ovarian follicles. The result reveals that the coding sequence of the three variants cDNA is 1053, 1053, and 627 bp in length, encoding 350, 350, and 208 amino acids, respectively. The three variants of GPR1 show similar tissue distributions; GPR1 expression was abundant in the abdominal fat, lung, and heart. With the follicular development, the expression of GPR1 gene gradually increased, and GPR1-va1 and GPR1-va2 spliced variants expression in F2 were significantly higher than in F5, F4, and prehierarchical follicles (P<0.05. Taken together, we found three novel variants of GPR1, and the results of GPR1 expression profiling in adipose tissues and ovarian follicles suggest that GPR1 may play a significant role in the lipid accumulation and progression of follicular development.

  17. Identification of Three Novel Splicing Variants and Expression Analysis of Chicken GPR1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyou; Xiao, Qihai; Tian, Kai; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Zhu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    GPR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays critical roles in eukaryotic cells: typically, response to glucose stimulation, lipid accumulation, and transmitting nutrition signals to cAMP pathway. However, the alternative splicing of the GPR1 gene and its expression pattern in chicken tissues and ovarian follicles were unknown. In our current study, we used RACE-PCR to identify three GPR1 variants, including the full-length variant (GPR1-va1) and two alternatively spliced variants (GPR1-va2, GPR1-vb). Quantitative real-time PCR examined the expression pattern of GPR1 mRNA in chicken tissues and ovarian follicles. The result reveals that the coding sequence of the three variants cDNA is 1053, 1053, and 627 bp in length, encoding 350, 350, and 208 amino acids, respectively. The three variants of GPR1 show similar tissue distributions; GPR1 expression was abundant in the abdominal fat, lung, and heart. With the follicular development, the expression of GPR1 gene gradually increased, and GPR1-va1 and GPR1-va2 spliced variants expression in F2 were significantly higher than in F5, F4, and prehierarchical follicles (P < 0.05). Taken together, we found three novel variants of GPR1, and the results of GPR1 expression profiling in adipose tissues and ovarian follicles suggest that GPR1 may play a significant role in the lipid accumulation and progression of follicular development.

  18. Discovery of a potent and selective GPR120 agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpukade, Bharat; Hudson, Brian D; Hovgaard, Christine Kiel; Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond

    2012-05-10

    GPR120 is a receptor of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids reported to mediate GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects and is therefore emerging as a new potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. Further investigation is however hindered by the lack of suitable receptor modulators. Screening of FFA1 ligands provided a lead with moderate activity on GPR120 and moderate selectivity over FFA1. Optimization led to the discovery of the first potent and selective GPR120 agonist.

  19. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  20. Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

  1. Subsurface sandstone mapping by combination of GPR and ERT method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    It is important to know the shape and distribution of sandstone bodies in the subsurface when forma-tion and migration of a dune model are determined.The information plays a significant role in identification of the continental oil and gas accumulation.In this study,the combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography method (ERT)is used in mapping the distribution of sandstone bodies in Yanchang Formation.Six GPR profiles and seven ERT profiles are used to analysis.GPR data show clear re-flections from the top interface of sandstones.ERT data show a continuous high resistivity anomaly correspon-ding to the sandstone body.Combined the reconstructed 3D images by GPR and ERT,the spatial distribution of sandstone bodies is described.

  2. The role of GPR1 signaling in mice corpus luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Li; Ren, Li-Rong; Sun, Li-Feng; Huang, Chen; Xiao, Tian-Xia; Wang, Bao-Bei; Chen, Jie; Zabel, Brian A; Ren, Peigen; Zhang, Jian V

    2016-07-01

    Chemerin, a chemokine, plays important roles in immune responses, inflammation, adipogenesis, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our recent research has shown that chemerin has an inhibitory effect on hormone secretion from the testis and ovary. However, whether G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), the active receptor for chemerin, regulates steroidogenesis and luteolysis in the corpus luteum is still unknown. In this study, we established a pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin (PMSG-hCG) superovulation model, a prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) luteolysis model, and follicle and corpus luteum culture models to analyze the role of chemerin signaling through GPR1 in the synthesis and secretion of gonadal hormones during follicular/luteal development and luteolysis. Our results, for the first time, show that chemerin and GPR1 are both differentially expressed in the ovary over the course of the estrous cycle, with highest levels in estrus and metestrus. GPR1 has been localized to granulosa cells, cumulus cells, and the corpus luteum by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro, we found that chemerin suppresses hCG-induced progesterone production in cultured follicle and corpus luteum and that this effect is attenuated significantly by anti-GPR1 MAB treatment. Furthermore, when the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was blocked, the attenuating effect of GPR1 MAB was abrogated. Interestingly, PGF2α induces luteolysis through activation of caspase-3, leading to a reduction in progesterone secretion. Treatment with GPR1 MAB blocked the PGF2α effect on caspase-3 expression and progesterone secretion. This study indicates that chemerin/GPR1 signaling directly or indirectly regulates progesterone synthesis and secretion during the processes of follicular development, corpus luteum formation, and PGF2α-induced luteolysis.

  3. Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-12

    Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 landmine Detection, Signal...310 Jesse Hall Columbia, MO 65211 -1230 654808 633606 ABSTRACT Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR Report

  4. Structure-activity relationships of benzothiazole GPR35 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalhameed, Manahil M; Zhao, Pingwei; Hurst, Dow P; Reggio, Patricia H; Abood, Mary E; Croatt, Mitchell P

    2017-02-01

    The first structure-activity relationships for a benzothiazole scaffold acting as an antagonist at GPR35 is presented. Analogues were designed based on a lead compound that was previously determined to have selective activity as a GPR35 antagonist. The synthetic route was modular in nature to independently explore the role of the middle and both ends of the scaffold. The activities of the analogues illustrate the importance of all three segments of the compound.

  5. Field calibration and validation of remote-sensing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe'eri, Shachak; McLeod, Andy; Lavoie, Paul; Ackerman, Seth D.; Gardner, James; Parrish, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Optical Collection Suite (OCS) is a ground-truth sampling system designed to perform in situ measurements that help calibrate and validate optical remote-sensing and swath-sonar surveys for mapping and monitoring coastal ecosystems and ocean planning. The OCS system enables researchers to collect underwater imagery with real-time feedback, measure the spectral response, and quantify the water clarity with simple and relatively inexpensive instruments that can be hand-deployed from a small vessel. This article reviews the design and performance of the system, based on operational and logistical considerations, as well as the data requirements to support a number of coastal science and management projects. The OCS system has been operational since 2009 and has been used in several ground-truth missions that overlapped with airborne lidar bathymetry (ALB), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and swath-sonar bathymetric surveys in the Gulf of Maine, southwest Alaska, and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Research projects that have used the system include a comparison of backscatter intensity derived from acoustic (multibeam/interferometric sonars) versus active optical (ALB) sensors, ALB bottom detection, and seafloor characterization using HSI and ALB.

  6. Hidden gully erosion - detection and characterization of piping systems using geomorphological and geophysical methods (GPR, ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Kondracka, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The significance of piping in gully formation and hillslope hydrology has been discussed for many years. However, piping as a subsurface erosion caused by water flowing through the soil is still considered as one of the most difficult erosion processes to study, because it occurs below the soil surface and traces of piping become visible on the surface only when a pipe roof collapses, or a pipe inlet or a pipe outlet has been located. Detection of pipes and their complex characterization is still a methodological challenge. Therefore, this study aims at a better detection and characterization of piping systems in a mountainous area under a temperate climate using geomorphological mapping and geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography). The survey was carried out in the Bereźnica Wyżna catchment, in the Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Poland), where pipes develop in Cambisols at a depth ranging from ca 0.70 to 1.00 m. The geomorphological mapping was carried out in the in the whole catchment (2.96 km2), whereas the geophysical survey was limited to two zones (zone A - ca 32 x 82 m, zone B - ca 58 x 115 m). In this study a standard RAMAC GPR system (Malå GeoScience) with shielded 500 MHz antenna was used. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed using electrical imaging system LUND with Terrameter SAS 4000 produced by company ABEM. The ERT and GPR data were interpreted in the RES2DINV (Geotomo Software) and RadExplorer software (DECO Geophysical Ltd) respectively. In total, 3 longitudinal and 26 transverse GPR profiles and five ERTs were performed. The used geophysical techniques are shown to be successful in identifying pipes tested in the pilot catchment. Pipes identified by GPR and ERT were verified by the surface indicators (i.e. lowering of surface above pipes). The GPR and ERT applications suggest that piping systems density is much greater than could be detected from surface observation alone

  7. Assessment of Bathymetry and Sediment Accumulation of Walker Lake, PA with Multiple Frequency GPR Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachhab, A.; Booterbaugh, A.; Beren, M.

    2012-12-01

    Silting within all man-made reservoirs, can be a major problem. Exploring bathymetry with electromagnetic prospection tools is one way to identify the magnitude of sediment accumulation in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, the bathymetry and sediment accumulation of Walker Lake, PA was explored via multi-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. Walker Lake is located on the North Branch Middle Creek, which is a tributary to Middle Creek within the Susquehanna River basin. The technique developed in this study included two antennas positioned on a medium size inflatable boat towed by a 14' flat-bottom Jon Boat. Both 400 and 100 MHz antennas were deployed and sediment thickness and distribution throughout the lake were identified. A total of eighteen transects were taken along the entire length of the lake. A new method with multiple approaches including RADAN 7, GPR Viewer, SAS 9.1.3 and MATLAB was developed to generate three-Dimensional and contour surface of the pre-1971 Topography and bathymetry based on GPR reflection readings. As a result, depth, accumulation and rate of sedimentation in the lake were successfully measured. The lake was found to vary between 0.5 to 9 meters in depth. Sediment accumulation and distribution were calculated from the difference between the surveyed bathymetry and the 1971 pre-existent landscape topography. Sediment was found to accumulate thickest within the old channel of Middle Creek however, the bulk of the sediment volume lied outside this channel. Sediment deposition accumulates mainly upstream near the inlet to the lake and gradually decreases toward the dam inversely proportional to the depth of the lake.

  8. Soluble Fibre Meal Challenge Reduces Airway Inflammation and Expression of GPR43 and GPR41 in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Halnes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs are produced following the fermentation of soluble fibre by gut bacteria. In animal models, both dietary fibre and SCFAs have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects via the activation of free fatty acid receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptor 41 and 43 (GPR41 and GPR43. This pilot study examined the acute effect of a single dose of soluble fibre on airway inflammation—including changes in gene expression of free fatty acid receptors—in asthma. Adults with stable asthma consumed a soluble fibre meal (n = 17 containing 3.5 g inulin and probiotics, or a control meal (n = 12 of simple carbohydrates. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO was measured and induced sputum was collected at 0 and 4 h for differential cell counts, measurement of interleukin-8 (IL-8 protein concentration, and GPR41 and GPR43 gene expression. At 4 h after meal consumption, airway inflammation biomarkers, including sputum total cell count, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, sputum IL-8, and eNO significantly decreased compared to baseline in the soluble fibre group only. This corresponded with upregulated GPR41 and GPR43 sputum gene expression and improved lung function in the soluble fibre group alone. Soluble fibre has acute anti-inflammatory effects in asthmatic airways. Long-term effects of soluble fibre as an anti-inflammatory therapy in asthma warrants further investigation.

  9. Soluble Fibre Meal Challenge Reduces Airway Inflammation and Expression of GPR43 and GPR41 in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halnes, Isabel; Baines, Katherine J.; Berthon, Bronwyn S.; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K.; Gibson, Peter G.; Wood, Lisa G.

    2017-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced following the fermentation of soluble fibre by gut bacteria. In animal models, both dietary fibre and SCFAs have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects via the activation of free fatty acid receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptor 41 and 43 (GPR41 and GPR43). This pilot study examined the acute effect of a single dose of soluble fibre on airway inflammation—including changes in gene expression of free fatty acid receptors—in asthma. Adults with stable asthma consumed a soluble fibre meal (n = 17) containing 3.5 g inulin and probiotics, or a control meal (n = 12) of simple carbohydrates. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured and induced sputum was collected at 0 and 4 h for differential cell counts, measurement of interleukin-8 (IL-8) protein concentration, and GPR41 and GPR43 gene expression. At 4 h after meal consumption, airway inflammation biomarkers, including sputum total cell count, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, sputum IL-8, and eNO significantly decreased compared to baseline in the soluble fibre group only. This corresponded with upregulated GPR41 and GPR43 sputum gene expression and improved lung function in the soluble fibre group alone. Soluble fibre has acute anti-inflammatory effects in asthmatic airways. Long-term effects of soluble fibre as an anti-inflammatory therapy in asthma warrants further investigation. PMID:28075383

  10. Minimising street work disruption by mapping cavities derived from 3D GPR-data: a new sewerage project in Torrente (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Ana; Garcia, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar is usually employed for non-destructive detection of cavities in karst areas and road maintenance. This paper describes the inspection for cavity detection in a street located in Torrente (Valencia, Spain) where a new sewerage project was planned. Torrente population growth (more than 80,000 inhabitants last year) has caused urban development southwards from its downtown. According to municipality geologic configuration, new urbanized areas are located in mountains composed of limestone with presence of karst systems. During excavation work for a sewerage system installation, a 4 x 2 x 1.5 m shallow cave was found in one planned street. For this reason, digging activities were stopped and a GPR survey was carried out on the street. A 1x1 m grid was collected using a GSSI SIR-3000 equipment. A 400 MHz frequency antenna was used for reaching 2.5 m approx. depth, attending the characteristics of the discovered cave and the excavation project depth. GPR records were calibrated in situ, thanks to the unearthed cavity. The 3D GPR-data interpretation mapped several caves only on one side of the street. The detected cavities coincided with the sewerage system layout. These underground spaces were isolated from each other, as small individual karst caves. The outcomes of this study allowed the modification of the sewerage project. Therefore, the sewerage system layout was moved to the other side of the street where no cavities were detected with the GPR survey. GPR is proved to be an efficient tool to be taken into consideration by civil engineers and architects for designing new infrastructures (e.g. sewerage systems) in urban planning areas. We conclude GPR helps minimising cost, time and inconveniences to neighbourhood during excavation works, especially in cities.

  11. A Vertical Differential Configuration in GPR prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pochanin, Gennadiy; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The rejection of the direct coupling between the antennas is an issue of interest in several GPR applications, especially when it is important to distinguish the targets of interest from the clutter and the signal reflected from the air soil interface. Therefore, in this framework several hardware and software strategies have been proposed. Among the software strategies, probably the most common one is the background removal [1], whereas as an hardware strategy the differential configuration has been introduced in [2-3] and then further on studied in [4] with respect to the spatial filtering properties of the relevant mathematical operator. In particular, the studies proposed in [1] and [4] have shown that, in general, all the strategies for the rejection of the direct coupling have necessarily some drawback, essentially because it is not possible to erase all and only the undesired contributions leaving "untouched" the contributions of the targets of interest to the gathered signal. With specific regard to the differential configuration, in [2-3], the differential configuration consisted in a couple of receiving antennas symmetrically placed around the transmitting one, being the three antennas placed along the same horizontal segment. Therefore, we might define that configuration as a "horizontal differential configuration". Here, we propose a novel differential GPR configuration, where the two receiving antennas are still symmetrically located with respect to the transmitting one, but are placed piled on each other at different heights from the air-soil interface, whereas the transmitting antenna is at the medium height between the two receiving one (however, it is not at the same abscissa but at a fixed horizontal offset from the receiving antennas). Such a differential configuration has been previously presented in [5-6] and allows a good isolation between the antennas, while preserving the possibility to collect backscattered signals from both electrically

  12. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  13. Advanced Numerical Imaging Procedure Accounting for Non-Ideal Effects in GPR Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comite, Davide; Galli, Alessandro; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The capability to provide fast and reliable imaging of targets and interfaces in non-accessible probed scenarios is a topic of great scientific interest, and many investigations have shown that Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can provide an efficient technique to conduct this kind of analysis in various applications of geophysical nature and civil engineering. In these cases, the development of an efficient and accurate imaging procedure is strongly dependent on the capability of accounting for the incident field that activates the scattering phenomenon. In this frame, based on a suitable implementation of an electromagnetic (EM) CAD tool (CST Microwave Studio), it has been possible to accurately and efficiently model the radiation pattern of real antennas in environments typically considered in GPR surveys [1]. A typical scenario of our interest is constituted by targets hidden in a ground medium, described by certain EM parameters and probed by a movable GPR using interfacial antennas [2]. The transmitting and receiving antennas considered here are Vivaldi ones, but a wide variety of other antennas can be modeled and designed, similar to those ones available in commercial GPR systems. Hence, an advanced version of a well-known microwave tomography approach (MTA) [3] has been implemented, both in the canonical 2D scalar case and in the more realistic 3D vectorial one. Such an approach is able to account for the real distribution of the radiated and scattered EM fields. Comparisons of results obtained by means of a 'conventional' implementation of the MTA, where the antennas are modeled as ideal line sources, and by means of our 'advanced' approach, which instead takes into account the radiation features of the chosen antenna type, have been carried out and discussed. Since the antenna radiation patterns are modified by the probed environment, whose EM features and the possible stratified structure usually are not exactly known, the imaging capabilities of the MTA

  14. Identification of two novel chicken GPR133 variants and their expression in different tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Xiao, Qihai; Zhang, Xueyou; Lan, Xi; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Li, Diyan; Yin, Huadong; Ye, Lin; Zhu, Qing

    2017-06-14

    GPR133 (G protein-coupled receptor 133) plays significant roles in various physiological processes. Alternatively splicing (AS) variants of GPR133 in many species have been predicted in multiple databases, but there is no available information about the AS events of chicken GPR133 (cGPR133). In the present study, two chicken GPR133 variants, cGPR133-va and cGPR133-vb, were identified by a combination of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA 5'-ends (5' RACE). Sequence analysis shows that cGPR133-va and cGPR133-vb are resulting from different AS modules and their sequences are predicted to encode two distinct putative proteins, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that cGPR133-va and cGPR133-vb are widely expressed in different tissues, while exhibiting specific expression profile. Altogether, our results first demonstrate the existence of novel cGPR133 variants and illustrate its transcriptional diversity and their widespread distribution, which provides a foundation for the further research of GPR133.

  15. Targeted inactivation of GPR26 leads to hyperphagia and adiposity by activating AMPK in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daohong Chen

    Full Text Available G-protein coupled receptor 26 (GPR26 is a brain-specific orphan GPCR with high expression in the brain region that controls satiety. Depletion of GPR26 has been shown to increase fat storage in C. elegans, whereas GPR26 deficiency in the hypothalamus is associated with high genetic susceptibility to the onset of obesity in mice. However, the metabolic function of GPR26 in mammals remains elusive. Herein, we investigated a role of GPR26 in regulating energy homeostasis by generating mice with targeted deletion of the GPR26 gene. We show that GPR26 deficiency causes hyperphagia and hypometabolism, leading to early onset of diet-induced obesity. Accordingly, GPR26 deficiency also caused metabolic complications commonly associated with obesity, including glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. Moreover, consistent with hyperphagia in GPR26 null mice, GPR26 deficiency significantly increased hypothalamic activity of AMPK, a key signaling event that stimulates appetite. In further support of a regulatory role of GPR26 in satiety, GPR26 knockout mice also demonstrate hypersensitivity to treatment of rimonabant, an endocannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist commonly used to treat obesity by suppressing appetite in humans. Together, these findings identified a key role of GPR26 as a central regulator of energy homeostasis though modulation of hypothalamic AMPK activation.

  16. Deletion of the Novel Oocyte-Enriched Gene, Gpr149, Leads to Increased Fertility in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Mark A.; Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    Through in silico subtraction and microarray analysis, we identified mouse Gpr149, a novel, oocyte-enriched transcript that encodes a predicted orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR). Phylogenetic analysis of GPR149 from fish to mammals suggests that it is widely conserved in vertebrates. By multitissue RT-PCR analysis, we found that Gpr149 is highly expressed in the ovary and also in the brain and the digestive tract at low levels. Gpr149 levels are low in newborn ovaries but increase throughout folliculogenesis. In the ovary, we found that granulosa cells did not express Gpr149, whereas germinal vesicle and meiosis II stage oocytes showed high levels of Gpr149 expression. After fertilization, Gpr149 expression declined, becoming undetectable by the two-cell stage. To study the function of GPR149 in oocyte growth and maturation, we generated Gpr149 null mice. Surprisingly, Gpr149 null mice are viable and have normal folliculogenesis, but demonstrate increased fertility, enhanced ovulation, increased oocyte Gdf9 mRNA levels, and increased levels of FSH receptor and cyclin D2 mRNA levels in granulosa cells. Thus, Gpr149 null mice are one of the few models with enhanced fertility, and GPR149 could be a target for small molecules to enhance fertility in the assisted reproductive technology clinic. PMID:19887567

  17. GPR18 Controls Reconstitution of Mouse Small Intestine Intraepithelial Lymphocytes following Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Becker

    Full Text Available Specific G protein coupled receptors (GPRs regulate the proper positioning, function, and development of immune lineage subsets. Here, we demonstrate that GPR18 regulates the reconstitution of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs of the small intestine following bone marrow transplantation. Through analysis of transcriptional microarray data, we find that GPR18 is highly expressed in IELs, lymphoid progenitors, and mature follicular B cells. To establish the physiological role of this largely uncharacterized GPR, we generated Gpr18-/- mice. Despite high levels of GPR18 expression in specific hematopoietic progenitors, Gpr18-/- mice have no defects in lymphopoiesis or myelopoiesis. Moreover, antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates or infection with West Nile virus are normal in Gpr18-/- mice. Steady-state numbers of IELs are also normal in Gpr18-/- mice. However, competitive bone marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that GPR18 is cell-intrinsically required for the optimal restoration of small intestine TCRγδ+ and TCRαβ+ CD8αα+ IELs. In contrast, GPR18 is dispensable for the reconstitution of large intestine IELs. Moreover, Gpr18-/- bone marrow reconstitutes small intestine IELs similarly to controls in athymic recipients. Gpr18-/- chimeras show no changes in susceptibility to intestinal insults such as Citrobacter rodentium infections or graft versus host disease. These data reveal highly specific requirements for GPR18 in the development and reconstitution of thymus-derived intestinal IEL subsets in the steady-state and after bone marrow transplantation.

  18. GPR-based evaluation of strength properties of unbound pavement material from electrical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that inter-particle friction and cohesion of soil particles and aggregates deeply affect the strength and deformation properties of soils, exerting critical effects on the bearing capacity of unbound pavement materials. In that respect, considering that strength characteristics of soil are highly dependent on particle interactions, and assuming a relationship between electric properties (e.g. electric permittivity) and bulk density of materials, a good correlation between mechanical and electric characteristics of soil is expected. In this work, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques are used to investigate this topic. Two GPR equipment with same electronic characteristics and different survey configurations are used. Each radar operates with two ground-coupled antennae at 600 MHz and 1600 MHz central frequencies. Measurements are developed using 4 channels, 2 mono-static and 2 bi-static. The received signal is sampled in the time domain at dt = 7.8125 × 10-2 ns, and in the space domain every 2.4 × 10-2 m. A semi-empirical model is proposed for predicting the resilient modulus of sub-asphalt layers from GPR-derived data. Basically, the method requires to follow two steps. Firstly, laboratory tests are carried out for calibration, with the main focus to provide consistent empirical relationships between physical (e.g. bulk density) and electric properties. The second step is focused on the in-situ validation of results through soil strength measurements retrieved by CBR tests and Light Falling Weight Deflectometer (LFWD). On the basis of traditional empirical equations used for flexible pavement design, the following expression is proposed: -m Ei = αj?hj,i j=1 where Ei [MPa] is the ith expected resilient modulus of the surveyed soil under the line of scan, hj,i [m] is the ith thickness referred to the jth layer, and αj is a dielectric parameter calibrated as a function of the relative electric permittivity. The experimental setting requires

  19. GPR103b functions in the peripheral regulation of adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba, Mukandila; Jossart, Christian; Granata, Riccarda; Gallo, Davide; Escher, Emanuel; Ghigo, Ezio; Servant, Marc J; Marleau, Sylvie; Ong, Huy

    2010-08-01

    The activation of G protein-coupled receptor 103 (GPR103) by its endogenous peptidic ligands, QRFPs, is involved in the central regulation of feeding by increasing food intake, body weight, and fat mass after intracerebroventricular injection in mice. However, the role of GPR103 in regulating peripheral metabolic pathways has not yet been explored. The present study aimed to investigate the role of GPR103 in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism using 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Our results show that differentiated 3T3-L1 cells expressed the GPR103b subtype mRNA and protein, as well as QRFP mRNA. QRFP-43 and -26 induced an increase in triglyceride accumulation of 50 and 41%, respectively, and elicited a dose-dependent increase in fatty acid uptake, by up to approximately 60% at the highest concentration, in 3T3-L1-differentiated cells. QRFP-43 and -26 inhibited isoproterenol (ISO)-induced lipolysis in a dose-dependent manner, with IC(50)s of 2.3 +/- 1.2 and 1.1 +/- 1.0 nm, respectively. The expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (FATP1, CD36, LPL, ACSL1, PPAR-gamma, and C/EBP-alpha), was increased by 2- to 3-fold after treatment with QRFP. The effects of QRFP on ISO-induced lipolysis and fatty acid uptake were abolished when GPR103b was silenced. In a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, the expression of GPR103b in epididymal fat pads was elevated by 16-fold whereas that of QRFP was reduced by 46% compared to lean mice. Furthermore, QRFP was bioactive in omental adipocytes from obese individuals, inhibiting ISO-induced lipolysis in these cells. Our results suggest that GPR103b and QRFP work in an autocrine/paracrine manner to regulate adipogenesis.

  20. Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) Studies in Kureyşler Dam Rescue Excavations, Kütahya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, S.; Tün, M.; Pekkan, E.; Ecevitoğlu, B.; Guney, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Kureyşler Dam Rescue Excavations shows up as an important archaeological study implemented in Kütahya. It provides valuable data on and deepens our understanding of the Inner Western Anatolian region alongside Seyitömer and Çiledir Mound Excavations. The rescue excavations were started with the aim of determining the cultural artefacts that would be flooded by Kureyşler Irrigation Dam. Rescue excavations in archaeology, mostly called salvage archaeology, is archaeological survey and excavation applied in areas revealed by some constructions. These works must be undertaken in the shortest possible time, unlike traditional survey and excavation. Use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) allows field archaeologists to quickly discover and map buried archaeological features. This study describes the use of GPR during a rescue archaeology campaign at the Kureyşler Irrigation Dam, in Kütahya (Turkey). Closely spaced GPR transects were collected in a grid-based approach, covering three different areas from the site, using GSSI Sir 3000 System, with antennae frequency of 400MHz. Ground penetrating radar data were evaluated with a few commercial software. According to the interpretation of geophysical data, we suggested some excavation sites. The ancient ruins were found in the suggested area quite successful.

  1. Estimating Carbon Stocks Along Depressional Wetlands Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in the Disney Wilderness Preserve (Orlando, Florida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, M. D.; Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.; Mount, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global carbon (C) in soil. It is estimated that 95% of carbon in peatlands is stored in the peat soil, while less than 5% occurs in the vegetation. The majority of studies related to C stocks in peatlands have taken place in northern latitudes leaving the tropical and subtropical latitudes clearly understudied. In this study we use a combination of indirect non-invasive geophysical methods (mainly ground penetrating radar, GPR) as well as direct measurements (direct coring) to calculate total C stocks within subtropical depressional wetlands in the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP, Orlando, FL). A set of three-dimensional (3D) GPR surveys were used to detect variability of the peat layer thickness and the underlying peat-sand mix layer across several depressional wetlands. Direct samples collected at selected locations were used to confirm depth of each interface and to estimate C content in the laboratory. Layer thickness estimated from GPR and direct C content were used to estimate total peat volume and C content for the entire depressional wetland. Through the use of aerial photos a relationship between surface area along the depressional wetlands and total peat thickness (and thus C content) was established for the depressions surveyed and applied throughout the entire preserve. This work shows the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors of the C budget at the DWP.

  2. GPR171 expression enhances proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dho, So Hee; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Jeong, Dongjun; Kim, Chang-Jin; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Bum-Chan; Park, Sung Sup; Kim, Seon-Young; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the most significant therapeutic targets and some of them promote the growth and metastasis of cancer. Here, we show that an increase in the levels of GPR171 is crucial for lung cancer tumor progression in vitro and in vivo. Immunostaining of clinical samples indicated that GPR171 was overexpressed in 46.8% of lung carcinoma tissues. Depletion of GPR171 with an anti-GPR171 antibody decreased proliferation of lung carcinoma cells and attenuated tumor progression in a mouse xenograft model. Knockdown of GPR171 also inhibited migration and invasion of the lung cancer cell lines. Notably, inhibition of GPR171 synergistically enhanced the tumoricidal activity of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor in lung cancer cells. These results indicate that GPR171 blockade is a promising antineoplastic strategy and provide a preclinical rationale for combined inhibition of GPR171 and EGFR. PMID:26760963

  3. Expression of Gpr177, a Wnt trafficking regulator, in mouse embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsiao-Man Ivy; Jin, Ying; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2010-07-01

    Wls/Evi/Srt encoding a multipass transmembrane protein has been identified as a regulator for proper sorting and secretion of Wnt in flies. We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177 is the mouse ortholog required for axis determination. Gpr177 is a transcriptional target of Wnt that is activated to assist its subcellular distribution in a feedback regulatory loop. We, therefore, proposed that reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the Wnt-dependent developmental and pathogenic processes. Here, we examine the expression pattern of Gpr177 in mouse development. Gpr177 is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types during organogenesis. Furthermore, Gpr177 is a glycoprotein primarily accumulating in the Golgi apparatus in signal-producing cells. The glycosylation of Gpr177 is necessary for proper transportation in the secretory pathway. Our findings suggest that the Gpr177-mediated regulation of Wnt is crucial for organogenesis in health and disease.

  4. Essential Regulation of Lung Surfactant Homeostasis by the Orphan G-protein Coupled Receptor GPR116

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Young Yang; Mary Beth Hilton; Steven Seaman; Diana C. Haines; Kunio Nagashima; Christina M. Burks; Lino Tessarollo; Pavlina T. Ivanova; H. Alex Brown; Todd M. Umstead; Joanna Floros; Zissis C. Chroneos; Brad St. Croix

    2013-01-01

    GPR116 is an orphan seven-pass transmembrane receptor whose function has been unclear. Global disruption of the Gpr116 gene in mice revealed an unexpected, critical role for this receptor in lung surfactant homeostasis, resulting in progressive accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in the alveolar space, labored breathing, and a reduced lifespan. GPR116 expression analysis, bone marrow transplantation studies, and characterization of conditional knockout mice revealed that GPR116 exp...

  5. Menstrual cyclic change of metastin/GPR54 in endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tsukasa; Kang, Hyun Sook; Hosoe, Yuko; Kharma, Budiman; Abiko, Kaoru; Matsumura, Noriomi; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Mandai, Masaki; Murphy, Susan K; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-06-01

    Metastin/kisspeptin is encoded by KISS1 and functions as an endogenous ligand of GPR54. Interaction of metastin with GPR54 suppresses metastasis and also regulates release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which promotes secretion of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). We have previously demonstrated epigenetic regulation of GPR54 in endometrial cancer and the potent role of metastin peptides in inhibiting metastasis in endometrial cancer. However, little is known about how the metastin-GPR54 axis is regulated in the endometrium, the precursor tissue of endometrial cancer. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and endometrial glandular cells (EGCs) within the endometrium show morphological changes when exposed to E2 and P4. In this study, we show that metastin expression is induced in ESCs through decidualization, but is repressed in glandular components of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial cancer relative to EGCs. The promoter of GPR54 is unmethylated in normal endometrium and in AEH. These results indicate metastin may function in decidualized endometrium to prepare for adequate placentation but this autocrine secretion of metastin is deregulated during oncogenesis to enable tumor cells to spread.

  6. The SCFA receptor GPR43 and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo eKimura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free fatty acids (FFAs are essential nutrients and act as signaling molecules in various cellular processes via binding with FFA receptors. Of these receptors, GPR43 is activated by short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate. During feeding, SCFAs are produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, and these SCFAs become important energy sources for the host. The gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation of the host and can influence the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Recently, GPR43 has been reported to regulate host energy homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissues. Hence, GPR43 is also thought to be a potential drug target for metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, we summarize the identification, structure, and activities of GPR43, with a focus on host energy regulation, and present an essential overview of our current understanding of its physiological roles in host energy regulation that is mediated by gut microbiota. We also discuss the potential for GPR43 as a therapeutic target.

  7. Experimental study of soil compaction effects on GPR signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Hu, Zhenqi; Zhao, Yanling; Li, Xinju

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical operations may lead to soil compaction hazard in land consolidation projects. Aiming to quantitatively guarantee soil compaction status with ground penetrating radar (GPR), we should clearly understand the relationship between bulk density/penetration resistance (PR) and GPR signals. This research adopted GPR with a central frequency of 500 MHz and the experimental design with laboratory test and outdoor test. Because soil dielectric constant receives combination influence of soil properties, statistical methods were used to analyze the influence of soil bulk density on electromagnetic wave velocity. Significant correlation exists between electromagnetic wave velocity and bulk density, with a partial correlation coefficient of 0.882 and two-tailed significance of 0.020. While soil dielectric constant strongly depends on soil water content, the growing of soil bulk density usually reduces free water content, increases bound water content and finally influences GPR signals. The results also showed that high soil PR value accompanied with low amplitude values of electromagnetic wave and fast decay rate of the amplitude back to noise level. More experimental data would be acquired for accurate quantification between soil compaction and GPR signals with statistic methods in the future research.

  8. GPR abilities in investigation of the pavement transversal cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, Lech; Sudyka, Jacek

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the capabilities of the GPR technique within the field of pavement crack diagnostics. Initially, laboratory tests were performed on prototypes simulating idealized cracks. Next, long-term visual observation and repeated GPR scanning were performed, on three roads of semi-rigid construction, several hundreds of meters long and subjected to heavy traffic. Furthermore, a road of rigid construction was tested, having a more than 70-year history of use. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings, in order to recognize structures responsible for signal generation, or to explain reasons of signal lacking. The main result of this work is a list of GPR indications of cracks, which can be noticed on echograms. It was created through a correlation of the visually-observed cracks with the corresponding echograms, with decimeter accuracy. Several types of GPR responses were classified and linked to possible categories of crack structures, or to processes associated with the presence of cracks (as crumbling, erosion, and lithological alterations). The poor visibility of cracks was also studied, due to small crack size, or to the blurred character of the damaged area, or else to masking effects related to coarse grains in the asphalt mixture. The efficiency of the proposed method for the identification and localization of cracks is higher when a long-term GPR observation is performed.

  9. The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew J; Goldsworthy, Susan M; Barnes, Ashley A; Eilert, Michelle M; Tcheang, Lili; Daniels, Dion; Muir, Alison I; Wigglesworth, Mark J; Kinghorn, Ian; Fraser, Neil J; Pike, Nicholas B; Strum, Jay C; Steplewski, Klaudia M; Murdock, Paul R; Holder, Julie C; Marshall, Fiona H; Szekeres, Philip G; Wilson, Shelagh; Ignar, Diane M; Foord, Steve M; Wise, Alan; Dowell, Simon J

    2003-03-28

    GPR41 and GPR43 are related members of a homologous family of orphan G protein-coupled receptors that are tandemly encoded at a single chromosomal locus in both humans and mice. We identified the acetate anion as an agonist of human GPR43 during routine ligand bank screening in yeast. This activity was confirmed after transient transfection of GPR43 into mammalian cells using Ca(2+) mobilization and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) binding assays and by coexpression with GIRK G protein-regulated potassium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Other short chain carboxylic acid anions such as formate, propionate, butyrate, and pentanoate also had agonist activity. GPR41 is related to GPR43 (52% similarity; 43% identity) and was activated by similar ligands but with differing specificity for carbon chain length, with pentanoate being the most potent agonist. A third family member, GPR42, is most likely a recent gene duplication of GPR41 and may be a pseudogene. GPR41 was expressed primarily in adipose tissue, whereas the highest levels of GPR43 were found in immune cells. The identity of the cognate physiological ligands for these receptors is not clear, although propionate is known to occur in vivo at high concentrations under certain pathophysiological conditions.

  10. A GPR-based simulation approach for the analysis of railway ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; Umiliaco, Andrea; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Pirrone, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at proposing a model capable to assess the physical conditions of railway ballast, in terms of percentage of fouling within the material, by analyzing its electromagnetic response. For the calibration of such a model, a laboratory set-up was implemented in order to reproduce a real-scale railway environment. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m high plexiglass formwork was laid over a metal sheet, to define a proper domain of investigation. The formwork was then filled up with railway ballast, progressively fouled with a fine-grained pollutant material, namely, an A4 soil type according to the ASSHTO soil classification. At each step of fouling percentage, electromagnetic surveys were carried out by employing several ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems, in both ground-coupled and air-coupled configurations. On the other hand, the validation of the model was performed through a simulation-based approach. In particular, the main physical and geometrical properties of each ballast-pollutant configuration were reproduced by means of a random sequence absorption (RSA) approach. For the representation of the shape of the solid matrix of the ballast, a relatively complex geometry was here adopted. Finally, the developed geometries were processed by the GprMax 2D numerical simulator, employing a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model capable of generating a synthetic GPR response for the several configurations analysed in laboratory environment. As result, the potential of the combined use of RSA and FDTD approaches is demonstrated, and a model for characterizing such a complex coarse-grained heterogeneous material is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  11. Characterizing fractures and shear zones in crystalline rock using anisotropic seismic inversion and GPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Krietsch, Hannes; Lajaunie, Myriam; Jordi, Claudio; Gischig, Valentin; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Maurer, Hansrudi

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the natural or artificially created hydraulic conductivity of a rock mass is critical for the successful exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The hydraulic response of fractured crystalline rock is largely governed by the spatial organization of permeable fractures. Defining the 3D geometry of these fractures and their connectivity is extremely challenging, because fractures can only be observed directly at their intersections with tunnels or boreholes. In the framework of an in-situ stimulation experiment at the Grimsel Test Site, a detailed rock mass characterization was carried out, combining geological and geophysical methods. While geological observations from tunnel mapping, core- and geophysical borehole-logging are reliable, the obtained data could just be interpolated between tunnels and boreholes. The geophysical surveys, including ground-penetration radar (GPR) imaging and tunnel-tunnel seismic tomography were able to image shear and fracture zones throughout the experimental volume. Clear GPR reflections up to a distance of 30 m from the tunnels allow to define the geometry of tunnel-mapped shear zones in the center of the experimental volume. Anisotropic traveltime inversion of tunnel-tunnel seismic data reveals fracture zones as low velocity zones and ductile shear zones as areas of increased seismic anisotropy. It is thus possible to characterize both type and geometry of shear and fracture zones, which is important for the planned rock stimulation. Combining the GPR and seismic results with the geological information, the geological model could be significantly improved, demonstrating the potential to characterize even subtle geological features in 3D.

  12. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR139 is activated by the peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Cathrine Nøhr; Shehata, Mohamed A; Hauser, Alexander S

    2017-01-01

    GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed primarily in the brain. Not much is known regarding the function of GPR139. Recently we have shown that GPR139 is activated by the amino acids l-tryptophan and l-phenylalanine (EC50 values of 220 μM and 320 μM, respectively), as wel...

  13. LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

  14. Community detection in networks: Structural communities versus ground truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hric, Darko; Darst, Richard K.; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-12-01

    Algorithms to find communities in networks rely just on structural information and search for cohesive subsets of nodes. On the other hand, most scholars implicitly or explicitly assume that structural communities represent groups of nodes with similar (nontopological) properties or functions. This hypothesis could not be verified, so far, because of the lack of network datasets with information on the classification of the nodes. We show that traditional community detection methods fail to find the metadata groups in many large networks. Our results show that there is a marked separation between structural communities and metadata groups, in line with recent findings. That means that either our current modeling of community structure has to be substantially modified, or that metadata groups may not be recoverable from topology alone.

  15. Global Ground Truth Data Set with Waveform and Arrival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not...NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Robert J. Raistrick a. REPORT UNCLASSIFIED b. ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED c. THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED...local del Proyecto GASPI (1999-2002), Trabajos de Geología, Univ. de Oviedo, 24, 91-106, 2004. 10116 Terceira, Azores Islands 28/0 Kennett, B. L. N

  16. Improved Multiple Event Location Methods for Ground Truth Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    likewise Gaussian with zero mean and variance matrix given by Γpri = ACAT . (24) The Rodi-Myers method specifies the model variance indirectly in terms of...respect to eij of the loga- rithm of the pick-error p.d.f. in (15). In the Gaussian case (p = 2) the weights are simply inverse variances: wij = σ −2 ij...data weights are set to reciprocal pick-error variances for any p, as they are in the Gaussian case. That is, the weights are set as wij = 1 σ2ij p 2/p

  17. ALP FOPEN Site Description and Ground Truth Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    xylem layer is also influencing the dielectric constant measurement; 3. The inside of the phloem layer. The phloem layer can often be clearly separated...conposition of the bark layer always varies between tre. species. 163 ERIM Active Xylem Xylem or Heartwood Figure 83. Schematic Diagram of Tree Trunk...is comprised of inactive phloem cells. The next layer, which is usually only several millimeters thick, is the phloem layer. The cells in this layer

  18. Ground Truth calibration for the JEM-EUSO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J H; Csorna, S E; Sarazin, F; Wiencke, L R

    2013-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory is an experiment to investigate the highest energy cosmic rays by recording the extensive air showers they create in the atmosphere. This will be done by recording video clips of the development of these showers using a large high-speed video camera to be located on the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station. The video clips will be used to determine the energies and arrival directions of these cosmic rays. The accuracy of these measurements depends on measuring the intrinsic luminosity and the direction of each shower accurately. This paper describes how the accuracy of these measurements will be tested and improved during the mission using a global light system consisting of calibrated flash lamps and lasers located deep in the atmosphere.

  19. Experimental tests for characterization of GPR antenna patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Versino

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and location of buried structures using the electromagnetic impulsive methodologies (GPR require the study of the spatial distribution of energy irradiated by an antenna into the ground and the mechanisms of wave propagation and scattering from relevant targets. Evaluation of the difference in wave field distribution in the ground with respect to free space can provide some useful indications on the propagation of the Geo-radar signal in the ground and the spatial resolution capability of the GPR method. For this reason, a research group, involving “La Sapienza” University, Rome and the National Research Council began, during 1992, to perform studies on antenna radiation pattern, the propagation and scattering phenomena of GPR. This paper presents the experimental set up and the obtained results on the antenna radiation pattern.

  20. GPR91: expanding the frontiers of Krebs cycle intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Fonseca, Matheus; Aguiar, Carla J; da Rocha Franco, Joao Antônio; Gingold, Rafael N; Leite, M Fatima

    2016-01-12

    Since it was discovered, the citric acid cycle has been known to be central to cell metabolism and energy homeostasis. Mainly found in the mitochondrial matrix, some of the intermediates of the Krebs cycle are also present in the blood stream. Currently, there are several reports that indicate functional roles for Krebs intermediates out of its cycle. Succinate, for instance, acts as an extracellular ligand by binding to a G-protein coupled receptor, known as GPR91, expressed in kidney, liver, heart, retinal cells and possibly many other tissues, leading to a wide array of physiological and pathological effects. Through GPR91, succinate is involved in functions such as regulation of blood pressure, inhibition of lipolysis in white adipose tissue, development of retinal vascularization, cardiac hypertrophy and activation of stellate hepatic cells by ischemic hepatocytes. Along the current review, these new effects of succinate through GPR91 will be explored and discussed.

  1. GPR and GPS data integration: examples of application in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gandolfi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR and Global Positioning System (GPS techniques were employed in snow accumulation studies during the Italian leg of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE. The acquired data were useful both for glaciological and climatological studies. This paper presents some results obtained by GPR and GPS data integration employed to determine accumulation/ablation processes along the profile of the traverse that show how the snow-sublayer thickness can vary quickly in just a few kilometres. Some examples of data integration employed in detection and characterisation of buried crevasses are also presented.

  2. GPR and GPS data integration. Examples of application in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbini, S. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Dipartimento per lo studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse

    2001-08-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques were employed in snow accumulation studies during the Italian leg of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE). The acquired data were useful both for glaciological and climatological studies. This paper presents some results obtained by GPR and GPS data integration employed to determine accumulation/ablation processes along the profile of the traverse that show how the snow-sublayer thickness can vary quickly in just a few kilometres. Some examples of data integration employed in detection and characterisation of buried crevasses are also presented.

  3. New blood brothers: the GPR55 and CB2 partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy Irving

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are increasingly being recognized as key lipid-derived regulators of immune function [1].Although the peripheral cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) is thought to orchestrate many of these actions,additional non-CB1/CB2-mediated effects ofcannabinoids have been identified in immune cells [1,2],where several orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs),including the effusive GPR55,are implicated [3].Despite numerous studies addressing the cannabinoid sensitivity of GPR55,the area remains a pharmacological minefield,with much inconsistent and conflicting data.

  4. Targeting GPR110 in HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    models. To understand whether GPR110 overexpression is a common phenomenon in anti-HER2 therapy resistance, we first interrogated the RNAseq data...selected resistant models, prioritized based on the RNAseq data. We have found that GPR110 mRNA levels were significantly higher in LR, TR, and...HER2’resistant’deriva9ves’vs.’parental’cells’ by’ RNAseq ." A" total" of" 9" an+,HER2" resistant"models" that" included" lapa+nib" (L),resistant" (LR

  5. Application of an Orbital GPR Model to Detecting Martian Polar Subsurface Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Cummer, S. A.; Farrell, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous challenges in successfully implementing and interpreting planetary ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. Many are due to substantial uncertainties in the target ground parameters and the intervening medium (i.e., the ionosphere). These uncertainties generate a compelling need for meaningful quantitative simulation of the planetary GPR problem. An accurate numerical model would enable realistic numerical GPR simulations using parameter regimes much broader than are possible in laboratory or field experiments. Parameters such as source bandwidth and power, surface and subsurface features, and ionospheric profiles could be rapidly iterated to understand their impact on GPR performance and the reliable interpretation of GPR data.

  6. Enhancing the resolution of gpr spectra for pavement engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, F.; Benedetto, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface. This non-destructive method uses electromagnetic radiation and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. It can detect objects, changes in material, and voids and cracks. GPR has many applications in a number of fields. In the field of civil engineering one of the most advanced technologies used for road pavement monitoring is based on the deployment of advanced GPR systems. One of the most relevant causes of road pavement damage is often referable to water intrusion in structural layers. In this context, GPR has been recently proposed as a method to estimate moisture content in a porous medium without preventive calibration. Hence, the development of methods to obtain an estimate of the moisture content is a crucial research field involving economic, social and strategic aspects in road safety for a great number of public and private Agencies. In particular, a recent new approach was proposed to estimate moisture content in a porous medium basing on the theory of Rayleigh scattering, showing a shift of the frequency peak of the GPR spectrum towards lower frequencies as the moisture content increases in the soil. The weakness characterizing this approach is represented by the needs of high resolution signals, whereas GPR spectra are affected by low resolution. Hence, the rising requirement for high resolution leads to specific demands for improved prediction methods. Recently, a new technique combining the response of the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT, well known for its high-precision receiving signal level) with that of the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, well known for its super-resolution capacity has been proposed. This combined method has been proved to obtain a high precision level in quantifying the shift of the frequency peak of the GPR spectrum. This combined method can perform a reliable coarse estimate of

  7. Preliminary results of the ground penetrating radar (GPR prospection in the area of the prehistoric flint mine Borownia, southeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieszkowski Radosław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of GPR field prospection carried out in the area of the prehistoric mining field Borownia (Ćmielów, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski District are presented. This mining field forms a belt (30-50 m wide and 700 m long, starting from the valley edge of the Kamienna River southeastwards. Southeastern and western parts of the site have preserved the original post-exploitation relief. Geology of the Borownia mining field was examined and acquired radiograms revealed three distinct zones of anomaly concentrations. The central zone (B is clearly a fragment of the prehistoric mining field, confirmed not only by the GPR sounding but also by archeological surveys. The other two zones have not yet been investigated in detail yet but their surface and archaeological examination may determine only whether their underground structures are natural or have been created by humans. Data obtained during the GPR prospection at the Borownia archaeological site confirmed usefulness of 100, 250 and 500 MHz antennas. The relatively large depth range and good resolution are due to favorable geological conditions.

  8. GPR Signal Characterization for Automated Landmine and UXO Detection Based on Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Núñez-Nieto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Landmine clearance is an ongoing problem that currently affects millions of people around the world. This study evaluates the effectiveness of ground penetrating radar (GPR in demining and unexploded ordnance detection using 2.3-GHz and 1-GHz high-frequency antennas. An automated detection tool based on machine learning techniques is also presented with the aim of automatically detecting underground explosive artifacts. A GPR survey was conducted on a designed scenario that included the most commonly buried items in historic battle fields, such as mines, projectiles and mortar grenades. The buried targets were identified using both frequencies, although the higher vertical resolution provided by the 2.3-GHz antenna allowed for better recognition of the reflection patterns. The targets were also detected automatically using machine learning techniques. Neural networks and logistic regression algorithms were shown to be able to discriminate between potential targets and clutter. The neural network had the most success, with accuracies ranging from 89% to 92% for the 1-GHz and 2.3-GHz antennas, respectively.

  9. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shan Wu

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  10. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  11. Hypothalamic GPR40 Signaling Activated by Free Long Chain Fatty Acids Suppresses CFA-Induced Inflammatory Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo Nakamoto; Takashi Nishinaka; Naoya Sato; Mitsumasa Mankura; Yutaka Koyama; Fumiyo Kasuya; Shogo Tokuyama

    2013-01-01

    GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking. The present study focused on the relationship between pain regulation and GPR40, investigating the functional roles of hypothalamic GPR40 during chronic pain caused using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory chronic pain mouse model. GPR40 protein expression in the hypothalamus was transiently inc...

  12. GPR monitoring of oil displacement - A laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present laboratory experiments where we address the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) capability of monitoring oil displacement processes in porous media. This has significant applications in near-subsurface environments where remediation of contaminant such as oil-derived liquids is c

  13. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  14. GPR Signal Denoising and Target Extraction With the CEEMD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2015-04-17

    In this letter, we apply a time and frequency analysis method based on the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) method in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signal processing. It decomposes the GPR signal into a sum of oscillatory components, with guaranteed positive and smoothly varying instantaneous frequencies. The key idea of this method relies on averaging the modes obtained by empirical mode decomposition (EMD) applied to several realizations of Gaussian white noise added to the original signal. It can solve the mode-mixing problem in the EMD method and improve the resolution of ensemble EMD (EEMD) when the signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio. First, we analyze the difference between the basic theory of EMD, EEMD, and CEEMD. Then, we compare the time and frequency analysis with Hilbert-Huang transform to test the results of different methods. The synthetic and real GPR data demonstrate that CEEMD promises higher spectral-spatial resolution than the other two EMD methods in GPR signal denoising and target extraction. Its decomposition is complete, with a numerically negligible error.

  15. Texture Attribute Analysis of GPR Data for Archaeological Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of texture attribute analysis of 2-D and 3-D GPR datasets obtained in different archaeological environments. Textural attributes are successfully used in seismic stratigraphic studies for hydrocarbon exploration to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface structures. We use a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to compute second-order statistical measures of textural characteristics, such as contrast, energy, entropy, and homogeneity. Textural attributes provide specific information about the data, and can highlight characteristics as uniformity or complexity, which complement the interpretation of amplitude data and integrate the features extracted from conventional attributes. The results from three archaeological case studies demonstrate that the proposed texture analysis can enhance understanding of GPR data by providing clearer images of distribution, volume, and shape of potential archaeological targets and related stratigraphic units, particularly in combination with the conventional GPR attributes. Such strategy improves the interpretability of GPR data, and can be very helpful for archaeological excavation planning and, more generally, for buried cultural heritage assessment.

  16. Discovery of a potent and selective GPR120 agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimpukade, Bharat; Hudson, Brian D; Hovgaard, Christine Kiel;

    2012-01-01

    GPR120 is a receptor of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids reported to mediate GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects and is therefore emerging as a new potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. Further investigation is ...

  17. Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Urban, Christian

    2012-01-01

    FFA1 (GPR40) is a new target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. We recently identified the potent FFA1 agonist TUG-469 (5). Inspired by the structurally related TAK-875, we explored the effects of a mesylpropoxy appendage on 5. The appendage significantly lowers lipophilicity and improves metaboli...

  18. GPR monitoring of oil displacement - A laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present laboratory experiments where we address the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) capability of monitoring oil displacement processes in porous media. This has significant applications in near-subsurface environments where remediation of contaminant such as oil-derived liquids is

  19. Tomographic reconstruction of structures using a novel GPR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Alessandro; Ježová, Jana; Lambot, Sébastien; Pastorino, Matteo; Randazzo, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara

    2017-04-01

    The ever growing range of applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) motivates the need of developing efficient measurement systems combined with effective data processing methods. On the one hand, advanced GPR measurement systems require to accurately model the physical effects occurring between the antenna structure and the medium. On the other hand, the GPR device should provide a reliable reconstruction of the properties of the targets under an inspection to a common user. In this work, a novel GPR system was tested for the imaging of buried structures. First of all, the acquired experimental data were pre-processed with a proper calibration technique for removing antenna effects. After that, a reconstruction of a hidden structure was obtained by means of both qualitative and quantitative electromagnetic inverse scattering methods. In particular, while the qualitative techniques aim at reconstructing only specific features of the targets (e.g., location, shape), the proposed quantitative method has the challenging goal of the complete electromagnetic characterization of the buried structures. The performance of the new system was evaluated in different operating conditions with promising results. Acknowledgment This work benefited from the networking activities within the EU funded COST Action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". Part of this work was carried out during the Short-Term Scientific Mission STSM-TU1208-34990 "Testing of a new lightweight radar system for tomographical reconstruction of circular structures" (Alessandro Fedeli, Italy, visiting Prof. Sébastien Lambot, Belgium).

  20. Identification of metabolic pathways influenced by the G-protein coupled receptors GprB and GprD in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Wagner R; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Krohn, Nadia Graciele; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Rodrigues, Fernando; Caldana, Camila; Semelka, Charles T; Tikunov, Andrey P; Macdonald, Jeffrey M; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated signaling pathways play a pivotal role in transmembrane signaling in eukaryotes. Our main aim was to identify signaling pathways regulated by A. nidulans GprB and GprD G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). When these two null mutant strains were compared to the wild-type strain, the ΔgprB mutant showed an increased protein kinase A (PKA) activity while growing in glucose 1% and during starvation. In contrast, the ΔgprD has a much lower PKA activity upon starvation. Transcriptomics and (1)H NMR-based metabolomics were performed on two single null mutants grown on glucose. We noted modulation in the expression of 11 secondary metabolism gene clusters when the ΔgprB and ΔgprD mutant strains were grown in 1% glucose. Several members of the sterigmatocystin-aflatoxin gene cluster presented down-regulation in both mutant strains. The genes of the NR-PKS monodictyphenone biosynthesis cluster had overall increased mRNA accumulation in ΔgprB, while in the ΔgprD mutant strain the genes had decreased mRNA accumulation. Principal component analysis of the metabolomic data demonstrated that there was a significant metabolite shift in the ΔgprD strain. The (1)H NMR analysis revealed significant expression of essential amino acids with elevated levels in the ΔgprD strain, compared to the wild-type and ΔgprB strains. With the results, we demonstrated the differential expression of a variety of genes related mainly to secondary metabolism, sexual development, stress signaling, and amino acid metabolism. We propose that the absence of GPCRs triggered stress responses at the genetic level. The data suggested an intimate relationship among different G-protein coupled receptors, fine-tune regulation of secondary and amino acid metabolisms, and fungal development.

  1. Identification of Metabolic Pathways Influenced by the G-Protein Coupled Receptors GprB and GprD in Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Wagner R.; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Krohn, Nadia Graciele; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Caldana, Camila; Semelka, Charles T.; Tikunov, Andrey P.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated signaling pathways play a pivotal role in transmembrane signaling in eukaryotes. Our main aim was to identify signaling pathways regulated by A. nidulans GprB and GprD G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). When these two null mutant strains were compared to the wild-type strain, the ΔgprB mutant showed an increased protein kinase A (PKA) activity while growing in glucose 1% and during starvation. In contrast, the ΔgprD has a much lower PKA activity upon starvation. Transcriptomics and 1H NMR-based metabolomics were performed on two single null mutants grown on glucose. We noted modulation in the expression of 11 secondary metabolism gene clusters when the ΔgprB and ΔgprD mutant strains were grown in 1% glucose. Several members of the sterigmatocystin-aflatoxin gene cluster presented down-regulation in both mutant strains. The genes of the NR-PKS monodictyphenone biosynthesis cluster had overall increased mRNA accumulation in ΔgprB, while in the ΔgprD mutant strain the genes had decreased mRNA accumulation. Principal component analysis of the metabolomic data demonstrated that there was a significant metabolite shift in the ΔgprD strain. The 1H NMR analysis revealed significant expression of essential amino acids with elevated levels in the ΔgprD strain, compared to the wild-type and ΔgprB strains. With the results, we demonstrated the differential expression of a variety of genes related mainly to secondary metabolism, sexual development, stress signaling, and amino acid metabolism. We propose that the absence of GPCRs triggered stress responses at the genetic level. The data suggested an intimate relationship among different G-protein coupled receptors, fine-tune regulation of secondary and amino acid metabolisms, and fungal development. PMID:23658706

  2. Identification of Novel GPR55 Modulators Using Cell-Impedance-Based Label-Free Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Paula; Whyte, Lauren S; Chicharro, Roberto; Gómez-Cañas, María; Pazos, M Ruth; Goya, Pilar; Irving, Andrew J; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Ross, Ruth A; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-03-10

    The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been proposed as a novel receptor of the endocannabinoid system. However, the validity of this categorization is still under debate mainly because of the lack of potent and selective agonists and antagonists of GPR55. Binding assays are not yet available for GPR55 screening, and discrepancies in GPR55 mediated signaling pathways have been reported. In this context, we have designed and synthesized novel GPR55 ligands based on a chromenopyrazole scaffold. Appraisal of GPR55 activity was accomplished using a label-free cell-impedance-based assay in hGPR55-HEK293 cells. The real-time impedance responses provided an integrative assessment of the cellular consequence to GPR55 stimulation taking into account the different possible signaling pathways. Potent GPR55 partial agonists (14b, 18b, 19b, 20b, and 21-24) have been identified; one of them (14b) being selective versus classical cannabinoid receptors. Upon antagonist treatment, chromenopyrazoles 21-24 inhibited lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) effect. One of these GPR55 antagonists (21) is fully selective versus classic cannabinoid receptors. Compared to LPI, the predicted physicochemical parameters of the new compounds suggest a clear pharmacokinetic improvement.

  3. Neuroanatomical distribution of the orphan GPR50 receptor in adult sheep and rodent brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batailler, M; Mullier, A; Sidibe, A; Delagrange, P; Prévot, V; Jockers, R; Migaud, M

    2012-05-01

    GPR50, formerly known as melatonin-related receptor, is one of three subtypes of the melatonin receptor subfamily, together with the MT(1) and MT(2) receptors. By contrast to these two high-affinity receptor subtypes and despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, GPR50 does not bind melatonin or any other known ligand. Specific and reliable immunological tools are therefore needed to be able to elucidate the physiological functions of this orphan receptor that are still largely unknown. We have generated and validated a new specific GPR50 antibody against the ovine GPR50 and used it to analyse the neuroanatomical distribution of the GPR50 in sheep, rat and mouse whole brain. We demonstrated that GPR50-positive cells are widely distributed in various regions, including the hypothalamus and the pars tuberalis of the pituitary, in all the three species studied. GPR50 expressing cells are abundant in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus and the median eminence. In rodents, immunohistochemical studies revealed a broader distribution pattern for the GPR50 protein. GPR50 immunoreactivity is found in the medial preoptic area (MPA), the lateral septum, the lateral hypothalamic area, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the vascular organ of the laminae terminalis and several regions of the amygdala, including the medial nuclei of amygdala. Additionally, in the rat brain, GPR50 protein was localised in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the dorsal hippocampus. In mice, moderate to high numbers of GPR50-positive cells were also found in the subfornical organ. Taken together, these results provide an enlarged distribution of GPR50 protein, give further insight into the organisation of the melatoninergic system, and may lay the framework for future studies on the role of the GPR50 in the brain.

  4. GPR Technologies and Methodologies in Italy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Frezza, Fabrizio; Manacorda, Guido; Massa, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara

    2014-05-01

    GPR techniques and technologies have been subject of intense research activities at the Italian level in the last 15 years because of their potential applications specifically to civil engineering. More in detail, several innovative approaches and models have been developed to inspect road pavements to measure the thickness of their layers as well as to diagnose or prevent damage. Moreover, new frontiers in bridge inspection as well as in geotechnical applications such as slides and flows have been investigated using GPR. From the methodological viewpoint, innovative techniques have been developed to solve GPR forward-scattering problems, as well to locate and classify subsurface targets in real-time and to retrieve their properties through multi-resolution strategies, and linear and non-linear methodologies. Furthermore, the application of GPR and other non-destructive testing methods in archaeological prospecting, cultural heritage diagnostics, and in the localization and detection of vital signs of trapped people has been widely investigated. More recently, new theoretical and empirical paradigms regarding water moisture evaluation in various porous media and soil characterization have been published as the results of long terms research activities. Pioneer studies are also currently under development with the scope to correlate GPR measurement with mechanical characteristics of bound and unbound construction materials. In such a framework, this abstract will be aimed at reviewing some of the most recent advances of GPR techniques and technologies within the Italian industrial and academic communities [also including their application within international projects such as FP7 ISTIMES (http://www.istimes.eu)], and at envisaging some of the most promising research trends currently under development. Acknowledgment - This work was supported by COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' References [1] M. Balsi, S. Esposito, F

  5. The use of GPR method to examination of the soil pollution by hydrocarbons; Zastosowanie metody GPR do badania skazen gruntu weglowodorami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewski, J.; Zietek, J. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-05-01

    The counteracting the effects of soil pollution by oil products is one of the environmental protection aspects. The georadar methods (GPR) efficiently detects the pollution and its range. The physical foundation of the GPR method and special measurement methods elaborated by authors are presented, included examples are illustrating the use of the new interpretation procedures. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Contribution a l'auscultation des chaussees mixtes par methodes GPR et electrique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouane, Carole

    Quebec's infrastructures are ageing. A reliable, quick and economical assessment of the state of urban roads would help to plan civil engineering. This M.Sc. thesis aims to investigate and develop the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and electrical methods to assess pavement condition subject to wetting, freezing and drying cycles. The objectives are to display defects and estimate water content in the materials used for the mixed pavement construction; these consist in layers of asphalt (top), concrete (middle) and grade and sub-grade (bottom). Prior studies showed a valuable potential of joint application of GPR and electrical resistivity to assess mixed pavement condition. These studies were mainly based on numerical modeling and some site tests using both methods. It was concluded that a better evaluation of the potential of the coupled methods would come from the assessment of physical properties and validation from geotechnical evidences. At first, we characterized the context. Structural defects and water content implied modification of physical properties of road materials. After running numerical modeling, we carried out an experiment in one of the streets in Montreal (Canada) where pavement needed complete rehabilitation. GPR surveys were carried out before the pavement was destroyed and removed, and subsequently a resistivity imaging was carried out on the subgrade layer. We also sampled blocks of asphalt and concrete along the street from the demolition rubble in order to study their physical properties in the lab. Soil samples were taken from trenches to measure water content. The grade and sub-grade were mainly a mix of clayey-silt and gravel, as the embedding ground is grey clay. We measured the complex dielectric constants of asphalt and concrete in the range 50 MHz-900 MHz with a recently developed dielectric probe sampling a volume of 30 cm3. Resistivity measurements were also performed on large cores of asphalt and concrete using an

  7. Combining geomorphological mapping and near surface geophysics (GPR and ERT) to study piping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Kondracka, Marta

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to provide a more comprehensive characterization of piping systems in mountainous areas under a temperate climate using geomorphological mapping and geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography - ERT and ground penetrating radar - GPR). The significance of piping in gully formation and hillslope hydrology has been discussed for many years, and most of the studies are based on surface investigations. However, it seems that most surface investigations underestimate this subsurface process. Therefore, our purpose was to estimate the scale of piping activity based on both surface and subsurface investigations. We used geophysical methods to detect the boundary of lateral water movement fostering pipe development and recognize the internal structure of the underlying materials. The survey was carried out in the Bereźnica Wyżna catchment, in the Bieszczady Mountains. (Eastern Carpathians, Poland), where pipes develop in Cambisols at a mean depth of about 0.7-0.8 m. The geophysical techniques that were used are shown to be successful in identifying pipes. GPR data suggest that the density of piping systems is much larger than that detectible from surface observations alone. Pipe length can be > 6.5-9.2% (maximum = 49%) higher than what surface mapping suggests. Thus, the significance of piping in hillslope hydrology and gully formation can be greater than previously assumed. These results also draw attention to the scale of piping activity in the Carpathians, where this process has been neglected for many years. The ERT profiles reveal areas affected by piping as places of higher resistivity values, which are an effect of a higher content of air-filled pores (due to higher soil porosity, intense biological activity, and well-developed soil structure). In addition, the ERT profiles show that the pipes in the study area develop at the soil-bedrock interface, probably above the layers of shales or mudstones which create a water restrictive layer

  8. King George Island ice cap geometry updated with airborne GPR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rückamp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice geometry is a mandatory requirement for numerical modelling purposes. In this paper we present a consistent data set for the ice thickness, the bedrock topography and the ice surface topography of the King George Island ice cap (Arctowski icefield and the adjacent central part. The new data set is composed of ground based and airborne ground penetrating radar (GPR and differential GPS (DGPS measurements, obtained during several field campaigns. Blindow et al. (2010 already provided a comprehensive overview of the ground based measurements carried out in the safely accessible area of the ice cap. The updated data set incorporates airborne measurements in the heavily crevassed coastal areas. Therefore, in this paper special attention is paid to the airborne measurements by addressing the instrument used, survey procedure, and data processing in more detail. In particular, the inclusion of airborne GPR measurements with the 30 MHz BGR-P30-System developed at the Institute of Geophysics (University of Münster completes the picture of the ice geometry substantially. The compiled digital elevation model of the bedrock shows a rough, highly variable topography with pronounced valleys, ridges, and troughs. Mean ice thickness is 240 ± 6 m, with a maximum value of 422 ± 10 m in the surveyed area. Noticeable are bounded areas in the bedrock topography below sea level where marine based ice exists. The provided data set is required as a basis for future monitoring attempts or as input for numerical modelling experiments. The data set is available from the PANGAEA database at http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.770567.

  9. King George Island ice cap geometry updated with airborne GPR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rückamp

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice geometry is a mandatory requirement for numerical modelling purposes. In this paper we present a consistent data set for the ice thickness, the bedrock topography and the ice surface topography of the King George Island ice cap (Arctowski Icefield and the adjacent central part. The newly data set is composed of groundbased and airborne Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR and differential GPS (DGPS measurements, obtained during several field campaigns. Blindow et al. (2010 already provided a comprehensive overview of the groundbased measurements carried out in the safely accessible area of the ice cap. The updated data set incorporates airborne measurements in the heavily crevassed coastal areas. Therefore, in this paper special attention is paid to the airborne measurements by addressing the used instrument, survey, and data processing in more detail. In particular, the inclusion of airborne GPR measurements with the 30 MHz BGR-P30-System developed at the Institute of Geophysics (University of Münster completes the picture of the ice geometry substantially. The compiled digital elevation model of the bedrock shows a rough, highly variable topography with pronounced valleys, ridges, and troughs. Mean ice thickness is ~240 m, with a maximum value of ~400 m in the surveyed area. Noticeable are bounded areas in the bedrock topography below sea level where marine based ice exists. The provided data set is required as a basis for future monitoring attempts or as input for numerical modelling experiments. The data set is available from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.770567.

  10. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 4 - Combined use of GPR and other NDT methods & GPR applications in geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Solla, Mercedes; Fontul, Simona

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 4 "Different applications of GPR and other NDT technologies in civil engineering" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The main objective of the Action TU1208, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 150 Institutions from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. WG4 deals with the use of GPR outside from the civil engineering area, namely in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics, agriculture and management of water resources, investigation of polluted industrial sites, non-destructive testing of living tree trunks, planetary exploration, demining, localization of people buried under avalanches and debris, and more. Furthermore, this WG studies the integration of GPR with other Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods. The most relevant achievements stemming from WG4 will be presented during the 2017 EGU GA. These are: (i) The collection of thorough information on the state-of-the-art, ongoing studies, problems and future research needs on the topics of interest for this WG; (ii) The performance of a plethora of interesting case studies in important sites all over Europe, including well-known historical places such as Stonehenge (United Kingdom), Carnuntum (Austria), the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland), the Tholos Tomb of Acharnon (Athens, Greece), the Łazienki Royal Palace (Warsaw, Poland), and more; (iii) WG4 contributed to the TU1208 Education Pack, an open educational package conceived to teach GPR in University

  11. Rod photoreceptors express GPR55 in the adult vervet monkey retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Casanova, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids exert their actions mainly through two receptors, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) and cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R). In recent years, the G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was suggested as a cannabinoid receptor based on its activation by anandamide and tetrahydrocannabinol...... components (Müller cells). The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of GPR55 in the monkey retina by using confocal microscopy. Our results show that GPR55 is strictly localized in the photoreceptor layer of the extrafoveal portion of the retina. Co-immunolabeling of GPR55 with rhodopsin......, the photosensitive pigment in rods, revealed a clear overlap of expression throughout the rod structure with most prominent staining in the inner segments. Additionally, double-label of GPR55 with calbindin, a specific marker for cone photoreceptors in the primate retina, allowed us to exclude expression of GPR55...

  12. Essential Regulation of Lung Surfactant Homeostasis by the Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR116

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available GPR116 is an orphan seven-pass transmembrane receptor whose function has been unclear. Global disruption of the Gpr116 gene in mice revealed an unexpected, critical role for this receptor in lung surfactant homeostasis, resulting in progressive accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in the alveolar space, labored breathing, and a reduced lifespan. GPR116 expression analysis, bone marrow transplantation studies, and characterization of conditional knockout mice revealed that GPR116 expression in ATII cells is required for maintaining normal surfactant levels. Aberrant packaging of surfactant proteins with lipids in the Gpr116 mutant mice resulted in compromised surfactant structure, function, uptake, and processing. Thus, GPR116 plays an indispensable role in lung surfactant homeostasis with important ramifications for the understanding and treatment of lung surfactant disorders.

  13. Essential Regulation of Lung Surfactant Homeostasis by the Orphan G-protein Coupled Receptor GPR116

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mi Young; Hilton, Mary Beth; Seaman, Steven; Haines, Diana C.; Nagashima, Kunio; Burks, Christina M.; Tessarollo, Lino; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Brown, H. Alex; Umstead, Todd M.; Floros, Joanna; Chroneos, Zissis C.; St. Croix, Brad

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY GPR116 is an orphan seven-pass transmembrane receptor of previously unknown function. Global disruption of the Gpr116 gene in mice revealed an unexpected, critical role for this receptor in lung surfactant homeostasis, resulting in progressive accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in the alveolar space, labored breathing, and a reduced lifespan. GPR116 expression analysis, bone marrow transplantation studies and characterization of conditional knockout mice revealed that GPR116 expression in ATII cells is required for maintaining normal surfactant levels. Aberrant packaging of surfactant proteins with lipids in the Gpr116 mutant mice resulted in compromised surfactant structure, function, uptake, and processing. Thus, GPR116 plays an indispensable role in lung surfactant homeostasis with important ramifications for the understanding and treatment of lung surfactant disorders. PMID:23684610

  14. Essential regulation of lung surfactant homeostasis by the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mi Young; Hilton, Mary Beth; Seaman, Steven; Haines, Diana C; Nagashima, Kunio; Burks, Christina M; Tessarollo, Lino; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Brown, H Alex; Umstead, Todd M; Floros, Joanna; Chroneos, Zissis C; St Croix, Brad

    2013-05-30

    GPR116 is an orphan seven-pass transmembrane receptor whose function has been unclear. Global disruption of the Gpr116 gene in mice revealed an unexpected, critical role for this receptor in lung surfactant homeostasis, resulting in progressive accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in the alveolar space, labored breathing, and a reduced lifespan. GPR116 expression analysis, bone marrow transplantation studies, and characterization of conditional knockout mice revealed that GPR116 expression in ATII cells is required for maintaining normal surfactant levels. Aberrant packaging of surfactant proteins with lipids in the Gpr116 mutant mice resulted in compromised surfactant structure, function, uptake, and processing. Thus, GPR116 plays an indispensable role in lung surfactant homeostasis with important ramifications for the understanding and treatment of lung surfactant disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GPR Signal Processing with Geography Adaptive Scanning using Vector Radar for Antipersonal Landmine Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsuke Sato; Zakarya Zyada; Takayuki Matsuno; Yasuhiro Kawai; Yasuhisa Hasegawa; Toshio Fukuda

    2007-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a promising sensor for landmine detection, however there are two major problems to overcome. One is the rough ground surface. The other problem is the distance between the antennas of GPR. It remains irremovable clutters on a sub-surface image output from GPR by first problem. Geography adaptive scanning is useful to image objects beneath rough ground surface. Second problem makes larger the nonlinearity of the relationship between the time for propagation an...

  16. Cannabinoid- and lysophosphatidylinositol-sensitive receptor GPR55 boosts neurotransmitter release at central synapses

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55 is sensitive to certain cannabinoids, it is expressed in the brain and, in cell cultures, it triggers mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+). However, the adaptive neurobiological significance of GPR55 remains unknown. Here, we use acute hippocampal slices and combine two-photon excitation Ca(2+) imaging in presynaptic axonal boutons with optical quantal analysis in postsynaptic dendritic spines to find that GPR55 activation transiently increases release prob...

  17. Does murine spermatogenesis require WNT signalling? A lesson from Gpr177 conditional knockout mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ren; Tang, J-X; Cheng, J-M; Hao, X-X; Wang, Y-Q; Wang, X-X; Liu, Y-X

    2016-06-30

    Wingless-related MMTV integration site (WNT) proteins and several other components of the WNT signalling pathway are expressed in the murine testes. However, mice mutant for WNT signalling effector β-catenin using different Cre drivers have phenotypes that are inconsistent with each other. The complexity and overlapping expression of WNT signalling cascades have prevented researchers from dissecting their function in spermatogenesis. Depletion of the Gpr177 gene (the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wntless), which is required for the secretion of various WNTs, makes it possible to genetically dissect the overall effect of WNTs in testis development. In this study, the Gpr177 gene was conditionally depleted in germ cells (Gpr177(flox/flox), Mvh-Cre; Gpr177(flox/flox), Stra8-Cre) and Sertoli cells (Gpr177(flox/flox), Amh-Cre). No obvious defects in fertility and spermatogenesis were observed in these three Gpr177 conditional knockout (cKO) mice at 8 weeks. However, late-onset testicular atrophy and fertility decline in two germ cell-specific Gpr177 deletion mice were noted at 8 months. In contrast, we did not observe any abnormalities of spermatogenesis and fertility, even in 8-month-old Gpr177(flox/flox), Amh-Cre mice. Elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in Gpr177 cKO germ cells and Sertoli cells and exhibited an age-dependent manner. However, significant increase in the activity of Caspase 3 was only observed in germ cells from 8-month-old germ cell-specific Gpr177 knockout mice. In conclusion, GPR177 in Sertoli cells had no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, whereas loss of GPR177 in germ cells disrupted spermatogenesis in an age-dependent manner via elevating ROS levels and triggering germ cell apoptosis.

  18. Expression of Gpr177, a Wnt trafficking regulator, in mouse embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hsiao-Man Ivy; Jin, Ying; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Wls/Evi/Srt encoding a multipass transmembrane protein has been identified as a regulator for proper sorting and secretion of Wnt in flies. We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177 is the mouse orthologue required for axis determination. Gpr177 is a transcriptional target of Wnt which is activated to assist its subcellular distribution in a feedback regulatory loop. We therefore proposed that reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the Wnt-dependent developmental and patho...

  19. Ultrastructural relationship between the mu opioid receptor and its interacting protein, GPR177, in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arith-Ruth S; Levenson, Robert; Berrettini, Wade; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2010-10-28

    GPR177, the mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Wntless/Evi/Sprinter, was recently identified as a novel mu-opioid receptor (MOR) interacting protein. GPR177 is a trans-membrane protein pivotal to mediating the secretion of Wnt signaling proteins. Wnt proteins, in turn, are essential in regulating neuronal development, a phenomenon inhibited upon chronic exposure to MOR agonists such as morphine and heroin. We previously showed that GPR177 and MOR are co-localized in the mouse dorsolateral striatum; however, the nature of this interaction was not fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we examined cellular substrates for interactions between GPR177 and MOR using a combined immunogold-silver and peroxidase detection approach in coronal sections in the dorsolateral segment of the striatum. Semi-quantitative analysis of the ultrastructural distribution of GPR177 and MOR in striatal somata and in dendritic processes showed that, of the somata and dendritic processes exhibiting GPR177, 32% contained MOR immunolabeling while for profiles exhibiting MOR, 37% also contained GPR177 immunoreactivity. GPR177-labeled particles were localized predominantly along both the plasma membrane and within the cytoplasm of MOR-labeled dendrites. Somata and dendritic processes that contained both GPR177 and MOR more often received symmetric (inhibitory-type) synapses from unlabeled axon terminals. To further define the phenotype of GPR177 and MOR-containing cellular profiles, triple immunofluorescence detection showed that GPR177 and MOR are localized in neurons containing the opioid peptide, enkephalin, within the dorsolateral striatum. The results provide an anatomical substrate for interactions between MOR and its interacting protein, GPR177, in striatal opioid-containing neurons that may underlie the morphological alterations produced in neurons by chronic opiate use.

  20. Ultrastructural relationship between the mu opioid receptor and its interacting protein, GPR177, in striatal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Arith-Ruth S.; Levenson, Robert; Berrettini, Wade; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    GPR177, the mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Wntless/Evi/Sprinter, was recently identified as a novel mu-opioid receptor (MOR) interacting protein. GPR177 is a trans-membrane protein pivotal to mediating the secretion of Wnt signaling proteins. Wnt proteins, in turn, are essential in regulating neuronal development, a phenomenon inhibited upon chronic exposure to MOR agonists such as morphine and heroin. We previously showed that GPR177 and MOR are co-localized in the mouse dorsolateral stria...

  1. Overexpression of GPR39 contributes to malignant development of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By using cDNA microarray analysis, we identified a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR39, that is significantly up-regulated in ESCC. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of GPR39 in human esophageal cancer development, and to examine the prevalence and clinical significance of GPR39 overexpression in ESCC. Methods The mRNA expression level of GPR39 was analyzed in 9 ESCC cell lines and 50 primary ESCC tumors using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess GPR39 protein expression in tissue arrays containing 300 primary ESCC cases. In vitro and in vivo studies were done to elucidate the tumorigenic role of GPR39 in ESCC cells. Results We found that GPR39 was frequently overexpressed in primary ESCCs in both mRNA level (27/50, 54% and protein level (121/207, 58.5%, which was significantly associated with the lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage (P GPR39 gene into ESCC cell line KYSE30 could promote cell proliferation, increase foci formation, colony formation in soft agar, and tumor formation in nude mice. The mechanism by which amplified GPR39 induces tumorigenesis was associated with its role in promoting G1/S transition via up-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK6. Further study found GPR39 could enhance cell motility and invasiveness by inducing EMT and remodeling cytoskeleton. Moreover, depletion of endogenous GPR39 by siRNA could effectively decrease the oncogenicity of ESCC cells. Conclusions The present study suggests that GPR39 plays an important tumorigenic role in the development and progression of ESCC.

  2. Good practices for the operational safety management in the early recovery phase of a seismic event using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Alani, Amir M.; Tosti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    This study deals with a case report about the planning and the performance of GPR surveys carried out in the town of Amatrice, in the district of Rieti, Italy. As sadly known, the town has been hit by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in the nighttime of August 24th 2016. The strength of the seism, along with the age and the deterioration rate of the structural asset, have caused the razing to the ground and the critical damaging of the majority of the buildings within the "red zone area", corresponding to the historical town center. In the early recovery phase taking place afterwards, the strong seismic swarm subsequent the main shake has sensitively slowed down the rescue and rehabilitation operations. Moreover, the main issue was related to the unsafety operational conditions of volunteers and firemen. To this effect, the geotechnical stability of the roads and the large operational areas represented critical issues, as up to 40 tons crane trucks were needed to put in safety the highest buildings, such as three-floor buildings and historical towers. In this framework, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) provided a valuable help in preliminary assessing the stability of the areas where the crane trucks were planned to operate as well as to be parked over. The main objective of the GPR tests was to verify the absence of possible cavities beneath the ground surface that could undermine the strength of the surface under heavy loadings. To that effect, a multi-frequency ground-coupled GPR system was used. This radar system can simultaneously collect data at both the frequencies of 600 MHz and 1600 MHz. Four different sites were surveyed, namely, two sections of the main road passed on by the cranes, and two machinery depot areas down by the towers. In the former case, the surveys were performed by parallel longitudinal scans, due to the significant longitudinal length of the sections, whereas in the latter, two grids with differing sizes were realized and scanned for producing

  3. GPR applications for geotechnical stability of transportation infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, A.; Benedetto, F.; Tosti, F.

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays, severe meteorological events are always more frequent all over the world. This causes a strong impact on the environment such as numerous landslides, especially in rural areas. Rural roads are exposed to an increased risk for geotechnical instability. In the meantime, financial resources for maintenance are certainly decreased due to the international crisis and other different domestic factors. In this context, the best allocation of funds becomes a priority: efficiency and effectiveness of plans and actions are crucially requested. For this purpose, the correct localisation of geotechnically instable domains is strategic. In this paper, the use of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) for geotechnical inspection of pavement and sub-pavement layers is proposed. A three-step protocol has been calibrated and validated to allocate efficiently and effectively the maintenance funds. In the first step, the instability is localised through an inspection at traffic speed using a 1-GHz GPR horn launched antenna. The productivity is generally about or over 300 Km/day. Data are processed offline by automatic procedures. In the second step, a GPR inspection restricted to the critical road sections is carried out using two coupled antennas. One antenna is used for top pavement inspection (1.6 GHz central frequency) and a second antenna (600 MHz central frequency) is used for sub-pavement structure diagnosis. Finally, GPR data are post-processed in the time and frequency domains to identify accurately the geometry of the instability. The case study shows the potentiality of this protocol applied to the rural roads exposed to a landslide.

  4. GnIH/GPR147和Kisspeptin/GPR54与青春发育启动%GnIH/GPR147 and Kisspeptin/GPR54 in puberty onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素环(综述); 汪永红(审校)

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of puberty is associated with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal( HPG) axis. The activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone( GnRH) is the key factor in the initiation of puberty. The initi-ation of puberty is a complicated process,GnRH is under the influence of many associated neuropeptides. Re-cently,the studies have found that GnIH and Kisspeptin can respectively inhibit and promote the hypothalamus GnRH secretion of mammals,indicating that GnIH and Kisspeptin on regulation of reproductive endocrine axis play very important roles. Therefore,GnIH/GPR147 and Kisspeptin/GPR54 pathways may be closely associated with the initiation of puberty.%小儿青春发育启动与下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴的发动有关,而下丘脑促性腺激素释放激素( gona-dotropin-releasing hormone,GnRH)神经元的激活是青春期启动的关键。青春期启动过程是一个复杂的过程,GnRH又受到许多相关神经肽调节的影响。近来研究发现促性腺激素抑制激素( gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone,GnIH)和 Kisspeptin 分别能够抑制和促进哺乳类动物的下丘脑 GnRH 的分泌,提示 GnIH 和Kisspeptin对生殖内分泌轴起着非常重要的调节作用。因此,GnIH/GPR147和Kisspeptin/GPR54两条通路可能与小儿青春发育启动密切相关。

  5. Attenuation compensation of GPR signal based on generalized S-transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufan; Zhao, Yonghui; Qin, Tan; An, Cong

    2017-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR), as a nondestructive technique, has been widely used in civil engineering. Due to the complexity of the engineering conditions and attenuation of the GPR signal with depth, the radargram contained deep information usually shows a low resolution and S/N ratio. It might be one of the most difficult problems to GPR data interpretation, which limits the further application of the GPR method in civil engineering. The traditional way, such as a manual or automatic gain technique, was commonly used to enhance the weak GPR signal of deep target. However, due to the non-stationary of GPR signal, only the energy compensation in time or frequency domain may be not appropriate while using the manual or automatic gain methods. In this sense, neither the automatic gain compensation nor the other gain method seem likely difficult to obtain better results. In fact, it's not reasonable to separate the information in time and frequency domain from GPR data. The S-transform is a time-frequency analysis technique, which makes it possible for analyzing the GPR signal in time and frequency domain simultaneously. In addition, use S-transform to GPR data can preserve the original information in a wide frequency range. Here, we proposed a generalized S-transform based on exponential function and used it to the attenuation compensation of GPR signal. Firstly, the GPR data were transform to time-frequency domain using generalized S-transform trace by trace. Then the high-frequency component will be weighted at each time sample according to the attenuation ratio of low-frequency component. In this way the spectrum difference of each frequency component between late and early sampling time have the same ratio factor, which greatly compensates the attenuation of high-frequency component. Finally, the well compensated GPR data were obtained by inverse S-transform. Synthetic and real GPR data were used to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed

  6. Gpr177/mouse Wntless is essential for Wnt-mediated craniofacial and brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Jiang; Yu, Hsiao-Man Ivy; Maruyama, Takamitsu; Mirando, Anthony J.; Hsu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt, is required for establishment of the anterior-posterior axis. The Gpr177 null phenotype is highly reminiscent to the loss of Wnt3, the earliest abnormality among all Wnt knockouts in mice. The expression of Gpr177 in various cell types and tissues lead us to hypothesize that reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the Wnt-dependent developmental and pathogenic processes. Here we creat...

  7. The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR103 regulates bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribault, Helene; Danao, Jean; Gupte, Jamila; Yang, Li; Sun, Banghua; Richards, William; Tian, Hui

    2006-01-01

    GPR103 is a G-protein-coupled receptor with reported expression in brain, heart, kidney, adrenal gland, retina, and testis. It encodes a 455-amino-acid protein homologous to neuropeptide FF2, neuropeptide Y2, and galanin GalR1 receptors. Its natural ligand was recently identified as 26RFa, a novel human RF-amide-related peptide with orexigenic activity. To identify the function of GPR103, we generated GPR103-deficient mice. Homozygous mutant mice were viable and fertile. Their body weight was undistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates. Histological analysis revealed that GPR103-/- mice exhibited a thinned osteochondral growth plate, a thickening of trabecular branches, and a reduction in osteoclast number, suggestive of an early arrest of osteochondral bone formation. Microcomputed tomography confirmed the reduction in trabecular bone and connective tissue densities in GPR103 knockout animals. Whole-body radiography followed by morphometric analysis revealed a kyphosis in mutant animals. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that GPR103 was expressed in human skull, mouse spine, and several osteoblast cell lines. Dexamethasone, a known inhibitor of osteoblast growth and inducer of osteoblast differentiation, inhibited GPR103 expression in human osteoblast primary cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that osteopenia in GPR103-/- mice may be mediated directly by the loss of GPR103 expression in bone.

  8. Gpr116 Receptor Regulates Distinctive Functions in Pneumocytes and Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaudet, Colin; Hofmann, Jennifer J; Mäe, Maarja A; Jung, Bongnam; Gaengel, Konstantin; Vanlandewijck, Michael; Ekvärn, Elisabet; Salvado, M Dolores; Mehlem, Annika; Al Sayegh, Sahar; He, Liqun; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Castro-Freire, Marco; Katayama, Kan; Hultenby, Kjell; Moessinger, Christine; Tannenberg, Philip; Cunha, Sara; Pietras, Kristian; Laviña, Bàrbara; Hong, JongWook; Berg, Tove; Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Despite its known expression in both the vascular endothelium and the lung epithelium, until recently the physiological role of the adhesion receptor Gpr116/ADGRF5 has remained elusive. We generated a new mouse model of constitutive Gpr116 inactivation, with a large genetic deletion encompassing exon 4 to exon 21 of the Gpr116 gene. This model allowed us to confirm recent results defining Gpr116 as necessary regulator of surfactant homeostasis. The loss of Gpr116 provokes an early accumulation of surfactant in the lungs, followed by a massive infiltration of macrophages, and eventually progresses into an emphysema-like pathology. Further analysis of this knockout model revealed cerebral vascular leakage, beginning at around 1.5 months of age. Additionally, endothelial-specific deletion of Gpr116 resulted in a significant increase of the brain vascular leakage. Mice devoid of Gpr116 developed an anatomically normal and largely functional vascular network, surprisingly exhibited an attenuated pathological retinal vascular response in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. These data suggest that Gpr116 modulates endothelial properties, a previously unappreciated function despite the pan-vascular expression of this receptor. Our results support the key pulmonary function of Gpr116 and describe a new role in the central nervous system vasculature.

  9. Gpr116 Receptor Regulates Distinctive Functions in Pneumocytes and Vascular Endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Niaudet

    Full Text Available Despite its known expression in both the vascular endothelium and the lung epithelium, until recently the physiological role of the adhesion receptor Gpr116/ADGRF5 has remained elusive. We generated a new mouse model of constitutive Gpr116 inactivation, with a large genetic deletion encompassing exon 4 to exon 21 of the Gpr116 gene. This model allowed us to confirm recent results defining Gpr116 as necessary regulator of surfactant homeostasis. The loss of Gpr116 provokes an early accumulation of surfactant in the lungs, followed by a massive infiltration of macrophages, and eventually progresses into an emphysema-like pathology. Further analysis of this knockout model revealed cerebral vascular leakage, beginning at around 1.5 months of age. Additionally, endothelial-specific deletion of Gpr116 resulted in a significant increase of the brain vascular leakage. Mice devoid of Gpr116 developed an anatomically normal and largely functional vascular network, surprisingly exhibited an attenuated pathological retinal vascular response in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. These data suggest that Gpr116 modulates endothelial properties, a previously unappreciated function despite the pan-vascular expression of this receptor. Our results support the key pulmonary function of Gpr116 and describe a new role in the central nervous system vasculature.

  10. Evaluation of groundwater pollution risk (GPR) from agricultural activities using DRASTIC model and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ariffin, Sabrina; Zawawi, Mohamed Azwan Mohamed; Che Man, Hasfalina

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater Pollution risk (GPR) map which utilized groundwater quality is important in order to prevent the groundwater contaminant concentration due to the agricultural activities. DRASTIC model and GIS application are two important tools that had been used for accessing and predicting the quality of groundwater. These supplementary tools are calculating, visualizing, and presenting the GPR by using DRASTIC index for each hydrogeologic factor through ArcGIS software. This study was covered approximately Selangor basin area where the GPR has been defined. There are four categories of agricultural activities in the Selangor basin which are animal husbandary areas, horticultural lands, short term crops and tree, palm and other permanent crops. The map showed that the “low” zones of GPR occupied 56% of the east side of the Selangor basin, 34% of the west side of the Selangor basin exposed to “medium” zones of GPR and the “high” zones of GPR covered 10% at the north side and the south to the west side of the Selangor basin. As a particular, for agricultural activities which is 52% of Selangor basin area, the “low”, ‘’medium” and “high” zones of GPR was occupied as 42%, 43% and 15% respectively. Based on four categories of agricultural landuse, GPR map validated by nitrate distribution map, shows that the 99% of the variation in nitrate distribution zones are explained by GPR zones. In conclusion, groundwater pollution risk was affected by agricultural activities.

  11. Lactate produced during labor modulates uterine inflammation via GPR81 (HCA1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaan, Ankush; Nadeau-Vallée, Mathieu; Rivera, Jose Carlos; Obari, Dima; Hou, Xin; Sierra, Estefania Marin; Girard, Sylvie; Olson, David M; Chemtob, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Uterine inflammatory processes trigger prolabor pathways and orchestrate on-time labor onset. Although essential for successful labor, inflammation needs to be regulated to avoid uncontrolled amplification and resolve postpartum. During labor, myometrial smooth muscle cells generate ATP mainly via anaerobic glycolysis, resulting in accumulation of lactate. Aside from its metabolic function, lactate has been shown to activate a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR81, reported to regulate inflammation. We therefore hypothesize that lactate produced during labor may act via GPR81 in the uterus to exert in a feedback manner antiinflammatory effects, to resolve or mitigate inflammation. We sought to investigate the role of lactate produced during labor and its receptor, GPR81, in regulating inflammation in the uterus. We investigated the expression of GPR81 in the uterus and the pharmacological role of lactate acting via GPR81 during labor, using shRNA-GPR81 and GPR81(-/-) mice. (1) Uterine lactate levels increased substantially from 2 to 9 mmol/L during labor. (2) Immunohistological analysis revealed expression of GPR81 in the uterus with high expression in myometrium. (3) GPR81 expression increased during gestation, and peaked near labor. (4) In primary myometrial smooth muscle cell and ex vivo uteri from wild-type mice, lactate decreased interleukin-1β-induced transcription of key proinflammatory Il1b, Il6, Ccl2, and Pghs2; suppressive effects of lactate were not observed in cells and tissues from GPR81(-/-) mice. (5) Conversely, proinflammatory gene expression was augmented in the uterus at term in GPR81(-/-) mice and wild-type mice treated intrauterine with lentiviral-encoded shRNA-GPR81; GPR81 silencing also induced proinflammatory gene transcription in the uterus when labor was induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). (6) Importantly, administration to pregnant mice of a metabolically stable specific GPR81 agonist, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, decreased endotoxin

  12. Gpr161 anchoring of PKA consolidates GPCR and cAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Verena A; Mayrhofer, Johanna E; Ilouz, Ronit; Tschaikner, Philipp; Raffeiner, Philipp; Röck, Ruth; Courcelles, Mathieu; Apelt, Federico; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Baillie, George S; Thibault, Pierre; Aanstad, Pia; Stelzl, Ulrich; Taylor, Susan S; Stefan, Eduard

    2016-07-12

    Scaffolding proteins organize the information flow from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular effector cascades both spatially and temporally. By this means, signaling scaffolds, such as A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), compartmentalize kinase activity and ensure substrate selectivity. Using a phosphoproteomics approach we identified a physical and functional connection between protein kinase A (PKA) and Gpr161 (an orphan GPCR) signaling. We show that Gpr161 functions as a selective high-affinity AKAP for type I PKA regulatory subunits (RI). Using cell-based reporters to map protein-protein interactions, we discovered that RI binds directly and selectively to a hydrophobic protein-protein interaction interface in the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail of Gpr161. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that a binary complex between Gpr161 and RI promotes the compartmentalization of Gpr161 to the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that Gpr161, functioning as an AKAP, recruits PKA RI to primary cilia in zebrafish embryos. We also show that Gpr161 is a target of PKA phosphorylation, and that mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site affects ciliary receptor localization. Thus, we propose that Gpr161 is itself an AKAP and that the cAMP-sensing Gpr161:PKA complex acts as cilium-compartmentalized signalosome, a concept that now needs to be considered in the analyzing, interpreting, and pharmaceutical targeting of PKA-associated functions.

  13. Detection of Rockfall on a Tunnel Concrete Lining with Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalagüe, Anne; Lebens, Matthew A.; Hoff, Inge; Grøv, Eivind

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted using Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). The performance of six GPR systems was assessed in terms of: (1) remotely mapping cavities behind concrete linings, (2) detecting rockfall from the tunnel roof onto an inner lining comprising, for example, precast concrete segments. Studies conducted in Norway and the United States demonstrate that the GPR technique is a simple and reliable method that can assist stability inspection in existing Norwegian tunnels. The ground-coupled GPR systems represent a step forward in the remote detection of rockfall on tunnel concrete linings, and are particularly suited to self-standing inner linings. The analysis of the data is relatively straightforward and reasonably accurate.

  14. Identification of buried victims in natural disaster with GPR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Rianty Kusuma; Kurniawan, Adityo; Taqwantara, Reyhan Fariz; Iskandar, Farras M.; Naufal, Taufiq Ziyan; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Indonesian is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and has very complicated plate convergence because there is meeting point of several tectonic plates. The complexity of tectonic features causes a lot of natural disasters such as landslides, tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanoes eruption, etc. Sometimes, the disasters occurs in high populated area and causing thousands to millions of victim been buried under the rumble. Unfortunately, the evacuation still uses the conventional method such using rescue dogs whereas the sensitivity of smell is decrease when the victims buried under the level of the ground. The purpose of this study is to detect buried bodies using GPR method, so it can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency in looking for the disaster victims. GPR method is used because it can investigate things under the ground. A detailed GPR research has been done in Cikutra Graveyard, Bandung, with corpse buried two week until two years before the research. The radar profiles from this research showed amplitude contras anomaly between the new corpse and the old ones. We obtained the amplitude contras at 1.2-1.4 meters under the surface. This method proved to be effective but still need more attention on undulated surface and non-soil areas.

  15. Comparison of different classification algorithms for landmine detection using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karem, Andrew; Fadeev, Aleksey; Frigui, Hichem; Gader, Paul

    2010-04-01

    The Edge Histogram Detector (EHD) is a landmine detection algorithm that has been developed for ground penetrating radar (GPR) sensor data. It has been tested extensively and has demonstrated excellent performance. The EHD consists of two main components. The first one maps the raw data to a lower dimension using edge histogram based feature descriptors. The second component uses a possibilistic K-Nearest Neighbors (pK-NN) classifier to assign a confidence value. In this paper we show that performance of the baseline EHD could be improved by replacing the pK-NN classifier with model based classifiers. In particular, we investigate two such classifiers: Support Vector Regression (SVR), and Relevance Vector Machines (RVM). We investigate the adaptation of these classifiers to the landmine detection problem with GPR, and we compare their performance to the baseline EHD with a pK-NN classifier. As in the baseline EHD, we treat the problem as a two class classification problem: mine vs. clutter. Model parameters for the SVR and the RVM classifiers are estimated from training data using logarithmic grid search. For testing, soft labels are assigned to the test alarms. A confidence of zero indicates the maximum probability of being a false alarm. Similarly, a confidence of one represents the maximum probability of being a mine. Results on large and diverse GPR data collections show that the proposed modification to the classifier component can improve the overall performance of the EHD significantly.

  16. Adaptive edge histogram descriptor for landmine detection using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigui, Hichem; Fadeev, Aleksey; Karem, Andrew; Gader, Paul

    2009-05-01

    The Edge Histogram Detector (EHD) is a landmine detection algorithm for sensor data generated by ground penetrating radar (GPR). It uses edge histograms for feature extraction and a possibilistic K-Nearest Neighbors (K-NN) rule for confidence assignment. To reduce the computational complexity of the EHD and improve its generalization, the K-NN classifier uses few prototypes that can capture the variations of the signatures within each class. Each of these prototypes is assigned a label in the class of mines and a label in the class of clutter to capture its degree of sharing among these classes. The EHD has been tested extensively. It has demonstrated excellent performance on large real world data sets, and has been implemented in real time versions in hand-held and vehicle mounted GPR. In this paper, we propose two modifications to the EHD to improve its performance and adaptability. First, instead of using a fixed threshold to decide if the edge at a certain location is strong enough, we use an adaptive threshold that is learned from the background surrounding the target. This modification makes the EHD more adaptive to different terrains and to mines buried at different depths. Second, we introduce an additional training component that tunes the prototype features and labels to different environments. Results on large and diverse GPR data collections show that the proposed adaptive EHD outperforms the baseline EHD. We also show that the edge threshold can vary significantly according to the edge type, alarm depth, and soil conditions.

  17. GPR119 - a major Enteroendocrine Sensor of Dietary Triglyceride Metabolites Co-acting in Synergy with FFA1 (GPR40)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekberg, Jeppe H; Pedersen, Maria Hauge; Kristensen, Line V

    2016-01-01

    expressed and highly enriched in FACS-purified GLP-1 and GIP cells isolated from transgenic reporter mice. In vivo, the triglyceride-induced increase in plasma GIP was significantly reduced in FFA1 deficient mice (to 34% - mean of four experiments each with 8-10 animals), in GPR119 deficient mice (to 24...... %) and in FFA1/FFA4 double deficient mice (to 15%) but not in FFA4 deficient mice. The triglyceride-induced increase in plasma GLP-1 was only significantly reduced in the GPR119 deficient and the FFA1/FFA4 double deficient mice, but not in the FFA1 and FFA4 deficient mice. In mouse colonic crypt cultures...

  18. Retrieval of Shape Characteristics for Buried Objects with GPR Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, F.; Comite, D.; Galli, A.; Valerio, G.; Barone, P. M.; Lauro, S. E.; Mattei, E.; Pettinelli, E.

    2012-04-01

    Information retrieval on the location and the geometrical features (dimensions and shape) of buried objects is of fundamental importance in geosciences areas involving environmental protection, mine clearance, archaeological investigations, space and planetary exploration, and so forth. Among the different non-invasive sensing techniques usually employed to achieve this kind of information, those based on ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) instruments are well-established and suitable to the mentioned purposes [1]. In this context, our interest in the present work is specifically focused on testing the potential performance of typical GPR instruments by means of appropriate data processing. It will be shown in particular to what extent the use of a suitable "microwave tomographic approach" [2] is able to furnish a shape estimation of the targets, possibly recognizing different kinds of canonical geometries, even having reduced cross sections and in critical conditions, where the scatterer size is comparable with resolution limits imposed by the usual measurement configurations. Our study starts by obtaining the typical "direct" information from the GPR techniques that is the scattered field in subsurface environments under the form of radargrams. In order to get a wide variety of scenarios for the operating conditions, this goal is achieved by means of two different and independent approaches [3]. One approach is based on direct measurements through an experimental laboratory setup: commercial GPR instruments (typically bistatic configurations operating around 1 GHz frequency range) are used to collect radargram profiles by investigating an artificial basin filled of liquid and/or granular materials (sand, etc.), in which targets (having different constitutive parameters, shape, and dimensions) can be buried. The other approach is based on numerical GPR simulations by means of a commercial CAD electromagnetic tool (CST), whose suitable implementation and data

  19. Geotechnical analysis and 4D GPR measurements for the assessment of the risk of sinkholes occurring in a Polish mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcak, H.; Golebiowski, T.; Tomecka-Suchon, S. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Geophysics

    2008-08-15

    The study presented in this paper concerns georadar investigations at a selected former coal mining site in Upper Silesia (Poland) where the risk of sinkhole appearance is high. The results of 3D GPR surveys obtained in three measurement sessions in December 1997, October 2006 and March 2007 were interpreted. The 4D interpretation, i.e., a time-space analysis, allowed for the identification of loose zones in the ground and fractured zones of the rock mass, which might be a source of sinkhole creation. After the first measurement session, on the basis of the GPR survey results, a dangerous, fractured zone in the ground was localized. This zone was confirmed by a borehole. Between the second and third session, a large sinkhole appeared on site, as predicted on the basis of georadar investigations. The geomechanical analyses presented in this paper explain the development of the fractured zones over the earlier mining excavations. Such zones accumulate water and high contrasts of dielectrical permittivity appear, allowing the use of the GPR method for the location of these zones.

  20. A GPR18-based signalling system regulates IOP in murine eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Meggie D; Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Viswanathan, Suresh; Bradshaw, Heather; Kelly, Melanie EM; Straiker, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose GPR18 is a recently deorphaned lipid receptor that is activated by the endogenous lipid N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) as well the behaviourally inactive atypical cannabinoid, abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD). The presence and/or function of any GPR18-based ocular signalling system remain essentially unstudied. The objectives of this research are: (i) to determine the disposition of GPR18 receptors and ligands in anterior murine eye, (ii) examine the effect of GPR18 activation on intraocular pressure (IOP) in a murine model, including knockout mice for CB1, CB2 and GPR55. Experimental Approach IOP was measured in mice following topical application of Abn-CBD, NAGly or the GPR55/GPR18 agonist O-1602, alone or with injection of the GPR18 antagonist, O-1918. GPR18 protein localization was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Endocannabinoids were measured using LC/MS-MS. Key Results GPR18 protein was expressed most prominently in the ciliary epithelium and the corneal epithelium and, interestingly, in the trabecular meshwork. The GPR18 ligand, NAGly, was also detected in mouse eye at a level comparable to that seen in the brain. Abn-CBD and NAGly, but not O-1602, significantly reduced IOP in all mice tested. The antagonist, O-1918, blocked the effects of Abn-CBD and NAGly. Conclusions and Implications We present evidence for a functional GPR18-based signalling system in the murine anterior eye, including receptors and ligands. GPR18 agonists, Abn-CBD and NAGly, reduce IOP independently of CB1, CB2 or GPR55. These findings suggest that GPR18 may serve as a desirable target for the development of novel ocular hypotensive medications. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-4 & http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8 PMID:23461720

  1. GPR for Detecting Underground Pipelines of Foundation Diseases%探地雷达探测地下管线的地基病害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亮; 张清波

    2012-01-01

    文章在探地雷达理论的基础上,结合工程实例,阐述了探地雷达在探测地下管线周围地基病害中的应用,通过对雷达测线剖面图和单道波形图进行图像分析,对典型的地基病害如土体疏松进行了图像解释,确定出地基病害的程度和空间位置,并采用现场开挖及静力触探对比验证探地雷达的探测结果;此外,还阐述了探地雷达应用于金属管线和非金属管线的识别,并归纳了它们在雷达图像的异同。实践证明了探地雷达技术是一种有效的地基病害快速探测方法,值得大力推广。%Some engineering examples of GPR survey for detecting underground pipelines of the foundation diseases were introduced.Image interpretation about disturbed soil and soil slab in foundation diseases was base on analyzing the profile of GPR survey-line and the image of single-waveform,Determine the degree and spatial position of foundation diseases.The static cone penetration test(SPT) and excavation is also used to compare the result of GPR.In addition,but also elaborated ground penetrating radar applied in metal pipeline and non-metal pipeline identification,and concludes their similarities and differences in radar image.Engineering practices prove that GPR is a high-efficiency technique for detecting the position of foundation diseases accurately and worth to be popularized energetically.

  2. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, some new possibilities offered by a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system are exposed. In particular, results achieved from a prototypal system achieved in two scientific test sites will be shown together with the results achieved in the same test sites with traditional systems. Moreover a novel technique for the rejection of undesired interferences is shown, with the use of interferences caused on purpose. Key words GPR, reconfigurable stepped frequency. Introduction A reconfigurable GPR system is meant as a GPR where some parameter can be changed vs. the frequency (if the system is stepped frequency) or vs. the time (if the system is pulsed) in a programmable way. The programming should then account for the conditions met in the scenario at hand [1]. Within the research project AITECH (http://www.aitechnet.com/ibam.html), the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage, together with the University of Florence and the IDS corporation have implemented a prototype, that has been used in sites of cultural interest in Italy [2], but also abroad in Norway and Malta. The system is a stepped frequency GPR working in the frequency range 50-1000 MHz, and its reconfigurability consists in three properties. The first one is the fact that the length of the antennas can be modulated by the aperture and closure of two electronic switches present along the arms of the antennas, so that the antennas can become electrically (and electronically) longer or shorter, so becoming more suitable to radiate some frequencies rather than some other. In particular, the system can radiate three different bands in the comprehensive range between 50-1000 MHz, so being suitable for different depth range of the buried targets, and the three bands are gathered in a unique "going through" because for each measurement point the system can sweep the entire frequency range trhee times, one for each configuration of the switchres on the arms. The second property is

  3. The Interactions Between GPR30 and the Major Biomarkers in Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast in an Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Kuo

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: GPR30 expression is downregulated in IDC. GPR30 is preferentially co-expressed with ER and/or PR but is lowly expressed in HER-2/neu(+ tumors. The correlation of GPR30 expression with clinical parameters, including patient survival, was not evident in this cohort.

  4. Radiosynthesis and characterisation of a potent and selective GPR139 agonist radioligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhne, Sebastiaan; Nøhr, Anne Cathrine; Marek, AleŠ;

    2016-01-01

    Compound 1 is a selective and potent agonist of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR139 (EC50 = 39 nM). In this study, we describe the synthesis, radiolabelling and in vitro evaluation of [3H]-1 for the characterisation of GPR139 and its spatial expression in the brain using autoradiography. Two di...

  5. Identification of the first surrogate agonists for the G protein-coupled receptor GPR132

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mohamed A.; Christensen, Hanna Belcik; Isberg, Vignir;

    2015-01-01

    -arrestin recruitment assay, and thereby identified the first disclosed surrogate GPR132 agonist 1 with a potency of 3.4 μM. This constitutes the first available pharmacological tool for the in vitro characterization of the orphan receptor GPR132. The testing of 32 analogs furthermore identified a number of compounds...

  6. Linear GPR Imaging Based on Electromagnetic Plane-Wave Spectra and Diffraction Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    in the forward model. The two inversion schemes include an accurate electromagnetic description of the GPR antennas through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra. The performance of the FTM is investigated through a numerical example involving a 2.5-dimensional configuration in which the GPR...

  7. The role of the alternative coreceptor GPR15 in SIV tropism for human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Miriam; Marzi, Andrea; Urbanczyk, Andreas; Bertram, Stephanie; Fisch, Tanja; Nehlmeier, Inga; Gnirss, Kerstin; Karsten, Christina B; Palesch, David; Münch, Jan; Chiodi, Francesca; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Steffen, Imke

    2012-11-10

    Many SIV isolates can employ the orphan receptor GPR15 as coreceptor for efficient entry into transfected cell lines, but the role of endogenously expressed GPR15 in SIV cell tropism is largely unclear. Here, we show that several human B and T cell lines express GPR15 on the cell surface, including the T/B cell hybrid cell line CEMx174, and that GPR15 expression is essential for SIV infection of CEMx174 cells. In addition, GPR15 expression was detected on subsets of primary human CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD19(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), respectively. However, GPR15(+) PBMCs were not efficiently infected by HIV and SIV, including cells from individuals homozygous for the defective Δ32 ccr5 allele. These results suggest that GPR15 is coexpressed with CD4 on PBMCs but that infection of CD4(+), GPR15(+) cells is not responsible for the well documented ability of SIV to infect CCR5(-) blood cells.

  8. Weighted near-field focusing in an array-based GPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelyev, T.G.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Ligthart, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a 3-D imaging technique for an ultra-wideband (UWB) ground penetrating radar (GPR) with a single transmit antenna and a linear receive array. The video impulse GPR working in the frequency band of 0.3–3 GHz has been designed in IRCTR for landmine detection, i.e., for a near-field

  9. Cannabinoid- and lysophosphatidylinositol-sensitive receptor GPR55 boosts neurotransmitter release at central synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylantyev, Sergiy; Jensen, Thomas P; Ross, Ruth A; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2013-03-26

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55 is sensitive to certain cannabinoids, it is expressed in the brain and, in cell cultures, it triggers mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+). However, the adaptive neurobiological significance of GPR55 remains unknown. Here, we use acute hippocampal slices and combine two-photon excitation Ca(2+) imaging in presynaptic axonal boutons with optical quantal analysis in postsynaptic dendritic spines to find that GPR55 activation transiently increases release probability at individual CA3-CA1 synapses. The underlying mechanism involves Ca(2+) release from presynaptic Ca(2+) stores, whereas postsynaptic stores (activated by spot-uncaging of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) remain unaffected by GPR55 agonists. These effects are abolished by genetic deletion of GPR55 or by the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa. GPR55 shows colocalization with synaptic vesicle protein vesicular glutamate transporter 1 in stratum radiatum. Short-term potentiation of CA3-CA1 transmission after a short train of stimuli reveals a presynaptic, Ca(2+) store-dependent component sensitive to cannabidiol. The underlying cascade involves synthesis of phospholipids, likely in the presynaptic cell, but not the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol or anandamide. Our results thus unveil a signaling role for GPR55 in synaptic circuits of the brain.

  10. Identification of GPR65, a novel regulator of matrix metalloproteinases using high through-put screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Junwei [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China); Deng, Weiwei [Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China); Zhong, Qi [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China); Yue, Changli [Department of Pathology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Wang, Pingzhang, E-mail: wangpzh@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health (China); Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China); Huang, Zhigang, E-mail: enthuangzhigang@sohu.com [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •A novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors was defined. •GPR65 was identified to induce the MMP3 expression. •GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. •AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. •GPR65 overexpression can accelerate the invision of A549 cells. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are over-expressed in nearly all cancers. To study novel regulatory factors of MMP expression in head and neck cancer (HNC), we screened a total of 636 candidate genes encoding putative human transmembrane proteins using MMP promoter reporter in a dual luciferase assay system. Three genes GPR65, AXL and TNFRSF10B dramatically activated the induction of MMP3 expression. The induction of MMP expression by GPR65 was further confirmed in A549 and/or FaDu cells. GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. The AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. Moreover, the A549 cells infected by recombinant adenovirus of GPR65 showed accelerated cell invasion. In conclusion, we validate that GPR65 is vital regulatory genes upstream of MMP3, and define a novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors.

  11. Butyrate-induced GPR41 Activation Inhibits Histone Acetylation and Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wu; Zongli Zhou; Yinghe Hu; Suzhen Dong

    2012-01-01

    Butyrate has been recently identified as a natural ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41).In addition,it is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC).Butyrate treatment results in the hyperacetylation of histones,with resultant multiple biological effects including inhibition of proliferation,induction of cell cycle arrest,and apoptosis,in a variety of cultured mammalian cells.However,it is not clear whether GPR41 is actively involved in the above-mentioned processes.In this study,we generated a stable cell line expressing the hGPR41 receptor in order to investigate the involvement of GPR41 on butyrate-induced biochemical and physiologic processes.We found that GPR41 activation may be a compensatory mechanism to counter the increase in histone H3 acetylation levels induced by butyrate treatment.Moreover,GPR41 had an inhibitory effect on the anti-proliferative,pro-apoptotic effects of butyrate.GPR41 expression induced cell cycle arrest at the Gl-stage,while its activation by butyrate can cause more cells to pass the Gl checkpoint.These results indicated that GPR41 was associated with histone acetylation and might be involved in the acetylation-related regulation of cell processes including proliferation,apoptosis,and the cell cycle.

  12. Discovery of Potent and Orally Bioavailable GPR40 Full Agonists Bearing Thiophen-2-ylpropanoic Acid Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Huang, Qi; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Bin; Wang, He-Yao; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2017-04-13

    The free fatty acid receptor GPR40 is predominantly expressed in pancreatic β-cells and enhances insulin secretion in a glucose dependent manner. Therefore, GPR40 agonists are possible novel insulin secretagogues with reduced or no risk of hypoglycemia for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Chemically and structurally diverse GPR40 agonists with high safety are pursued for the clinical development of GPR40-based pharmacotherapeutics. Herein we report our design and discovery of a new chemotype of GPR40 agonists free of the typical phenylpropanoic acid scaffold. The thiophen-2-ylpropanoic acid containing GPR40 modulators functioned as full agonists with high-efficacy response (Emax) and reduced lipophilicity. Significantly, the lead compound in this series, (R)-7k, exhibited more potent in vitro glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and in vivo glucose-lowering effects (10 mg/kg, po) than the GPR40 partial agonist TAK-875, which was once in phase III clinical trials, and high selectivity over the relevant receptors GPR120 and PPARγ.

  13. Advanced GPR data processing algorithms for detection of anti-personnel landmines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalenko, V.

    2006-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is seen as one of several promising technologies aimed to help mine detection. GPR is sensitive to any inhomogeneity in the ground. Therefore any APM regardless of the metal content can be detected. On the other hand, all the inhomogeneities, which do not represent min

  14. High expression of GPR116 indicates poor survival outcome and promotes tumor progression in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Lin, Xiao-Lu; Liang, Wei; Fu, Seng-Wang; Lin, Wen-Feng; Tian, Xiao-Qing; Gao, Yun-Jie; Chen, Hao-Yan; Dai, Jun; Ge, Zhi-Zheng

    2017-07-18

    Previous studies have found that G-protein-coupled receptor 116 (GPR116) is a regulator of breast cancer metastasis. However, the role of GPR116 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) carcinogenesis and progression is unknown. In this study, We found GPR116 expression was significantly up-regulated in CRC specimens compared with corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Increased GPR116 expression in CRC was correlated with histological differentiation and distant metastasis. In addition, high expression of GPR116 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of CRC patients, which was also confirmed by GSE14333, GSE17536 and GSE33113 datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ability of proliferation and invasion of CRC cell lines HCT116 and LOVO was markedly reduced after transfected with siRNA-GPR116. Meanwhile, GPR116 may drive EMT in CRC cells through AKT/EKR signaling pathway, resulting in metastasis. Thus, GPR116 may be a novel reliable prognostic indicator and a risk factor in CRC progression.

  15. Phenotypic characterization of GPR120-expressing cells in the interstitial tissue of pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Zha, Dingjun; Wang, Li; Qiao, Li; Lu, Lianjun; Mei, Lin; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Jianhua

    2013-12-01

    GPR120 functions as a plasma membrane receptor for unsaturated long-chain free fatty acids and involves in GLP-1 secretion, adipogenesis and the control of energy balance. Pancreas is the key organ in fuel and energy metabolism. Here GPR120 expression in human and rat pancreas was observed by RT-PCR, and the distribution and phenotypes of GPR120-positive cells in human and rat pancreas were shown by immunohistochemical staining. GPR120 mRNA expression was found in human and rat pancreas. GPR120-positive cells were scattered mainly in the interstitial tissues of human and rat pancreas, and they were not co-localized with nestin, vimentin, alpha-SMA and glucagon, respectively. However, GPR120 was distributed on the cells positively stained by CD68, the specific marker of macrophages, and on the cells positive stained by CD34 and CD117, the markers of interstitial cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the expression of GPR120 in pancreas and shows the distribution of GPR120 in human and rat pancreas.

  16. The l-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 System and Its Potential Role in Human Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Catalán, Victoria; Whyte, Lauren; Díaz-Arteaga, Adenis; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Rotellar, Fernando; Guzmán, Rocío; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Pulido, Marina R.; Russell, Wendy R.; Imbernón, Mónica; Ross, Ruth A.; Malagón, María M.; Dieguez, Carlos; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Frühbeck, Gema; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    GPR55 is a putative cannabinoid receptor, and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is its only known endogenous ligand. We investigated 1) whether GPR55 is expressed in fat and liver; 2) the correlation of both GPR55 and LPI with several metabolic parameters; and 3) the actions of LPI on human adipocytes. We analyzed CB1, CB2, and GPR55 gene expression and circulating LPI levels in two independent cohorts of obese and lean subjects, with both normal or impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Ex vivo experiments were used to measure intracellular calcium and lipid accumulation. GPR55 levels were augmented in the adipose tissue of obese subjects and further so in obese patients with type 2 diabetes when compared with nonobese subjects. Visceral adipose tissue GPR55 correlated positively with weight, BMI, and percent fat mass, particularly in women. Hepatic GPR55 gene expression was similar in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. Circulating LPI levels were increased in obese patients and correlated with fat percentage and BMI in women. LPI increased the expression of lipogenic genes in visceral adipose tissue explants and intracellular calcium in differentiated visceral adipocytes. These findings indicate that the LPI/GPR55 system is positively associated with obesity in humans. PMID:22179809

  17. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of phenylglycinols and phenyl amines as agonists of GPR88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierba, Carolyn D; Bi, Yingzhi; Dasgupta, Bireshwar; Hartz, Richard A; Ahuja, Vijay; Cianchetta, Giovanni; Kumi, Godwin; Dong, Li; Aleem, Saadat; Fink, Cynthia; Garcia, Yudith; Green, Michael; Han, Jianxin; Kwon, Soojin; Qiao, Ying; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Yulian; Liu, Ying; Zipp, Greg; Liang, Zhi; Burford, Neil; Ferrante, Meredith; Bertekap, Robert; Lewis, Martin; Cacace, Angela; Grace, James; Wilson, Alan; Nouraldeen, Amr; Westphal, Ryan; Kimball, David; Carson, Kenneth; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E

    2015-04-01

    Small molecule modulators of GPR88 activity (agonists, antagonists, or modulators) are of interest as potential agents for the treatment of a variety of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. A series of phenylglycinol and phenylamine analogs have been prepared and evaluated for their GPR88 agonist activity and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deficiency of the GPR39 receptor is associated with obesity and altered adipocyte metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Steen; Jin, Chunyu; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard;

    2011-01-01

    GPR39, a constitutively active 7TM receptor important for glucose-induced insulin secretion and maturation of pancreatic ß-cell function, is up-regulated in adipose tissue on abstinence from food and chemically induced diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GPR39 deficiency...

  19. Association study in three different populations between the GPR88 gene and major psychoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zompo, Maria; Deleuze, Jean-François; Chillotti, Caterina; Cousin, Emmanuelle; Niehaus, Dana; Ebstein, Richard P; Ardau, Raffaella; Macé, Sandrine; Warnich, Louise; Mujahed, Mustafa; Severino, Giovanni; Dib, Colette; Jordaan, Esme; Murad, Ibrahim; Soubigou, Stéphane; Koen, Liezl; Bannoura, Issam; Rocher, Corinne; Laurent, Claudine; Derock, Murielle; Faucon Biguet, Nicole; Mallet, Jacques; Meloni, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    GPR88, coding for a G protein-coupled orphan receptor that is highly represented in the striatum, is a strong functional candidate gene for neuropsychiatric disorders and is located at 1p22-p21, a chromosomal region that we have previously linked to bipolar disorder (BD) in the Sardinian population. In order to ascertain the relevance of GPR88 as a risk factor for psychiatric diseases, we performed a genetic association analysis between GPR88 and BD in a sample of triads (patient and both parents) recruited in the Sardinian and the Palestinian population as well as between GPR88 and schizophrenia (SZ) in triads from the Xhosa population in South Africa. We found a positive association between GPR88 and BD in the Sardinian and Palestinian triads. Moreover, we found a positive association between GPR88 and SZ in triads from the Xhosa population in South Africa. When these results were corrected for multiple testing, the association between GPR88 and BD was maintained in the Palestinian population. Thus, these results suggest that GPR88 deserves consideration as a candidate gene for psychiatric diseases and requires to be further investigated in other populations. PMID:24689078

  20. Efficient data analysis and travel time picking methods for crosshole GPR experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Moreau, Julien; Nielsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    methods. Future time-lapse GPR studies of different types of chalk aim at characterizing the flow characteristics of these economically important lithologies. In the framework of the current study, we have collected new crosshole GPR data from a site located in a former quarry in Eastern Denmark, where...

  1. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  2. Free fatty acid receptor GPR120 and pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiu-Lei; Wei, Hong-Kui; Peng, Jian; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) was initially identified as an orphan receptor through mining the human genome databases. In 2005, GPR120 was deorphanized and shown to be a receptor for long-chain free fatty acids. GPR120 regulates various physiological processes, including gut hormone secretion, islet function, food preference, osteoclastogenesis, anti-inflammation, adipogenesis, and appetite control. Recently, a human genetic study conducted in European populations identified a loss-of-function GPR120 mutation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, GPR120, the sensing receptor for long-chain free fatty acids, represents a novel drug target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression and localization of the omega-3 fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, S; Ramirez, V I; Gaccioli, F; Jansson, T; Powell, T L

    2014-07-01

    Fatty acids can function as signaling molecules, acting through receptors in the cytosol or on the cell surface. G-Protein Receptor (GPR)120 is a membrane-bound receptor mediating anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of the omega-3 fatty acid docohexaenoic acid (DHA). GPR120 dysfunction is associated with obesity in humans. Cellular localization of GPR120 and the influence of maternal obesity on GPR120 protein expression in the placenta are unknown. Herein we demonstrate that GPR120 is predominantly expressed in the microvillous membrane (MVM) of human placenta and that the expression level of this receptor in MVM is not altered by maternal body mass index (BMI).

  4. Adipose tissue deletion of Gpr116 impairs insulin sensitivity through modulation of adipose function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Tao; Hui, Xiaoyan; Gao, Xuefei; Li, Kuai; Lin, Wanhua; Xiang, Xiaoliang; Ding, Mengxiao; Kuang, Ying; Xu, Aimin; Fei, Jian; Wang, Zhugang; Wu, Donghai

    2012-10-19

    G protein-coupled receptor 116 (GPR116) is a novel member of the G protein-coupled receptors and its function is largely unknown. To investigate the physiological function of GPR116 in vivo, we generated adipose tissue specific conditional Gpr116 knockout mice (CKO) and fed them on standard chow or high fat diets. Selective deletion of Gpr116 in adipose tissue caused a pronounced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in mice, especially when challenged with a high fat diet. Biochemical analysis revealed a more severe hepatosteatosis in CKO mice. Additionally, we found that CKO mice showed a lowered concentration of circulating adiponectin and an increased level of serum resistin. Our study suggests that GPR116 may play a critical role in controlling adipocyte biology and systemic energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Agonistic antibodies reveal the function of GPR56 in human glioma U87-MG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shigeyuki; Sakaguchi, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Yuki; Mizuno, Norikazu; Tago, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and is highly expressed in parts of tumor cells. The involvement of GPR56 in tumorigenesis has been reported. We generated agonistic monoclonal antibodies against human GPR56 and analyzed the action and signaling pathway of GPR56. The antibodies inhibited cell migration through the Gq and Rho pathway in human glioma U87-MG cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that the interaction between the GPR56 extracellular domain and transmembrane domain was potentiated by agonistic antibodies. These results demonstrated that functional antibodies are invaluable tools for GPCR research and should open a new avenue for therapeutic treatment of tumors.

  6. Cell surface lactate receptor GPR81 is crucial for cancer cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christina L; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Deng, Defeng; Liu, Shi He; Philip, Bincy; Gomez, Sobeyda; Burns, William R; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Wang, Huamin; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Logsdon, Craig D

    2014-09-15

    The mechanisms that allow cancer cells to adapt to the typical tumor microenvironment of low oxygen and glucose and high lactate are not well understood. GPR81 is a lactate receptor recently identified in adipose and muscle cells that has not been investigated in cancer. In the current study, we examined GPR81 expression and function in cancer cells. We found that GPR81 was present in colon, breast, lung, hepatocellular, salivary gland, cervical, and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Examination of tumors resected from patients with pancreatic cancer indicated that 94% (148 of 158) expressed high levels of GPR81. Functionally, we observed that the reduction of GPR81 levels using shRNA-mediated silencing had little effect on pancreatic cancer cells cultured in high glucose, but led to the rapid death of cancer cells cultured in conditions of low glucose supplemented with lactate. We also observed that lactate addition to culture media induced the expression of genes involved in lactate metabolism, including monocarboxylase transporters in control, but not in GPR81-silenced cells. In vivo, GPR81 expression levels correlated with the rate of pancreatic cancer tumor growth and metastasis. Cells in which GPR81 was silenced showed a dramatic decrease in growth and metastasis. Implantation of cancer cells in vivo was also observed to lead to greatly elevated levels of GPR81. These data support that GPR81 is important for cancer cell regulation of lactate transport mechanisms. Furthermore, lactate transport is important for the survival of cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5301-10. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. The Proton-Activated Receptor GPR4 Modulates Glucose Homeostasis by Increasing Insulin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giudici

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proton-activated G protein-coupled receptor GPR4 is expressed in many tissues including white adipose tissue. GPR4 is activated by extracellular protons in the physiological pH range (i.e. pH 7.7 - 6.8 and is coupled to the production of cAMP. Methods: We examined mice lacking GPR4 and examined glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in young and aged mice as well as in mice fed with a high fat diet. Expression profiles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle was assessed. Results: Here we show that mice lacking GPR4 have an improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and increased insulin sensitivity. Insulin levels were comparable but leptin levels were increased in GPR4 KO mice. Gpr4-/- showed altered expression of PPARα, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, and TGF-1β in skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. High fat diet abolished the differences in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity between Gpr4+/+ and Gpr4-/- mice. In contrast, in aged mice (12 months old, the positive effect of GPR4 deficiency on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity was maintained. Liver and adipose tissue showed no major differences in the mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors between aged mice of both genotypes. Conclusion: Thus, GPR4 deficiency improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The effect may involve an altered balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in insulin target tissues.

  8. Succinate causes α-SMA production through GPR91 activation in hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying Hui; Woo, Sung Hoon; Choi, Dae Hee; Cho, Eun-Hee

    2015-08-07

    Succinate acts as an extracellular signaling molecule as well as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. It binds to and activates its specific G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91). GPR91 is present in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), but its role in hepatic fibrogenesis remains unclear. Cultured HSCs treated with succinate showed increased protein expression of GPR91 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), markers of fibrogenic response. Succinate also increased mRNA expression of α-SMA, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and collagen type I. Transfection of siRNA against GPR91 abrogated succinate-induced increases in α-SMA expression. Malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), increased succinate levels in cultured HSCs and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Feeding mice a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet is a widely used technique to create an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). HSCs cultured in MCD media showed significantly decreased SDH activity and increased succinate concentration and GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Similarly, palmitate treatment significantly decreased SDH activity and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Finally, C57BL6/J mice fed the MCD diet had elevated succinate levels in their plasma. The MCD diet also decreased SDH activity, increased succinate concentration, and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression in isolated HSCs. Collectively, our results show that succinate plays an important role in HSC activation through GPR91 induction, and suggest that succinate and GPR91 may represent new therapeutic targets for modulating hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and functional role of orphan receptor GPR158 in prostate cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Patel

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, after lung cancer, in men from developed countries. In its early stages, primary tumor growth is dependent on androgens, thus generally can be controlled by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Eventually however, the disease progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, a lethal form in need of more effective treatments. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs comprise a large clan of cell surface proteins that have been implicated as therapeutic targets in PCa growth and progression. The findings reported here provide intriguing evidence of a role for the newly characterized glutamate family member GPR158 in PCa growth and progression. We found that GPR158 promotes PCa cell proliferation independent of androgen receptor (AR functionality and that this requires its localization in the nucleus of the cell. This suggests that GPR158 acts by mechanisms different from other GPCRs. GPR158 expression is stimulated by androgens and GPR158 stimulates AR expression, implying a potential to sensitize tumors to low androgen conditions during ADT via a positive feedback loop. Further, we found GPR158 expression correlates with a neuroendocrine (NE differentiation phenotype and promotes anchorage-independent colony formation implying a role for GPR158 in therapeutic progression and tumor formation. GPR158 expression was increased at the invading front of prostate tumors that formed in the genetically defined conditional Pten knockout mouse model, and co-localized with elevated AR expression in the cell nucleus. Kaplan-Meier analysis on a dataset from the Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer genome portal showed that increased GPR158 expression in tumors is associated with lower disease-free survival. Our findings strongly suggest that pharmaceuticals targeting GPR158 activities could represent a novel and innovative approach to the prevention and management of CRPC.

  10. The endocannabinoids anandamide and virodhamine modulate the activity of the candidate cannabinoid receptor GPR55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharir, Haleli; Console-Bram, Linda; Mundy, Christina; Popoff, Steven N; Kapur, Ankur; Abood, Mary E

    2012-12-01

    The role of cannabinoid receptors in inflammation has been the topic of many research endeavors. Despite this effort, to date the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in inflammation remains obscure. The ambiguity of cannabinoid involvement may be explained by the existence of cannabinoid receptors, other than CB(1) and CB(2), or a consequence of interaction of endocannabinoids with other signaling systems. GPR55 has been proposed to be a cannabinoid receptor; however the interaction of the endocannabinoid system with GPR55 remains elusive. Consequently this study set about to examine the effects of the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and virodhamine, on GPR55 mediated signaling. Specifically, we assessed changes in β-arrestin2 (βarr2) distribution and GPR55 receptor internalization following activation by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), the synthetic cannabinoid ligand SR141716A, and new selective synthetic GPR55 agonists. Data obtained from the experiments presented herein demonstrate that AEA and virodhamine modulate agonist-mediated recruitment of βarr2. AEA and virodhamine act as partial agonists; enhancing the agonist effect at low concentrations and inhibiting it at high concentrations. Furthermore, both virodhamine and AEA significantly attenuated agonist-induced internalization of GPR55. These effects are attributed to the expression of GPR55, and not CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, as we have established negligible expression of CB(1) and CB(2) in these GPR55-transfected U2OS cells. The identification of select endocannabinoids as GPR55 modulators will aide in elucidating the function of GPR55 in the ECS.

  11. GPR56 is a GPCR that is overexpressed in gliomas and functions in tumor cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Sumana; Lorente, Gustavo; Nagavarapu, Usha; Nelson, April; Kuo, Jane; Cummins, Jeramiah; Nikolich, Karoly; Urfer, Roman; Foehr, Erik D

    2005-03-03

    GPR56 (also known as TM7XN1) is a newly discovered orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the secretin family that has a role in the development of neural progenitor cells and has been linked to developmental malformations of the human brain. GPR56 diverges from other secretin-like family members in that it has an extremely large N-terminal extracellular region (381 amino acids) and contains a novel feature among this new subclass, consisting of four cysteine residues that define a GPCR proteolytic site (GPS motif) located just before the first transmembrane spanning domain. The rest of the amino-terminal domain contains a large number of possible N- and O-linked glycosylation sites similar to mucin-like proteins. These features suggest a role in cell-cell, or cell-matrix interactions. Here, we demonstrate upregulation of GPR56 in glioblastoma multiforme tumors using functional genomics. Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the expression of GPR56 protein in a majority of glioblastoma/astrocytoma tumor samples with undetectable levels of expression in normal adult brain tissue. Immunofluorescence analysis of human glioma cells using anti-GPR56 antibodies demonstrate that GPR56 is expressed on the leading edge of membrane filopodia and colocalizes with alpha-actinin. Purified recombinant GPR56 extracellular domain protein inhibits glioma cell adhesion and causes abnormal cytoskeletal morphology and cell rounding. These results indicate that the extracellular domain may compete for unidentified ligand(s), and block the normal function of GPR56 in cell attachment. In reporter assays, overexpression of GPR56 activates the NF-kappaB, PAI-1 and TCF transcriptional response elements. These pathways have been implicated in cytoskeletal signaling, adhesion and tumor biology. The above results indicate that GPR56 serves as an adhesion GPCR and is involved in adhesion signaling.

  12. Orphan receptor GPR15/BOB is up-regulated in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Alison; Schmutz, Caroline; Askari, Ayman; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Middleton, Jim

    2014-06-01

    Chemokine receptors on leukocytes mediate the recruitment and accumulation of these cells within affected joints in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Identification of involved receptors offers potential for development of therapeutic interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of orphan receptor GPR15/BOB in the synovium of RA and non-RA patients and in peripheral blood of RA patients and healthy donors. GPR15/BOB protein and messenger RNA expression were examined in RA and non-RA synovium by immunofluorescence and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respectively. GPR15/BOB expression on peripheral blood leukocytes was analysed by flow cytometry and GPR15/BOB messenger RNA was examined in peripheral blood monocytes by RT-PCR. GPR15/BOB protein was observed in CD68+ and CD14+ macrophages in synovia, with greater expression in RA synovia. GPR15/BOB protein was expressed in all patient synovia whereas in non-RA synovia expression was low or absent. Similarly GPR15/BOB messenger RNA was detected in all RA and a minority of non-RA synovia. GPR15/BOB protein was expressed on peripheral blood leukocytes from RA and healthy individuals with increased expression by monocytes and neutrophils in RA. GPR15/BOB messenger RNA expression was confirmed in peripheral blood monocytes. In conclusion GPR15/BOB is expressed by macrophages in synovial tissue and on monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood, and expression is up-regulated in RA patients compared to non-RA controls. This orphan receptor on monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils may play a role in RA pathophysiology.

  13. Inverse scattering and GPR data processing: an Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    Inverse scattering and GPR data processing: an Introduction Raffaele Persico This abstract is meant to propose a brief overview of the book "Introduction to Ground Penetrating Radar: Inverse scattering and data processing", edited by Wiley Press (ISBN 9781118305003). The reason why I propose this contribution is the fact that, in spite of the large relevant literature, to the best of my knowledge it is not very common to find a text entirely devoted to the physical-mathematical aspects (a part of them, of course) of GPR data processing. Also due to this, probably a sort of gap between the GPR practice and the underlying theory has been created, and indeed we can meet practitioners convinced that the quality of the achieved results is indefinitely improvable by making narrower the spatial step of the data, or that it is desirable to have extremely directive antennas because this would improve the resolution. In order to provide a work hopefully able to address these and other aspects and hopefully able to give a contribution to the correction of these imprecise beliefs, a dealing from the beginning has been proposed, i.e. a sequential, relatively plane, and as much as possible self consistent, dealing starting from the Maxwell's equations and reaching the most commonly exploited migration formulas and linear inversion algorithms, both within a 2D and a 3D framework. This follows the didactic aim to provide to the reader an insight about what can be reasonably achieved and what should be reasonably done in the field and during the processing phase in order to achieve satisfying results. In particular, the reader will be hopefully made aware not only of the mathematical passages, but also of the involved approximations, the needed assumptions and the physical limits of the final algorithms. The results have been also back-upped with numerical exercises and with some experimental tests, all of which conceived on purpose for this text, and some questions with the

  14. Effects of the measurement configuration in GPR prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The measurement configuration is an issue of great interest in problems of inverse scattering in general, and in particular in problems regarding GPR data. In particular, the measurement configuration has an influence on the amount of retrievable information [1-2] and can be a way to achieve an intrinsic two dimensional filtering of the data [3], possibly accounting for the characteristics of the exploited antennas too [4]. However, no filter is able to erase exactly the undesired contribution to the comprehensive signal while leaving unperturbed the useful part of the gathered datum. In other word, any filtering of the data (included those implicitly imposed through the measurement configuration) has some price in terms of loss or distortion of the received information, and therefore it has to be applied only when needed and only at the right degree of intensity. In particular, differential measurement configurations have been introduced in the last few years, especially with interest in the field of detection of UXO [5-6]. The filtering effects in some differential configuration are not immediately understood, but need some deep reasoning. In particular, the theory of the diffraction tomography, allows to quantify the retrievable spatial frequencies under the measurement configuration at hand, and so allows to quantify the filtering effect of the differential configurations. Examples will be shown at the conference, regarding both a horizontal and a vertical differential configuration. References [1] R. Persico, R. Bernini, F. Soldovieri, "The role of the measurement configuration in inverse scattering from buried objects under the Born approximation", IEEE Trans. On Antennas and Prop., vol. 53, n. 6, pp. 1875-1886, June 2005. [2] R. Persico, "On the role of measurement Configuration in Contactless GPR data Processing by Means of Linear Inverse Scattering, IEEE Trans. On Antennas and Prop AP, Vol. 54 n. 7 p. 2062-2071, July 2006. [3] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri

  15. Automating Discovery and Classification of Transients and Variable Stars in the Synoptic Survey Era

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, J S; Nugent, P E; Quimby, R M; Kasliwal, M M; Starr, D L; Poznanski, D; Ofek, E O; Cenko, S B; Butler, N R; Kulkarni, S R; Gal-Yam, A; Law, N

    2011-01-01

    The rate of image acquisition in modern synoptic imaging surveys has already begun to outpace the feasibility of keeping astronomers in the real-time discovery and classification loop. Here we present the inner workings of a framework, based on machine-learning algorithms, that captures expert training and ground-truth knowledge about the variable and transient sky to automate 1) the process of discovery on image differences and, 2) the generation of preliminary science-type classifications of discovered sources. Since follow-up resources for extracting novel science from fast-changing transients are precious, self-calibrating classification probabilities must be couched in terms of efficiencies for discovery and purity of the samples generated. We estimate the purity and efficiency in identifying real sources with a two-epoch image-difference discovery algorithm for the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) survey. Once given a source discovery, using machine-learned classification trained on PTF data, we distingu...

  16. 3D mapping of reinforcement and tendon ducts on pre-stressed concrete bridges by means of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheilakou, E.; Theodorakeas, P.; Koui, M.; Zeris, C.

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluates the potential of GPR for the inspection of pre-stressed concrete bridges and its usefulness to provide non visible information of the interior structural geometry and condition, required for strengthening and rehabilitation purposes. For that purpose, different concrete blocks of varying dimensions with embedded steel reinforcement bars, tendon ducts and fabricated voids, were prepared and tested by means of GPR in a controlled laboratory environment. 2D data acquisition was carried out in reflection mode along single profile lines of the samples in order to locate the internal structural elements. 3D surveys were also performed in a grid format both along horizontal and vertical lines, and the individual profiles collected were interpolated and further processed using a 3D reconstruction software, in order to provide a detailed insight into the concrete structure. The obtained 2D profiles provided the accurate depth and position of the embedded rebars and tendon ducts, verifying the original drawings. 3D data cubes were created enabling the presentation of depth slices and providing additional information such as shape and localization of the internal elements. The results obtained from this work showed the effectiveness and reliability of the GPR technique for pre-stressed concrete bridge investigations.

  17. Comparison among GPR measurements and ultrasonic tomographies with different inversion strategies applied to the basement of an ancient egyptian sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambuelli, Luigi; Bohm, Gualtiero; Capizzi, Patrizia; Cardarelli, Ettore; Cosentino, Pietro; D'Onofrio, Laurent; Marchisio, Mario

    2010-05-01

    By the late 2008 one of the most important pieces of the "Museo delle Antichità Egizie" in Turin, the sculpture of the Pharaoh with god Amun, was planned to be one of the masterpieces of a travelling exhibition in Japan. The "Fondazione Museo delle Antichità Egizie di Torino", managing the museum, was concerned with the integrity of the basement of the statue which actually presents visible signs of restorations dating back to the early IXX century. The questions put by the museum managers were to estimate the internal extension of some visible fractures, to search for unknown internal ones and to provide information about the overall mechanical strength of the basement. In order to tackle the first and second questions a GPR reflection survey of the basement along three sides was performed and the results were assembled in a 3D rendering. As far as the third question is concerned, two parallel, horizontal ultrasonic 2D tomographies across the basement were made with a source-receiver layout able to acquire, for each section, 723 ultrasonic signals correspondent to different transmitter and receiver positions. The ultrasonic tomographic data were inverted using different software based upon different algorithms. The obtained velocity images were then compared with the GPR results and with the visible joints on the basement. A critical analysis of the comparisons is finally presented.

  18. Application of GPR in the study of shallow subsurface sedimentary architecture of Modwa spit, Gulf of Kachchh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S B Shukla; A K Patidar; Nilesh Bhatt

    2008-02-01

    The coastline constitutes a very sensitive geomorphic domain constantly subjected to dynamic coastal processes. The study of its ever-changing physiography and stratigraphy provides a wealth of information on its history and evolution, in many cases at decadal and annual scales. The present study was carried out on the Modwa beach complex between Rawal Pir and Modwa, about 10 km east of Mandvi on the northern coast of the Gulf of Kachchh. The Modwa spit is a 7-km long WNW-ESE trending prograding amalgamated beach ridge complex that is about 0.5 km wide at its western end and 1.5 km wide at its eastern end. This Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey delineated a variety of the radar surfaces and radar facies which reflects not only large scale sedimentary architecture, but depositional facies of the beach ridge complex. These are bounding surfaces separating the radar facies outline beach ridge (br), washover (wo), coastal dune (cd) and swale (sw) depositional environments. The internal sedimentary structures like tangential, parallel, concave and convex upward stratifications could also be visualized from the GPR profiles. The architecture suggests the formation of this complex due to a combined process of eastward littoral drift of locally derived sediments and its onshore deposition by storms and eolian activities.

  19. An experiment on a sand-dune environment in Southern Venetian coast based on GPR, VES and documentary evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galgaro, A.; Finzi, E. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica; Tosi, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Venice (Italy). Ist. per l Studio della Dinamica delle Grandi Masse

    2000-04-01

    The internal structures of some surviving sand dunes and the ancient shore-lines along the coast south of Venice (Italy) have been investigated integrating ground probing radar (GPR) profiles, vertical electrical soundings (VES) and water conductivity measurements in some boreholes. The GPR penetration depth has been limited (4-5 m, using a 400 MHz antenna) by the high conductivity of salt water saturating pores of the shallow sediments. On the other hand, the excellent spatial resolution of the radar survey provided an estimate of internal dune bedding features, such as cross lamination and forwarding ancient covered coast-lines dated in the Thirties. The interpretation of the data, in particular along one line 360 m long intercepting a sizeable sand-dune bank, seems to offer clues to the evolutional history of the coast line and the depth of transition from fresh-water to brackish-salt water. The water table was detected with electrical measurements and direct observations in boreholes, whereas the transition between fresh and salt water was pointed out indirectly by the high energy absorption and total back-reflection of the electromagnetic waves, encountered at this boundary, and directly by the strong decrease in VES resistivity values.

  20. Mapping soil fractal dimension in agricultural fields with GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Oleschko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We documented that the mapping of the fractal dimension of the backscattered Ground Penetrating Radar traces (Fractal Dimension Mapping, FDM accomplished over heterogeneous agricultural fields gives statistically sound combined information about the spatial distribution of Andosol' dielectric permittivity, volumetric and gravimetric water content, bulk density, and mechanical resistance under seven different management systems. The roughness of the recorded traces was measured in terms of a single number H, the Hurst exponent, which integrates the competitive effects of volumetric water content, pore topology and mechanical resistance in space and time. We showed the suitability to combine the GPR traces fractal analysis with routine geostatistics (kriging in order to map the spatial variation of soil properties by nondestructive techniques and to quantify precisely the differences under contrasting tillage systems. Three experimental plots with zero tillage and 33, 66 and 100% of crop residues imprinted the highest roughness to GPR wiggle traces (mean HR/S=0.15, significantly different to Andosol under conventional tillage (HR/S=0.47.

  1. Numerical GPR Imaging through Directional Antenna Systems in Complex Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comite, Davide; Murgia, Federica; Barbara, Martina; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Galli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The capability of imaging hidden targets and interfaces in non-accessible and complex scenarios is a topic of increasing interest for several practical applications, such as civil engineering, geophysics, and planetary explorations [1]. In this frame, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been proven as an efficient and reliable technique, also thanks to the development of effective imaging procedures based on linear modeling of the scattering phenomenon, which is usually considered as activated by ideal sources [1],[2]. Actually, such modeling simplifications are rarely verified in typical operative scenarios, when a number of heterogeneous targets can interact each other and with the surrounding environment, producing undesired contributions such as clutter and ghosts targets. From a physical viewpoint, these phenomena are mainly due to multipath contributions at the receiving antenna system, and different solutions have been proposed to mitigate these effects on the final image reconstruction (see, e.g., [2] and references therein). In this work we investigate on the possible improvements achievable when the directional features of the transmitting antenna system are taken into account in the imaging algorithm. Following and extending the recent investigations illustrated in [2] and [3], we consider in particular arrays of antennas, made by arbitrary types of elements, as activating the scattering phenomenon: hence, the effects of neglecting or accounting for the inherent directional radiation of the considered array are investigated as regards the accuracy of the final reconstruction of targets. Taking into account the resolution losses linked to the relevant synthetic aperture, we analyze the possibility of improving the quality of imaging, mitigating the presence of spurious contributions. By implementing a 'synthetic setup' that analyzes the scenarios under test through different electromagnetic CAD tools (mainly CST Microwave Studio and gprMax), it has been

  2. Land Use and Land Cover, WI Agricultural Statistics Service (WASS) WI Cropland Data Layer. Agriculture and non-ag land cover categories based on survey data (ground truth), satellite imagery classification, FSA common land unit, and 2001 National Land Cover dataset., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. It is...

  3. Expression of GPR177 (Wntless/Evi/Sprinter), a Highly Conserved Wnt-Transport Protein, in Rat Tissues, Zebrafish Embryos, and Cultured Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jay; Morse, Megan; Frey, Colleen; Petko, Jessica; Levenson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    GPR177 is an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein necessary for Wnt protein secretion. Little is currently known, however, regarding expression of GPR177, especially in vertebrate species. We have developed an antiserum against GPR177, and used it to examine expression of GPR177 in human tissue culture cells, adult mouse and rat tissues, as well as developing zebrafish embryos. In rodents, GPR177 is expressed in virtually all tissue types and brain regions examined. In zebrafish, GP...

  4. GPR54 is a target for suppression of metastasis in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Sook; Baba, Tsukasa; Mandai, Masaki; Matsumura, Noriomi; Hamanishi, Junzo; Kharma, Budiman; Kondoh, Eiji; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Murphy, Susan K; Konishi, Ikuo

    2011-04-01

    Invasion into deep myometrium and/or lymphovascular space is a well-known risk factor for endometrial cancer metastasis, resulting in poor prognosis. It is therefore clinically important to identify novel molecules that suppress tumor invasion. Reduced expression of the metastasis suppressor, kisspeptin (KISS1), and its endogenous receptor, GPR54, has been reported in several cancers, but the significance of the KISS1/GPR54 axis in endometrial cancer metastasis has not been clarified. Metastin-10 is the minimal bioactive sequence of genetic products of KISS1. Clinicopathological analysis of 92 endometrial cancers revealed overall survival is improved in cancers with high expression of GPR54 (P metastin-10 was predicted to suppress metastasis of GPR54-expressing endometrial cancers in vivo. Methylation analysis revealed GPR54 is epigenetically regulated. Metastin-GPR54 axis function was restored following treatment with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-DC. These data suggest that metastin-10 may be effective at inhibiting the metastatic spread of endometrial cancers in combination with demethylating agents to induce GPR54 expression.

  5. Activation of GPR15 and its involvement in the biological effects of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõks, Sulev; Kõks, Gea

    2017-06-01

    Smoking is one of the most significant modifiable environmental risk factors for many diseases. Smoking causes excessive mortality worldwide. Despite decades of long research, there has not been a clear understanding regarding the molecular mechanism that makes smoking harmful to health. Some recent studies have found that smoking influences most significantly the expression and methylation of GPR15. GPR15 is an orphan receptor that is involved in the regulation of the innate immunity and the T-cell trafficking in the intestinal epithelium. Further studies have confirmed that GPR15 is very strongly involved in smoking and smoking-induced molecular changes. Therefore, the altered expression and epigenetic regulation of GPR15 could have a significant role in the health impact of smoking. Impact statement The review describes an orphan receptor GPR15 that has recently been found to be influenced by smoking. This makes GPR15 very sensitive and adequate biomarker for smoking and smoking studies. Also, activation of GPR15 by smoking could help to explain its effects on health.

  6. Reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177/mouse Wntless is required for embryonic axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiang; Jiang, Ming; Mirando, Anthony J; Yu, Hsiao-Man Ivy; Hsu, Wei

    2009-11-03

    Members of the Wnt family are secreted glycoproteins that trigger cellular signals essential for proper development of organisms. Cellular signaling induced by Wnt proteins is involved in diverse developmental processes and human diseases. Previous studies have generated an enormous wealth of knowledge on the events in signal-receiving cells. However, relatively little is known about the making of Wnt in signal-producing cells. Here, we describe that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls, is expressed during formation of embryonic axes. Embryos with deficient Gpr177 exhibit defects in establishment of the body axis, a phenotype highly reminiscent to the loss of Wnt3. Although many different mammalian Wnt proteins are required for a wide range of developmental processes, the Wnt3 ablation exhibits the earliest developmental abnormality. This suggests that the Gpr177-mediated Wnt production cannot be substituted. As a direct target of Wnt, Gpr177 is activated by beta-catenin and LEF/TCF-dependent transcription. This activation alters the cellular distributions of Gpr177 which binds to Wnt proteins and assists their sorting and secretion in a feedback regulatory mechanism. Our findings demonstrate that the loss of Gpr177 affects Wnt production in the signal-producing cells, leading to alterations of Wnt signaling in the signal-receiving cells. A reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the patterning of the anterior-posterior axis during mammalian development.

  7. Gpr177/mouse Wntless is essential for Wnt-mediated craniofacial and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiang; Ivy Yu, Hsiao-Man; Maruyama, Takamitsu; Mirando, Anthony J; Hsu, Wei

    2011-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt, is required for establishment of the anterior-posterior axis. The Gpr177 null phenotype is highly reminiscent to the loss of Wnt3, the earliest abnormality among all Wnt knockouts in mice. The expression of Gpr177 in various cell types and tissues lead us to hypothesize that reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the Wnt-dependent developmental and pathogenic processes. Here, we create a new mouse strain permitting conditional inactivation of Gpr177. The loss of Gpr177 in the Wnt1-expressing cells causes mid/hindbrain and craniofacial defects which are far more severe than the Wnt1 knockout, but resemble the double knockout of Wnt1 and Wnt3a as well as β-catenin deletion in the Wnt1-expressing cells. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Gpr177 in Wnt1-mediated development of the mouse embryo, suggesting an overlapping function of Wnt family members in the Wnt1-expressing cells.

  8. Gpr97 is essential for the follicular versus marginal zone B-lymphocyte fate decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhang, L-L; Zhang, Hong-x; Shen, C-L; Lu, S-y; Kuang, Y; Wan, Y-h; Wang, W-g; Yan, H-m; Dang, S-y; Fei, J; Jin, X-l; Wang, Z-g

    2013-10-10

    Gpr97 is an orphan adhesion GPCR and is highly conserved among species. Up to now, its physiological function remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Gpr97 deficiency results in an extensive reduction in B220(+) lymphocytes in mice. More intensive analyses reveal an expanded marginal zone but a decreased follicular B-cell population in Gpr97(-/-)spleen, which displays disorganized architecture characterized by diffuse, irregular B-cell areas and the absence of discrete perifollicular marginal and mantle zones. In vivo functional studies reveal that the mutant mice could generate antibody responses to T cell-dependent and independent antigens, albeit enhanced response to the former and weakened response to the latter. By screening for the molecular events involved in the observed phenotypes, we found that lambda 5 expression is downregulated and its upstream inhibitor Aiolos is increased in the spleen of mutant mice, accompanied by significantly enhanced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of cAMP response element-binding protein. Interestingly, increased constitutive Nf-κb p50/p65 expression and activity were observed in Gpr97(-/-) spleen, implicating a crucial role of Gpr97 in regulating Nf-κb activity. These findings uncover a novel biological function of Gpr97 in regulating B-cell development, implying Gpr97 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of immunological disorders.

  9. Pavement thickness and stabilised foundation layer assessment using ground-coupled GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhui; Vennapusa, Pavana K. R.; White, David J.; Beresnev, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Experimental results from field and laboratory investigations using a ground-coupled ground penetrating radar (GPR), dielectric measurement, magnetic imaging tomography (MIT) and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests are presented. Dielectric properties of asphalt pavement and stabilised and unstabilised pavement foundation materials were evaluated in the laboratory in frozen and unfrozen conditions. Laboratory test results showed that dielectric properties of materials back-calculated from GPR in comparison to dielectric gauge measurements are strongly correlated and repeatable. For chemically stabilised materials, curing time affected the dielectric properties of the materials. Field tests were conducted on asphalt pavement test sections with different foundation materials (stabilised and unstabilised layers), drainage conditions and layer thicknesses. GPR and MIT results were used to determine asphalt layer thicknesses and were compared with measured core thicknesses, while GPR and DCP were used to assess foundation layer profiles. Asphalt thicknesses estimated from GPR showed an average error of about 11% using the dielectric gauge values as input. The average error reduced to about 4% when calibrated with cores thicknesses. MIT results showed thicknesses that are about 9% higher than estimated using GPR. Foundation layer thicknesses could not be measured using GPR due to variations in moisture conditions between the test sections, which is partly attributed to variations in gradation and drainage characteristics of the subbase layer.

  10. Design of a low cost miniaturized SFCW GPR with initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Swati; Sinha, Piyush; Gupta, Manish; Patel, Anand; Vedam, V. V.; Mevada, Pratik; Chavda, Rajesh; Shah, Amita; Putrevu, Deepak

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses about the design &developmental of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), various scientific and commercial applications of GPR along with the testing and results of GPR at Antarctica for Ice thickness measurement. GPR instruments are categorised as per their frequency of operation, which is inversely proportional to the depth of penetration. GPRs are also categorized as per method of operation which is time-domain or frequency-domain. Indian market is presently procuring GPRs from only foreign suppliers. Space Applications Centre (SAC) had taken up GPR as R&D Technological development with a view to benchmark the technology which may be transferred to local industry for mass production of instrument at a relatively cheaper cost (~20 times cheaper). Hence, this instrument presents a viable indigenous alternative. Also, the design and configuration was targeted for terrestrial as well as future interplanetary (Lander/Rover) missions of ISRO to map subsurface features. The developed GPR has a very large bandwidth (100%, i.e. bandwidth of 500MHz with centre-frequency of 500MHz) and high dynamic range along with the advantage of being highly portable (goal, innovative electronic equipment have been designed and developed. Three prototypes were developed and two of them have been delivered for Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) in 2013 and 2014-15, respectively and promising results have been obtained. The results from the same closely compare with that from commercial GPR too.

  11. Mutations of GPR126 Are Responsible for Severe Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Gianina; Nolent, Flora; Rajagopalan, Sulekha; Meireles, Ana M.; Paavola, Kevin J.; Gaillard, Dominique; Alanio, Elisabeth; Buckland, Michael; Arbuckle, Susan; Krivanek, Michael; Maluenda, Jérome; Pannell, Stephen; Gooding, Rebecca; Ong, Royston W.; Allcock, Richard J.; Carvalho, Ellaine D.F.; Carvalho, Maria D.F.; Kok, Fernando; Talbot, William S.; Melki, Judith; Laing, Nigel G.

    2015-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is defined by the presence of contractures across two or more major joints and results from reduced or absent fetal movement. Here, we present three consanguineous families affected by lethal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. By whole-exome or targeted exome sequencing, it was shown that the probands each harbored a different homozygous mutation (one missense, one nonsense, and one frameshift mutation) in GPR126. GPR126 encodes G-protein-coupled receptor 126, which has been shown to be essential for myelination of axons in the peripheral nervous system in fish and mice. A previous study reported that Gpr126−/− mice have a lethal arthrogryposis phenotype. We have shown that the peripheral nerves in affected individuals from one family lack myelin basic protein, suggesting that this disease in affected individuals is due to defective myelination of the peripheral axons during fetal development. Previous work has suggested that autoproteolytic cleavage is important for activating GPR126 signaling, and our biochemical assays indicated that the missense substitution (p.Val769Glu [c.2306T>A]) impairs autoproteolytic cleavage of GPR126. Our data indicate that GPR126 is critical for myelination of peripheral nerves in humans. This study adds to the literature implicating defective axoglial function as a key cause of severe arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and suggests that GPR126 mutations should be investigated in individuals affected by this disorder. PMID:26004201

  12. GPR30 regulates diet-induced adiposity in female mice and adipogenesis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Luo, Jing; Moore, William; Alkhalidy, Hana; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhen, Wei; Wang, Yao; Clegg, Deborah J.; Bin Xu; Cheng, Zhiyong; McMillan, Ryan P.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Liu, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies showed that GPR30, a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor, is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that mediates some biological events elicited by estrogen in several types of cancer cells. However, its physiological or pathological role in vivo is unclear. Here, we show that GPR30 knockout (GPRKO) female mice were protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, blood glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. The decreased body weight gain in GPRKO female mice is due to the reduction in body fat mass. These effects occurred in the absence of significant changes in food intake, intestinal fat absorption, triglyceride metabolism, or energy expenditure. However, GPR30 had no significant metabolic effects in male mice fed the HFD and both sexes of mice fed a chow diet. Further, GPR30 expression levels in fat tissues of WT obese female mice were greatly increased, whereas ERα and β expression was not altered. Deletion of GPR30 reduced adipogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Conversely, activation of GPR30 enhanced adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. These findings provide evidence for the first time that GPR30 promotes adipogenesis and therefore the development of obesity in female mice exposed to excess fat energy. PMID:27698362

  13. Lysophosphatidylinositol causes neurite retraction via GPR55, G13 and RhoA in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Obara

    Full Text Available GPR55 was recently identified as a putative receptor for certain cannabinoids, and lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI. Recently, the role of cannabinoids as GPR55 agonists has been disputed by a number of reports, in part, because studies investigating GPR55 often utilized overexpression systems, such as the GPR55-overexpressing HEK293 cells, which make it difficult to deduce the physiological role of endogenous GPR55. In the present study, we found that PC12 cells, a neural model cell line, express endogenous GPR55, and by using these cells, we were able to examine the role of endogenous GPR55. Although GPR55 mRNA and protein were expressed in PC12 cells, neither CB(1 nor CB(2 mRNA was expressed in these cells. GPR55 was predominantly localized on the plasma membrane in undifferentiated PC12 cells. However, GPR55 was also localized in the growth cones or the ruffled border in differentiated PC12 cells, suggesting a potential role for GPR55 in the regulation of neurite elongation. LPI increased intracellular Ca(2+ concentration and RhoA activity, and induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids did not, thereby suggesting that cannabinoids are not GPR55 agonists. LPI also caused neurite retraction in a time-dependent manner accompanied by the loss of neurofilament light chain and redistribution of actin in PC12 cells differentiated by NGF. This LPI-induced neurite retraction was found to be G(q-independent and G(13-dependent. Furthermore, inactivation of RhoA function via C3 toxin and GPR55 siRNA knockdown prevented LPI-induced neurite retraction. These results suggest that LPI, and not cannabinoids, causes neurite retraction in differentiated PC12 cells via a GPR55, G(13 and RhoA signaling pathway.

  14. SNX27, a protein involved in down syndrome, regulates GPR17 trafficking and oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraviglia, Veronica; Ulivi, Alessandro Francesco; Boccazzi, Marta; Valenza, Fabiola; Fratangeli, Alessandra; Passafaro, Maria; Lecca, Davide; Stagni, Fiorenza; Giacomini, Andrea; Bartesaghi, Renata; Abbracchio, Maria P; Ceruti, Stefania; Rosa, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor 17 (GPR17) plays crucial roles in myelination. It is highly expressed during transition of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to immature oligodendrocytes, but, after this stage, it must be down-regulated to allow generation of mature myelinating cells. After endocytosis, GPR17 is sorted into lysosomes for degradation or recycled to the plasma membrane. Balance between degradation and recycling is important for modulation of receptor levels at the cell surface and thus for the silencing/activation of GPR17-signaling pathways that, in turn, affect oligodendrocyte differentiation. The molecular mechanisms at the basis of these processes are still partially unknown and their characterization will allow a better understanding of myelination and provide cues to interpret the consequences of GPR17 dysfunction in diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the endocytic trafficking of GPR17 is mediated by the interaction of a type I PDZ-binding motif located at the C-terminus of the receptor and SNX27, a recently identified protein of the endosome-associated retromer complex and whose functions in oligodendrocytes have never been studied. SNX27 knock-down significantly reduces GPR17 plasma membrane recycling in differentiating oligodendrocytes while accelerating cells' terminal maturation. Interestingly, trisomy-linked down-regulation of SNX27 expression in the brain of Ts65Dn mice, a model of Down syndrome, correlates with a decrease in GPR17(+) cells and an increase in mature oligodendrocytes, which, however, fail in reaching full maturation, eventually leading to hypomyelination. Our data demonstrate that SNX27 modulates GPR17 plasma membrane recycling and stability, and that disruption of the SNX27/GPR17 interaction might contribute to pathological oligodendrocyte differentiation defects. GLIA 2016. GLIA 2016;64:1437-1460.

  15. Gpr177-mediated Wnt Signaling Is Required for Secondary Palate Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Wang, M; Zhao, W; Yuan, X; Yang, X; Li, Y; Qiu, M; Zhu, X-J; Zhang, Z

    2015-07-01

    Cleft palate represents one of the major congenital birth defects in humans. Despite the essential roles of ectodermal canonical Wnt and mesenchymal Wnt signaling in the secondary palate development, the function of mesenchymal canonical Wnt activity in secondary palate development remains elusive. Here we show that Gpr177, a highly conserved transmembrane protein essential for Wnt trafficking, is required for secondary palate development. Gpr177 is expressed in both epithelium and mesenchyme of palatal shelves during mouse development. Wnt1(Cre)-mediated deletion of Gpr177 in craniofacial neural crest cells leads to a complete cleft secondary palate, which is formed mainly due to aberrant cell proliferation and increased cell death in palatal shelves. By BATGAL staining, we reveal an intense canonical Wnt activity in the anterior palate mesenchyme of E12.5 wild-type embryos but not in Gpr177(Wnt1-Cre) embryos, suggesting that mesenchymal canonical Wnt signaling activated by Gpr177-mediated mesenchymal Wnts is critical for secondary palate development. Moreover, phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun is impaired in the Gpr177(Wnt1-Cre) palate and is restored by implantation of Wnt5a-soaked beads in the in vitro palate explants, suggesting that Gpr177 probably regulates palate development via the Wnt5a-mediated noncanonical Wnt pathway in which c-Jun and JNK are involved. Importantly, certain cellular processes and the altered gene expression in palates lacking Gpr177 are distinct from that of the Wnt5a mutant, further demonstrating involvement of other mesenchymal Wnts in the process of palate development. Together, these results suggest that mesenchymal Gpr177 is required for secondary palate development by regulating and integrating mesenchymal canonical and noncanonical Wnt signals.

  16. G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30: a novel regulator of endothelial inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadeep Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Estrogen, the female sex hormone, is known to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. Traditionally, estrogen effects were believed to be largely mediated through the classical estrogen receptors (ERs. However, there is increasing evidence that G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30, a novel estrogen receptor, can mediate many estrogenic effects on the vasculature. Despite this, the localization and functional significance of GPR30 in the human vascular endothelium remains poorly understood. Given this background, we examined the subcellular location and potential anti-inflammatory roles of GPR30 using human umbilical vein endothelial cells as a model system. Inflammatory changes were induced by treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in atherogenesis and many other inflammatory conditions. We found that GPR30 was located predominantly in the endothelial cell nuclei. Treatment with the selective GPR30 agonist G-1 partially attenuated the TNF induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory proteins such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. This effect was completely abolished by the selective GPR30 antagonist G-15, suggesting that it was indeed mediated in a GPR30 dependent manner. Interestingly, estrogen alone had no effects on TNF-treated endothelium. Concomitant activation of the classical ERs blocked the anti-inflammatory effects of G-1, indicating opposing effects of GPR30 and the classical ERs. Our findings demonstrate that endothelial GPR30 is a novel regulator of the inflammatory response which could be a potential therapeutic target against atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases.

  17. Rod photoreceptors express GPR55 in the adult vervet monkey retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bouskila

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids exert their actions mainly through two receptors, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R and cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R. In recent years, the G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 was suggested as a cannabinoid receptor based on its activation by anandamide and tetrahydrocannabinol. Yet, its formal classification is still a matter of debate. CB1R and CB2R expression patterns are well described for rodent and monkey retinas. In the monkey retina, CB1R has been localized in its neural (cone photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells and CB2R in glial components (Müller cells. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of GPR55 in the monkey retina by using confocal microscopy. Our results show that GPR55 is strictly localized in the photoreceptor layer of the extrafoveal portion of the retina. Co-immunolabeling of GPR55 with rhodopsin, the photosensitive pigment in rods, revealed a clear overlap of expression throughout the rod structure with most prominent staining in the inner segments. Additionally, double-label of GPR55 with calbindin, a specific marker for cone photoreceptors in the primate retina, allowed us to exclude expression of GPR55 in cones. The labeling of GPR55 in rods was further assessed with a 3D visualization in the XZ and YZ planes thus confirming its exclusive expression in rods. These results provide data on the distribution of GPR55 in the monkey retina, different than CB1R and CB2R. The presence of GPR55 in rods suggests a function of this receptor in scotopic vision that needs to be demonstrated.

  18. GPR technique as a tool for decision-making regarding timber beam inner reinforcement: The Lonja de la Seda de Valencia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier; Valls, Ana

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the decision-making process for the timber beam inner reinforcement of the building The Lonja de la Seda de Valencia (15th c.), Spain. This research was based on the study of 13 timber beams for their diagnosis and the characterization before decision-making in structural reinforcement. For this purpose, we integrated the results of analysis of historical documentation, in situ visual inspection and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The rehabilitation project considered the substitution of the upper-storey floor (The Consulate of the Sea Hall) for another one that complied with the original. This room was closed due to the instability of the timber beams. For the flooring renovation it was necessary to increase the rigidity of the timber floor framing. Preliminary conclusions, which derived from the historical documentation and in situ visual inspection of the timber coffered ceiling were: (a) timber beams supported inside masonry walls could suffer moisture and xylophage attacks, (b) timber beams were significantly damaged (splits, ring shakes, failure of beam section that reduced its bearing capacity), (c) substantial timber beam warping. So the main objectives of this GPR study were: to detect splits, to identify failure of section due to biological attacks, to pinpoint epoxy resin reconstructions and to assess the severity of the damages observed on surface. A GPR survey was carried out in timber coffered-ceiling beams of The Consulate of the Sea Hall. Radar measurements were carried out using a SIR-10H system (GSSI) and a 1.6 GHz ground coupled antenna, due to the timber beam dimensions (0.45 x 0.45 x 8.75 m. A total of 37 longitudinal profiles were collected in the centre of all the beam accessible sides. After radragram processing steps, a number of anomalies were detected in the records, which were analysed. The outcomes derived from this GPR study were taken into account when it came to make decisions in the final restoration project of

  19. GPR Image and Signal Processing for Pavement and Road Monitoring on Android Smartphones and Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Francesco; Benedetto, Andrea; Tedeschi, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface. This non-destructive method uses electromagnetic radiation and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. It can detect objects, changes in material, and voids and cracks. GPR has many applications in a number of fields. In the field of civil engineering one of the most advanced technologies used for road pavement monitoring is based on the deployment of advanced GPR systems. One of the most relevant causes of road pavement damage is often referable to water intrusion in structural layers. In this context, GPR has been recently proposed as a method to estimate moisture content in a porous medium without preventive calibration. Hence, the development of methods to obtain an estimate of the moisture content is a crucial research field involving economic, social and strategic aspects in road safety for a great number of public and private Agencies. In particular, a recent new approach was proposed to estimate moisture content in a porous medium basing on the theory of Rayleigh scattering, showing a shift of the frequency peak of the GPR spectrum towards lower frequencies as the moisture content increases in the soil. Addressing some of these issues, this work proposes a mobile application, for smartphones and tablets, for GPR image and signal processing. Our application has been designed for the Android mobile operating system, since it is open source and android mobile platforms are selling the most smartphones in the world (2013). The GPR map can be displayed in black/white or color and the user can zoom and navigate into the image. The map can be loaded in two different ways: from the local memory of the portable device or from a remote server. This latter possibility can be very useful for real-time and mobile monitoring of road and pavement inspection. In addition, the application allows analyzing the GPR data also in the frequency domain. It is

  20. Orphan receptor GPR110, an oncogene overexpressed in lung and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channa Namitha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GPR110 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor--a receptor without a known ligand, a known signaling pathway, or a known function. Despite the lack of information, one can assume that orphan receptors have important biological roles. In a retroviral insertion mutagenesis screen in the mouse, we identified GPR110 as an oncogene. This prompted us to study the potential isoforms that can be gleaned from known GPR110 transcripts, and the expression of these isoforms in normal and transformed human tissues. Methods Various epitope-tagged isoforms of GPR110 were expressed in cell lines and assayed by western blotting to determine cleavage, surface localization, and secretion patterns. GPR110 transcript and protein levels were measured in lung and prostate cancer cell lines and clinical samples, respectively, by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results We found four potential splice variants of GPR110. Of these variants, we confirmed three as being expressed as proteins on the cell surface. Isoform 1 is the canonical form, with a molecular mass of about 100 kD. Isoforms 2 and 3 are truncated products of isoform 1, and are 25 and 23 kD, respectively. These truncated isoforms lack the seven-span transmembrane domain characteristic of GPR proteins and thus are not likely to be membrane anchored; indeed, isoform 2 can be secreted. Compared with the median gene expression of ~200 selected genes, GPR110 expression was low in most tissues. However, it had higher than average gene expression in normal kidney tissue and in prostate tissues originating from older donors. Although identified as an oncogene in murine T lymphomas, GPR110 is greatly overexpressed in human lung and prostate cancers. As detected by immunohistochemistry, GPR110 was overexpressed in 20 of 27 (74% lung adenocarcinoma tissue cores and in 17 of 29 (59% prostate adenocarcinoma tissue cores. Additionally, staining with a GPR110 antibody enabled us to

  1. GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Barnwal, R.P.; Khare, R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    is approximately a quarter of the GPR wavelength, and ranges from 0.08 m for saturated sands with 200 MHz antennae to 0.4 m for dry sands with 100 MHz antenna. The application of GPR, especially, in coastal studies is well known and is being widely employed... in identifying and tracing various buried struc- tures and facies in the beaches (Neal and Roberts 2000), dunes, bars, spits (Jol et al. 2002; Shukla et al. 2008) as well as in sand barriers (Meyers et al. 1994; Jol et al. 1996; Costas et al. 2006). Also, the GPR...

  2. Insulinotropic effects of GPR120 agonists are altered in obese diabetic and obese non-diabetic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; So, Wing Yan; Wang, Yi; Wu, Shang Ying; Cheng, Qianni; Leung, Po Sing

    2017-02-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is a putative target for obesity and diabetes therapies. However, it remains controversial whether resident GPR120 plays a direct regulatory role in islet β-cell insulin secretion. The present study examined this issue in isolated rodent islets and rat β-cell line INS-1E, and assessed the role of GPR120 in islet insulin secretion in obese non-diabetic (OND) and diabetic states. GPR120 expression was detected in rodent islet β-cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and synthetic GPR120 agonist GSK137647 (GSK) augmented insulin release from rat/mouse islets and INS-1E; DHA effects were partially mediated by GPR40. GPR120 knockdown and overexpression attenuated and enhanced DHA effects in INS-1E respectively. DHA and GSK improved postprandial hyperglycaemia of diabetic mice. Inhibition of calcium signalling in INS-1E reduced GPR120 activation-induced insulinotropic effects. The insulinotropic effects of DHA/GSK were amplified in OND rat islets, but diminished in diabetic rat islets. GPR120 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression were elevated in OND islets and palmitic acid (PA)-treated INS-1E, but reduced in diabetic islets and high glucose-treated INS-1E. PPARγ activation increased GPR120 expression in rat islets and INS-1E. DHA and GSK induced protein kinase B (Akt)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in rodent islets and INS-1E, and these effects were altered in OND and diabetic states. Taken together, the present study indicates that (i) GPR120 activation has an insulinotropic influence on β-cells with the involvement of calcium signalling; (ii) GPR120 expression in β-cells and GPR120-mediated insulinotropic effects are altered in OND and diabetic states in distinct ways, and these alterations may be mediated by PPARγ.

  3. Clay content evaluation in soils through GPR signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Patriarca, Claudio; Slob, Evert; Benedetto, Andrea; Lambot, Sébastien

    2013-10-01

    The mechanical behavior of soils is partly affected by their clay content, which arises some important issues in many fields of employment, such as civil and environmental engineering, geology, and agriculture. This work focuses on pavement engineering, although the method applies to other fields of interest. Clay content in bearing courses of road pavement frequently causes damages and defects (e.g., cracks, deformations, and ruts). Therefore, the road safety and operability decreases, directly affecting the increase of expected accidents. In this study, different ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods and techniques were used to non-destructively investigate the clay content in sub-asphalt compacted soils. Experimental layout provided the use of typical road materials, employed for road bearing courses construction. Three types of soils classified by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) as A1, A2, and A3 were used and adequately compacted in electrically and hydraulically isolated test boxes. Percentages of bentonite clay were gradually added, ranging from 2% to 25% by weight. Analyses were carried out for each clay content using two different GPR instruments. A pulse radar with ground-coupled antennae at 500 MHz centre frequency and a vector network analyzer spanning the 1-3 GHz frequency range were used. Signals were processed in both time and frequency domains, and the consistency of results was validated by the Rayleigh scattering method, the full-waveform inversion, and the signal picking techniques. Promising results were obtained for the detection of clay content affecting the bearing capacity of sub-asphalt layers.

  4. Texture Retrieval Approach for Interpreting GPR Data to Quantify Railroad Ballast Fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qadi, Imad; Shangguan, Pengcheng

    2013-04-01

    Ballast is a main component of railroad structure. Clean ballast comprises of relatively large aggregates that forms big air voids within the ballast system. However, over time, the air voids may get filled with fine materials due to ballast breakdown and infiltration of small particles. This phenomenon is called fouling. Fouling is detrimental to the ballast structure's integrity and its drainage capacity. Fouling level should be monitored to optimize railroad maintenance. Traditional approach to assess fouling condition is through visual inspection and sample drilling. While visual inspection may not provide information underneath the surface, sample drilling is time consuming and data is collected at discrete locations. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to assess railroad ballast fouling conditions. GPR can collect data along the railroad track non-destructively, continuously and rapidly. However, the GPR data collected from ballast are complex and difficult to interpret. The interaction of electromagnetic (EM) wave with ballast, which is an inhomogeneous medium, is much more complex than that with cement concrete or asphalt pavement, which are usually considered in GPR data interpretation as homogeneous media. Currently there are several approaches to interpret GPR ballast data, including time domain approach, time-frequency approach and wavelet approach. Wavelet approach is the most advanced approach since it can interpret GPR data continuously, automatically and without interpreters' subjectivity. This paper proposes a further development of current wavelet approach. The proposed new method considers the interpretation of GPR data as a texture analysis and texture retrieval problem. A database of GPR images with known fouling levels (0% fouling or clean ballast, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% fouling level) will be established. Wavelet transforms and feature extraction will be performed on each image. Each image can then be represented by its feature vector

  5. Orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR116 regulates pulmonary surfactant pool size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James P; Ludwig, Marie-Gabrielle; Mueller, Matthias; Kinzel, Bernd; Sato, Atsuyasu; Xu, Yan; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Ikegami, Machiko

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant levels within the alveoli are tightly regulated to maintain lung volumes and promote efficient gas exchange across the air/blood barrier. Quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in surfactant are associated with severe lung diseases in children and adults. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control surfactant metabolism have been studied intensively, the critical molecular pathways that sense and regulate endogenous surfactant levels within the alveolus have not been identified and constitute a fundamental knowledge gap in the field. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR116, in the murine lung is developmentally regulated, reaching maximal levels 1 day after birth, and is highly expressed on the apical surface of alveolar type I and type II epithelial cells. To define the physiological role of GPR116 in vivo, mice with a targeted mutation of the Gpr116 locus, Gpr116(Δexon17), were generated. Gpr116(Δexon17) mice developed a profound accumulation of alveolar surfactant phospholipids at 4 weeks of age (12-fold) that was further increased at 20 weeks of age (30-fold). Surfactant accumulation in Gpr116(Δexon17) mice was associated with increased saturated phosphatidylcholine synthesis at 4 weeks and the presence of enlarged, lipid-laden macrophages, neutrophilia, and alveolar destruction at 20 weeks. mRNA microarray analyses indicated that P2RY2, a purinergic receptor known to mediate surfactant secretion, was induced in Gpr116(Δexon17) type II cells. Collectively, these data support the concept that GPR116 functions as a molecular sensor of alveolar surfactant lipid pool sizes by regulating surfactant secretion.

  6. Orphan G Protein–Coupled Receptor GPR116 Regulates Pulmonary Surfactant Pool Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marie-Gabrielle; Mueller, Matthias; Kinzel, Bernd; Sato, Atsuyasu; Xu, Yan; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Ikegami, Machiko

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant levels within the alveoli are tightly regulated to maintain lung volumes and promote efficient gas exchange across the air/blood barrier. Quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in surfactant are associated with severe lung diseases in children and adults. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control surfactant metabolism have been studied intensively, the critical molecular pathways that sense and regulate endogenous surfactant levels within the alveolus have not been identified and constitute a fundamental knowledge gap in the field. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of an orphan G protein–coupled receptor, GPR116, in the murine lung is developmentally regulated, reaching maximal levels 1 day after birth, and is highly expressed on the apical surface of alveolar type I and type II epithelial cells. To define the physiological role of GPR116 in vivo, mice with a targeted mutation of the Gpr116 locus, Gpr116Δexon17, were generated. Gpr116Δexon17 mice developed a profound accumulation of alveolar surfactant phospholipids at 4 weeks of age (12-fold) that was further increased at 20 weeks of age (30-fold). Surfactant accumulation in Gpr116Δexon17 mice was associated with increased saturated phosphatidylcholine synthesis at 4 weeks and the presence of enlarged, lipid-laden macrophages, neutrophilia, and alveolar destruction at 20 weeks. mRNA microarray analyses indicated that P2RY2, a purinergic receptor known to mediate surfactant secretion, was induced in Gpr116Δexon17 type II cells. Collectively, these data support the concept that GPR116 functions as a molecular sensor of alveolar surfactant lipid pool sizes by regulating surfactant secretion. PMID:23590306

  7. A role for GPR55 in human placental venous endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kremshofer, Julia; Siwetz, Monika; Berghold, Veronika M.; Lang, Ingrid; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and their G protein-coupled receptors have been suggested to play a key role in human pregnancy, by regulating important aspects such as implantation, decidualization, placentation and labour. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was previously postulated to be another cannabinoid receptor, since specific cannabinoids were shown to act independently of the classical cannabinoid receptors CB1 or CB2. Current knowledge about GPR55 expression and function in human placenta is v...

  8. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochim, April; Zytner, Richard G; McBean, Edward A; Endres, Anthony L

    2013-10-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content.

  9. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Aizawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9–10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC–MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain.

  10. An interpretation model of GPR point data in tunnel geological prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-yao; Li, Bao-qi; Guo, Yuan-shu; Wang, Teng-na; Zhu, Ya

    2017-02-01

    GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) point data plays an absolutely necessary role in the tunnel geological prediction. However, the research work on the GPR point data is very little and the results does not meet the actual requirements of the project. In this paper, a GPR point data interpretation model which is based on WD (Wigner distribution) and deep CNN (convolutional neural network) is proposed. Firstly, the GPR point data is transformed by WD to get the map of time-frequency joint distribution; Secondly, the joint distribution maps are classified by deep CNN. The approximate location of geological target is determined by observing the time frequency map in parallel; Finally, the GPR point data is interpreted according to the classification results and position information from the map. The simulation results show that classification accuracy of the test dataset (include 1200 GPR point data) is 91.83% at the 200 iteration. Our model has the advantages of high accuracy and fast training speed, and can provide a scientific basis for the development of tunnel construction and excavation plan.

  11. gprMax: Open source software to simulate electromagnetic wave propagation for Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Craig; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Giannakis, Iraklis

    2016-12-01

    gprMax is open source software that simulates electromagnetic wave propagation, using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, for the numerical modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). gprMax was originally developed in 1996 when numerical modelling using the FDTD method and, in general, the numerical modelling of GPR were in their infancy. Current computing resources offer the opportunity to build detailed and complex FDTD models of GPR to an extent that was not previously possible. To enable these types of simulations to be more easily realised, and also to facilitate the addition of more advanced features, gprMax has been redeveloped and significantly modernised. The original C-based code has been completely rewritten using a combination of Python and Cython programming languages. Standard and robust file formats have been chosen for geometry and field output files. New advanced modelling features have been added including: an unsplit implementation of higher order Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) using a recursive integration approach; diagonally anisotropic materials; dispersive media using multi-pole Debye, Drude or Lorenz expressions; soil modelling using a semi-empirical formulation for dielectric properties and fractals for geometric characteristics; rough surface generation; and the ability to embed complex transducers and targets.

  12. Potential roles of GPR120 and its agonists in the management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dan Zhang, Po Sing Leung School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Abstract: Free fatty acids (FFAs serve not only as nutrients that provide energy but also as extracellular signaling molecules that manipulate intracellular physiological events through FFA receptors (FFARs such as FFAR4. FFAR4 is also known as G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120. The main role of GPR120 is to elicit FFA regulation on metabolism homeostasis. GPR120 agonism correlates with prevention of the occurrence and development of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. GPR120 activation directly or indirectly inhibits inflammation, modulates hormone secretion from the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, and regulates lipid and/or glucose metabolism in adipose, liver, and muscle tissues, which may help prevent obesity and diabetes. This review summarizes recent advances in physiological roles of GPR120 in preventing insulin resistance and protecting pancreatic islet function, and examines how resident GPR120 in the pancreas may be involved in modulating pancreatic islet function. Keywords: fatty acid, G protein-coupled receptors, inflammation, pancreas, obesity

  13. GPR30 mediates anorectic estrogen-induced STAT3 signaling in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Obin; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Insook; Shin, Sora; Kim, Mijung; Kwon, Somin; Oh, So Ra; Ahn, Young Soo; Kim, Chul Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in the control of energy balance in the hypothalamus. Leptin-independent STAT3 activation (i.e., tyrosine(705)-phosphorylation of STAT3, pSTAT3) in the hypothalamus is hypothesized as the primary mechanism of the estrogen-induced anorexic response. However, the type of estrogen receptor that mediates this regulation is unknown. We investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in estradiol (E2)-induced STAT3 activation in the hypothalamus. Regulation of STAT3 activation by E2, G-1, a specific agonist of GPR30 and G-15, a specific antagonist of GPR30 was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Effect of GPR30 activation on eating behavior was analyzed in vivo. E2 stimulated pSTAT3 in cells expressing GPR30, but not expressing estrogen receptor ERα and ERβ. G-1 induced pSTAT3, and G-15 inhibited E2-induced pSTAT3 in primary cultures of hypothalamic neurons. A cerebroventricular injection of G-1 increased pSTAT3 in the arcuate nucleus of mice, which was associated with a decrease in food intake and body weight gain. These results suggest that GPR30 is the estrogen receptor that mediates the anorectic effect of estrogen through the STAT3 pathway in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulating the effects of GPR21, a novel target for type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Siobhán; Kinsella, Gemma K.; Benetti, Elisa; Findlay, John B. C.

    2016-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder primarily caused by insulin resistance to which obesity is a major contributor. Expression levels of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR21, demonstrated a trend towards a significant increase in the epididymal fat pads of wild type high fat high sugar (HFHS)-fed mice. To gain further insight into the potential role this novel target may play in the development of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, the signalling capabilities of the receptor were investigated. Overexpression studies in HEK293T cells revealed GPR21 to be a constitutively active receptor, which couples to Gαq type G proteins leading to the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Overexpression of GPR21 in vitro also markedly attenuated insulin signalling. Interestingly, the effect of GPR21 on the MAPKs and insulin signalling was reduced in the presence of serum, inferring the possibility of a native inhibitory ligand. Homology modelling and ligand docking studies led to the identification of a novel compound that inhibited GPR21 activity. Its effects offer potential as an anti-diabetic pharmacological strategy as it was found to counteract the influence of GPR21 on the insulin signalling pathway.

  15. Selective novel inverse agonists for human GPR43 augment GLP-1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bi-Oh; Kim, Seong Heon; Kong, Gye Yeong; Kim, Da Hui; Kwon, Mi So; Lee, Su Ui; Kim, Mun-Ock; Cho, Sungchan; Lee, Sangku; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Han, Sang-Bae; Kwak, Young Shin; Lee, Sung Bae; Kim, Sunhong

    2016-01-15

    GPR43/Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (FFAR2) is known to be activated by short-chain fatty acids and be coupled to Gi and Gq family of heterotrimeric G proteins. GPR43 is mainly expressed in neutrophils, adipocytes and enteroendocrine cells, implicated to be involved in inflammation, obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, several groups have reported the contradictory data about the physiological functions of GPR43, so that its roles in vivo remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a novel compound of pyrimidinecarboxamide class named as BTI-A-404 is a selective and potent competitive inverse agonist of human GPR43, but not the murine ortholog. Through structure-activity relationship (SAR), we also found active compound named as BTI-A-292. These regulators increased the cyclic AMP level and reduced acetate-induced cytoplasmic Ca(2+) level. Furthermore, we show that they modulated the downstream signaling pathways of GPR43, such as ERK, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB. It was surprising that two compounds augmented the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in NCI-H716 cell line. Collectively, these novel and specific competitive inhibitors regulate all aspects of GPR43 signaling and the results underscore the therapeutic potential of them.

  16. Expression of CD133, PAX2, ESA, and GPR30 in invasive ductal breast carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qun; LI Ji-guang; ZHENG Xin-yu; JIN Feng; DONG Hui-ting

    2009-01-01

    Background Biomarkers in breast neoplasms provide invaluable information regarding prognosis and help determining the optimal treatment. We have examined the possible correlation between cancer stem cell (CSC)-Iike markers (CD133,paired box gene 2 protein (PAX2), epithelial specific antigen (ESA)), and a new membrane estrogen receptor (G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)) in invasive ductal breast carcinomas with known clinicopathological parameters, tumor recurrence, and expression of some known biomarkers.Methods In 74 invasive ductal breast carcinomas, we investigated the protein expression of these molecular markers by immunohistochemistry, and their associations with known clinicopathological parameters, tumor recurrence, and expression of some known biomarkers. We studied the interrelationship between the expressions of these proteins.Results CD133, a putative CSC marker, was positively related to tumor size, tumor stage, and lymph node metastasis.PAX2 was negatively correlated with tumor recurrence. ESA, one of the breast CSC markers, was an indicator of tumor recurrence. GPR30 was associated with hormone receptors. Despite the correlation between GPR30 and the nuclear estrogen receptor, the expression was dependent. Positive staining of GPR30 in tumors displayed a significant association with high C-erbB2 expression and a tendency for tumor recurrence. A positive relationship between GPR30 and CD133 existed.Conclusion Detecting the expression of CD133, PAX2, ESA, and GPR30 in invasive ductal breast carcinomas may be of help in more accurately predicting the aggressive properties of breast cancer and determining the optimal treatment.

  17. The Use of GPR in Delineating an Iron Sand Boundary and the Determination of Its Electromagnetic Wave Velocity: A Case Study in Jepara, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bijaksana

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the vertical extent of iron sand deposit is challenging as conventional geophysical methods (electrical resistivity, geomagnetic, and seismic refraction are inappropriate and unsuccessful in delineating the iron sand deposit from the bedrock. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR offers a solution to the above problem as radar is not affected negatively by the physical properties of iron sand. In the year 2003, a RAMAC’s GPR survey was carried out in the coast of Bayuran in the Regency of Jepara, Central Java to map the distribution of sub-bottom iron sand. The sand is highly magnetic. The survey used 100 MHz antennas. The survey is also complimented by a novel method in determining the electromagnetic (EM wave velocity of iron sand. Combination of reflection profiling and CMP sounding was deployed. Results of CMP sounding were processed using CMP-semblance analysis that produces the RMS velocity in velocity-time spectra. The RMS velocity is then converted to interval velocity using Dix’s formula and is found to be about 135 mm/ns. Meanwhile, combination of magnetic susceptibility, relative permittivity, and dissipation factors produces radiowaves velocity of iron sand as a function of frequency. The velocities of radiowaves estimated from laboratory match that estimated from CMP analysis.

  18. GPR applications in civil engineering collaborating with a Company and preparation of material for the educational package to teach in Universities. STSM, COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossa, Viviana; Assunção, Sonia; Pérez, Vega

    2017-04-01

    The STSM, Short-Term Missions, was carried out with the support of Murphy Survey company from Dublin - Ireland, was proposed for to Develop a module "GPR Applications in Archaeology" of the educational pack defined in the different meetings of the Cost Action TU 1208. The employ of GPR is mainly determined by the limits and uncertainties associated to this technique that affects to the measurements and the results. Private companies and end-users are highly interested in known the limits associated to particular cases and the advantages of the methodology compared to other studies. During this STSM, we plan to prepare a field survey, analyzing the possible problems and defining the objectives, and to acquire data to assess the structure. This data will be analyzed and processed in order to determine the limits of the technique in the particular case. The results will be compared to other surveys, in order to determine some clear restrictions that the company need to take into account in further works. Aknowledgments: This work has been partially funded by the EU COST Action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", and it is a contribution to the working group 2.2 tasks in the COST Action TU1208.

  19. Gpr177, a novel locus for bone-mineral-density and osteoporosis, regulates osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jiang, Ming; Hsu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic analysis has recently identified Gpr177 as a susceptibility locus for bone-mineral-density and osteoporosis. Determining the unknown function of this gene is therefore extremely important to further our knowledge base of skeletal development and disease. The protein encoded by Gpr177 exhibits an ability to modulate the trafficking of Wnt similar to the Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt. Because of a critical role in Wnt regulation, Gpr177 might be required for several key steps of skeletog...

  20. Validation of sensitivity and reliability of GPR and microgravity detection of underground cavities in complex urban settings: Test case of a cellar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromčák, Jakub; Grinč, Michal; Pánisová, Jaroslava; Vajda, Peter; Kubová, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We test here the feasibility of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and microgravity methods in identifying underground voids, such as cellars, tunnels, abandoned mine-workings, etc., in complex urban conditions. For this purpose, we selected a cellar located under a private lot in a residential quarter of the town of Senec in Western Slovakia, which was discovered by chance when a small sinkhole developed on the yard just two meters away from the house. The size of our survey area was limited 1) by the presence of a technical room built at the back of the yard with a staircase leading to the garden, and 2) by the small width of the lot. Therefore the geophysical survey was carried out only in the backyard of the lot as we were not permitted to measure on neighbouring estates. The results from the GPR measurements obtained by the GSSI SIR-3000 system with 400 MHz antenna were visualized in the form of 2D radargrams with the corresponding transformed velocity model of studied cross-sections. Only the profiles running over the pavement next to the house yielded interpretable data because the local geological situation and the regular watering of the lawn covering prevailingly the backyard caused significant attenuation of the emitted GPR signal. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a distinctive negative anomaly indicating the presence of a shallow underground void. The quantitative interpretation by means of Euler deconvolution was utilized to validate the depth of the center and location of the cellar. Comparison with the gravitational effect of the cellar model calculated in the in-house program Polygrav shows a quite good correlation between the modelled and observed fields. Only a part of the aerial extent of the anomaly could be traced by the used geophysical methods due to accessibility issues. Nevertheless, the test cellar was successfully detected and interpreted by both methods, thus confirming their applicability in similar environmental and geotechnical

  1. A case study of the use of GPR for rehabilitation of a classified Art Deco building: The InovaDomus house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraca, Nuno; Almeida, Miguel; Varum, Humberto; Almeida, Fernando; Matias, Manuel Senos

    2016-04-01

    Ancient buildings in historical town centers can be protected by Cultural Heritage legislation, thus implying that any rehabilitation must respect their main architectural features. These concerns also apply to Modern and Contemporary buildings, in particular if they are important examples of architectural styles from those periods. These extra problems, or motivations, add to the inherent structural delicacy of ancient building restoration that requires detailed knowledge of the building foundations, characteristics and materials, modification history, infrastructure mapping, current pathologies, etc., all relevant information for an informed rehabilitation project. Such knowledge is seldom available before the actual rehabilitation works begin, and the usual invasive preliminary surveys are frequently expensive, time-consuming and likely significantly alter/damage the building's main features or structural integrity. Hence, the current demand for indirect, non-invasive, reliable and high resolution imagery techniques able to produce relevant information at the early stages of a rehabilitation project. The present work demonstrates that Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR or Georadar) surveys can provide a priori knowledge on the structure, construction techniques, materials, history and pathologies in a classified Modern Age building. It is also shown that the use of GPR on these projects requires carefully designed surveys, taking into account the known information, spatial constraints, environmental noise, nature and dimensions of the expected targets and suitable data processing sequences. Thus, if properly applied, GPR produces high-resolution results crucial for sound engineering/architectural interventions aiming to restore and renovate Modern and Contemporary buildings, with (1) focus on the overall quality of the end-result, (2) no damage inflicted to the existing structure, (3) respect of the building's historical coherence and architectural elements and

  2. Safety in GPR prospecting: a rarely-considered issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pajewski, Lara; Trela, Christiane; Carrick Utsi, Erica

    2016-04-01

    Safety issues (of people first of all, but also of the equipment and environment) are rarely considered in Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) prospecting and, more in general, in near-surface geophysical prospecting. As is right and fully understandable, the scientific community devotes greatest attention first of all to the theoretical and practical aspects of GPR technique, affecting the quality of attainable results, secondly to the efforts and costs needed to achieve them [1-2]. However, the (luckily) growing GPR market and range of applications make it worth giving serious consideration to safety issues, too. The existing manuals dealing with safety in geophysics are mainly concerned with applications requiring "deep" geophysical prospecting, for example the search for oilfields and other hydrocarbon resources [3]. Near-surface geophysics involves less dangers than deep geophysics, of course. Nevertheless, several accidents have already happened during GPR experimental campaigns. We have personally had critical experiences and collected reliable testimonies concerning occurred problems as mountain sicks, fractures of legs, stomach problems, allergic reactions, encounters with potentially-dangerous animals, and more. We have also noticed that much more attention is usually paid to safety issues during indoor experimental activities (in laboratory), rather than during outdoor fieldworks. For example, the Italian National research Council is conventioned with safety experts who hold periodical seminaries about safety aspects. Having taken part to some of them, to our experience we have never heard a "lecture" devoted to outdoor prospecting. Nowadays, any aspects associated to the use of the technologies should be considered. The increasing sensibility and sense of responsibility towards environmental matters impose GPR end-users to be careful not to damage the environment and also the cultural heritage. Near-surface prospecting should not compromise the flora and

  3. Field and Laboratory GPR Monitoring of Biological Activity in Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, Georgios; Schillig, Peter; McGlashan, Michael; Roberts, Jennifer; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of "biogeophysics". The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present a field study and a laboratory experiment that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Three competing mechanisms are postulated to cause the changes observed in the radar data: 1) biogenic gas production, 2) mineral dissolution, and 3) biomass growth. However, due to the inherent complexity and uncertainties associated with field experimentation, the relative effect of each mechanism on the GPR signal could not be confirmed. To overcome the limitations of field observations in assessing the response of GPR signals to biomass formation, a 90-day laboratory

  4. A medium-chain fatty acid receptor Gpr84 in zebrafish: expression pattern and roles in immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoyan; Feng, Dong; Liu, Kai; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Hongyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shicui; Liu, Zhenhui

    2014-08-01

    Gpr84 was recently identified as a receptor for medium-chain fatty acids, but its functions remain to be clarified. We reported the identification of a zebrafish Gpr84 homologue (zGpr84), which has a higher gene expression in the tissues of intestine, heart and liver. During embryogenesis, zGpr84 is maternally expressed and a significant increase is observed at segmentation period, and it is mainly restricted to the head region, pectoral fins, branchial arches, intestine and lateral line neuromast. Fasting or treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce significant up-regulation of zGpr84. We further demonstrated that zGpr84 is involved in the accumulation of lipid droplets in cells. Moreover, undecanoic acid (UA) can amplify LPS induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 p40 through zGpr84, supporting the proposal that Gpr84 may play a role in directly linking fatty acid metabolism to immunological regulation. The resulting data in fish lay a foundation for a comprehensive exploration of the functions and evolution of Gpr84.

  5. The Gs-linked receptor GPR3 inhibits the proliferation of cerebellar granule cells during postnatal development.

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    Shigeru Tanaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During postnatal murine and rodent cerebellar development, cerebellar granule precursors (CGP gradually stop proliferating as they differentiate after migration to the internal granule layer (IGL. Molecular events that govern this program remain to be fully elucidated. GPR3 belongs to a family of Gs-linked receptors that activate cyclic AMP and are abundantly expressed in the adult brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of this orphan receptor in CGP differentiation, we determined that exogenous GPR3 expression in rat cerebellar granule neurons partially antagonized the proliferative effect of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, while endogenous GPR3 inhibition by siRNA stimulated Shh-induced CGP proliferation. In addition, exogenous GPR3 expression in CGPs correlated with increased p27/kip expression, while GPR3 knock-down led to a decrease in p27/kip expression. In wild-type mice, GPR3 expression increased postnatally and its expression was concentrated in the internal granular layer (IGL. In GPR3 -/- mice, the IGL was widened with increased proliferation of CGPs, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Cell cycle kinetics of GPR3-transfected medulloblastoma cells revealed a G0/G1 block, consistent with cell cycle exit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results thus indicate that GPR3 is a novel antiproliferative mediator of CGPs in the postnatal development of murine cerebellum.

  6. Gpr177, a novel locus for bone mineral density and osteoporosis, regulates osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jiang, Ming; Hsu, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Human genetic analysis has recently identified Gpr177 as a susceptibility locus for bone mineral density and osteoporosis. Determining the unknown function of this gene is therefore extremely important to furthering our knowledge base of skeletal development and disease. The protein encoded by Gpr177 exhibits an ability to modulate the trafficking of Wnt, similar to the Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt. Because it plays a critical role in Wnt regulation, Gpr177 might be required for several key steps of skeletogenesis. To overcome the early lethality associated with the inactivation of Gpr177 in mice, conditional gene deletion is used to assess its functionality. Here we report the generation of four different mouse models with Gpr177 deficiency in various skeletogenic cell types. The loss of Gpr177 severely impairs development of the craniofacial and body skeletons, demonstrating its requirement for intramembranous and endochondral ossifications, respectively. Defects in the expansion of skeletal precursors and their differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes suggest that Wnt production and signaling mediated by Gpr177 cannot be substituted. Because the Gpr177 ablation impairs Wnt secretion, we therefore identify the sources of Wnt proteins essential for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. The intercross of Wnt signaling between distinct cell types is carefully orchestrated and necessary for skeletogenesis. Our findings lead to a proposed mechanism by which Gpr177 controls skeletal development through modulation of autocrine and paracrine Wnt signals in a lineage-specific fashion.

  7. An effective approach for road asset management through the FDTD simulation of the GPR signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Adabi, Saba; Kusayanagi, Wolfgang; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive tool widely used in many fields of application including pavement engineering surveys. Over the last decade, the need for further breakthroughs capable to assist end-users and practitioners as decision-support systems in more effective road asset management is increasing. In more details and despite the high potential and the consolidated results obtained over years by this non-destructive tool, pavement distress manuals are still based on visual inspections, so that only the effects and not the causes of faults are generally taken into account. In this framework, the use of simulation can represent an effective solution for supporting engineers and decision-makers in understanding the deep responses of both revealed and unrevealed damages. In this study, the potential of using finite-difference time-domain simulation of the ground-penetrating radar signal is analyzed by simulating several types of flexible pavement at different center frequencies of investigation typically used for road surveys. For these purposes, the numerical simulator GprMax2D, implementing the finite-difference time-domain method, was used, proving to be a highly effective tool for detecting road faults. In more details, comparisons with simplified undisturbed modelled pavement sections were carried out showing promising agreements with theoretical expectations, and good chances for detecting the shape of damages are demonstrated. Therefore, electromagnetic modelling has proved to represent a valuable support system in diagnosing the causes of damages, even for early or unrevealed faults. Further perspectives of this research will be focused on the modelling of more complex scenarios capable to represent more accurately the real boundary conditions of road cross-sections. Acknowledgements - This work has benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating

  8. The effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar surveys in the location of unmarked burial sites in modern cemeteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Illich, Bernhard; Berger, Jochen; Graw, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Ground-penetration radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that is commonly used in archaeological and forensic investigations, including the determination of the exact location of graves. Whilst the method is rapid and does not involve disturbance of the graves, the interpretation of GPR profiles is nevertheless difficult and often leads to incorrect results. Incorrect identifications could hinder criminal investigations and complicate burials in cemeteries that have no information on the location of previously existing graves. In order to increase the number of unmarked graves that are identified, the GPR results need to be verified by comparing them with the soil and vegetation properties of the sites examined. We used a modern cemetery to assess the results obtained with GPR which we then compared with previously obtained tachymetric data and with an excavation of the graves where doubt existed. Certain soil conditions tended to make the application of GPR difficult on occasions, but a rough estimation of the location of the graves was always possible. The two different methods, GPR survey and tachymetry, both proved suitable for correctly determining the exact location of the majority of graves. The present study thus shows that GPR is a reliable method for determining the exact location of unmarked graves in modern cemeteries. However, the method did not allow statements to be made on the stage of decay of the bodies. Such information would assist in deciding what should be done with graves where ineffective degradation creates a problem for reusing graves following the standard resting time of 25 years.

  9. The Curvelet Transform in the analysis of 2-D GPR data: Signal enhancement and extraction of orientation-and-scale-dependent information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    wavelet transform: whereas discrete wavelets are designed to provide sparse representations of functions with point singularities, curvelets are designed to provide sparse representations of functions with singularities on curves. This work investigates the utility of the CT in processing noisy GPR data from geotechnical and archaeometric surveys. The analysis has been performed with the Fast Discrete CT (FDCT - Candès et al., 2006) available from http://www.curvelet.org/ and adapted for use by the matGPR software (Tzanis, 2010). The adaptation comprises a set of driver functions that compute and display the curvelet decomposition of the input GPR section and then allow for the interactive exclusion/inclusion of data (wavefront) components at different scales and angles by cancelation/restoration of the corresponding curvelet coefficients. In this way it is possible to selectively reconstruct the data so as to abstract/retain information of given scales and orientations. It is demonstrated that the CT can be used to: (a) Enhance the S/N ratio by cancelling directional noise wavefronts of any angle of emergence, with particular reference to clutter. (b) Extract geometric information for further scrutiny, e.g. distinguish signals from small and large aperture fractures, faults, bedding etc. (c) Investigate the characteristics of signal propagation (hence material properties), albeit indirectly. This is possible because signal attenuation and temporal localization are closely associated, so that scale and spatio-temporal localization are also closely related. Thus, interfaces embedded in low attenuation domains will tend to produce sharp reflections rich in high frequencies and fine-scale localization. Conversely, interfaces in high attenuation domains will tend to produce dull reflections rich in low frequencies and broad localization. At a single scale and with respect to points (a) and (b) above, the results of the CT processor are comparable to those of the tuneable

  10. The use of GPR and VES in delineating a contamination plume in a landfill site: a case study in SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsani, Jorge L.; Filho, Walter M.; Elis, Vagner R.; Shimeles, Fisseha; Dourado, João C.; Moura, Helyelson P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the application of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method, or Georadar, in outlining a zone of contamination due to solid residues at the waste burial site of Rio Claro in the state of São Paulo, SE Brazil. A total of eight GPR profiles with 50- and 100-MHz antennae were surveyed. Six profiles were located within the landfill site and the remaining two were outside. The main objective of the GPR survey was to evaluate the side extension of contamination. A Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) survey was performed at four points within the site in order to investigate the vertical extent of the contamination plume and to define the bottom of the landfill. Two additional VESs were done outside the landfill with the purpose of determining the top of the ground water table and the geoelectric stratigraphy of the background. From the interpretation of the GPR profiles, it was possible to locate the top of the contamination plume and to infer that it was migrating laterally beyond the limits of the waste disposal site. This was observed along the profile situated close to the highway SP-127, which was about 20 m from the limit of the site. The signature of the contaminant appears as a discontinuous reflector that is believed to be a shallow ground water table. The discontinuity is marked by a shadow zone, which is characteristic of conductive contaminant residues. The contamination did not move far enough to reach a sugar cane plantation located at approximately 100 m from the border of the site. In the regions free from contamination, the ground water table was mapped at approximately 10 m of depth, and it was characterized by a strong and continuous reflector. The radar signal penetrated deep enough and enabled the identification of a second reflector at approximately 14 m deep, interpreted as the contact between the Rio Claro and the Corumbataı´ formations. The contact is marked by the presence of gravel characterized by

  11. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Trees are a part of our everyday life, hence it is important to prevent their collapse to protect people and urban infrastructures. It is also important to characterize tree wood properties for usages in construction. In order to investigate internal parts of tree trunks non-invasively, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), or in this case, ultra-wideband microwave radar as a general tool, appears to be a very promising technology. Nevertheless, tree trunk tomography using microwave radar is a complicated task due to the circular shape of the trunk and the very complex (heterogeneous and anisotropic) internal structures of the trunk. Microwave sensing of tree trunks is also complicated due to the electromagnetic properties of living wood, which strongly depend on water content, density and temperature of wood. The objective of this study is to describe tree trunk radar cross sections including specific features originating from the particular circumferential data acquisition geometry. In that respect, three experiments were performed: (1) numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain software, namely, gprMax 2D, (2) measurements on a simplified laboratory trunk model including plastic and cardboard pipes, sand and air, and (3) measurements over a real tree trunk. The analysis was further deepened by considering: (1) common zero-offset reflection imaging, (2) imaging with a planar perfect electrical conductor (PEC) at the opposite side of the trunk, and (3) imaging with a PEC arc at the opposite side of the trunk. Furthermore, the shape of the reflection curve of a cylindrical target was analytically derived based on the straight-ray propagation approximation. Subsequently, the total internal reflection (TIR) phenomenon occurring in cylindrical objects was observed and analytically described. Both the straight-ray reflection curve and TIR were well observed on the simulated and laboratory radar data. A comparison between all experiments and radar

  12. Small-scale soil moisture determination with GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of topsoil moisture distribution is an important input for modelling water flow and evapotranspiration which are essential processes in hydrology, meteorology, and agriculture. All these processes involve non-linear effects and thus the small-scale variability of input parameters play an important role. Using smoothed interpolations instead can cause significant biases. Lateral soil moisture distribution can be sensed by different techniques at various scales whereby geophysical methods provide spatial information which closes the gap between point measurements by classical soil scientific methods and measurements on the field or regional scale by remote sensing. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to explore soil moisture on the field scale as propagation of electromagnetic waves is correlated to soil water content. By determining the velocity of the ground wave, which is a guided wave travelling along the soil surface, we can sense soil water content. This method has been applied to determine topsoil moisture for several years. We present a new groundwave technique which determines the velocity in between two receiving antennas which enables a higher lateral resolution (approx. 10 cm) compared to classical groundwave technique (half meter and more). We present synthetic data from finite-differences (FD) calculations as well as data from a sandbox experiment carried out under controlled conditions to demonstrate the performance of this method. Further, we carried out field measurements on two sites on a sandy soil which is used as grassland. The measurements were carried out in late summer at dry soil conditions. Soil moisture on the first site shows an isotropic pattern with correlation lengths of approx. 35 cm. We think this natural pattern is governed by rout distribution within the soil and the water uptake of vegetation. On the second site, soil moisture distribution shows a regular stripe pattern. As the land has been used as

  13. Expression of the Fatty Acid Receptors GPR84 and GPR120 and Cytodifferentiation of Epithelial Cells in the Gastric Mucosa of Mouse Pups in the Course of Dietary Transition

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    Patricia Widmayer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During weaning, the ingested food of mouse pups changes from exclusively milk to solid food. In contrast to the protein- and carbohydrate-rich solid food, high fat milk is characterized primarily by fatty acids of medium chain length particularly important for the suckling pups. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the stomach mucosa may be specialized for detecting these important nutrients during the suckling phase. Here, we analyzed the expression of the G protein coupled receptors GPR84 and GPR120 (FFAR4, which are considered to be receptors for medium and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs, respectively. We found that the mRNA levels for GPR84 and GPR120 were high during the suckling period and progressively decreased in the course of weaning. Visualization of the receptor-expressing cells in 2-week-old mice revealed a high number of labeled cells, which reside in the apical as well as in the basal region of the gastric glands. At the base of the gastric glands, all GPR84-immunoreactive cells and some of the GPR120-positive cells also expressed chromogranin A (CgA, suggesting that they are enteroendocrine cells. We demonstrate that the majority of the CgA/GPR84 cells are X/A-like ghrelin cells. The high degree of overlap between ghrelin and GPR84 decreased post-weaning, whereas the overlap between ghrelin and GPR120 increased. At the apical region of the glands the fatty acid receptors were mainly expressed in unique cell types. These contain lipid-filled vacuole- and vesicle-like structures and may have absorptive functions. We detected decreased immunoreactivity for GPR84 and no lipid droplets in surface cells post-weaning. In conclusion, expression of GPR84 in ghrelin cells as well as in surface cells suggests an important role of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs in the developing gastric mucosa of suckling mice.

  14. Comparison of pulse and SFCW GPR in time, frequency and wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pue, Jan; Van De Vijver, Ellen; Cornelis, Wim; Van Meirvenne, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems operating in the time- or frequency domain are two fundamentally different concepts, pursuing the same objective: non-invasive characterization of the subsurface. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of these two GPR systems in the time, frequency and wavelet domain. The time domain GPR investigated is the Utilityscan DF. This is a ground coupled GPR with a digital dual-frequency antenna (300 and 800 MHz). The Geoscope GS3F and VX1213 antenna array from 3DRadar is the frequency domain GPR used in this comparison. It is an air coupled stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) GPR with a frequency bandwidth from 200 MHz to 3000 MHz. Using data from several test sites of various soil types, the data is evaluated in the time domain, the frequency domain and the wavelet domain. Each of these domains contains specific information regarding the data quality. Presenting the data in the time domain, allows visualizing the subsurface reflections. This makes it visible how strong the data is affected by internal interference, ringing and other noise. To compensate for the attenuation of the signal in time, automatic gain control is applied. The maximum of this gain function indicates the time where the signal is attenuated completely and noise becomes more dominant, corresponding with the maximal penetration depth of the different GPR systems. In the frequency domain, the data allows to investigate which frequencies contain most valuable information and which ones are affected by noise. Finally, by performing a wavelet transformation the data is transformed to the time-frequency domain. Due to frequency dependent attenuation of electromagnetic signals in the soil, low frequencies will be more dominant in deeper layers, and high frequencies will not be present anymore. This is determining for the range resolution of the data throughout the traveltime of the signal. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil

  15. Activation of the succinate receptor GPR91 in macula densa cells causes renin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Sarah Laurin; Toma, Ildikó; Kang, Jung Julie; Meer, Elliott James; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2009-05-01

    Macula densa (MD) cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) are salt sensors and generate paracrine signals that control renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and release of the prohypertensive hormone renin. We hypothesized that the recently identified succinate receptor GPR91 is present in MD cells and regulates renin release. Using immunohistochemistry, we identified GPR91 in the apical plasma membrane of MD cells. Treatment of MD cells with succinate activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and induced the synthesis and release of prostaglandin E(2), a potent vasodilator and classic paracrine mediator of renin release. Using microperfused JGA and real-time confocal fluorescence imaging of quinacrine-labeled renin granules, we detected significant renin release in response to tubular succinate (EC(50) 350 microM). Genetic deletion of GPR91 (GPR91(-/-) mice) or pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK or COX-2 blocked succinate-induced renin release. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes caused GPR91-dependent upregulation of renal cortical phospho-p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, COX-2, and renin content. Salt depletion for 1 wk increased plasma renin activity seven-fold in wild-type mice but only 3.4-fold in GPR91(-/-) mice. In summary, MD cells can sense alterations in local tissue metabolism via accumulation of tubular succinate and GPR91 signaling, which involves the activation of MAPKs, COX-2, and the release of prostaglandin E(2). This mechanism may be integral in the regulation of renin release and activation of the renin-angiotensin system in health and disease.

  16. Angelica dahurica Extracts Improve Glucose Tolerance through the Activation of GPR119.

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    Eun-Young Park

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor (GPR 119 is expressed in pancreatic β-cells and intestinal L cells, and is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 release, respectively. Therefore, the development of GPR119 agonists is a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. We screened 1500 natural plant extracts for GPR119 agonistic actions and investigated the most promising extract, that from Angelica dahurica (AD, for hypoglycemic actions in vitro and in vivo. Human GPR119 activation was measured in GeneBLAzer T-Rex GPR119-CRE-bla CHO-K1 cells; intracellular cAMP levels and insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 cells; and GLP-1 release was measured in GLUTag cells. Glucose tolerance tests and serum plasma insulin levels were measured in normal C57BL6 mice and diabetic db/db mice. AD extract-treated cells showed significant increases in GPR119 activation, intracellular cAMP levels, GLP-1 levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with controls. In normal mice, a single treatment with AD extract improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin secretion. Treatment with multiple doses of AD extract or n-hexane fraction improved glucose tolerance in diabetic db/db mice. Imperatorin, phellopterin and isoimperatorin were identified in the active fraction of AD extract. Among these, phellopterin activated GPR119 and increased active GLP-1 and insulin secretion in vitro and enhanced glucose tolerance in normal and db/db mice. We suggest that phellopterin might have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Niacin-induced hyperglycemia is partially mediated via niacin receptor GPR109a in pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; So, Wing Yan; Li, Stephen Y T; Cheng, Qianni; Boucher, Barbara J; Leung, Po Sing

    2015-03-15

    The widely used lipid-lowering drug niacin is reported to induce hyperglycemia during chronic and high-dose treatments, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, the niacin receptor [G-protein-coupled receptor, (GPR) 109a], has been localized to islet cells while its potential role therein remains unclear. We, therefore, aimed at investigating how GPR109a regulates islet beta-cell function and its downstream signaling using high-fat diet-induced obese mice and INS-1E beta cells. Eight-week niacin treatment elevated blood glucose concentration in obese mice with increased areas under the curve at oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests. Additionally, niacin treatment significantly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) but induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) and GPR109a expression in isolated pancreatic islets; concomitantly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were transiently increased, with decreases in GSIS, intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), but with increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2), Pparg and Gpr109a in INS-1E cells. Corroborating these findings, the decreases in GSIS, ΔΨm and cAMP production and increases in ROS, Pparg and GPR109a expression were abolished in INS-1E cells by GPR109a knockdown. Our data indicate that niacin-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction is probably modulated through activation of the islet beta-cell GPR109a-induced ROS-PPARγ-UCP2 pathways.

  18. High resolution aquifer characterization using crosshole GPR full-waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueting, N.; Vienken, T.; Klotzsche, A.; Van Der Kruk, J.; Vanderborght, J.; Caers, J.; Vereecken, H.; Englert, A.

    2016-12-01

    Limited knowledge about the spatial distribution of aquifer properties typically constrains our ability to predict subsurface flow and transport. Here, we investigate the value of using high resolution full-waveform inversion of cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) data for aquifer characterization. By stitching together GPR tomograms from multiple adjacent crosshole planes, we are able to image, with a decimeter scale resolution, the dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity of an alluvial aquifer along cross-sections of 50 m length and 10 m depth. A logistic regression model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of lithological facies on the basis of the GPR results. Vertical profiles of porosity and hydraulic conductivity from direct-push, flowmeter and grain size data suggest that the GPR predicted facies classification is meaningful with regard to porosity and hydraulic conductivity, even though the distributions of individual facies show some overlap and the absolute hydraulic conductivities from the different methods (direct-push, flowmeter, grain size) differ up to approximately one order of magnitude. Comparison of the GPR predicted facies architecture with tracer test data suggests that the plume splitting observed in a tracer experiment was caused by a hydraulically low-conductive sand layer with a thickness of only a few decimeters. Because this sand layer is identified by GPR full-waveform inversion but not by conventional GPR ray-based inversion we conclude that the improvement in spatial resolution due to full-waveform inversion is crucial to detect small-scale aquifer structures that are highly relevant for solute transport.

  19. Using airborne geophysical surveys to improve groundwater resource management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, groundwater management requires more accurate hydrogeologic frameworks for groundwater models. These complex issues have created the demand for innovative approaches to data collection. In complicated terrains, groundwater modelers benefit from continuous high‐resolution geologic maps and their related hydrogeologic‐parameter estimates. The USGS and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for near‐continuous coverage of areas of the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska. The survey objectives were to map the aquifers and bedrock topography of the area to help improve the understanding of groundwater‐surface‐water relationships, leading to improved water management decisions. Frequency‐domain heliborne electromagnetic surveys were completed, using a unique survey design to collect resistivity data that can be related to lithologic information to refine groundwater model inputs. To render the geophysical data useful to multidimensional groundwater models, numerical inversion is necessary to convert the measured data into a depth‐dependent subsurface resistivity model. This inverted model, in conjunction with sensitivity analysis, geological ground truth (boreholes and surface geology maps), and geological interpretation, is used to characterize hydrogeologic features. Interpreted two‐ and three‐dimensional data coverage provides the groundwater modeler with a high‐resolution hydrogeologic framework and a quantitative estimate of framework uncertainty. This method of creating hydrogeologic frameworks improved the understanding of flow path orientation by redefining the location of the paleochannels and associated bedrock highs. The improved models reflect actual hydrogeology at a level of accuracy not achievable using previous data sets.

  20. The association of GPR85 with PSD-95-neuroligin complex and autism spectrum disorder: a molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Jimbo, Eriko; Tanabe, Yuko; Yu, Zhiling; Kojima, Karin; Mori, Masato; Li, Hong; Iwamoto, Sadahiko; Yamagata, Takanori; Momoi, Mariko Y; Momoi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a complex genetic etiology. Some symptoms and mutated genes, including neuroligin (NLGN), neurexin (NRXN), and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein (SHANK), are shared by schizophrenia and ASD. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of ASD. One of the possible molecular pathogenesis is an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory receptors linked with the NLGN-PSD-95-SHANK complex via postsynaptic density protein/Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor/zonula occludens-1 protein (PDZ) binding. In the present study, we focused on GPR85 as a candidate gene for ASD because the C-terminal amino acid sequence of GPR85 [Thr-Cys-Val-Ile (YCVI)] is classified as a type II PDZ-binding motif, and GPR85 is a risk factor for schizophrenia. GPR85 is an orphan receptor that regulates neural and synaptic plasticity and modulates diverse behaviors, including learning and memory. While searching for molecules that associate with GPR85, we found that GPR85 was associated with postsynaptic density protein (PSD)-95 linked with NLGN in the brain. We examined the proteins that associate with the C-terminal sequence of GPR85 by pull-down assay and immunoblot analysis and searched for a mutation of the GPR85 gene in patients with ASD. We used immunostaining to examine the intracellular localization of mutated GPR85 and its influence on the morphology of cells and neurons. The C-terminal sequence of GPR85 interacted with PSD-95 at PDZ1, while NLGN interacted with PSD-95 at PDZ3. Two male patients with ASD from independent Japanese families possessed inherited missense mutations at conserved sites in GPR85: one had T1033C (M152T) and the other had G1239T (V221L). These mutations were located in a domain related to G protein interaction and signal transduction. In contrast to wild-type GPR85, mutated GPR85 was more preferentially accumulated, causing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and disturbed the dendrite formation of hippocampal neurons

  1. Activation of GPR4 by acidosis increases endothelial cell adhesion through the cAMP/Epac pathway.

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    Aishe Chen

    Full Text Available Endothelium-leukocyte interaction is critical for inflammatory responses. Whereas the tissue microenvironments are often acidic at inflammatory sites, the mechanisms by which cells respond to acidosis are not well understood. Using molecular, cellular and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that activation of GPR4, a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, by isocapnic acidosis increases the adhesiveness of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs that express GPR4 endogenously. Acidosis in combination with GPR4 overexpression further augments HUVEC adhesion with U937 monocytes. In contrast, overexpression of a G protein signaling-defective DRY motif mutant (R115A of GPR4 does not elicit any increase of HUVEC adhesion, indicating the requirement of G protein signaling. Downregulation of GPR4 expression by RNA interference reduces the acidosis-induced HUVEC adhesion. To delineate downstream pathways, we show that inhibition of adenylate cyclase by inhibitors, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA or SQ 22536, attenuates acidosis/GPR4-induced HUVEC adhesion. Consistently, treatment with a cAMP analog or a G(i signaling inhibitor increases HUVEC adhesiveness, suggesting a role of the G(s/cAMP signaling in this process. We further show that the cAMP downstream effector Epac is important for acidosis/GPR4-induced cell adhesion. Moreover, activation of GPR4 by acidosis increases the expression of vascular adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, which are functionally involved in acidosis/GPR4-mediated HUVEC adhesion. Similarly, hypercapnic acidosis can also activate GPR4 to stimulate HUVEC adhesion molecule expression and adhesiveness. These results suggest that acidosis/GPR4 signaling regulates endothelial cell adhesion mainly through the G(s/cAMP/Epac pathway and may play a role in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells.

  2. Acidosis activation of the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor stimulates vascular endothelial cell inflammatory responses revealed by transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Dong

    Full Text Available Acidic tissue microenvironment commonly exists in inflammatory diseases, tumors, ischemic organs, sickle cell disease, and many other pathological conditions due to hypoxia, glycolytic cell metabolism and deficient blood perfusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the acidic microenvironment are not well understood. GPR4 is a proton-sensing receptor expressed in endothelial cells and other cell types. The receptor is fully activated by acidic extracellular pH but exhibits lesser activity at the physiological pH 7.4 and minimal activity at more alkaline pH. To delineate the function and signaling pathways of GPR4 activation by acidosis in endothelial cells, we compared the global gene expression of the acidosis response in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC with varying level of GPR4. The results demonstrated that acidosis activation of GPR4 in HUVEC substantially increased the expression of a number of inflammatory genes such as chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, NF-κB pathway genes, and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2 or COX-2 and stress response genes such as ATF3 and DDIT3 (CHOP. Similar GPR4-mediated acidosis induction of the inflammatory genes was also noted in other types of endothelial cells including human lung microvascular endothelial cells and pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Further analyses indicated that the NF-κB pathway was important for the acidosis/GPR4-induced inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, acidosis activation of GPR4 increased the adhesion of HUVEC to U937 monocytic cells under a flow condition. Importantly, treatment with a recently identified GPR4 antagonist significantly reduced the acidosis/GPR4-mediated endothelial cell inflammatory response. Taken together, these results show that activation of GPR4 by acidosis stimulates the expression of a wide range of inflammatory genes in endothelial cells. Such inflammatory response can be

  3. Acidosis Activation of the Proton-Sensing GPR4 Receptor Stimulates Vascular Endothelial Cell Inflammatory Responses Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lixue; Li, Zhigang; Leffler, Nancy R.; Asch, Adam S.; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Yang, Li V.

    2013-01-01

    Acidic tissue microenvironment commonly exists in inflammatory diseases, tumors, ischemic organs, sickle cell disease, and many other pathological conditions due to hypoxia, glycolytic cell metabolism and deficient blood perfusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the acidic microenvironment are not well understood. GPR4 is a proton-sensing receptor expressed in endothelial cells and other cell types. The receptor is fully activated by acidic extracellular pH but exhibits lesser activity at the physiological pH 7.4 and minimal activity at more alkaline pH. To delineate the function and signaling pathways of GPR4 activation by acidosis in endothelial cells, we compared the global gene expression of the acidosis response in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with varying level of GPR4. The results demonstrated that acidosis activation of GPR4 in HUVEC substantially increased the expression of a number of inflammatory genes such as chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, NF-κB pathway genes, and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2 or COX-2) and stress response genes such as ATF3 and DDIT3 (CHOP). Similar GPR4-mediated acidosis induction of the inflammatory genes was also noted in other types of endothelial cells including human lung microvascular endothelial cells and pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Further analyses indicated that the NF-κB pathway was important for the acidosis/GPR4-induced inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, acidosis activation of GPR4 increased the adhesion of HUVEC to U937 monocytic cells under a flow condition. Importantly, treatment with a recently identified GPR4 antagonist significantly reduced the acidosis/GPR4-mediated endothelial cell inflammatory response. Taken together, these results show that activation of GPR4 by acidosis stimulates the expression of a wide range of inflammatory genes in endothelial cells. Such inflammatory response can be suppressed by

  4. Activation of GPR4 by Acidosis Increases Endothelial Cell Adhesion through the cAMP/Epac Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Nancy R.; Asch, Adam S.; Witte, Owen N.; Yang, Li V.

    2011-01-01

    Endothelium-leukocyte interaction is critical for inflammatory responses. Whereas the tissue microenvironments are often acidic at inflammatory sites, the mechanisms by which cells respond to acidosis are not well understood. Using molecular, cellular and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that activation of GPR4, a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, by isocapnic acidosis increases the adhesiveness of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that express GPR4 endogenously. Acidosis in combination with GPR4 overexpression further augments HUVEC adhesion with U937 monocytes. In contrast, overexpression of a G protein signaling-defective DRY motif mutant (R115A) of GPR4 does not elicit any increase of HUVEC adhesion, indicating the requirement of G protein signaling. Downregulation of GPR4 expression by RNA interference reduces the acidosis-induced HUVEC adhesion. To delineate downstream pathways, we show that inhibition of adenylate cyclase by inhibitors, 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) or SQ 22536, attenuates acidosis/GPR4-induced HUVEC adhesion. Consistently, treatment with a cAMP analog or a Gi signaling inhibitor increases HUVEC adhesiveness, suggesting a role of the Gs/cAMP signaling in this process. We further show that the cAMP downstream effector Epac is important for acidosis/GPR4-induced cell adhesion. Moreover, activation of GPR4 by acidosis increases the expression of vascular adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, which are functionally involved in acidosis/GPR4-mediated HUVEC adhesion. Similarly, hypercapnic acidosis can also activate GPR4 to stimulate HUVEC adhesion molecule expression and adhesiveness. These results suggest that acidosis/GPR4 signaling regulates endothelial cell adhesion mainly through the Gs/cAMP/Epac pathway and may play a role in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells. PMID:22110680

  5. Short-chain free fatty acid receptors FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41 as new potential therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The deorphanization of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptors FFA1 (GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41), GPR84, and GPR120 has made clear that the body is capable of recognizing and responding directly to nonesterified fatty acid of virtually any chain length. Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces high concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, a process which is important to health. The phylogenetically related 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptors free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) and FFA3 are activated by these SCFAs, and several lines of evidence indicate that FFA2 and FFA3 mediate beneficial effects associated with a fiber-rich diet, and that they may be of interest as targets for treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. FFA2 is highly expressed on immune cells, in particular neutrophils, and several studies suggest that the receptor plays a role in diseases involving a dysfunctional neutrophil response, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both FFA2 and FFA3 have been implicated in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and in regulation of appetite. More research is however required to clarify the potential of the receptors as drug targets and establish if activation or inhibition would be the preferred mode of action. The availability of potent and selective receptor modulators is a prerequisite for these studies. The few modulators of FFA2 or FFA3 that have been published hitherto in the peer-reviewed literature in general have properties that make them less than ideal as such tools, but published patent applications indicate that better tool compounds might soon become available which should enable studies critical to validate the receptors as new drug targets. PMID:23060857

  6. Detection and extraction of orientation-and-scale-dependent information from two-dimensional GPR data with tuneable directional wavelet filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    The Ground Probing Radar (GPR) is a valuable tool for near surface geological, geotechnical, engineering, environmental, archaeological and other work. GPR images of the subsurface frequently contain geometric information (constant or variable-dip reflections) from various structures such as bedding, cracks, fractures, etc. Such features are frequently the target of the survey; however, they are usually not good reflectors and they are highly localized in time and in space. Their scale is therefore a factor significantly affecting their detectability. At the same time, the GPR method is very sensitive to broadband noise from buried small objects, electromagnetic anthropogenic activity and systemic factors, which frequently blurs the reflections from such targets. This paper introduces a method to de-noise GPR data and extract geometric information from scale-and-dip dependent structural features, based on one-dimensional B-Spline Wavelets, two-dimensional directional B-Spline Wavelet (BSW) Filters and two-dimensional Gabor Filters. A directional BSW Filter is built by sidewise arranging s identical one-dimensional wavelets of length L, tapering the s-parallel direction (span) with a suitable window function and rotating the resulting matrix to the desired orientation. The length L of the wavelet defines the temporal and spatial scale to be isolated and the span determines the length over which to smooth (spatial resolution). The Gabor Filter is generated by multiplying an elliptical Gaussian by a complex plane wave; at any orientation the temporal or spatial scale(s) to be isolated are determined by the wavelength. λ of the plane wave and the spatial resolution by the spatial aspect ratio γ, which specifies the ellipticity of the support of the Gabor function. At any orientation, both types of filter may be tuned at any frequency or spatial wavenumber by varying the length or the wavelength respectively. The filters can be applied directly to two

  7. The Curvelet Transform in the analysis of 2-D GPR data: Signal enhancement and extraction of orientation-and-scale-dependent information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Ground Probing Radar (GPR) is a valuable tool for near surface geological, geotechnical, engineering, environmental, archaeological and other work. GPR images of the subsurface frequently contain geometric information (constant or variable-dip reflections) from various structures such as bedding, cracks, fractures etc. Such features are frequently the target of the survey; however, they are usually not good reflectors and they are highly localized in time and in space. Their scale is therefore a factor significantly affecting their detectability. At the same time, the GPR method is very sensitive to broadband noise from buried small objects, electromagnetic anthropogenic activity and systemic factors, which frequently blurs the reflections from such targets. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Curvelet Transform (CT) as a means of S/N enhancement and information retrieval from 2-D GPR sections, with particular emphasis on the recovery of features associated with specific temporal or spatial scales and geometry (orientation/dip). The CT is a multiscale and multidirectional expansion that formulates an optimally sparse representation of bivariate functions with singularities on twice-differentiable (C2-continuous) curves (e.g. edges) and allows for the optimal, whole or partial reconstruction of such objects. The CT can be viewed as a higher dimensional extension of the wavelet transform: whereas discrete wavelets are isotropic and provide sparse representations of functions with point singularities, curvelets are highly anisotropic and provide sparse representations of functions with singularities on curves. A GPR section essentially comprises a spatio-temporal sampling of the transient wavefield which contains different arrivals that correspond to different interactions with wave scatterers in the subsurface (wavefronts). These are generally longitudinally piecewise smooth and transversely oscillatory, i.e. they comprise edges. Curvelets can detect

  8. Macrophage PPARγ inhibits Gpr132 to mediate the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wing Yin; Huynh, HoangDinh; Chen, Peiwen; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Wan, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) significantly contributes to cancer progression. Human cancer is enhanced by PPARγ loss-of-function mutations, but inhibited by PPARγ agonists such as TZD diabetes drugs including rosiglitazone. However, it remains enigmatic whether and how macrophage contributes to PPARγ tumor-suppressive functions. Here we report that macrophage PPARγ deletion in mice not only exacerbates mammary tumor development but also impairs the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone. Mechanistically, we identify Gpr132 as a novel direct PPARγ target in macrophage whose expression is enhanced by PPARγ loss but repressed by PPARγ activation. Functionally, macrophage Gpr132 is pro-inflammatory and pro-tumor. Genetic Gpr132 deletion not only retards inflammation and cancer growth but also abrogates the anti-tumor effects of PPARγ and rosiglitazone. Pharmacological Gpr132 inhibition significantly impedes mammary tumor malignancy. These findings uncover macrophage PPARγ and Gpr132 as critical TAM modulators, new cancer therapeutic targets, and essential mediators of TZD anti-cancer effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18501.001

  9. Keypoint-based image processing for landmine detection in GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Rayn T.; Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2012-06-01

    Image keypoints are widely used in computer vision for object matching and recognition, where they provide the best solution for matching and instance recognition of complex objects within cluttered images. Most matching algorithms operate by rst nding interest points, or keypoints, that are expected to be common across multiple views of the same object. A small area, or patch, around each keypoint can be represented by a numerical descriptor that describes the structure of the patch. By matching descriptors from keypoints found in 2-D data to keypoints of known origin, matching algorithms can determine the likelihood that any particular patch matches a pre-existing template. The objective in this research is to apply these methods to two-dimensional slices of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data in order to distinguish between landmine and non-landmine responses. In this work, a variety of established object matching algorithms have been tested and evaluated to examine their application to GPR data. In addition, GPR specic keypoint and descriptor methods have been developed which better suit the landmine detection task within GPR data. These methods improve on the performance of standard image processing techniques, and show promise for future work involving translations of technologies from the computer vision eld to landmine detection in GPR data.

  10. Application of image categorization methods for buried threat detection in GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Rayn T.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2013-06-01

    Utilizing methods from the image processing and computer vision fields has led to advances in high resolution Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) based threat detection. By analyzing 2-D slices of GPR data and applying various image processing algorithms, it is possible to discriminate between threat and non-threat objects. In initial attempts to utilize such approaches, object instance-matching algorithms were applied to GPR images, but only limited success was obtained when utilizing feature point methods to identify patches of data that displayed landmine-like characteristics. While the approach worked well under some conditions, the instance-matching method of classification was not designed to identify a type of class, only reproductions of a specific instance. In contrast, our current approach is focused on identifying methods that can account for within-class variations that result from changing target types and varying operating conditions that a GPR system regularly encounters. Image category recognition is an area of research that attempts to account for within class variation of objects within visual images. Instead of finding a reproduction of a particular known object within an image, algorithms for image categorization are designed to learn the qualities of images that contain an instance belonging to a known class. The results illustrate how image category recognition algorithms can be successfully applied to threat identification in GPR data.

  11. Gpr177 deficiency impairs mammary development and prohibits Wnt-induced tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Eri Ohfuchi; Yu, H-M Ivy; Jiang, Ming; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of the Wnt pathway, essential for various developmental processes, is tightly linked to human breast cancers. By hijacking this evolutionary conserved signaling pathway, cancer cells acquire sustaining proliferation ability, leading to modification of physiologic properties necessary for tumor initiation and progression. An enormous wealth of knowledge on the importance of Wnt signaling in breast development and cancer has been obtained, but the cell types responsible for production of this proliferative signal operating within normal and malignant tissues remains poorly understood. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177 is essential for mammary morphogenesis. The loss of Gpr177 interferes with mammary stem cells, leading to deficiencies in cell proliferation and differentiation. Genetic analysis further demonstrates an indispensable role of Gpr177 in Wnt-induced tumorigenesis. The Gpr177-deficiency mice are resistant to malignant transformation. This study not only demonstrates the necessity of Wnt in mammary organogenesis but also provides a proof-of-principle for targeting of Gpr177 as a potential new treatment for human diseases with aberrant Wnt stimulation.

  12. Gpr177 deficiency impairs mammary development and prohibits Wnt-induced tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ohfuchi Maruyama

    Full Text Available Aberrant regulation of the Wnt pathway, essential for various developmental processes, is tightly linked to human breast cancers. By hijacking this evolutionary conserved signaling pathway, cancer cells acquire sustaining proliferation ability, leading to modification of physiologic properties necessary for tumor initiation and progression. An enormous wealth of knowledge on the importance of Wnt signaling in breast development and cancer has been obtained, but the cell types responsible for production of this proliferative signal operating within normal and malignant tissues remains poorly understood. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177 is essential for mammary morphogenesis. The loss of Gpr177 interferes with mammary stem cells, leading to deficiencies in cell proliferation and differentiation. Genetic analysis further demonstrates an indispensable role of Gpr177 in Wnt-induced tumorigenesis. The Gpr177-deficiency mice are resistant to malignant transformation. This study not only demonstrates the necessity of Wnt in mammary organogenesis but also provides a proof-of-principle for targeting of Gpr177 as a potential new treatment for human diseases with aberrant Wnt stimulation.

  13. Epithelial Gpr116 regulates pulmonary alveolar homeostasis via Gq/11 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kari; Filuta, Alyssa; Ludwig, Marie-Gabrielle; Seuwen, Klaus; Jaros, Julian; Vidal, Solange; Arora, Kavisha; Naren, Anjaparavanda P; Kandasamy, Kathirvel; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Offermanns, Stefan; Mason, Robert J; Miller, William E; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Bridges, James P

    2017-06-02

    Pulmonary function is dependent upon the precise regulation of alveolar surfactant. Alterations in pulmonary surfactant concentrations or function impair ventilation and cause tissue injury. Identification of the molecular pathways that sense and regulate endogenous alveolar surfactant concentrations, coupled with the ability to pharmacologically modulate them both positively and negatively, would be a major therapeutic advance for patients with acute and chronic lung diseases caused by disruption of surfactant homeostasis. The orphan adhesion GPCR GPR116 (also known as Adgrf5) is a critical regulator of alveolar surfactant concentrations. Here, we show that human and mouse GPR116 control surfactant secretion and reuptake in alveolar type II (AT2) cells by regulating guanine nucleotide-binding domain α q and 11 (Gq/11) signaling. Synthetic peptides derived from the ectodomain of GPR116 activated Gq/11-dependent inositol phosphate conversion, calcium mobilization, and cortical F-actin stabilization to inhibit surfactant secretion. AT2 cell-specific deletion of Gnaq and Gna11 phenocopied the accumulation of surfactant observed in Gpr116-/- mice. These data provide proof of concept that GPR116 is a plausible therapeutic target to modulate endogenous alveolar surfactant pools to treat pulmonary diseases associated with surfactant dysfunction.

  14. The use of GPR attributes to map a weak zone in a river dike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcak, Henryk; Golebiowski, Tomislaw

    2014-02-01

    Dike leakage can be the result of a rupture and the formation of loose zones which are not able to stand the water pressure during flooding. Loose zones are significantly more saturated when it rains and floods than the undamaged portion of the dike. Due to the increased water in loose zones, their electrical properties are changed, particularly dielectric permittivity. As a result, these zones have a different ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave reflection coefficient and are a source of wave diffraction. The interpretation of GPR measurements carried out on a leaking dike during a flood event in Poland is presented in this paper. The GPR attributes, such as an instantaneous phase, envelope, instantaneous frequency averaged over time and traces, have been analysed in the paper the interpretative tools. Also, the averaged spectrum (spectrum calculated from averaged traces) and moving spectrum (averaged spectrum calculated in windows moving along the traces), as well as the phase spectrum, of recorded GPR data were analysed as indicators of the existence of the deterioration of parts of the dike. As shown in the paper, the use of GPR signals attributes and spectra in the interpretation of field measurements can increase the available information about the structure of the dike by highlighting some of the physical properties of its construction.

  15. Novel Zn2+ Modulated GPR39 Receptor Agonists Do Not Drive Acute Insulin Secretion in Rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Fjellström

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D occurs when there is insufficient insulin release to control blood glucose, due to insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. The GPR39 receptor is expressed in metabolic tissues including pancreatic β-cells and has been proposed as a T2D target. Specifically, GPR39 agonists might improve β-cell function leading to more adequate and sustained insulin release and glucose control. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that GPR39 agonism would improve glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. A high throughput screen, followed by a medicinal chemistry program, identified three novel potent Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists. These agonists were evaluated in acute rodent glucose tolerance tests. The results showed a lack of glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects not only in lean mice, but also in diet-induced obese (DIO mice and Zucker fatty rats. It is concluded that Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists do not acutely stimulate insulin release in rodents.

  16. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is activated by medium and long chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Celia P; Tadayyon, Mohammad; Andrews, John L; Benson, William G; Chambers, Jon K; Eilert, Michelle M; Ellis, Catherine; Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Goetz, Aaron S; Minnick, Dana T; Murdock, Paul R; Sauls, Howard R; Shabon, Usman; Spinage, Lisa D; Strum, Jay C; Szekeres, Philip G; Tan, Kong B; Way, James M; Ignar, Diane M; Wilson, Shelagh; Muir, Alison I

    2003-03-28

    GPR40 is a member of a subfamily of homologous G protein-coupled receptors that include GPR41 and GPR43 and that have no current function or ligand ascribed. Ligand fishing experiments in HEK293 cells expressing human GPR40 revealed that a range of saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths greater than six were able to induce an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i), measured using a fluorometric imaging plate reader. 5,8,11-Eicosatriynoic acid was the most potent fatty acid tested, with a pEC(50) of 5.7. G protein coupling of GPR40 was examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the G alpha(q/i)-responsive Gal4-Elk1 reporter system. Expression of human GPR40 led to a constitutive induction of luciferase activity, which was further increased by exposure of the cells to eicosatriynoic acid. Neither the constitutive nor ligand-mediated luciferase induction was inhibited by pertussis toxin treatment, suggesting that GPR40 was coupled to G alpha(q/11.) Expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that GPR40 was specifically expressed in brain and pancreas, with expression in rodent pancreas being localized to insulin-producing beta-cells. These data suggest that some of the physiological effects of fatty acids in pancreatic islets and brain may be mediated through a cell-surface receptor.

  17. Effect of soil roughness on the inversion of off-ground monostatic GPR signal for noninvasive quantification of soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambot, S.; Antoine, M.; Vanclooster, M.; Slob, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a laboratory experiment that investigates the effect of soil surface roughness on the identification of the soil electromagnetic properties from full-wave inversion of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data in the frequency domain. The GPR system consists of an ultrawide band stepped-frequ

  18. Type IV collagen is an activating ligand for the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola, Kevin J; Sidik, Harwin; Zuchero, J Bradley; Eckart, Michael; Talbot, William S

    2014-08-12

    GPR126 is an orphan heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is essential for the development of diverse organs. We found that type IV collagen, a major constituent of the basement membrane, binds to Gpr126 and activates its signaling function. Type IV collagen stimulated the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in rodent Schwann cells, which require Gpr126 activity to differentiate, and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing exogenous Gpr126. Type IV collagen specifically bound to the extracellular amino-terminal region of Gpr126 containing the CUB (complement, Uegf, Bmp1) and pentraxin domains. Gpr126 derivatives lacking the entire amino-terminal region were constitutively active, suggesting that this region inhibits signaling and that ligand binding relieves this inhibition to stimulate receptor activity. A new zebrafish mutation that truncates Gpr126 after the CUB and pentraxin domains disrupted development of peripheral nerves and the inner ear. Thus, our findings identify type IV collagen as an activating ligand for GPR126, define its mechanism of activation, and highlight a previously unrecognized signaling function of type IV collagen in basement membranes.

  19. The oral lipid sensor GPR120 is not indispensable for the orosensory detection of dietary lipids in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Déborah; Bernard, Arnaud; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim-Akhtar; Besnard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Implication of the long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptor GPR120, also termed free fatty acid receptor 4, in the taste-guided preference for lipids is a matter of debate. To further unravel the role of GPR120 in the “taste of fat”, the present study was conducted on GPR120-null mice and their wild-type littermates. Using a combination of morphological [i.e., immunohistochemical staining of circumvallate papillae (CVP)], behavioral (i.e., two-bottle preference tests, licking tests and conditioned taste aversion) and functional studies [i.e., calcium imaging in freshly isolated taste bud cells (TBCs)], we show that absence of GPR120 in the oral cavity was not associated with changes in i) gross anatomy of CVP, ii) LCFA-mediated increases in intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i), iii) preference for oily and LCFA solutions and iv) conditioned avoidance of LCFA solutions. In contrast, the rise in [Ca2+]i triggered by grifolic acid, a specific GPR120 agonist, was dramatically curtailed when the GPR120 gene was lacking. Taken together, these data demonstrate that activation of lingual GPR120 and preference for fat are not connected, suggesting that GPR120 expressed in TBCs is not absolutely required for oral fat detection in mice PMID:25489006

  20. Frequency spectral analysis of GPR data over a crude oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, B.L.; Olhoeft, G.R.; Powers, M.H.; ,

    2004-01-01

    A multi-offset ground penetrating radar (GPR) dataset was acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA. The dataset consists of two, parallel profiles, each with 17 transmitter-receiver offsets ranging from 0.60 to 5.15m. One profile was acquired over a known oil pool floating on the water table, and the other profile was acquired over an uncontaminated area. The data appear to be more attenuated, or at least exhibit less reflectivity, in the area over the oil pool. In an attempt to determine the frequency dependence of this apparent attenuation, several attributes of the frequency spectra of the data were analyzed after accounting for the effects on amplitude of the radar system (radiation pattern), changes in antenna-ground coupling, and spherical divergence. The attributes analyzed were amplitude spectra peak frequency, 6 dB down, or half-amplitude, spectrum width, and the low and high frequency slopes between the 3 and 9 dB down points. The most consistent trend was observed for Fourier transformed full traces at offsets 0.81, 1.01, and 1.21m which displayed steeper low frequency slopes over the area corresponding to the oil pool. The Fourier-transformed time-windowed traces, where each window was equal to twice the airwave wavelet length, exhibited weakly consistent attribute trends from offset to offset and from window to window. The fact that strong, consistent oil indicators are not seen in this analysis indicates that another mechanism due to the presence of the oil, such as a gradient in the electromagnetic properties, may simply suppress reflections over the contaminated zone.

  1. GPR18 undergoes a high degree of constitutive trafficking but is unresponsive to N-Arachidonoyl Glycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Finlay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The orphan receptor GPR18 has become a research target following the discovery of a putative endogenous agonist, N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly. Chemical similarity between NAGly and the endocannabinoid anandamide suggested the hypothesis that GPR18 is a third cannabinoid receptor. GPR18-mediated cellular signalling through inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, in addition to physiological consequences such as regulation of cellular migration and proliferation/apoptosis have been described in response to both NAGly and anandamide. However, discordant findings have also been reported. Here we sought to describe the functional consequences of GPR18 activation in heterologously-expressing HEK cells. GPR18 expression was predominantly intracellular in stably transfected cell lines, but moderate cell surface expression could be achieved in transiently transfected cells which also had higher overall expression. Assays were employed to characterise the ability of NAGly or anandamide to inhibit cAMP or induce ERK phosphorylation through GPR18, or induce receptor trafficking. Positive control experiments, which utilised cells expressing hCB1 receptors (hCB1R, were performed to validate assay design and performance. While these functional pathways in GPR18-expressing cells were not modified on treatment with a panel of putative GPR18 ligands, a constitutive phenotype was discovered for this receptor. Our data reveal that GPR18 undergoes rapid constitutive receptor membrane trafficking—several-fold faster than hCB1R, a highly constitutively active receptor. To enhance the likelihood of detecting agonist-mediated receptor signalling responses, we increased GPR18 protein expression (by tagging with a preprolactin signal sequence and generated a putative constitutively inactive receptor by mutating the hGPR18 gene at amino acid site 108 (alanine to asparagine. This A108N mutant

  2. GPR Signal Processing with Geography Adaptive Scanning using Vector Radar for Antipersonal Landmine Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Sato

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR is a promising sensor for landmine detection, however there are two major problems to overcome. One is the rough ground surface. The other problem is the distance between the antennas of GPR. It remains irremovable clutters on a sub-surface image output from GPR by first problem. Geography adaptive scanning is useful to image objects beneath rough ground surface. Second problem makes larger the nonlinearity of the relationship between the time for propagation and the depth of a buried object, imaging the small objects such as an antipersonnel landmine closer to the antennas. In this paper, we modify Kirchhoff migration so as to account for not only the variation of position of the sensor head, but also the antennas alignment of the vector radar. The validity of this method is discussed through application to the signals acquired in experiments.

  3. Robust entropy-guided image segmentation for ground detection in GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Shkolnikov, Y.; Varsanik, J.; Chevalier, T.

    2013-06-01

    Identifying the ground within a ground penetrating radar (GPR) image is a critical component of automatic and assisted target detection systems. As these systems are deployed to more challenging environments they encounter rougher terrain and less-ideal data, both of which can cause standard ground detection methods to fail. This paper presents a means of improving the robustness of ground detection by adapting a technique from image processing in which images are segmented by local entropy. This segmentation provides the rough location of the air-ground interface, which can then act as a "guide" for more precise but fragile techniques. The effectiveness of this two-step "coarse/fine" entropyguided de