Sample records for ground-level o3 concentrations

  1. Analysis of Daytime and Nighttime Ground Level Ozone Concentrations Using Boosted Regression Tree Technique

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    Noor Zaitun Yahaya


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the use of boosted regression trees (BRTs to draw an inference about daytime and nighttime ozone formation in a coastal environment. Hourly ground-level ozone data for a full calendar year in 2010 were obtained from the Kemaman (CA 002 air quality monitoring station. A BRT model was developed using hourly ozone data as a response variable and nitric oxide (NO, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 and Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx and meteorological parameters as explanatory variables. The ozone BRT algorithm model was constructed from multiple regression models, and the 'best iteration' of BRT model was performed by optimizing prediction performance. Sensitivity testing of the BRT model was conducted to determine the best parameters and good explanatory variables. Using the number of trees between 2,500-3,500, learning rate of 0.01, and interaction depth of 5 were found to be the best setting for developing the ozone boosting model. The performance of the O3 boosting models were assessed, and the fraction of predictions within two factor (FAC2, coefficient of determination (R2 and the index of agreement (IOA of the model developed for day and nighttime are 0.93, 0.69 and 0.73 for daytime and 0.79, 0.55 and 0.69 for nighttime respectively. Results showed that the model developed was within the acceptable range and could be used to understand ozone formation and identify potential sources of ozone for estimating O3 concentrations during daytime and nighttime. Results indicated that the wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature were the most dominant variables in terms of influencing ozone formation. Finally, empirical evidence of the production of a high ozone level by wind blowing from coastal areas towards the interior region, especially from industrial areas, was obtained.

  2. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

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    J. Li


    Full Text Available In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3] for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1 SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2 AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3 SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30% relative to Control experiments. [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern

  3. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack


    Regina A. A.; I. Mohammad Halim Shah


    The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model uti...

  4. Leaf traits and photosynthetic responses of Betula pendula saplings to a range of ground-level ozone concentrations at a range of nitrogen loads. (United States)

    Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Mills, Gina; Calatayud, Vicent


    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. Rising ground-level O3 concentrations and atmospheric N deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. In addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. In the current study, three-year old Betula pendula saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24h mean O3 concentration of 36-68ppb in 2013, with peaks up to an average of 105ppb) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 or 70kgNha(-1)y(-1)) in 2012 and 2013. Here we report on the effects of enhanced O3 concentrations and N load on leaf traits and gas exchange in leaves of varying age and developmental stage in 2013. The response of leaf traits to O3 (but not N) vary with leaf developmental stage. For example, elevated O3 did not affect the chlorophyll content of the youngest fully expanded leaf, but it reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters in aging leaves, relatively more so later than earlier in the growing season. Elevated O3 enhanced the N content of senesced leaves prior to leaf fall, potentially affecting subsequent N cycling in the soil. Enhanced N generally stimulated the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity. Whilst elevated O3 reduced the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Asat) in aging leaves, it did not affect stomatal conductance (gs). This suggests that photosynthesis and gs are not closely coupled at elevated O3 under-light saturating conditions. We did not observe any interactions between O3 and N regarding photosynthetic parameters (Vc,max, Jmax, Asat), chlorophyll content, gs, N content in senesced leaves and leaf number. Hence, the sensitivity of these leaf traits to O3 in young silver birch trees is

  5. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain. (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique


    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  6. Characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations over contrasting land uses in a tropical urban environment (United States)

    Kishore Kumar, M.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.


    Indian cities feature high human population density, heterogeneous traffic, mixed land-use patterns and mostly tropical meteorological conditions. Characteristics of ambient CO2 concentrations under these distinctive features are very specific and the related studies are limited. This paper presents the characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations at three contrasting land uses (residential, commercial and industrial) in a tropical urban area of India. The CO2 concentrations were monitored in Chennai city for 31 days at each land use during June-September, 2013. Emissions of CO2 from all the major anthropogenic sources present at the three study sites were also quantified. Results indicated that the daily average CO2 concentrations were high at commercial (467 ± 35.15 ppm) and industrial (464 ± 31.68 ppm) sites than at residential site (448 ± 33.45 ppm). The quantified CO2 emissions were also showed high levels at commercial (1190 tons/day) and industrial sites (8886 tons/day) than at residential site (90 tons/day). On a diurnal scale, CO2 concentrations were low during afternoons and high during the late evenings and early morning hours at all the three types of land use sites. At the urban residential site, the domestic sector had a strong impact on the day time CO2 concentrations, while soil and plant respiration phenomena had a greater control over the night time CO2 concentrations. Further, the CO2 concentrations were high during the stagnation and stable meteorological conditions than the ventilation and unstable conditions.

  7. Prediction of ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo, Brazil: Deterministic versus statistic models (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Brasseur, G.; Andrade, M. F.; Gavidia-Calderón, M.; Bouarar, I.; Ynoue, R. Y.


    Two state-of-the-art models (deterministic: Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and statistic: Artificial Neural Networks: (ANN)) are implemented to predict the ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Two domains are set up for WRF-Chem simulations: a coarse domain (with 50 km horizontal resolution) including whole South America (D1) and a nested domain (with horizontal resolution of 10 km) including South Eastern Brazil (D2). To evaluate the spatial distribution of the chemical species, model results are compared to the Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, showing that the model satisfactorily predicts the CO concentrations in both D1 and D2. The model also reproduces the measurements made at three air quality monitoring stations in SP with the correlation coefficients of 0.74, 0.70, and 0.77 for O3 and 0.51, 0.48, and 0.57 for NOx. The input selection for ANN model is carried out using Forward Selection (FS) method. FS-ANN is then trained and validated using the data from two air quality monitoring stations, showing correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.75 for daily mean and 0.64 and 0.67 for daily peak ozone during the test stage. Then, both WRF-Chem and FS-ANN are deployed to forecast the daily mean and peak concentrations of ozone in two stations during 5-20 August 2012. Results show that WRF-Chem preforms better in predicting mean and peak ozone concentrations as well as in conducting mechanistic and sensitivity analysis. FS-ANN is only advantageous in predicting mean daily ozone concentrations considering its significantly lower computational costs and ease of development and implementation, compared to that of WRF-Chem.

  8. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

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    Regina A. A.


    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  9. An empirical method of RH correction for satellite estimation of ground-level PM concentrations (United States)

    Wang, Zifeng; Chen, Liangfu; Tao, Jinhua; Liu, Yang; Hu, Xuefei; Tao, Minghui


    A hygroscopic growth model suitable for local aerosol characteristics and their temporal variations is necessary for accurate satellite retrieval of ground-level particulate matters (PM). This study develops an empirical method to correct the relative humidity (RH) impact on aerosol extinction coefficient and to further derive PM concentrations from satellite observations. Not relying on detailed information of aerosol chemical and microphysical properties, this method simply uses the in-situ observations of visibility (VIS), RH and PM concentrations to characterize aerosol hygroscopicity, and thus makes the RH correction capable of supporting the satellite PM estimations with large spatial and temporal coverage. In this method, the aerosol average mass extinction efficiency (αext) is used to describe the general hygroscopic growth behaviors of the total aerosol populations. The association between αext and RH is obtained through empirical model fitting, and is then applied to carry out RH correction. Nearly one year of in-situ measurements of VIS, RH and PM10 in Beijing urban area are collected for this study and RH correction is made for each of the months with sufficient data samples. The correlations between aerosol extinction coefficients and PM10 concentrations are significantly improved, with the monthly correlation R2 increasing from 0.26-0.63 to 0.49-0.82, as well as the whole dataset's R2 increasing from 0.36 to 0.68. PM10 concentrations are retrieved through RH correction and validated for each season individually. Good agreements between the retrieved and observed PM10 concentrations are found in all seasons, with R2 ranging from 0.54 in spring to 0.73 in fall, and the mean relative errors ranging from -2.5% in winter to -10.8% in spring. Based on the satellite AOD and the model simulated aerosol profiles, surface PM10 over Beijing area is retrieved through the RH correction. The satellite retrieved PM10 and those observed at ground sites agree well

  10. Spatial and temporal analysis of ground level ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration across the twin cities of Pakistan. (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed; Aziz, Neelam


    The analyses presented in this paper include the concentration levels of NO2 and O3 measured during 2 successive years in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan from November 2009 to March 2011. NO2 was determined using the passive sampling method, while ozone was determined by Model 400E ozone analyzer. The average NO2 and O3 concentration in twin cities of Pakistan was found to be 44 ± 6 and 18.2 ± 1.24 ppb, respectively. Results indicate that the concentration of NO2 and O3 show seasonal variations. Results also depict that NO2 and O3 concentration levels are high in areas of intense traffic flow and congestion. Rawalpindi has more elevated levels of NO2 and O3 as compared to the Islamabad due to the narrow roads, enclosing architecture of road network and congestion. Climatic variables also influenced the NO2 and O3 concentration, i.e., temperature is positively related with O3, while negatively related with NO2, relative humidity is directly related with NO2 and inversely related with O3, whereas rainfall show negative association with both NO2 and O3 concentration. Comparing the results with WHO standards reveals that NO2 concentration levels at all the sampling points are above the permissible limit, while ozone concentration is still lower than the WHO standards. Thus, there is a need to take appropriate steps to control these continuously increasing levels of NO2 and O3 before they become a serious hazard for the environment and people living in those areas.

  11. Estimating Ground-Level Particulate Matter (PM) Concentration using Satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) (United States)

    Park, Seohui; Im, Jungho


    Atmospheric aerosols are strongly associated with adverse human health effects. In particular, particulate matter less than 10 micrometers and 2.5 micrometers (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) can cause cardiovascular and lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Air quality including PM has typically been monitored using station-based in-situ measurements over the world. However, in situ measurements do not provide spatial continuity over large areas. An alternative approach is to use satellite remote sensing as it provides data over vast areas at high temporal resolution. The literature shows that PM concentrations are related with Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) that is derived from satellite observations, but it is still difficult to identify PM concentrations directly from AOD. Some studies used statistical approaches for estimating PM concentrations from AOD while some others combined numerical models and satellite-derived AOD. In this study, satellite-derived products were used to estimate ground PM concentrations based on machine learning over South Korea. Satellite-derived products include AOD from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), soil moisture from AMSR-2, elevation from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and land cover, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). PM concentrations data were collected from 318 stations. A statistical ordinary least squares (OLS) approach was also tested and compared with the machine learning approach (i.e., random forest). PM concentration was estimated during spring season (from March to May) in 2015 that typically shows high concentration of PM. The randomly selected 80% of data were used for model calibration and the remaining 20% were used for validation. The developed models were further tested for prediction of PM

  12. Observed trends in ground-level O3 in Monterrey, Mexico, during 1993-2014: comparison with Mexico City and Guadalajara (United States)

    Hernández Paniagua, Iván Y.; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Mendoza, Alberto


    Here, we present an assessment of long-term trends in O3 and odd oxygen (O3 + NO2) at the industrial Monterrey metropolitan area (MMA) in NE Mexico. Diurnal amplitudes in Ox (AVd) are used as a proxy for net O3 production, which is influenced by the NO2 photolysis rate. No significant differences in the AVd are observed between weekends and weekdays, although the largest AVd values are observed at sites downwind of industrial areas. The highest O3 mixing ratios are observed in spring, with minimum values in winter. The largest annual variations in O3 are typically observed downwind of the MMA, with the lowest variations generally recorded in highly populated areas and close to industrial areas. A wind sector analysis of mixing ratios of O3 precursors revealed that the dominant sources of emissions are located in the industrial regions within the MMA and surrounding area. Significant increasing trends in O3 in spring, summer, and autumn are observed depending on site location, with trends in annual averages ranging between 0.19 and 0.33 ppb yr-1. Overall, from 1993 to 2014, within the MMA, O3 has increased at an average rate of 0.22 ppb yr-1 (p Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA).

  13. Effect of Nearby Forest Fires on Ground Level Ozone Concentrations in Santiago, Chile

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    María A. Rubio


    Full Text Available On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. Low level winds transported the forest fire plume towards Santiago causing a striking decrease in visibility and a marked increase in the concentration of both primary (PM10 and CO and secondary (Ozone pollutants in the urban atmosphere. In particular, ozone maximum concentrations in the Santiago basin reached hourly averages well above 80 ppb, the national air quality standard. This ozone increase took place at the three sampling sites considered in the present study. These large values can be explained in terms of high NOx concentrations and NO2/NO ratios in biomass burning emissions.

  14. Xanthoria parietina as a monitor of ground-level ambient ammonia concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik Brinkmann; Berthelsen, Kasper; Andersen, Helle Vibeke


    Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months in a tra......Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months...

  15. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.


    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  16. Changes in ground-level PM mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth over East Asia during 2004-2014 (United States)

    Nam, J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, R.; Yoon, S. C.; Sugimoto, N.; Park, J. S.; Hong, J.


    Multi-year records of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), ground-level particulate matter (PM) mass concentration, cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP), and ground-level lidar were analyzed to investigate seasonal and annual changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM mass concentration over East Asia. Least mean square fit method is applied to detect the trends and their magnitudes for each selected regions and stations. Eleven-year MODIS measurements show generally increasing trends in both AOD (1.18 % yr-1) and Ångström exponent (0.98 % yr-1), especially over the east coastal industrialized region in China. Monthly variation of AOD show maximum value at April-July, which were related to the progress of summer monsoon rain band and stationary continental air mass on the northeast of Asia. Increasing trends of AOD were found for eight cites in China (0.80 % yr-1) and Seoul site, Korea (0.40 % yr-1), whereas no significant change were shown in Gosan background site (0.04 % yr-1) and decreasing trend at five background sites in Japan (-0.42 % yr-1). Contrasting to AOD trend, all fifteen sites in China (-1.28 % yr-1), Korea (-2.77 % yr-1), and Japan (-2.03 % yr-1) showed decreasing trend of PM10 mass concentration. Also, PM2.5 mass concentration at Beijing, Seoul, Rishiri, and Oki show significant decreasing trend of -1.16 % yr-1. To further discuss the opposite trend of surface PM mass concentration and column AOD, we investigate vertical aerosol profile from lidar measurements. AOD estimated for planetary boundary layer (surface~1.5 km altitude; AODPBL) from CALIOP measurements over East China show decreasing trend of -1.71 % yr-1 over the period of 2007-2014, wherever AOD estimated for free troposphere (1.5 km~5 km altitude; AODFT) show increasing trend of 2.92 % yr-1. In addition, ground-level lidar measurements in Seoul show decreasing AODPBL trend of -2.57 % yr-1, whereas, AODFT show no significant change (-0.44 % yr

  17. Spectroscopical Determination of ground-level concentrations of Reactive Halogen Species (RHS) above salt lakes, salt pans and other areas with high halogen emissions (United States)

    Holla, Robert; Landwehr, Sebastian; Platt, Ulrich; Kotte, Karsten; Lisitsyna, Linda V.; Mulder, Ines; Emmerich, Maren; Huber, Stefan; Heidak, Markus


    Reactive Halogen Species (RHS), especially BrO and IO, are crucial for the photo chemistry of ozone, the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and have an impact on the equilibria of many atmospheric reaction cycles. This also induces a potential influence on the earth's climate. Beside polar regions, volcanoes and the marine boundary layer salt lakes are an important source for reactive halogen species. At the Dead Sea BrO mixing ratios of up to 176 ppt were measured in summer 2001 [Matveev et al., 2001] and IO was identified with maximal mixing ratios of more than 10 ppt by [Zingler and Platt, 2005]. The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia showed the presence of up to 20 ppt BrO [Hönninger et al., 2004]. Salt pans and salt deserts may be important halogen sources as well. Saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth and might increase in the near future due to desertification as one aspect of the global climate change. Within the scope of the DFG research group HALOPROC a measurement campaign in Southern Russia was performed in August 2009. The ground-level concentrations of BrO, IO, Ozone and other trace gases above the salt lakes El'Ton, Baskuntschak and other local areas were measured using the Multi-AXis-DOAS technique. A further campaign was performed in Mauritania in November/December 2009 in cooperation with the BMBF project SOPRAN. In addition to the above-mentioned measurements the Long-Path DOAS technique was used in order to measure the ground-level concentrations at two different sites: 1. the salt pan Sebkha N'Dramcha and 2. close to a sea weed field at Poste Iwik in a coastal area. We present results from both campaigns concerning the concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), ozone (O3)and formaldehyde (HCHO) and give an outlook on possible further campaigns in the future.

  18. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala. (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P


    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  19. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA. (United States)

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S


    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  20. Trees in urban parks and forests reduce O3, but not NO2 concentrations in Baltimore, MD, USA (United States)

    Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Scott, Anna A.; Viippola, Viljami; Setälä, Heikki


    Trees and other vegetation absorb and capture air pollutants, leading to the common perception that they, and trees in particular, can improve air quality in cities and provide an important ecosystem service for urban inhabitants. Yet, there has been a lack of empirical evidence showing this at the local scale with different plant configurations and climatic regions. We studied the impact of urban park and forest vegetation on the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ground-level ozone (O3) while controlling for temperature during early summer (May) using passive samplers in Baltimore, USA. Concentrations of O3 were significantly lower in tree-covered habitats than in adjacent open habitats, but concentrations of NO2 did not differ significantly between tree-covered and open habitats. Higher temperatures resulted in higher pollutant concentrations and NO2 and O3 concentration were negatively correlated with each other. Our results suggest that the role of trees in reducing NO2 concentrations in urban parks and forests in the Mid-Atlantic USA is minor, but that the presence of tree-cover can result in lower O3 levels compared to similar open areas. Our results further suggest that actions aiming at local air pollution mitigation should consider local variability in vegetation, climate, micro-climate, and traffic conditions.

  1. Ground-Level Ozone Decomposition over Pd-MnOx/Al2O3 Catalyst Prepared by Urea Hydrolysis%尿素水解法制备降解地表臭氧的Pd-Mnox/Al2O3催化剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘浩; 周丽娜; 朱艺; 彭娜; 龚茂初; 陈耀强


    采用尿素水解法制备了Pd-MnOx/Al2O3催化剂,运用低温N2吸附-脱附和X射线衍射对其进行了表征,并评价了其催化降解地表O3反应活性,考察了Pd,MnOx焙烧时间和MnOx含量刘催化剂活性的影响.结果表明,在高空速(660000h-1)、高相对湿度(85%~90%)条件下,MnOx焙烧时间为6h且.MnOx含量为80%的Pd-MnOx/Al2O3催化剂于低温(20~25 ℃)就表现出较高的催化活性,20℃时O3转化率就高达91.7%,其完全转化温度为24℃.可以预知该催化剂涂覆在汽车水箱散热片上,于室温就可完全降解地表O3,尤其适用于汽车冷启动和冬季时净化O3.%The Pd-MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst has been prepared by the urea hydrolysis method and characterized by Iow temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption and X-ray diffraction. Its catalytic activity for decomposing ground-level ozone has been studied. The catalyst showed a high activity at low temperature and high relative humidity. At gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 660000 h-1 and relative humidity of 85%-90%, the ozone conversion over the catalyst reached 91.7% at 20 ℃ and the temperature for complete decomposition of ozone was only 24 ℃. Furthermore, the prepared catalyst can completely decompose ground-level ozone when it is coated on the wave shaped heat patches of automobile water tanks.

  2. Transformation of dissolved organic matter in concentrated leachate from nanofiltration during ozone-based oxidation processes (O3, O3/H2O2 and O3/UV). (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Wei; Li, Xiao-Yue; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ya-Nan; Li, Wei-Hua; Tsang, Yiu Fai


    In this study, the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in nanofiltration concentrated leachate during three ozone-based oxidation processes (i.e., O3, O3/H2O2 and O3/UV) was investigated. The transformation characteristics of DOM were evaluated by gel filtration chromatography (GFC), XAD-8 resin fractionation, excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Compared with O3-alone process, the removal efficiencies of COD, TOC, and color were improved in O3-combined processes (i.e., O3/H2O2 and O3/UV) approximately by 10-15%, 7-15%, and 15-20%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) was completely degraded and preferentially reacted with the oxidants during ozonation processes. HA was first converted into fulvic acid (FA), and then the majority of these intermediates were further converted to hydrophilic fraction (HyI). The GFC results indicated that the broader molecular weight distribution of DOM was observed, and high molecular weight DOM (i.e., 0.45 μm-100 kDa) was successfully converted to low molecular weight organics in the range of 1-10 kDa after ozonation reactions. The EEM spectra also showed that HA and FA were effectively converted into HyI after ozonation for 90 min. It is suggested that ozone-based oxidation processes could effectively change the DOM distribution and fluorescence features of concentrated leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating national-scale ground-level PM25 concentration in China using geographically weighted regression based on MODIS and MISR AOD. (United States)

    You, Wei; Zang, Zengliang; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Yi; Wang, Weiqi


    Taking advantage of the continuous spatial coverage, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have been widely used to assess the spatial and temporal characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the ground and their effects on human health. However, the national-scale ground-level PM2.5 estimation is still very limited because the lack of ground PM2.5 measurements to calibrate the model in China. In this study, a national-scale geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was developed to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentration based on satellite AODs, newly released national-wide hourly PM2.5 concentrations, and meteorological parameters. The results showed good agreements between satellite-retrieved and ground-observed PM2.5 concentration at 943 stations in China. The overall cross-validation (CV) R (2) is 0.76 and root mean squared prediction error (RMSE) is 22.26 μg/m(3) for MODIS-derived AOD. The MISR-derived AOD also exhibits comparable performance with a CV R (2) and RMSE are 0.81 and 27.46 μg/m(3), respectively. Annual PM2.5 concentrations retrieved either by MODIS or MISR AOD indicated that most of the residential community areas exceeded the new annual Chinese PM2.5 National Standard level 2. These results suggest that this approach is useful for estimating large-scale ground-level PM2.5 distributions especially for the regions without PMs monitoring sites.

  4. Variations of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Malaysia: A Case Study in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nur Izzah Mohamad


    Full Text Available Hourly ground ozone concentration, measured from the monitoring stations in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia for the period of 10 years (2003-2012 were used to analyse the ozone characteristic in Nilai, Melaka and Petaling Jaya. The prediction of tropospheric ozone concentrations is very important due to the negative impacts of ozone on human health, climate and vegetation. The mean concentration of ozone at the studied areas had not exceeded the recommended value of Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guideline (MAAQG for 8-hour average (0.06 ppm, however some of the measurements exceeded the hourly permitted concentration by MAAQG that is 0.1 ppm. Higher concentration of ozone can be observed during the daytime since ozone needs sunlight for the photochemical reactions. The diurnal cycle of ozone concentration has a mid-day peak (14:00-15:00 and lower night-time concentrations. The ozone concentration slowly rises after the sun rises (08:00, reaching a maximum during daytime and then decreases until the next morning.

  5. Estimating Ground-Level PM2.5 Concentrations in the Southeastern U.S. using MAIAC AOD Retrievals (United States)

    Hu, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Lyapustin, A.


    previous studies showed that fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles smaller than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with various health outcomes. The traditional in situ measurements are both time and cost consuming, compared to the satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements. In addition, AOD measurements have the potential to provide spatiotemporally resolved predictions of both long and short term exposures and therefore are adopted in many previous studies for PM2.5 concentration estimation. However, the coarse resolutions (e.g. 10 km) of the AOD products limit the capabilities of various prediction models and make it impossible to predict PM2.5 concentrations with fine details. In this paper, a new aerosol product derived by the Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is used. The MAIAC aerosol product provides AOD at the spatial resolution of 1 km and thus has the potential to predict PM2.5 concentrations at high spatial resolution. In addition, a linear mixed model is developed to model the linkage between PM2.5 concentrations and various predictors including MAIAC AOD, meteorological parameters (e.g. surface temperature and wind speed), and land use information (e.g. elevation, major roads, and point source emission). The study area is the city of Atlanta and surrounding areas, Georgia, USA, and the data of year 2003 was collected from various sources. A cross validation is implemented for model validation. Both model fitting and cross validation generate high R2 values, indicating a good of fitness between the dependent variable and predictor variables.

  6. Concentrated aqueous Si3N4 -Y2O3 -Al2O3 slips stabalized with tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albano M. P.


    Full Text Available In order to obtain well dispersed concentrated aqueous Si3N4 slips for slip casting, the influence of pH and sintering aid powders (Y2O3 and Al2O3 on the viscosity and on the amount of tetramethylammonium ions adsorbed were determined. 35 vol% aqueous Si3N4 and Si3N4-6wt%Y2O3-4wt% Al2O3 slips were prepared in an attrition mill. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide was added to adjust the pH values in a range of 9.7 to 12.3. The viscosity of Si3N4 slips and the amount of [(CH34N]+ ions in solution increased with increasing pH. These counterions contributed mainly to increase the ionic strength of the solution with increasing the slip viscosity. The sintering aid powders had a positive effect on the dispersion of the Si3N4 powder at pH 10.3-12.3 since low viscosity values could be obtained. This was attributed to the lower concentration of counterions in solution.

  7. Aggregation and stability of Fe2O3:Influence of humic acid concentration, Fe2O3 concentration and pH (United States)

    Ahmad, Nur Suraya; Radiman, Shahidan; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan


    The scenario of released nanoparticles from consumer product into the environment especially natural waters are increased concern nowadays. Assessing their aggregation and stability under environmental conditions are important to determining their fate and behavior in natural waters. The aggregation behavior of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated at variable concentration of humic acid, Fe2O3 NPs concentration and pH variation in solution using dynamic light scattering to measure their z-average hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential value. The stability are then evaluated by assessing their aggregation and disaggregation. Increasing humic acid concentration induced the disaggregation of Fe2O3 NPs. At a lower concentrations of Fe2O3 (5) of solution induced disaggregation of suspensions and make it stable in the solution. TEM imaging have confirmed that Fe2O3 NPs aggregate and disaggregate in the presence of humic acid. Our study result shows that aggregation and stability of Fe2O3 NPs were depends on concentration of humic acid, concentration of NPs itself and the pH of the solutions.

  8. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth (United States)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.


    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  9. Evaluation of ground level concentration of pollutant due to gas flaring by computer simulation: A case study of Niger - Delta area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The disposal of associated gases through flaring has been a major problem for the Nigerian oil and gas industries and most of theses gases are flared due to the lack of commercial out lets. The resultant effects of gas flaring are the damaging effect of the environment due to acid rain formation, green house effect, global warming and ozone depletion.This writes up is aimed at evaluating ground level concentration of CO2, SO2, NO2 and total hydrocarbon (THC, which are product of gas flared in oil producing areas. Volumes of gas flared at different flow station were collected as well as geometrical parameters. The results of simulation of model developed based on the principles of gaseous dispersion by Gaussian showed a good agreement with dispersion pattern.The results showed that the dispersion pattern of pollutants at ground level depends on the volume of gas flared, wind speed, velocity of discharge and nearness to the source of flaring. The results shows that continuous gas flaring irrespective of the quantity deposited in the immediate environment will in long run lead to change in the physicochemical properties of soil.

  10. Two Methods to Derive Ground-level Concentrations of PM2.5 with Improved Accuracy in the North China, Calibrating MODIS AOD and CMAQ Model Predictions (United States)

    Lyu, Baolei; Hu, Yongtao; Chang, Howard; Russell, Armistead; Bai, Yuqi


    Reliable and accurate characterizations of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations are essential to understand pollution sources and evaluate human exposures etc. Monitoring network could only provide direct point-level observations at limited locations. At the locations without monitors, there are generally two ways to estimate the pollution levels of PM2.5. One is observations of aerosol properties from the satellite-based remote sensing, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD). The other one is from deterministic atmospheric chemistry models, such as the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). In this study, we used a statistical spatio-temporal downscaler to calibrate the two datasets to monitor observations to derive fine-scale ground-level concentrations of PM2.5 with improved accuracy. We treated both MODIS AOD and CMAQ model predictions as biased proxy estimations of PM2.5 pollution levels. The downscaler proposed a Bayesian framework to model the spatially and temporally varying coefficients of the two types of estimations in the linear regression setting, in order to correct biases. Especially for calibrating MODIS AOD, a city-specific linear model was established to fill the missing AOD values, and a novel interpolation-based variable, i.e. PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator, was introduced to account for the spatial dependence among grid cells. We selected the heavy polluted and populated North China as our study area, in a grid setting of 81×81 12-km cells. For the evaluation of calibration performance for retrieved MODIS AOD, the R2 was 0.61 by the full model with PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator being presented, and was 0.48 with PM2.5 Spatial Interpolator not being presented. The constructed AOD values effectively predicted PM2.5 concentrations under our model structure, with R2=0.78. For the evaluation of calibrated CMAQ predictions, the R2 was 0.51, a little less than that of calibrated AOD. Finally we

  11. 浸渍法制备的Pd-MnOx/γ-Al2O3催化剂及不同载体对地表O3降解的影响%Pd-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 Monolithic Catalysts Prepared by Impregnation Method and Effect of Different Supports on Ground-Level Ozone Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任成军; 周丽娜; 尚鸿燕; 陈耀强


    在γ-Al2O3载体上用等体积浸渍法浸渍Pd、MnOx活性组分,然后涂覆于堇青石基体上制备Pd-MnOx/γ-Al2O3整体式催化剂.分别用 X 射线衍射(XRD)、H2-程序升温还原(H2-TPR)、低温 N2吸附-脱附及 X 射线光电子能谱(XPS)对制备的催化剂进行表征.研究了Pd、MnOx浸渍顺序对催化剂活性、氧化还原性能及织构性质的影响.实验结果表明, Pd、MnOx共浸渍较分别浸渍制备的催化剂活性好, Pd 和 MnOx之间存在一定的协同作用.考察了不同载体如La-Al2O3、SiO2、γ-Al2O3和Zr-Al2O3对催化剂活性、氧化还原性能、织构性质及表面电子性能的影响.研究表明,以La-Al2O3或SiO2为载体的催化剂活性最好,即,14°C时O3转化率为82%,完全转化温度为36°C.γ-Al2O3载体次之, Zr-Al2O3载体较差.不同载体制备的催化剂中 MnOx的氧化还原性能顺序为: Pd-MnOx/SiO2>Pd-MnOx/La-Al2O3>Pd-MnOx/γ-Al2O3>Pd-MnOx/Zr-Al2O3.%Pd-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by impregnating Pd and MnOx on γ-Al2O3 supports, using an incipient wetness impregnation method, and then coating on a cordierite substrate to obtain monolithic catalysts. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction of H2 (H2-TPR), low-temperature N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of the Pd and MnOx impregnation order on the catalytic activity, redox performance, textural properties, and surface electronic characteristics of the catalysts were studied. The experimental results showed that the activity of the catalyst co-impregnated with Pd and MnOx on γ-Al2O3 was better than that of the catalyst impregnated sequentially with Pd and MnOx. A synergetic effect was observed between Pd and MnOx on the Pd-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts for ozone decomposition. The effects of various supports on catalytic activity, redox performance, textural properties, and surface electron

  12. Relationship of ground-level aerosol concentration and atmospheric electric field at three observation sites in the Arctic, Antarctic and Europe (United States)

    Kubicki, Marek; Odzimek, Anna; Neska, Mariusz


    Aerosol number concentrations in the particle size range from 10 nm to 1 μm and vertical electric field strength in the surface layer was measured between September 2012 and December 2013 at three observation sites: mid-latitude station Swider, Poland, and, for the first time, in Hornsund in the Arctic, Spitsbergen, and the Antarctic Arctowski station in the South Shetland Islands. The measurements of aerosol concentrations have been performed simultaneously with measurements of the electric field with the aim to assess the local effect of aerosol on the electric field Ez near the ground at the three stations which at present form a network of atmospheric electricity observatories. Measurements have been made regardless of weather conditions at Swider and Arctowski station and mostly on fair-weather days at Hornsund station. The monthly mean particle number concentrations varied between 580 and 2100 particles cm- 3 at Arctowski, between 90 and 1270 particles cm- 3 in Hornsund, and between 6700 and 14,000 particles cm- 3 in the middle latitude station Swider. Average diurnal variations of the ground-level electric field Ez and particle number concentrations in fair-weather conditions were independent of each other for Arctowski and Hornsund stations. At Swider station the diurnal variation is usually characterized by an increase of aerosol concentration in the evening which results in the increased electric field. The assumption of neglecting the influence of varying aerosol concentration on the variation of the electric field in the polar regions, often adopted in studies, is confirmed here by the observations at Arctowski and Hornsund. The results of aerosol observations are also compared with modelled aerosol concentrations for global atmospheric electric circuit models.

  13. Determination of Gd concentration profile in UO2-Gd2O3 fuel pellets

    CERN Document Server

    Tobia, D; Milano, J; Butera, A; Kempf, R; Bianchi, L; Kaufmann, F


    A transversal mapping of the Gd concentration was measured in UO2-Gd2O3 nuclear fuel pellets by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The quantification was made from the comparison with a Gd2O3 reference sample. The nominal concentration in the pellets is UO2: 7.5 % Gd2O3. A concentration gradient was found, which indicates that the Gd2O3 amount diminishes towards the edges of the pellets. The concentration varies from (9.3 +/- 0.5)% in the center to (5.8 +/- 0.3)% in one of the edges. The method was found to be particularly suitable for the precise mapping of the distribution of Gd3+ ions in the UO2 matrix.

  14. Using a Simulation Tool to Model the Ground Level Concentrations of Green House Gases Emitted by Flaring in Petroleum Production in Kuwait Oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireyah K.A Hamad


    Full Text Available Air pollution and its effects on the ecosystem has been a source of concern for many environmental pollution organizations in the world. In particular climatologists who are not directly involved in petroleum industry sometimes express concerns about the environmental impacts of gas emissions from flaring at well heads. For environmental and resource conservation reasons, flaring should always be minimized as much as practicable and consistent with safety considerations. However, any level of flaring has a local environmental impact, as well as producing emissions which have the potential to contribute to the global warming. In the present research the Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3 Dispersion Model is used to calculate the ground level concentrations of two selected primary pollutants (i.e. methane and non-methane hydrocarbons emitted due to flaring in all of Kuwait Oilfields. In additional, the performance of the ISCST3 model is assessed, by comparing the model prediction with the observed concentration of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons obtained from the monitoring sites. The described model evaluation is based on the comparison of 50 highest daily measured and predicted concentrations of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons. The overall conclusion of this comparison is that the model predictions are in good agreement with the observed data (accuracy range of 60-95% from the monitoring stations maintained by the Kuwait Environmental Public Authority (EPA. A specific important conclusion of this study is that, there is a need for a proper emission inventory strategy for Kuwait Oil Company (KOC as means of monitoring and minimizing the impact of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons released because of flaring activities.

  15. Estimating ground-level PM_{2.5} concentrations over three megalopolises in China using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth measurements (United States)

    Zheng, Yixuan; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Geng, Guannan; He, Kebin


    Numerous previous studies have revealed that statistical models which combine satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM2.5 measurements acquired at scattered monitoring sites provide an effective method for deriving continuous spatial distributions of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. Using the national monitoring networks that have recently been established by central and local governments in China, we developed linear mixed-effects (LMEs) models that integrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD measurements, meteorological parameters, and satellite-derived tropospheric NO2 column density measurements as predictors to estimate PM2.5 concentrations over three major industrialized regions in China, namely, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta region (PRD). The models developed for these three regions exploited different predictors to account for their varying topographies and meteorological conditions. Considering the importance of unbiased PM2.5 predictions for epidemiological studies, the correction factors calculated from the surface PM2.5 measurements were applied to correct biases in the predicted annual average PM2.5 concentrations introduced by non-stochastic missing AOD measurements. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to quantify the accuracy of our models. Cross-validation of the daily predictions yielded R2 values of 0.77, 0.8 and 0.8 and normalized mean error (NME) values of 22.4%, 17.8% and 15.2% for BTH, YRD and PRD, respectively. For the annual average PM2.5 concentrations, the LOOCV R2 values were 0.85, 0.76 and 0.71 for the three regions, respectively, whereas the LOOCV NME values were 8.0%, 6.9% and 8.4%, respectively. We found that the incorporation of satellite-based NO2 column density into the LMEs model contribute to considerable improvements in annual prediction accuracy for both BTH and YRD. The satisfactory performance of our

  16. Sensing performances to low concentration acetone for palladium doped LaFeO3 sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小风; 秦宏伟; 裴金亮; 陈艳平; 李玲; 谢继浩; 胡季帆


    The PdCl2 was mixed with nanocrystalline powders LaFeO3 and subsequently followed by an annealing of 800 °C. PdO phase was formed and almost distributed uniformly on the surface of LaFeO3 nano-particles. With an increase of PdO amounts in composite powders, sensing sensitivityRg/Ra to low concentration acetone or ethanol for Pd doped LaFeO3 sensors increased at first, underwent the maximum with 2 wt.% PdCl2 dopant, and then doped again. Interestingly, appropriate Pd doping in LaFeO3 changed the selectivity behavior of gas sensing. LaFeO3 sensor showed good selectivity to ethanol, but 2 wt.% Pd doped LaFeO3 sensor showed good selectivity to acetone. The sensitivity for LaFeO3 at 200 °C was 1.32 to 1 ppm ethanol, and 1.19 to 1 ppm acetone. Whereas the sensitivity for 2 wt.% Pd doped LaFeO3 at 200 °C was 1.53 to 1 ppm ethanol, and 1.9 to 1 ppm acetone. The 2 wt.% Pd doped LaFeO3 sensor at 200 °C showed very short response time (4 s) and recovery time (2 s) to 1 ppm acetone gas, respectively. Such results showed that 2 wt.% Pd doped LaFeO3 sensor is a new promising sensing candidate for detecting low concentration acetone.

  17. Acceptor Concentration Effects on Photovoltaic Response in the La1_xSrxMnO3/SrNbyTi1_yO3 Heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Leng; JIN Kui-Juan; HAN Peng; ZHANG Li-Li; L(U) Hui-Bin; GE Chen


    Photovoltaic response in the hereto junction of La1- x Srx Mn O3/SrNby Ti1-y O3 (LSMO/SNTO) is analyzed theoretically based on the drift-diffusion model. It is found that the decrease of acceptor concentration in the La1-xSrxMnO3 layer of heterojunction can increase the peak value of photovoltaic signal and the speed of photovoltaic response, whereas the changing of donor concentration in the SrNbyTi1-yO3 layer has no such evident effect. Furthermore, the result also indicates that the modulation of Sr doping in La1-xSrxMnO3 is an effective method to accommodate the sensitivity and the speed of photovoltaic response for LSMO/SNTO photoelectric devices.

  18. Concentration- and Temperature-Induced Phase Transitions in PrAlO3-SrTiO3 System (United States)

    Vasylechko, Leonid; Stepchuk, Roman; Prots, Yuri; Rosner, Helge


    Single-phase mixed aluminates-titanates Pr1- x Sr x Al1- x Ti x O3 ( x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7) with rhombohedral perovskite structure were prepared by solid-state reaction technique at 1823-1873 K. Morphotropic rhombohedral-to-cubic phase transition in Pr1- x Sr x Al1- x Ti x O3 series is predicted to occur at x = 0.88. The temperature-induced structural phase transition R overline{3} c - Pm overline{3} m in Pr0.5Sr0.5Al0.5Ti0.5O3, detected at 930 K by in situ high-temperature X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction, occurs at considerably lower temperature as the corresponding transformation in the parent compound PrAlO3 (1770 K). Such remarkable drop of the transition temperature is explained by gradual decrease of the perovskite structure deformation in the Pr1- x Sr x Al1- x Ti x O3 series with increasing Sr and Ti contents as a consequence of the increasing Goldschmidt tolerance factor. For Pr0.3Sr0.7Al0.3Ti0.7O3 phase, a sequence of the low-temperature phase transformation R overline{3} c - Immb( C2/ m) - I4/ mcm was detected.

  19. Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of land use type and ozone production sensitivity over the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lee


    Full Text Available Simulation results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS for August 2009 are analyzed to evaluate how satellite-derived O3 sensitivity regimes capture weekly cycles of the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS observed ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3. AQS stations are classified according to a geographically-based land use designation or an O3-NOx-VOC chemical sensitivity regime. Land use designations are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR global land cover characteristic data representing three features: urban regions, forest regions, and other regions. The O3 chemical regimes (NOx-saturated, mixed, and NOx-sensitive are inferred from low to high values of photochemical indicators based on the ratio of the HCHO to NO2 column density from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 and CMAQ. Both AQS-observed weekly cycles of NOx at measurement sites over AVHRR geographical regions and GOME-2 sensitivity regimes show high NOx on weekdays and low NOx on weekends. However, the AQS-observed O3 weekly cycle at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime is noticeably different from that over the AVHRR urban region. Whereas the high weekend O3 anomaly is clearly shown at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime in both AQS and CMAQ, the weekend effect is not captured at other sites over the AVHRR urban region. In addition, the weekend effect from AQS is more clearly discernible at sites above the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime than at other sites above the CMAQ NOx-saturated regime. This study suggests that chemical classifications of GOME-2 chemical regime stations produces better results for weekly O3 cycles than either the CMAQ chemical or AVHRR geographical classifications.

  20. Unconventional Synthesis of γ-Fe2O3: Excellent Low-Concentration Ethanol Sensing Performance (United States)

    Naskar, Atanu; Narjinary, Mousumi; Kundu, Susmita


    This study reports on a simple unconventional procedure for synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 nanopowder and its fabrication as a resistive ethanol sensor. γ-Fe2O3 powder having an average particle size of ˜15 nm was prepared by thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate. Platinum incorporation (0.5-1.5 wt.%) was also carried out for enhancing sensing performance. The powders were characterized using an x-ray diffractometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, field area scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy along with energy dispersion x-ray analyses. Sensor fabricated from pure γ-Fe2O3 exhibited excellent ethanol sensing performance at concentrations down to 1 ppm, having a great demand in medical diagnosis and food-processing industries. The response observed for pure γ-Fe2O3 (˜75% for 1 ppm ethanol) was enhanced ˜10% after 1 wt.% Pt impregnation. Sensors were quite stable and selective towards ethanol vapour detection. A possible mechanism for high sensing performance has been discussed.

  1. Unconventional Synthesis of γ-Fe2O3: Excellent Low-Concentration Ethanol Sensing Performance (United States)

    Naskar, Atanu; Narjinary, Mousumi; Kundu, Susmita


    This study reports on a simple unconventional procedure for synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 nanopowder and its fabrication as a resistive ethanol sensor. γ-Fe2O3 powder having an average particle size of ˜15 nm was prepared by thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate. Platinum incorporation (0.5-1.5 wt.%) was also carried out for enhancing sensing performance. The powders were characterized using an x-ray diffractometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, field area scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy along with energy dispersion x-ray analyses. Sensor fabricated from pure γ-Fe2O3 exhibited excellent ethanol sensing performance at concentrations down to 1 ppm, having a great demand in medical diagnosis and food-processing industries. The response observed for pure γ-Fe2O3 (˜75% for 1 ppm ethanol) was enhanced ˜10% after 1 wt.% Pt impregnation. Sensors were quite stable and selective towards ethanol vapour detection. A possible mechanism for high sensing performance has been discussed.

  2. The change in O3, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Lithuania. (United States)

    Girgzdiene, Rasa; Sopauskiene, Dalia; Girgzdys, Aloyzas


    Due to the dynamic nature of the atmosphere, substantial amounts of gaseous and particulate pollutants are transported to the areas distant from their sources. In order to determine the regional concentration levels of atmospheric pollutants in Lithuania, concentrations of gaseous O3, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants have been measured at the Preila background station (55 degrees 20' N and 21 degrees 00' E, 5 m a.s.l.) since 1981. The long-term concentration data set enabled us to get temporal trends, both on a seasonal and longer time scale, to identify source areas of pollutants and to relate them to the emission data. Based on the data obtained, the different tendencies in the pollutant concentration changes were revealed. Positive trends for ozone (of 2.9% per year during 1983-2000) and a distinct negative trend for both sulphur dioxide (of 3.8% per year during 1981-2000) and nitrogen dioxide (of 3.8% per year during 1983-2000) were found. The air mass back-trajectory analysis was used to assess the source region of air pollutants transported to Lithuania. The pollutant concentration levels were compared with their emission changes in Europe and Lithuania. The general trends in SO2 as well as in NO2 concentrations observed are consistent with changes in SO2 and NO2 emissions in Europe and Lithuania.

  3. MLP based models to predict PM10, O3 concentrations, in Sines industrial area (United States)

    Durao, R.; Pereira, M. J.


    Sines is an important Portuguese industrial area located southwest cost of Portugal with important nearby protected natural areas. The main economical activities are related with this industrial area, the deep-water port, petrochemical and thermo-electric industry. Nevertheless, tourism is also an important economic activity especially in summer time with potential to grow. The aim of this study is to develop prediction models of pollutant concentration categories (e.g. low concentration and high concentration) in order to provide early warnings to the competent authorities who are responsible for the air quality management. The knowledge in advanced of pollutant high concentrations occurrence will allow the implementation of mitigation actions and the release of precautionary alerts to population. The regional air quality monitoring network consists in three monitoring stations where a set of pollutants' concentrations are registered on a continuous basis. From this set stands out the tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) due to the high concentrations occurring in the region and their adverse effects on human health. Moreover, the major industrial plants of the region monitor SO2, NO2 and particles emitted flows at the principal chimneys (point sources), also on a continuous basis,. Therefore Artificial neuronal networks (ANN) were the applied methodology to predict next day pollutant concentrations; due to the ANNs structure they have the ability to capture the non-linear relationships between predictor variables. Hence the first step of this study was to apply multivariate exploratory techniques to select the best predictor variables. The classification trees methodology (CART) was revealed to be the most appropriate in this case.. Results shown that pollutants atmospheric concentrations are mainly dependent on industrial emissions and a complex combination of meteorological factors and the time of the year. In the second step, the Multi

  4. Evaluating Effects of H2O and overhead O3 on Global Mean Tropospheric OH Concentration (United States)

    Nicely, Julie M.; Salawitch, R.J.; Canty, T.; Lang, Chang; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Oman, Luke David; Stolarski, Richard S.; Waugh, Darryn


    The oxidizing capacity of the troposphere is controlled, to a large extent, by the abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH). The global mean concentration of OH, [OH]GLOBAL, inferred from measurements of methyl chloroform, has remained relatively constant during the past several decades, despite rising levels of CH4 that should have led to a steady decline. Here we examine other factors that may have affected [OH]GLOBAL, such as the overhead burden of stratospheric O3 and tropospheric H2O, using global OH fields from the GEOS-CHEM Chemistry-Climate Model. Our analysis suggests these factors may have contributed a positive trend to [OH]GLOBAL large enough to counter the decrease due to CH4.

  5. Photochemical smog pollution in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region of Thailand in relation to O 3 precursor concentrations and meteorological conditions (United States)

    Zhang, B.-N.; Kim Oanh, N. T.

    Analysis of photochemical pollution was done using the available 5-yr monitoring data (1996-2000) from 11 monitoring stations in Bangkok and 5 stations in other surrounding provinces, i.e. the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Status and trend of O 3 as well as the monthly and diurnal variations were analyzed in relation to the local meteorological conditions as well as the regional transport of pollutants associated with the monsoon. The O 3 in Bangkok was found to be typical for the polluted urban areas with a lower concentration in the city center, especially at curbside stations, and higher concentration at the downwind locations. O 3 pollution was highest in 1997 with the maximum hourly average of 370 ppbv and the total hours exceeding the national hourly O 3 standard (100 ppbv) of 314 h, which is most likely related to the strong El Niño and the forest fire in Southeast Asia in this year. Meteorology-unadjusted trend shows a slight increase in O 3 from 1998 to 2000. Local emission and photochemistry are mainly responsible for O 3 episodes in the BMR. Seasonal fluctuations of O 3, however, were found to relate to the regional transport associated with the Asian monsoon. Highest O 3 pollution was found in the period from January to April (winter and local summer) and lowest during mid-rainy season, August. The O 3 increase isopleth diagram was constructed which shows that O 3 production in BMR is effective when the NO x/NMHC ratio is in the range of 0.04-0.15 with optimum ratio of around 0.07. Seasonal variations in NO x/NMHC ratios are consistent with the O 3 variations, i.e., optimum in summer (0.07), followed by winter (0.05), and the lowest in rainy season (0.03).

  6. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik


    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  7. 含Ce2O3渣系作用浓度的计算模型%Calculating model of action concentration of slag systems containing Ce2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铖川; 成国光; 龙鹄


    In order to investigate the effect of addition of Ce2O3 to refining slag on the activity of Al2O3, thermodynamic model for the evaluation of mass action concentrations for Ce2O3-Al2O3 and CaO-Al2O3-Ce2O3 slag systems was formulated at 1 500℃according to the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT) for molten slags and corresponding phase diagrams, and the effect of Ce2O3 on the action concentration of Al2O3 was investigated. The results show that, for Ce2O3-Al2O3 slag system, when the mole fraction of Ce2O3 is 0.49, the mass action concentration (Ni) of Ce2O3∙Al2O3 achieves its maximum value 0.90, and both the mass action concentrations of Ce2O3 and Al2O3 maintain at very low levels. For CaO-Al2O3-Ce2O3 slag system, the change trends of calculated Al2O3N are in good agreement with reported measured trends of Al2O3a ,which are that Al2O3N decreases with the increase of w(CaO)/w(Al2O3) at a certain content of Ce2O3 and with the increase of Ce2O3 content at a certain value of w(CaO)/w(Al2O3).Moreover, the iso-curves Ce2O3N and CaON are also drawn from the calculated results. Above all, adding certain content of Ce2O3 to refining slag can effectively reduce Al2O3N , which can improve the Al2O3 inclusions removal efficiency of high grade clean steel and refining efficiency of refining slag.%为研究精炼渣中Ce2O3的加入对渣中Al2O3活度的影响,根据炉渣结构离子与分子共存理论和相关相图,建立1500℃下Ce2O3-Al2O3和CaO-Al2O3-Ce2O3渣系作用浓度的计算模型,考察Ce2O3对Al2O3作用浓度的影响。结果表明:对于Ce2O3-Al2O3渣系,当Ce2O3的摩尔分数在0.49左右时,Ce2O3·Al2O3的作用浓度达到最大值0.90,使得Al2O3和Ce2O3的作用浓度均达到较低水平;对于CaO-Al2O3-Ce2O3渣系,模型所计算的Al2O3作用浓度与实测Al2O3活度的变化趋势一致,即Ce2O3含量一定时,随着w(CaO)/w(Al2O3)的增加,Al2O3的作用浓度降低;保持w(CaO)/w(Al2O3)不变,随着Ce2O3

  8. Assessment of Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique to improve the simulation of ground-level ozone over Spain. (United States)

    Sicardi, V; Ortiz, J; Rincón, A; Jorba, O; Pay, M T; Gassó, S; Baldasano, J M


    The CALIOPE air quality modelling system has been used to diagnose ground level O(3) concentration for the year 2004, over the Iberian Peninsula. We investigate the improvement in the simulation of daily O(3) maximum by the use of a post-processing such as the Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique. The Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique is a recursive algorithm to optimally estimate bias-adjustment terms from previous measurements and model results. The bias-adjustment technique improved the simulation of daily O(3) maximum for the entire year and the all the stations considered over the whole domain. The corrected simulation presents improvements in statistical indicators such as correlation, root mean square error, mean bias, and gross error. After the post-processing the exceedances of O(3) concentration limits, as established by the European Directive 2008/50/CE, are better reproduced and the uncertainty of the modelling system, as established by the European Directive 2008/50/CE, is reduced from 20% to 7.5%. Such uncertainty in the model results is under the established EU limit of the 50%. Significant improvements in the O(3) timing and amplitude of the daily cycle are also observed after the post-processing. The systematic improvements in the O(3) maximum simulations suggest that the Kalman filter post-processing method is a suitable technique to reproduce accurate estimate of ground-level O(3) concentration. With this study we evince that the adjusted O(3) concentrations obtained after the post-process of the results from the CALIOPE system are a reliable means for real near time O(3) forecasts.

  9. Pt-Al2O3 nanocoatings for high temperature concentrated solar thermal power applications (United States)

    Nuru, Zebib. Y.; Arendse, C. J.; Nemutudi, R.; Nemraoui, O.; Maaza, M.


    Nano-phased structures based on metal-dielectric composites, also called cermets (ceramic-metal), are considered among the most effective spectral selective solar absorbers. For high temperature applications (stable up to 650 °C) noble metal nanoparticles and refractory oxide host matrices are ideal as per their high temperature chemical inertness and stability: Pt/Al2O3 cermet nano-composites are a representative family. This contribution reports on the optical properties of Pt/Al2O3 cermet nano-composites deposited in a multilayered tandem structure. The radio-frequency sputtering optimized Pt/Al2O3 solar absorbers consist of stainless steel substrate/ Mo coating layer/ Pt-Al2O3/ protective Al2O3 layer and stainless steel substrate/ Mo coating layer /Pt-Al2O3 for different composition and thickness of the Pt-Al2O3 cermet coatings. The microstructure, morphology, theoretical modeling and optical properties of the coatings were analyzed by the x-ray diffraction, atomic force, microscopy, effective medium approximation and UV-vis specular and diffuse reflectance.

  10. Moderate concentration of citric acid for the formation of LaMnO3 and LaCoO3 nano-perovskites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham Ghiasi; Azim Malekzadeh; Mahnaz Ghiasi


    Stoichiometric LaMnO3 and LaCoO3 nanoparticles were synthesized via calcination of a dried solution, containing molar ratio of La(NO3)3·6H2O/[Mn(NO3)2·4H2O or Co(NO3)2·6H2O]=1 and citric acid as disperser at temperature range of 600-900 ºC for 5 h. The role of organic additive concentration, which was 0.0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5 times of the total number of moles of the nitrate ions, was investigated on phase formation, morphology, extent of crystallization and particle size of the products. Products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission elec-tron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The tendency of lanthanum ion toward manganese cation was observed to be more than to cobalt cation for the formation of LaBO3 (B:Mn or Co) perovskite phase. A spongy product was formed on perovskite phase formation or in the pres-ence of citric acid. A constructive or destructive effect was observed for the organic disperser on perovskite phase formation, which de-pended on mole of the citric acid.

  11. Concentration and temperature dependent double energy gap characteristic properties of hexagonal YMnO3-xBiFeO3 films (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Deng, Q. L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, J. Z.; Li, Y. W.; Hu, Z. G.; Chu, J. H.


    The study of hexagonal (1-x) YMnO3-xBiFeO3 (0≤slant x≤slant 2.5 % ) (YBMF x) films can realize the modulation of h-YMO films, especially for the significant modulation of crystal orientation and surface. The choice of the solvent and solution, and the co-doping of Fe and Bi are two important facts of realizing the modulation. The results of x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy measurements indicated that there are the internal relations of the lattice orientation and the surface morphology for highly c-axis-orientation (HCO) and no preferred orientation (NPO), respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that manganese ions show a valence of  +3 in YMnO3 film. The peak positions of the Mn 2p level move to higher energy with increasing concentration. Furthermore, there is an optimal doping concentration of x=1.5 % for the YBMF x (0≤slant x≤slant 2.5 % ) films by taking the shapes of P-E loops, the values of 2P r and 2E c into consideration. The transmittance spectra at room temperature pointed out that the double energy gaps (˜1.25 eV and 3.3 eV) corresponded to significant absorption edges, the band gap (E g1) and subband gap (E g2), respectively. The different dependency of E g1 at the lower temperature can be explained by the ionized impurity scattering. A critical temperature (˜100 K) of E g2 can be attributed to the relaxation of antiferromagnetic phase transformation. The abnormal shrinkage of E g2 below 100 K can be explained by the pinning effect of composite domain walls and the accumulation of discrete oxygen vacancies at composite domain walls. The present study sheds light on the understanding of the electronic band structure, antiferromagnetic phase transformation and their relation in h-YMO. Moreover, it contributes to the verification and improvement of Katsufuji’s model (Katsufuji et al 2001 Phys. Rev. B 64 104419).

  12. Effects of Boundary Layer Height on the Model of Ground-Level PM2.5 Concentrations from AOD: Comparison of Stable and Convective Boundary Layer Heights from Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengliang Zang


    Full Text Available The aerosol optical depth (AOD from satellites or ground-based sun photometer spectral observations has been widely used to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations by regression methods. The boundary layer height (BLH is a popular factor in the regression model of AOD and PM2.5, but its effect is often uncertain. This may result from the structures between the stable and convective BLHs and from the calculation methods of the BLH. In this study, the boundary layer is divided into two types of stable and convective boundary layer, and the BLH is calculated using different methods from radiosonde data and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis data for the station in Beijing, China during 2014–2015. The BLH values from these methods show significant differences for both the stable and convective boundary layer. Then, these BLHs were introduced into the regression model of AOD-PM2.5 to seek the respective optimal BLH for the two types of boundary layer. It was found that the optimal BLH for the stable boundary layer is determined using the method of surface-based inversion, and the optimal BLH for the convective layer is determined using the method of elevated inversion. Finally, the optimal BLH and other meteorological parameters were combined to predict the PM2.5 concentrations using the stepwise regression method. The results indicate that for the stable boundary layer, the optimal stepwise regression model includes the factors of surface relative humidity, BLH, and surface temperature. These three factors can significantly enhance the prediction accuracy of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations, with an increase of determination coefficient from 0.50 to 0.68. For the convective boundary layer, however, the optimal stepwise regression model includes the factors of BLH and surface wind speed. These two factors improve the determination coefficient, with a relatively low increase from 0.65 to 0.70. It is found that the

  13. [Responses of rice growth and development to elevated near-surface layer ozone (O3) concentration: a review]. (United States)

    Yang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yu-long; Shi, Guang-yao; Wang, Yun-xia; Zhu, Jian-guo


    Ozone (O3) is recognized as one of the most important air pollutants. At present, the worldwide average tropospheric O3 concentration has been increased from an estimated pre-industrial level of 38 nl L(-1) (25-45 nl L(-1), 8-h summer seasonal average) to approximately 50 nl L(-1) in 2000, and to 80 nl L(-1) by 2100 based on most pessimistic projections. Oryza sativa L. (rice) is the most important grain crop in the world, and thus, to correctly evaluate how the elevated near-surface layer O3 concentration will affect the growth and development of rice is of great significance. This paper reviewed the chamber (including closed and open top chamber)-based studies about the effects of atmospheric ozone enrichment on the rice visible injury symptoms, photosynthesis, water relationship, phenology, dry matter production and allocation, leaf membrane protective system, and grain yield and its components. Further research directions in this field were discussed.

  14. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species. (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M


    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species.

  15. Study on Statistical Forecast Method for O3 Concentration near the Ground in Pudong District of Shanghai Based on Meteorological Condition Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jing-hui; MA; Lei-ming; GENG; Fu-hai; TAN; Jian-guo; GAO; Wei; ZHOU; Wei-dong


    [Objective]The research aimed to study statistical forecast method for O3 concentration near the ground in Pudong District of Shanghai based on meteorological condition analysis. [Method] Via observation and statistical analysis of the O3 concentration near the ground in Pudong District of Shanghai from 2006 to 2008, by considering meteorological condition, a kind of simple and practical new method suiting for forecast of the O3 concentration and pre-warning of the high-concentration O3 pollution event in whole year was established. [Result]Meteorological condition had obvious influence on O3 concentration near the ground. O3 concentration was the biggest in sunny day, followed by cloudy day. O3 concentration near the ground had typical seasonal change characteristics, and high value mainly happened in summer. Meteorological condition generating high-concentration O3 included sunny day, strong UV radiation, low relative humidity, high temperature and small wind speed, etc. By surveying historical weather chart, 10 kinds of main weather situations affecting Shanghai were summed. Under each weather situation, occurrence probability of the high-concentration O3 near the ground and average O3 concentration were conducted statistics. We found that occurrence probability of the high-concentration O3 was the biggest under northwest side of the subtropical high type, followed by internal type of the subtropical high. By introducing HPPI and WDI and comprehensively considering various meteorological factors, forecasting equation of the O3 concentration was established based on stepwise regression. The equation had good fitting effect and predictability on the daily maximum O3 concentration. [Conclusion]The method also could provide reference for O3 forecast in other areas.

  16. Study on Statistical Forecast Method for O_3 Concentration near the Ground in Pudong District of Shanghai Based on Meteorological Condition Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jing-hui; MA; Lei-ming; GENG; Fu-hai; TAN; Jian-guo; GAO; Wei; ZHOU; Wei-dong


    [Objective]The research aimed to study statistical forecast method for O3 concentration near the ground in Pudong District of Shanghai based on meteorological condition analysis. [Method] Via observation and statistical analysis of the O3 concentration near the ground in Pudong District of Shanghai from 2006 to 2008, by considering meteorological condition, a kind of simple and practical new method suiting for forecast of the O3 concentration and pre-warning of the high-concentration O3 pollution event in whole year was established. [Result]Meteorological condition had obvious influence on O3 concentration near the ground. O3 concentration was the biggest in sunny day, followed by cloudy day. O3 concentration near the ground had typical seasonal change characteristics, and high value mainly happened in summer. Meteorological condition generating high-concentration O3 included sunny day, strong UV radiation, low relative humidity, high temperature and small wind speed, etc. By surveying historical weather chart, 10 kinds of main weather situations affecting Shanghai were summed. Under each weather situation, occurrence probability of the high-concentration O3 near the ground and average O3 concentration were conducted statistics. We found that occurrence probability of the high-concentration O3 was the biggest under northwest side of the subtropical high type, followed by internal type of the subtropical high. By introducing HPPI and WDI and comprehensively considering various meteorological factors, forecasting equation of the O3 concentration was established based on stepwise regression. The equation had good fitting effect and predictability on the daily maximum O3 concentration. [Conclusion]The method also could provide reference for O3 forecast in other areas.

  17. Influences of Fe2O3 Doping Concentration on Structure and Photorefractive Properties of Zn∶Fe∶LiNbO3 Crystals Grown by TSSG Method%Fe2O3的掺杂对TSSG法生长Zn:Fe:LiNbO3 晶体的结构和光折变性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志洁; 鲁玺丽; 李洪涛; 赵连城


    LiNbO3 crystals doped with the same concentration of ZnO and with the different concentration of Fe2O3 have been grown by a top-seeded-solution-growth (TSSG) method. The IR transmittance spectra, UV-Vis absorption spectra, lattice constants, and Curie temperature were measured. In two-wave coupling experiments, writing and erasure curves were measured, and writing time constants,erasure time constants, and maximum diffraction efficiency of the crystals were obtained from the curves. The influences of Fe2O3 doping concentration on photorefractive properties were studied.%本文利用TSSG方法生长了不同掺Fe2O3浓度的Zn∶Fe∶LiNbO3晶体,并对晶体进行了红外光谱、紫外光谱、晶格常数和居里温度的测试和分析.利用二波耦合实验测得的写入和擦除曲线,计算了晶体的写入时间常数、擦除时间常数和最大衍射效率.并讨论了Fe2O3的掺杂对材料结构和光折变性能的影响机制.

  18. Left-handed properties of manganite-perovskites La1-xSrxMnO3 at various dopant concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Belozorov


    Full Text Available The experimental study of Double Negative (DNG state of electromagnetic wave propagating in lanthanum manganite-perovskites doped with strontium La1-xSrxMnO3 is provided firstly below individual Curie temperatures (in ferromagnetic metal state (FM for La1-xSrxMnO3. Various dopant concentrations are considered for ceramic specimens: x = 0.15;  0.225;  0.3;  0.45;  0.6. It is shown that dependence of the DNG-peak intensity on dopant concentration is sharply non-monotone with maximum at the dopant concentrations x = 0.225 – 0.3. This behaviour follows the change of Curie temperature with increase of dopant concentration in such substances. The obtained dependence of DNG peak intensity supports the opinion concerning the role of disorder in highly doped manganite-perovskite magnetic ceramics under study.

  19. Dependence of photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity on Eu3+ and ZnO concentrations in Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH


    Full Text Available Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphor powders with different concentrations of Eu3+ ions were synthesized by a sol–gel method and their luminescence properties were investigated. The red photoluminescence (PL) from Eu3+ ions with the main...

  20. Comparative study of apatite formation on CaSiO3 ceramics in simulated body fluids with different carbonate concentrations. (United States)

    Iimori, Yusuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Okada, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Shigeo


    Apatite formation on CaSiO3 ceramics was investigated using two different simulated body fluids (SBF) proposed by Kokubo (1990) and Tas (2000) and three sample/SBF (S/S) ratios (1.0, 2.5 and 8.3 mg/ml) at 36.5 degrees C for 1-25 days. The CaSiO3 ceramic was prepared by firing coprecipitated gel with Ca/Si = 0.91 at 1400 degrees C. The bulk density was 2.14 g/cm3 and the relative density about 76%. The two SBF solutions contain different concentrations of HCO3- and Cl- ions, the concentrations of which are closer to human blood plasma in the Tas SBF formulation than in the Kokubo formulation. The pH values in the former solution are also more realistic. The CaSiO3 ceramics show apatite formation in SBF (Kokubo) after soaking for only 1 day at all S/S ratios whereas different phases were formed at each S/S ratio in SBF (Tas). The crystalline phases formed were mainly apatite at S/S = 1.0 mg/ml, carbonate-type apatite at 2.5 mg/ml and calcite at 8.3 mg/ml. At higher S/S ratios the increase in the Ca concentration became higher while the P concentration became lower in the reacted SBF. These changes in SBF concentrations and increasing pH occurred at higher S/S ratios, producing more favorable conditions in the SBF for the formation of carbonate bearing phases, finally leading to the formation of calcite instead of apatite in the higher HCO3- ion concentration SBF (Tas). Apatite is, however, formed in the lower HCO3- ion concentration SBF (Kokubo) even though the Ca and P concentrations change in a similar manner to SBF (Tas).

  1. Effect of Er3+ concentration on the luminescence properties of Al2O3-ZrO2 powder (United States)

    Clabel H., J. L.; Rivera, V. A. G.; Nogueira, I. C.; Leite, E. R.; Siu Li, M.; Marega, E.


    This manuscript reports on the effects of the luminescence properties of Er3+ on Al2O3-ZrO2 powder synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. The best conditions found for the calcinations were 1500 °C and 4 h. The structural dependence of the luminescence on Er3+:Al2O3-ZrO2 is associated with phase transformations of the Al2O3-ZrO2 host and presence of the OH group. Green and red emissions at room temperature from the 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 levels of Er3+ ions were observed under 482 nm pumping. The green-to-red emission intensity ratios and CIE chromaticity coordinates were determined from emission spectra for the evaluation of light emitted as a function of the Er3+ concentration. The Er3+ luminescence quenching due to group OH and variation in the Er3+ concentration plays an important role in the definition of the luminescent response.

  2. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration (United States)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.


    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  3. Influence of chromium concentration on the electron magnetic resonance linewidth of Cr3+ in SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sergio de Biasi


    Full Text Available Electron magnetic resonance (EMR spectra of Cr3+ ions in samples of chromium-doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3 have been studied at room temperature for chromium concentrations between 0.20 and 1.00 mol%. According to previous studies, chromium substitutes Ti4+ sites in the lattice and its preferred valence state is Cr4+, which is EMR silent in the X-band, but the trivalent state can be produced by illumination or codoping with Nb. In the present work, the codoping method was used; the results show the electron magnetic resonance linewidth of the Cr3+ spectrum increases with increasing chromium concentration and that the range of the exchange interaction between Cr3+ ions is about 0.96 nm.

  4. Effect of concentration of Sm2O3 and Yb2O3 and synthesizing temperature on electrical and crystal structure of (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y electrolytes fabricated for IT-SOFCs (United States)

    Kayalı, Refik; Özen, Mürivet Kaşıkcı; Bezir, Nalan Çiçek; Evcin, Atilla


    For intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs), (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y ternary systems (x=0.01 and y= 0.11), (x=0.05 and y= 0.07), (x=0.07 and y=0.05), and (x=0.11 and y=0.01) as electrolytes have been fabricated at different temperatures (700, 750, and 800 °C) by solid state ceramic technique (SST). The characterization of the samples has been performed by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four point-probe method (FPPM), X-ray energy diffraction spectroscopy (EDX), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). XRD measurements have shown that only the samples (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y (x=0.01, y=0.11 synthesized at 700, 750, and 800 °C) and (x=0.05, y=0.07 synthesized at 800 °C) have stable fluorite type face centered cubic (FCC) δ-phase. SEM images have shown the morphology of the stable samples. The conductivity and the operation temperature region of the samples have been determined from Arrhenius curves obtained from the FPPM measurements data and they vary from 1.83 to 9.95×10-1 S cm-1. Moreover, activation energy of the samples have been calculated by means of Arrhenius curves of the samples and relationships between them and the conductivity of the samples have been investigated in detail. The results obtained from XRD and FPPM measurements were confirmed by the DTA measurements.

  5. Summertime Surface N2O Concentration Observed on Fildes Peninsula Antarctica:Correlation with Total Atmospheric O3 and Solar Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁斌; 孙立广; 尹雪斌; 刘晓东; 邢光熹


    Three-year summertime surface atmospheric N2O concentrations were observed for the first time on the Fildes Peninsula, maritime Antarctica, and the relationships among the N2O concentration, total atmospheric O3 amount, and sunspot number were analyzed. Solar activity had an important effect on surface N2O concentration and total O3 amount, and increases of sunspot number were followed by decreases in the N2O concentration and total O3 amount. A corresponding relationship exists between the N2O concentration and total atmospheric O3, and ozone destruction was preceded by N2O reduction.We propose that the extended solar activity in the Antarctic summer reduces the stratospheric N2O by converting it into NOx, increases the diffusion of N2O from the troposphere to the stratosphere, decreases the surface atmospheric N2O, and depletes O3 via the chemical reaction between O3 and NOx. Our observation results are consistent with the theory of solar activity regarding the formation of the Antarctic O3 hole.

  6. Evaluation of environmental safety concentrations of DMSA Coated Fe2O3-NPs using different assay systems in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuli Wu

    Full Text Available Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA coating improves the uptake efficiency presumably by engendering the Fe(2O(3-NPs. In the present study, we investigated the possible environmental safety concentrations of Fe(2O(3-NPs using different assay systems in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans with lethality, development, reproduction, locomotion behavior, pharyngeal pumping, defecation, intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS production as the endpoints. After exposure from L4-larvae for 24-hr, DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs at concentrations more than 50 mg/L exhibited adverse effects on nematodes. After exposure from L1-larvae to adult, DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs at concentrations more than 500 μg/L had adverse effects on nematodes. After exposure from L1-larvae to day-8 adult, DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs at concentrations more than 100 μg/L resulted in the adverse effects on nematodes. Accompanied with the alterations of locomotion behaviors, ROS production was pronouncedly induced by exposure to DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs in the examined three assay systems, and the close associations of ROS production with lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, pharyngeal pumping, defecation, or intestinal autofluorescence in nematodes exposed to DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs were confirmed by the linear regression analysis. Moreover, mutations of sod-2 and sod-3 genes, encoding Mn-SODs, showed more susceptible properties than wild-type when they were used for assessing the DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs-induced toxicity, and the safety concentrations for DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs should be defined as concentrations lower than 10 μg/L in sod-2 and sod-3 mutant nematodes.

  7. Effects of 10% biofuel substitution on ground level ozone formation in Bangkok, Thailand (United States)

    Milt, Austin; Milano, Aaron; Garivait, Savitri; Kamens, Richard


    The Thai Government's search for alternatives to imported petroleum led to the consideration of mandating 10% biofuel blends (biodiesel and gasohol) by 2012. Concerns over the effects of biofuel combustion on ground level ozone formation in relation to their conventional counterparts need addressing. Ozone formation in Bangkok is explored using a trajectory box model. The model is compared against O 3, NO, and NO 2 time concentration data from air monitoring stations operated by the Thai Pollution Control Department. Four high ozone days in 2006 were selected for modeling. Both the traditional trajectory approach and a citywide average approach were used. The model performs well with both approaches but slightly better with the citywide average. Highly uncertain and missing data are derived within realistic bounds using a genetic algorithm optimization. It was found that 10% biofuel substitution will lead to as much as a 16 ppb peak O 3 increase on these four days compared to a 48 ppb increase due to the predicted vehicle fleet size increase between 2006 and 2012. The approach also suggests that when detailed meteorological data is not available to run three dimensional airshed models, and if the air is stagnant or predominately remains over an urban area during the day, that a simple low cost trajectory analysis of O 3 formation may be applicable.

  8. Inclusion in the simulation of air pollutants recorded over the borders of test areas in Niedersachsen and forecasting of local ground level concentrations. Final report. Einbeziehung der ueber die Grenzen von Untersuchungsgebieten in Niedersachsen eingetragenen Luftschadstoffe in die Simulation und Prognose oertlicher Immissionssituationen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Reissmann, K.F.; Schaffner, J.


    In 1987-1989 an emission-ground level concentration-model (conversion of emission into ground level concentration) was established for the pollutant sulphur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) by the ISP (Hannover) in cooperation with GEOS (Berlin) and was with emission data of the environs of Braunschweig for 1987 subjected to different trial runs. The pollution sources were devided into four groups: - Large Emitters (particularly power plants) - medium emitters (particularly industry) - space heating and small consumers - traffic. The pollution emitters of the first two groups were considered as point sources and the last two groups as surface sources, their emissions being evently distributed over squares of 1 km x 1 km, each surface unit of one km[sup 2] being represented by 400 point sources in a distance of 50 m from each other. The conversion of emissions into ground level concentration is based on the Gaussian dispersion model on which also the dispersion calculation of the TA Luft (technical regulation about air pollution) is based. (orig./KW).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mechanistic kinetic models were postulated for the catalytic steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on a Ni-based commercial catalyst at atmosphere pressure in the temperature range of 673-863 K, and at different catalyst weight to the crude ethanol molar flow rate ratio (in the range 0.9645-9.6451 kg catalyst h/kg mole crude ethanol in a stainless steel packed bed tubular microreactor. The models were based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW and Eley-Rideal (ER mechanisms. The optimization routine of Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm was used to estimate the inherent kinetic parameters in the proposed models. The selection of the best kinetic model amongst the rival kinetic models was based on physicochemical, statistical and thermodynamic scrutinies. The rate determining step for the steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be surface reaction between chemisorbed CH3O and O when hydrogen and oxygen were adsorbed as monomolecular species on the catalyst surface. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental rate of reaction and conversion of crude ethanol, and the simulated results, with ADD% being ±0.46.

  10. Increased phytotoxic O3 dose accelerates autumn senescence in an O3-sensitive beech forest even under the present-level O3 (United States)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Yasuda, Yukio; Kominami, Yuji; Yamanoi, Katsumi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyama, Takafumi; Mizoguchi, Yasuko; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Koike, Takayoshi; Izuta, Takeshi


    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations are expected to increase over the 21st century, especially in East Asia. However, the impact of O3 has not been directly assessed at the forest level in this region. We performed O3 flux-based risk assessments of carbon sequestration capacity in an old cool temperate deciduous forest, consisting of O3-sensitive Japanese beech (Fagus crenata), and in a warm temperate deciduous and evergreen forest dominated by O3-tolerant Konara oak (Quercus serrata) based on long-term CO2 flux observations. On the basis of a practical approach for a continuous estimation of canopy-level stomatal conductance (Gs), higher phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 0 uptake (POD0) with higher Gs was observed in the beech forest than that in the oak forest. Light-saturated gross primary production, as a measure of carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, declined earlier in the late growth season with increasing POD0, suggesting an earlier autumn senescence, especially in the O3-sensitive beech forest, but not in the O3-tolerant oak forest.

  11. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution. (United States)

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J


    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  12. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James


    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  13. Uncertainty of modelled urban peak O3 concentrations and its sensitivity to input data perturbations based on the Monte Carlo analysis (United States)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.; Mazzeo, Nicolás A.


    A simple urban air quality model [MODelo de Dispersión Atmosférica Ubana - Generic Reaction Set (DAUMOD-GRS)] was recently developed. One-hour peak O3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA) during the summer estimated with the DAUMOD-GRS model have shown values lower than 20 ppb (the regional background concentration) in the urban area and levels greater than 40 ppb in its surroundings. Due to the lack of measurements outside the MABA, these relatively high ozone modelled concentrations constitute the only estimate for the area. In this work, a methodology based on the Monte Carlo analysis is implemented to evaluate the uncertainty in these modelled concentrations associated to possible errors of the model input data. Results show that the larger 1-h peak O3 levels in the MABA during the summer present larger uncertainties (up to 47 ppb). On the other hand, multiple linear regression analysis is applied at selected receptors in order to identify the variables explaining most of the obtained variance. Although their relative contributions vary spatially, the uncertainty of the regional background O3 concentration dominates at all the analysed receptors (34.4-97.6%), indicating that their estimations could be improved to enhance the ability of the model to simulate peak O3 concentrations in the MABA.

  14. Comparison of temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Ozone Pollution at Ground Level in the Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Houfeng


    Monitoring data from ozone(O3) automatic stations in three typical cities with different climatic areas in the southern and northern parts of eastern China are used to analyze temporal and spatial characteristics of ozone pollution at ground level. The results show that ozone pollution level has distinct regional differences and the concentration in the suburbs is higher than that in the urban areas. The seasonal variation of ozone concentration in different climatic areas is greatly affected by the variation of precipitation. Ozone concentration in Shenyang and Beijing , in the temperate zone, has one perennial peak concentration, occurring in early summer,May or June. Ozone concentration in Guangzhou, in sub-tropical zone, has two peak values year round. The highest values occur in October and the secondary high value in June. The ozone season in the south is longer than that in the north. The annual average daily peak value of ozone concentrations in different climates usually occur around 3 pm. The diurnal variation range of ozone concentration declines with the increase of latitude. Ozone concentration does not elevate with the increase of traffic flow. Ozone concentration in Guangzhou has a distinct reverse relation to CO and NOx. This complicated non-linearity indicates that the equilibrium of ozone photochemical reaction has regional differences.Exceeding the rate of Beijing's 1h ozone concentration is higher than that of Guangzhou, whereas the average 8h ozone level is lower than that of Guangzhou, indicating that areas in low latitude are more easily affected by moderate ozone concentrations and longer exposure. Thus,China should work out standards for 8h ozone concentration.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric VOCs, NO2, SO2, and O3 concentrations at a heavily industrialized region in Western Turkey, and assessment of the carcinogenic risk levels of benzene (United States)

    Civan, Mihriban Yılmaz; Elbir, Tolga; Seyfioglu, Remzi; Kuntasal, Öznur Oğuz; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Doğan, Güray; Yurdakul, Sema; Andiç, Özgün; Müezzinoğlu, Aysen; Sofuoglu, Sait C.; Pekey, Hakan; Pekey, Beyhan; Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa; Tuncel, Gürdal


    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ground-level ozone (O3) were measured at 55 locations around a densely populated industrial zone, hosting a petrochemical complex (Petkim), a petroleum refinery (Tupras), ship-dismantling facilities, several iron and steel plants, and a gas-fired power plant. Five passive sampling campaigns were performed covering summer and winter seasons of 2005 and 2007. Elevated concentrations of VOCs, NO2 and SO2 around the refinery, petrochemical complex and roads indicated that industrial activities and vehicular emissions are the main sources of these pollutants in the region. Ozone concentrations were low at the industrial zone and settlement areas, but high in rural stations downwind from these sources due to NO distillation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization receptor model (EPA PMF) was employed to apportion ambient concentrations of VOCs into six factors, which were associated with emissions sources. Traffic was found to be highest contributor to measured ∑VOCs concentrations, followed by the Petkim and Tupras. Median cancer risk due to benzene inhalation calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation was approximately 4 per-one-million population, which exceeded the U.S. EPA benchmark of 1 per one million. Petkim, Tupras and traffic emissions were the major sources of cancer risk due to benzene inhalation in the Aliaga airshed. Relative contributions of these two source groups changes significantly from one location to another, demonstrating the limitation of determining source contributions and calculating health risk using data from one or two permanent stations in an industrial area.

  16. The removal of formaldehyde from concentrated synthetic wastewater using O3/MgO/H2O2 process integrated with the biological treatment. (United States)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmadreza; Heidarizad, Mahdi


    The catalytic advanced oxidation process (CAOP) of O(3)/MgO/H(2)O(2) was integrated with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system to completely treat concentrated formaldehyde wastewater, demonstrating that this combination is an effective method for treating such wastewaters. The influence of several operational variables--including pH, MgO powder dosage, and the concentrations of H(2)O(2) and O(3)--was investigated for the O(3)/MgO/H(2)O(2) degradation of a 7000 mg/L formaldehyde wastewater. The optimum conditions were found to be a pH of 8, 5 g/L dose of MgO powder, 0.09 mole/L concentration of H(2)O(2), and 0.153 g/L min dose of O(3). The formaldehyde and COD concentrations were reduced 79% and 65.6%, respectively, in the CAOP for 120 min of reaction time under the optimum condition stated above. The remaining concentrations of formaldehyde and COD were 1500 mg/L and 3200 mg/L, respectively, in the effluent. The degradation of formaldehyde in CAOP was determined to be a first-order reaction with a constant of 0.015/min, and radical oxidation was the predominant degradation mechanism. This effluent was post-treated in SBR system for a total cycle time of 24h. The SBR completely removed the formaldehyde and removed 98% of the COD, reducing the COD concentration to lower than 60 mg/L. Therefore, the integrated O(3)/MgO/H(2)O(2) and SBR process is demonstrated as a promising technology for the complete treatment of wastewater with high concentrations of toxic and inhibitory compounds such as formaldehyde.

  17. Effects of Zn doping concentration on resistive switching characteristics in Ag/La$_{1−x}Zn$_x$MnO$_3$/p$^+$-Si devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Ag/La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$/p$^+$-Si devices with different Zn doping contents were fabricated through sol–gel method. The effects of Zn doping concentration on the microstructure of La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$ films, as well as on the resistance switching behaviour and endurance characteristics of Ag/La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$/p$^{+}$-Si were investigated. After annealing at 600$^{\\circ}$C for 1~h, the La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$ ($x = 0.1$, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) are amorphous and have bipolar resistance characteristics, with RHRS/RLRS ratios $>$103. However, the endurance characteristics show considerable differences; $x = 0.3$ shows the best endurance characteristics in more than 1000 switching cycles. The conduction mechanism of the Ag/La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$/p$^{+}$-Si is the Schottky emission mode at high resistance state. However, the conduction mechanism at low resistance state varies with Zn doping concentration. The dominant mechanism at $x = 0.1$ is filamentary conduction mechanism, whereas that at $x \\ge 0.2$ is space-charge-limited current conduction.

  18. Establishment of a Box-Jenkins multivariate time-series model to simulate ground-level peak daily one-hour ozone concentrations at Ta-Liao in Taiwan. (United States)

    Liu, Pao-Wen Grace


    Box-Jenkins univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and regression with time-series error (RTSE) models were established to simulate historical peak daily 1-hr ozone concentrations at Ta-Liao, Taiwan, 1997-2001. During 1995-2003, the 600 days of Pollution Standard Index (PSI) more than 100 (peak daily 1-hr ozone concentrations detected by greater than 120 ppm) at Tao-Liao showed the highest ozone exceedances among the six monitoring stations in Kaohsiung County. To improve the predictability of extremely high ozone, two different principal components, PC1 and PC(1 + 2), were introduced in the RTSE model. Four typical predictors (particular matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microm, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction) plus a PC trigger remained significant in the RTSE model. The model performance statistics concluded that the RTSE model with PC1 was optimal, compared with the univariate ARIMA, the RTSE model without PC, and RTSE model with PC(1 + 2). The contingency table shows that the successful predictions of the univariate model were only 12.9% of that of the RTSE model with PC1. Also, the POD value was improved approximately 5-fold when the univariate model was replaced by the RTSE model, and almost 8-fold when it was replaced by the RTSE model with PC1. Moreover, introducing the PC trigger indeed enhanced the ozone predictability. After the PC trigger was introduced in the RTSE model, the POD was increased 69.9%, and the FAR was reduced 8.3%. The overall correlation between the observed and simulated ozone was improved 9.6%. Also, the first principal component was more useful than the first two components in playing the "trigger" role, though it counted only for 58.62% of the environmental variance during the high ozone days.

  19. Weekly patterns of México City's surface concentrations of CO, NOx, PM10 and O3 during 1986–2007

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    R. Muñoz


    Full Text Available Surface pollutant concentrations in México City show a distinct pattern of weekly variations similar to that observed in many other cities of the world. Measurements of the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2, particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10, and ozone (O3 collected hourly over 22 years (1986–2007 at 39 urban monitoring locations were analyzed. Morning concentrations of CO, NOx, and PM10 are lower on Saturdays and even more so on Sundays, compared to workdays (Monday–Friday, while afternoon O3 concentrations change minimally and are occasionally even higher. This weekend effect is empirical evidence that photochemical O3 production is NOx-inhibited, and to the extent that emissions of CO are proportional to those of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs, it is VOC-limited, at least in the urban areas for which the monitoring stations are representative. The VOC-limitation has increased in the past decade, due to decreases in the concentrations of CO (and presumably VOCs and consequent decreases in the CO/NOx and VOC/NOx ratios. Enhancements of photolysis frequencies resulting from smaller weekend aerosol burdens are not negligible, but fall short of being an alternate explanation for the observed weekend effect. The strength of the weekend effect indicates that local radical termination occurs primarily via formation of nitric acid and other NOx-related compounds, some of which (e.g. peroxy acyl nitrates can contribute to the regional NOx budget. While VOC emission reductions would be most effective in reducing local O3 production, NOx emission reduction may be more important for controlling regional oxidants.

  20. Weekly patterns of México City's surface concentrations of CO, NOx, PM10 and O3 during 1986–2007

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    A. Retama


    Full Text Available Surface pollutant concentrations in México City show a distinct pattern of weekly variations similar to that observed in many other cities of the world. Measurements of the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2, particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10, and ozone (O3 collected hourly over 22 years (1986–2007 at 32 urban monitoring locations were analyzed. Morning concentrations of CO, NOx, and PM10 are lower on Saturdays and even more so on Sundays, compared to workdays (Monday–Friday, while afternoon O3 concentrations change minimally and are occasionally even higher. This weekend effect is empirical evidence that photochemical O3 production is NOx-inhibited, and to the extent that emissions of CO are correlated with reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs, it is VOC-limited, at least in the urban areas for which the monitoring stations are representative. The VOC-limitation has increased in the past decade, due to decreases in the concentrations of CO (and presumably VOCs and consequent decreases in the CO/NOx and VOC/NOx ratios. Enhancements of photolysis frequencies resulting from smaller weekend aerosol burdens are not negligible, but fall short of being an alternate explanation for the observed weekend effect. The strength of the weekend effect indicates that local radical termination occurs primarily via formation of nitric acid and other NOx-related compounds, some of which (e.g. peroxy acyl nitrates can contribute to the regional NOx budget. While VOC emission reductions would be most effective in reducing local O3 production, NOx emission reduction may be more important for controlling regional oxidants.

  1. Effects of N-doping concentration on the electronic structure and optical properties of N-doped β-Ga2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li-Ying; Yan Jin-Liang; Zhang Yi-Jun; Li Ting


    The electronic structures and the optical properties of N-doped β-Ga2O3 with different N-doping concentrations are studied using the first-principles method.We find that the N substituting O(1) atom is the most stable structure for the smallest formation energy.After N-doping,the charge density distribution significantly changes,and the acceptor impurity level is introduced above the valence band and intersects with the Fermi level.The impurity absorption edges appear to shift toward longer wavelengths with an increase in N-doping concentration.The complex refractive index shows metallic characteristics in the N-doped β-Ga2O3.

  2. Aromatic volatile organic compounds and their role in ground-level ozone formation in Russia (United States)

    Berezina, E. V.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Elansky, N. F.; Belikov, I. B.


    This paper reports proton mass spectrometry data on aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene, and propylbenzene) obtained in different Russian regions along the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moscow to Vladivostok, based on expedition data retrieved using the TRO-ICA-12 mobile laboratory in the summer of 2008. The contribution of aromatic VOCs to ozone formation in the cities and regions along the measurement route has been estimated quantitatively. The greatest contribution of aromatic VOCs to ozone formation is characteristic of large cities along the Trans-Siberian Railway (up to 7.5 ppbv O3) specified by the highest concentrations of aromatic VOCs (1-1.7 ppbv) and nitrogen oxides (>20 ppbv). The results obtained are indicative of a considerable contribution (30-50%) of anthropogenic emissions of VOCs to photochemical ozone generation in the large cities along the Trans-Siberian Railway in hot and dry weather against the background of a powerful natural factor such as isoprene emissions controlling the regional balance of ground-level ozone in warm seasons.

  3. Wind tunnel studies of gas dispersion from ground level source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michálek Petr


    Full Text Available Measurements of gas dispersion from ground source were performed in a boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. The measurements include non-buoyant gas dispersion behind a ground level source on a flat plane, on a simple rectangular building model and behind a model hill and rectangular barrier. These measurements will serve for verification of a new gas dispersion software being developed in VZLU. The dispersion model is intended for use by firemen and ambulance services in the case of an accident for immediate estimation of the area with dangerous gas concentration. The dispersion model will use precalculated results for chosen areas in the Czech Republic with industrial plants and residential building in the neighborhood. The size of contaminated area will be estimated using actual meteorological situation, i.e. wind speed and direction etc. and precalculated data of flow and dispersion in the chosen location.

  4. Wind tunnel studies of gas dispersion from ground level source (United States)

    Michálek, Petr; Zacho, David


    Measurements of gas dispersion from ground source were performed in a boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. The measurements include non-buoyant gas dispersion behind a ground level source on a flat plane, on a simple rectangular building model and behind a model hill and rectangular barrier. These measurements will serve for verification of a new gas dispersion software being developed in VZLU. The dispersion model is intended for use by firemen and ambulance services in the case of an accident for immediate estimation of the area with dangerous gas concentration. The dispersion model will use precalculated results for chosen areas in the Czech Republic with industrial plants and residential building in the neighborhood. The size of contaminated area will be estimated using actual meteorological situation, i.e. wind speed and direction etc. and precalculated data of flow and dispersion in the chosen location.

  5. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. (United States)

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R


    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  6. Influence of hydrogen concentration on Fe2O3 particle reduction in fluidized beds under constant drag force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Guo; Han Gao; Jin-tao Yu; Zong-liang Zhang; Zhan-cheng Guo


    The fixed-gas drag force from a model calculation method that stabilizes the agitation capabilities of different gas ratios was used to explore the influence of temperature and hydrogen concentration on fluidizing duration, metallization ratio, utilization rate of reduction gas, and sticking behavior. Different hydrogen concentrations from 5vol%to 100vol%at 1073 and 1273 K were used while the drag force with the flow of N2 and H2 (N2:2 L·min−1;H2:2 L·min−1) at 1073 K was chosen as the standard drag force. The metallization ratio, mean reduc-tion rate, and utilization rate of reduction gas were observed to generally increase with increasing hydrogen concentration. Faster reduction rates and higher metallization ratios were obtained when the reduction temperature decreased from 1273 to 1073 K. A numerical relation among particle diameter, particle drag force, and fluidization state was plotted in a diagram by this model.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of ground level ozone in India using WRF-CMAQ models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chatani, Satoru; Mahtta, Richa; Goel, Anju; Kumar, Atul


    Ground level ozone is emerging as a pollutant of concern in India. Limited surface monitoring data reveals that ozone concentrations are well above the prescribed national standards. This study aims to simulate the regional and urban scale ozone concentrations in India using WRF-CMAQ models. Sector-

  8. Concentration and annealing effect on PL properties of sol-gel derived SiO_2-Y_2O_3:Eu~(3+) nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆; 曾庆光; 胡社军; 吴坤彬; 蒋俊宏; 陈根廷


    An improved sol-gel method was employed to prepare Eu3+ ions doped SiO2-Y2O3 nanocomposites.Systematic study was carried out on the effect of post-annealing treatment on photoluminescence(PL) properties of the samples under various europium ions doping concentrations.X-ray diffraction(XRD) patterns indicated that the samples showed an amorphous matrix structure,and the scanning electron microscopy(SEM) pictures showed that the samples presented a nano size(from 21 to 42 nm) granular-stack structure after hi...

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 powders at low temperature and low alkaline concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhong-Cheng Qiu; Jian-Ping Zhou; Gangqiang Zhu; Peng Liu; Xiao-Bing Bian


    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) powders were prepared by hydrothermal method. The effects of experimental parameters, including Pb/(Zr, Ti) ratio, alkaline concentration, reaction temperature and time on the product powders were studied in detail. Pure PZT powders were synthesized at suitable experimental conditions and Raman spectra confirmed the PZT with a perovskite-type structure. The homogeneous PZT powders with cubic-shaped morphology were formed at alkaline concentration of 1.2 M after reacting at 230°C for 2 h. The pure PZT powders obtained at low temperature and low alkaline concentration were attributed to precursors, TiCl4, with high activity and mineralizer NaOH with small cation radius.

  10. Numerical Simulation Study on the Impacts of Tropospheric O3 and CO2 Concentration Changes on Winter Wheat. Part Ⅱ:Simulation Results and Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Changling; WANG Chunyi


    With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, the enrichment of tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide concentration at striking rates has caused effects on biosphere, especially on crops. It is generally accepted that the increase of CO2 concentration will have obverse effects on plant productivity while ozone is reported as the air pollutant most damaging to agricultural crops and other plants. The Model of Carbon and Nitrogen Biogeochemistry in Agroecosystems (DNDC) was adapted to evaluate simultaneously impacts of climate change on winter wheat.Growth development and yield formation of winter wheat under different Os and CO2 concentration conditions are simulated with the improved DNDC model whose structure has been described in another paper. Through adjusting the DNDC model applicability, winter wheat growth and development in Gucheng Station were simulated well in 1993 and 1999, which is in favor of modifying the model further. The model was validated against experiment observation, including development stage data, leaf area index, each organ biomass, and total aboveground biomass. Sensitivity tests demonstrated that the simulated results in development stage and biomass were sensitive to temperature change. The main conclusions of the paper are the following: 1) The growth and yield of winter wheat under CO2 concentration of 500 ppmv, 700 ppmv and the current ozone concentration are simulated respectively by the model. The results are well fitted with the observed data of OTCs experiments. The results show that increase of CO2 concentration may improve the growth of winter wheat and elevate the yield. 2) The growth and yield of winter wheat under O3 concentration of 50 ppbv, 100 ppbv, 200 ppbv and the based concentration CO2 are simulated respectively by the model. The simulated curves of stem, leaf, and spike organs growth as well as leaf area index are well accounted with the observed data. The results reveal that ozone has negative

  11. Influence of Vertical Eddy Diffusivity Parameterization on Daily and Monthly Mean Concentrations of O3 and NOy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Junling; CHENG Xinjin; QU Yu; CHEN Yong


    Two parameterization schemes for vertical eddy diffusivity were utilized to investigate their impacts on both the daily and monthly mean concentrations of ozone and NOy, which are the major fractions of the sum of all reactive nitrogen species, i.e., NOy=NO+NO2+HNO3+PAN. Simulations indicate that great changes in the vertical diffusivity usually occur within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Daily and monthly mean concentrations of NOy are much more sensitive to changes in the vertical diffusivity than those of ozone and ozone and NOy levels only at or in (relatively) clean sites and areas, where long-range transport plays a crucial role, display roughly equivalent sensitivity. The results strongly suggest that a widely-accepted parameterization scheme be selected and the refinement of the model's vertical resolution in the PBL be required, even for regional and long-term studies, and ozone only being examined in an effort to judge the model's performance be unreliable, and NOy be included for model evaluations.

  12. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (United States)

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  13. A Simple Method for Measuring Ground-Level Ozone in the Atmosphere (United States)

    Seeley, John V.; Seeley, Stacy K.; Bull, Arthur W.; Fehir, Richard J., Jr.; Cornwall, Susan; Knudsen, Gabriel A.


    An iodometric assay that allows the ground-level ozone concentration to be determined with an inexpensive sampling apparatus and a homemade photometer is described. This laboratory experiment applies a variety of different fundamental concepts including oxidation-reduction chemistry, the ideal gas law, and spectroscopic analysis and also provides…

  14. Variation in O3, H2O2, NO2 and SO2 concentrations during cloud episodes at Mount Szrenica, Karkonosze Mountains, Poland (United States)

    Zwozdziak, J.; Sowka, I.; Zwozdziak, A.; Kmiec, G.; Francois, S.; Monod, A.; Poulain, L.; Wortham, H.


    One of the places in Europe which is particularly suitable for studying the qualitative and quantitative interactions between the polluted air and clouds is the region of Mount Szrenica (1362 m a.s.l.) situated in the Karkonosze Mountains, Poland. Karkonosze Mountains collect a substantial amount of pollution from the Black Triangle region, e.g. from the highly industrialised areas of western Czech Republic, southwestern Poland and eastern Germany. The main objective was to quantify losses of pollutants during cloud events, in order to investigate whether the cloud removed a significant quantity of pollutants from the air mass. The field campaign was conducted in the Karkonosze Mts. during a period of July 2000. Pollutant monitors (SO_2, NOx, O_3 and H_2O_2 analysers), an automated cloud water collector (NESA 1, Kroneis GmbH, hourly samples) and an automatic weather station (Campbell Scientific Ltd. ser. no. 2192) were placed at Mount Szrenica. Analysis for the ions in cloud water samples was performed with a Waters ion chromatograph (IC). Case studies did not provide evidence of significant losses of SO_2 and NO_2 as air passed over the mountain and through clouds on the summit of Szrenica as well as in the air before and after the cloud. In the case of ozone and hydrogen peroxide, the variations were observed and some reasons are discussed in more details. The O_3 concentration inside the clouds also followed a pattern related to that of NO_2 and H_2O_2. The ionic composition of the cloud was considered to be significantly different from that of the sites in Europe discussed earlier. Relatively low sulphate and ammonium concentrations in comparison to nitrate, chloride and calcium levels were observed.

  15. OMI satellite observations of decadal changes in ground-level sulfur dioxide over North America (United States)

    Kharol, Shailesh K.; McLinden, Chris A.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Shephard, Mark W.; Fioletov, Vitali; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.


    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has a significant impact on the environment and human health. We estimated ground-level sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using SO2 profiles from the Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) model over North America for the period of 2005-2015. OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations (r = 0. 61) and trends (r = 0. 74) correlated well with coincident in situ measurements from air quality networks over North America. We found a strong decreasing trend in coincidently sampled ground-level SO2 from OMI (-81 ± 19 %) and in situ measurements (-86 ± 13 %) over the eastern US for the period of 2005-2015, which reflects the implementation of stricter pollution control laws, including flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants. The spatially and temporally contiguous OMI-derived ground-level SO2 concentrations can be used to assess the impact of long-term exposure to SO2 on the health of humans and the environment.

  16. 高浓度O3对银杏凋落叶化学组成的影响%Effects of elevated O3 concentration on chemical composition of leaf litter of Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丽丽; 付伟; 徐胜; 何兴元; 陈玮; 赵诣; 黄彦青


    北半球近地大气O3浓度在最近几十年里持续升高,对陆地生态系统产生深远的影响.本文选取5年生银杏(Ginkgo biloba)为研究对象,利用开顶式气室(OTCs)开展了3个不同浓度的O3(自然对照浓度约40 nmol·mol-1、处理浓度80和120 nmol·mol-1)熏蒸试验,持续熏蒸2个生长季(2012-2013年)后,于2013年11年月初收集其凋落叶,测定并分析不同处理下银杏凋落叶化学成分的变化.结果表明:与对照相比,高浓度O3处理组银杏凋落叶的N、K含量均显著升高,总酚含量以及C/N、木质素/N降低;而C、P、木质素含量以及C/P并未呈现出显著差异.可溶性糖、缩合单宁含量在两高浓度O3处理下变化趋势并不一致:与对照相比,可溶性糖含量仅在120 nmol·mol-1处理下表现出显著差异,降低38%;缩合单宁含量在80 nmol·mol-1处理下显著升高(343%),而在120 nmol·mol-1处理下无显著变化.木本植物凋落物的化学组成在O3熏蒸下会发生一定变化,这种变化可能会对树木凋落物在O3污染地区的分解及区域气候变化下森林生态系统的物质循环,特别是碳循环产生重要影响.

  17. Numerical Simulation Study on the Impacts of Tropospheric O3 and CO2 Concentration Changes on Winter Wheat.Part Ⅰ: Model Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Changling; WANG Chunyi


    Ozone is well documented as the air pollutant most damaging to agricultural crops and other plants.It is reported that tropospheric O3 concentration increases rapidly in recent 20 years.Evaluating and predicting impacts of ozone concentration changes on crops are drawing great attention in the scientific community. In China, main study method about this filed is controlled experiments, for example, Open Top Chambers. But numerical simulation study about impacts of ozone on crops with crop model was developed slowly, what is more, the study about combined impacts of ozone and carbon dioxide has not been reported.The improved agroecosystem model is presented to evaluate simultaneously impacts of tropospheric O3and CO2 concentration changes on crops in the paper by integrating algorithms about impacts of ozone on photosynthesis with an existing agroecosystem biogeochemical model (named as DNDC). The main physiological processes of crop growth (phenology, leaf area index, photosynthesis, respiration, assimilated allocation and so on) in the former DNDC are kept. The algorithms about impacts of ozone on photosynthesis and winter wheat leaf are added in the modified DNDC model in order to reveal impacts of ozone and carbon dioxide on growth, development, and yield formation of winter wheat by coupling the simulation about impacts of carbon dioxide on photosynthesis of winter wheat which exists in the former DNDC. In the paper, firstly assimilate allocation algorithms and some genetic parameters (such as daily thermal time of every development stage) were modified in order that DNDC can be applicable in North China. Secondly impacts of ozone on crops were simulated with two different methods- one was impacts of ozone on light use efficiency, and the other was direct effects of ozone on leaves photosynthesis. The latter simulated results are closer to experiment measurements through comparing their simulating results. At last the method of direct impacts of ozone on leaf

  18. Allocation of recent photoassimilates in mature European beech and Norway spruce - seasonal variability and responses to experimentally increased tropospheric O3 concentration and long-term drought (United States)

    Grams, Thorsten


    respiration is exclusively supplied by recently fixed C was rejected for both species. After long-term (7 years) exposure to elevated (i.e. twice-ambient) O3 concentrations, allocation of recently fixed C to stems was distinctly affected when studied during later summer. In correspondence with significantly lowered woody biomass development in beech (- 40 %), C allocation to stems was reduced in response to O3 exposure. Conversely in spruce, photoassimilate allocation to stems and coarse root respiration was hardly affected, reflecting the overall lower sensitivity of spruce to elevated O3 concentrations. Compartmental modeling characterized functional properties of substrate pools supplying respiratory C demands. Stem respiration of spruce appeared to be largely supplied by recent photoassimilates. Conversely in beech, stored C, putatively located in stem parenchyma cells, was a major source for respiration, reflecting the fundamental anatomical disparity between angiosperm beech and gymnosperm spruce. Overall, the observed differences in C allocation between the two study species reflect the high plasticity of beech trees in response to seasons and stressors such as drought and elevated O3, whereas spruce displayed much lower responsiveness to the applied stressors and along the seasonal course of the year.

  19. Optimization of BaZrO3 concentration as secondary phase in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 for high current applications (United States)

    Malik, Bilal A.; Malik, Manzoor A.; Asokan, K.


    We report the superconducting state properties of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) on introduction of BaZrO3 (BZO) as a secondary phase. YBCO+xBZO (x= 0, 2, 4, 6, and 10 wt%) composite samples were prepared by solid state reaction method and characterized for structural, morphological and superconducting properties. X-ray diffraction confirms the increased crystallinity and images of scanning electron microscopy measurement show an increase in both grain size and grain connectivity on addition of BZO in YBCO. These effects are well pronounced in an applied magnetic field. Critical current density, JC, as well as the pinning force peaks at 4% of BZO concentration showed significant difference. A three-fold enhancement in JC and a six-fold enhancement in pinning force were observed at this optimum BZO concentration. This has been attributed to the pinning of flux lines in YBCO due to introduction of BZO as a secondary phase. These results show that this composite has potential application in high current applications.

  20. Optimization of BaZrO3 concentration as secondary phase in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 for high current applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal A. Malik


    Full Text Available We report the superconducting state properties of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO on introduction of BaZrO3 (BZO as a secondary phase. YBCO+xBZO (x= 0, 2, 4, 6, and 10 wt% composite samples were prepared by solid state reaction method and characterized for structural, morphological and superconducting properties. X-ray diffraction confirms the increased crystallinity and images of scanning electron microscopy measurement show an increase in both grain size and grain connectivity on addition of BZO in YBCO. These effects are well pronounced in an applied magnetic field. Critical current density, JC, as well as the pinning force peaks at 4% of BZO concentration showed significant difference. A three-fold enhancement in JC and a six-fold enhancement in pinning force were observed at this optimum BZO concentration. This has been attributed to the pinning of flux lines in YBCO due to introduction of BZO as a secondary phase. These results show that this composite has potential application in high current applications.

  1. Change in thermoluminescence behaviour of cubic Gd2O3:Yb3+ phosphors with successive increase in Yb3+ ion concentrations (United States)

    Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Bisen, D. P.; Upadhyay, Kanchan


    Nanocrystalline Yb3+ doped Gd2O3 phosphors were synthesized by solid state reaction method (SSRM), and effect of Yb3+ concentrations (1 mol% to 7 mol%) on thermoluminescence properties were studied. The XRD technique shows the cubic structure of prepared phosphor for different concentrations of Yb3+. No phase change was found due to the dopant concentration. The crystal size was calculated by Scherer's formula, which is found in 20-60 nm range. The same was also confirmed from the field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) image, which shows the formation of nanospheres having diameter 20-60 nm range. They are found to be quite uniform in shapes and sizes. Functional group analysis was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques and the elemental analysis of prepared phosphor was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDX) analysis. The samples were irradiated with UV and gamma radiation for the doses varying from 5 to 30 min for UV and 0.5 kGy to 2 kGy for gamma respectively and their thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics have been studied. The effect of heating rate (3-7 °C s-1) and effect of Yb3+ concentration in TL glow curve have been studied. The TL glow curve of nanophosphor shows a peak at around 130 °C for UV and at 247 °C for gamma irradiation respectively. The TL response of the sample irradiated with different gamma doses shows a linear behaviour from 0.5 kGy to 2 kGy and become sublinear behaviour in the range of 5-25 min UV exposure before it saturates with further increase in the dose. Simple glow curve structure, easy method of synthesis and the linear dose response make the nanocrystalline phosphor a good candidate for radiation dosimetry, especially for the estimation of high doses of gamma rays where the nanocrystalline phosphors generally saturated.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青; 孙玫玲; 蔡子颖; 黄鹤


    作为城市污染大气的首要光化学污染物,臭氧的变化特征与NO、NO2密切相关.分析天津城区2009年全年O3、NO和NO2体积浓度变化特征,结果表明,O3体积浓度春夏季高,这种分布特征与短波辐射的季节分布有关,日照时数和云量的分布证实了这一点.NO浓度冬季最高,夏季最低,NO2浓度秋季最高,夏季最低;相关性分析表明有NOx参与的光化学反应是O3生成的主要方式.OX(OX=NO2+O3)浓度与NOx浓度的相关性分析表明,春季O3背景值最高,区域污染最重,夏季大气光化学反应最为强烈,大气氧化能力最强,局地NOx对O3生成的贡献最大.%As the primary gaseous contaminant in urban ambient,ozone variation correlates well with nitrogen oxides(NOx=NO+NO2).Based on the observed data of near surface O3,NO and NO2 in the urban area of Tianjin during 2009,O3 temporal variation and the relationship between NO,NO2 and O3 concentrations were studied.The results showed that high O3 concentrations in Tianjin appeared in the spring and summer,when monthly mean O3 concentration was more than 40 μL·m-3 in April.This was due to the seasonal variation of solar radiation,caused by the distribution of sunshine duration and cloud amount.The highest concentrations of NO,NO2 appeared in winter and autumn respectively,while the lowest concentrations appeared in summer.The correlation between O3 and its precursors(NO,NO2) indicated that photochemical reaction with NO,NO2 was the primary process of ozone generation.It was also shown that the level of OX(OX=O3+NO2) was made up of two contributions.Regional contribution was affected by regional background O3 level,with the maximum in spring,while local contribution was effectively correlated with the level of ozone precursors(NO,NO2) with the maximum in summer.

  3. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ... (United States)


    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  4. Spatial Concentration Profiles for the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Jet Fuel Surrogates in a Rh/Al2O3 Coated Monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian N. Bär


    Full Text Available The catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX of several hydrocarbon mixtures, containing n-dodecane (DD, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB, and benzothiophene (BT as a sulfur compound was studied over a Rh/Al2O3 honeycomb catalyst. The in-situ sampling technique SpaciPro was used in this study to investigate the complex reaction system which consisted of total and partial oxidation, steam reforming, and the water gas shift reaction. The mixtures of 83 vol % DD, 17 vol % TMB with and without addition of the sulfur compound BT, as well as the pure hydrocarbons were studied at a molar C/O-ratio of 0.75. The spatially resolved concentration and temperature profiles inside a central channel of the catalyst revealed three reaction zones: an oxidation zone, an oxy-reforming zone, and a reforming zone. Hydrogen formation starts in the oxy-reforming zone, not directly at the catalyst inlet, contrary to methane CPOX on Rh. In the reforming zone, in which steam reforming is the predominant reaction, even small amounts of sulfur (10 mg S in 1 kg fuel block active sites.

  5. The Analysis of a Microbial Community in the UV/O3-Anaerobic/Aerobic Integrated Process for Petrochemical Nanofiltration Concentrate (NFC Treatment by 454-Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wei

    Full Text Available In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied on the analysis of the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in a lab-scale UV/O3- anaerobic/aerobic (A/O integrated process for the treatment of petrochemical nanofiltration concentrate (NFC wastewater. NFC is a type of saline wastewater with low biodegradability. From the anaerobic activated sludge (Sample A and aerobic biofilm (Sample O, 59,748 and 51,231 valid sequence reads were obtained, respectively. The dominant phylotypes related to the metabolism of organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH biodegradation, assimilation of carbon from benzene, and the biodegradation of nitrogenous organic compounds were detected as genus Clostridium, genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, class Betaproteobacteria, and genus Hyphomicrobium. Furthermore, the nitrite-oxidising bacteria Nitrospira, nitrite-reducing and sulphate-oxidising bacteria (NR-SRB Thioalkalivibrio were also detected. In the last twenty operational days, the total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Organic Carbon (TOC removal efficiencies on average were 64.93% and 62.06%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen and Total Nitrogen (TN on average were 90.51% and 75.11% during the entire treatment process.

  6. Modulation of responses of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to pH and temperature stresses by growth at different salt concentrations. (United States)

    Whitaker, W Brian; Parent, Michelle A; Naughton, Lynn M; Richards, Gary P; Blumerman, Seth L; Boyd, E Fidelma


    Vibrio parahaemolyticus inhabits marine, brackish, and estuarine waters worldwide, where fluctuations in salinity pose a constant challenge to the osmotic stress response of the organism. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a moderate halophile, having an absolute requirement for salt for survival, and is capable of growth at 1 to 9% NaCl. It is the leading cause of seafood-related bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and much of Asia. We determined whether growth in differing NaCl concentrations alters the susceptibility of V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to other environmental stresses. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was grown at a 1% or 3% NaCl concentration, and the growth and survival of the organism were examined under acid or temperature stress conditions. Growth of V. parahaemolyticus in 3% NaCl versus that in 1% NaCl increased survival under both inorganic (HCl) and organic (acetic acid) acid conditions. In addition, at 42 degrees C and -20 degrees C, 1% NaCl had a detrimental effect on growth. The expression of lysine decarboxylase (encoded by cadA), the organism's main acid stress response system, was induced by both NaCl and acid conditions. To begin to address the mechanism of regulation of the stress response, we constructed a knockout mutation in rpoS, which encodes the alternative stress sigma factor, and in toxRS, a two-component regulator common to many Vibrio species. Both mutant strains had significantly reduced survival under acid stress conditions. The effect of V. parahaemolyticus growth in 1% or 3% NaCl was examined using a cytotoxicity assay, and we found that V. parahaemolyticus grown in 1% NaCl was significantly more toxic than that grown in 3% NaCl.

  7. Ground Level Ozone Precursors: Emission Changes in Lithuania 1990–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata DAGILIŪTĖ


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Lithuanian national strategy for sustainable development is aiming to reduce air pollution per GDP unit significantly and to ensure compliance with international commitments in the air pollution sphere. Ground-level ozone (O3 is one of the most important secondary air pollutants, which is assigned to be harmful to environmental and human health and is one of the main problems of air pollution in cities. This paper aims to overview the changes in the emissions of ground level ozone precursors and their ozone forming potential as well as the achieved progress in foreseen goals. During the analysis period (1990 - 2006 emissions of ground-level ozone precursors declined twofold in Lithuania. After transitional decline intensity of ground level ozone precursors also significantly decreased due to advanced technologies, more efficient energy consumption and changes in fuel mix. However, intensity of ground-level ozone precursors in Lithuania was higher compared to the old EU member states on average, therefore much more attention should be given to special air pollution mitigation measures.

  8. Influences of C3H8O3 Concentration on Formation and Characteristics of MAO Coatings on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy%C3H8O3含量对AZ91D镁合金微弧氧化过程及膜层特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑艳; 夏永平; 刘莉


    在含有不同C3H8O3含量的硅铝复合电解液中,利用交流脉冲电源在AZ91D镁合金基体上制备了一系列微弧氧化膜.利用SEM和膜层测厚仪分别研究了陶瓷膜层的微观形貌特征及厚度,采用全浸泡实验和电化学阻抗谱测试了膜层在3.5%NaCl中性溶液中的耐蚀性能.结果表明,微弧氧化过程中的起弧电压和终止电压均随C3H8O3含量的增加而呈上升的变化趋势.随着C3H8O3含量的增加,膜层耐蚀性先提高后降低,而膜厚变化幅度不大.膜层的耐蚀性主要取决于内部致密层,当C3H8O3含量为5mL/L时,膜层相对较致密,因而表现出良好的耐蚀性能.%Microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings were obtained on the AZ91D magnesium alloy by AC pulse electrical source in a silicate-aluminate based composite electrolyte containing various concentrations of C3H8O3.The morphologies and thickness of ceramic coatings were characterized by SEM and layer thickness meter,respectively.The corrosion resistance of coatings in a 3.5%NaCl neutral solution was evaluated by the immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The results showed that the striking voltage and final voltage increased gradually with the increase of C3H8O3 concentration during the MAO process.With the increase of C3H8O3 concentration in the electrolyte,the corrosion resistance of the coatings increased at first and then decreased gradually,however,the variation of the coating thickness was not obvious.The EIS results showed that the corrosion resistance of the coatings was influenced by the inner dense layer.The coating exhibited better corrosion resistance in the electrolyte containing 5 mL/L C3H8O3due to its relatively compact microstructure.

  9. Determination of stoichiometry and concentration of trace elements in thin BaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite layers. (United States)

    Becker, J S; Boulyga, S F


    This paper describes an analytical procedure for determining the stoichiometry of BaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite layers using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analytical results of mass spectrometry measurements are compared to those of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The performance and the limits of solid-state mass spectrometry analytical methods for the surface analysis of thin BaxSr1-xTiO3 perovskite layers sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS)--are investigated and discussed.

  10. O3 Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Juan


    Ti2O3 nanoparticles with high performance of photothermal conversion are demonstrated for the first time. Benefiting from the nanosize and narrow-bandgap features, the Ti2O3 nanoparticles possess strong light absorption and nearly 100% internal solar–thermal conversion efficiency. Furthermore, Ti2O3 nanoparticle-based thin film shows potential use in seawater desalination and purification.

  11. Variation of optimum yttrium doping concentrations of perovskite type proton conductors BaZr1-xYxO3-α(0≤x≤0.3) with temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉石; 厉英; 邓文卓; 黄文龙; 王常珍


    A solid state reaction method was used to prepare the perovskite-structured compounds BaZr1-xYxO3-α(x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that the target perovskite phases were obtained. With increasing Y con-centration the unit cell parameters of BaZr1-xYxO3-αsamples were expanded, and Y doping became more difficult. However, high synthesis temperature is helpful to promote Y doping. The SEM results showed that the samples exhibited poor sinterability with in-creasing Y-doping content. Thermal gravimetric (TG) curves analysis showed the more mass decreasing of BaZr1-xYxO3-α(0≤x≤0.3) samples at high temperature with more Y doping and more proton introducing. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of specimens showed that conductivities of BaZr1-xYxO3-α(0≤x≤0.3) increased with increasing temperature from 300 to 900 °C in wet air. At 900 °C, the conductivity of BaZr1-xYxO3-α(0≤x≤0.3) first increased with increasing doped amount of Y, and reached the high-est value of 1.07×10-3 S/cm when x was 0.2, then decreased gradually with further increasing Y content. At 600 °C, BaZr0.75Y0.25O3-αdisplayed the highest conductivity, while the conductivity of BaZr0.7Y0.3O3-αwas the highest at 300 °C. The results indicated that there should be an optimum Y doping concentration yielding the highest conductivity at a constant temperature, and the optimum Y doping concentration should increase in the humidity atmosphere as the temperature decreases. So increasing the Y-doping concen-tration is helpful to improve the conductivities of BaZr1-xYxO3-αmaterials at low temperature.

  12. Measurement and Evaluation in Vitro on Concentration-Effect and Specificity of As2O3 for Inhibiting Proliferation of Human Malignant Fibroblasts%As2O3抑制恶性纤维母细胞增殖浓度效应及特异性的体外测评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方成; 刘立; 丁洪波


    目的 体外检测三氧化二砷(As2O3)对人恶性纤维母细胞株MG-63(骨肉瘤细胞)及人正常纤维母细胞株MRC-5增殖的浓度效应,评价As2O3对恶性纤维母细胞毒作用的强度及特异性.方法 应用噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测5d内0.25~8μmol/L浓度的As2O3对细胞株MG-63及MRC-5增殖的抑制率.以累积正态分布函数拟合二者的浓度-抑制率曲线,比较50%抑制浓度(IC50).以正态分布函数拟合二者抑制率的差值,推断最大差值及对应浓度的95%可信区间.结果 1μmol/L浓度的As2O3对MG-63细胞抑制率第5天达58.8%,对MRC-5细胞最高仅达27.6%,8μmol/L浓度的As2O3对MRC-5细胞的抑制率达55.9%.使用第4天的浓度及抑制率分别拟合MG-63与MRC-5细胞剂量效应曲线的累积正态分布函数,决定系数(r2)值均大于0.98,IC50分别为0.968 6μmol/L和6.103 8 μmol/L,其比值为6.30.拟合MG-63及MRC-5细胞增殖抑制率差值的正态分布函数,r2=0.990 7,最大抑制率差值为25.36%,95%可信区间对应As2O3的浓度为0.487 5 μmol/L和1.049 4 μmol/L.结论 As2O3可有效抑制人恶性纤维母细胞增殖,在特定浓度区域内具有一定的特异性(安全性).%Objective To examine in vitro the concentration effect of arsenic trioxide(As2O3) on the proliferation of human malignant fibroblast cell line MG-63 (osteosarcoma) and human normal fibroblast cell line MRC-5,and to evaluate its intensity and the specificity on the malignant fibroblast cell cytotoxicity action.Methods The proliferation-inhibition rate of MG-63 and MRC-5 cell lines treated with As2O3 (0.25-8 μmol/L) were observed within 5 d by the methy thiazoloyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay.The accumulation normal distribution function was adopted to fit their concentration-inhibition rate curves and the 50% of inhibition concentrations (IC50)were compared.To fit the differences of concentration-inhibition rates between MG-63 and MRC-5 with the normal distribution function and to

  13. Gamma-rays Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms at Ground Level

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P


    The TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA) is an array of NaI scintillators located at rooftop level on the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From July 2010 through March 2014, TETRA has detected 28 millisecond-duration bursts of gamma-rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. The results of the initial analysis will be presented.

  14. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: a case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions. (United States)

    Emberson, Lisa D; Büker, Patrick; Ashmore, Mike R


    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO(3)SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O(3) risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O(3) risk.

  15. Temporal changes of beryllium-7 and lead-210 in ground level air in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.


    Full Text Available 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs activity concentrations in ground level air at five monitoring stations (MS Vinča, Zeleno Brdo, Zaječar, Vranje and Zlatibor in Serbia were determined during the period from May 2011. to September 2012., as part of the project monitoring of Serbia. Activity of the radionuclides in air was determined on an HPGe detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 20 % by standard gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of cosmogenic 7Be, ranged from 1.5 to 8.8 mBq m-3 and exhibit maxima in the spring/summer period. The maximum concentrations for 210Pb were generally obtained in the fall for all investigated locations, and concentrations were in range 3.6 - 30 × 10-4 Bq m-3. The activity concentrations of anthropogenic 137Cs in ground level air, during the observed period, were at level 0.3 - 8 μBq m-3. The variations in 7Be/210Pb activity ratio for the investigated stations are also presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  16. Structural refinement, band-gap analysis and optical properties of GdAlO3 nanophosphors influenced by Dy3+ ion concentrations for white light emitting device applications (United States)

    Jisha, P. K.; Naik, Ramachandra; Prashantha, S. C.; Nagaswarupa, H. P.; Nagabhushana, H.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Sharma, S. C.; Prasad, Daruka


    Nanosized GdAlO3 phosphors activated with Dy3+ were prepared by a combustion method. Synthesized phosphors were calcined at 1000 °C for 3 h in order to achieve crystallinity. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis was used to characterize the prepared product. The orthorhombic phase was observed in the XRD pattern. The particle size of the samples was calculated as around 25 nm. The SEM images show an irregular shape of the prepared nanophosphor. Functional groups of the phosphors were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of Dy3+ doped GdAlO3 for near-ultraviolet excitation (352 nm) were studied in order to investigate the possibility of its use in white light emitting device applications. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition rate (A T) and radiative lifetimes (τ rad) were evaluated from the emission spectrum by adopting a standard procedure. The Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT) are studied for the optimized phosphor. It is found that the color coordinates of Dy3+ doped GdAlO3 powders fall in the white region of the CIE diagram, and the average CCT value was found to be about 6276 K. Therefore, the present phosphor is highly useful for display applications.

  17. Responses of Ilex integra Thunb. Seedlings to Elevated Air Ozone Concentration%全缘冬青幼苗(Ilex integra Thunb.)对大气O_3浓度升高的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍巍; 牛俊峰; 冯兆忠; 王效科; 田媛; 姚芳芳


    采用开顶式气室(open top chambers,OTCs)装置,研究O3浓度升高(E-O3,约150μL.L-1)对常绿阔叶树种全缘冬青幼苗的影响,主要包括伤害症状、植株生长、光合色素含量、气体交换速率与叶绿素荧光、丙二醛含量以及主要抗氧化剂含量变化.经过高浓度O3处理一个生长季后,当年生全展叶片表面分布着大量的黑褐色斑点与斑块,呈腐蚀状凹陷于叶片表面.O3引起茎百分比显著降低7%,但对株高与基径生长、生物量累积与比叶重无显著性影响;与CF处理相比,O3处理下全缘冬青幼苗当年生全展叶片净光合速率、叶绿%One-year-old Ilex integra seedlings were exposed to charcoal-filtered(CF) and elevated ozone(E-O3,~150 μL·L-1) for 84 days in six open-top chambers.Visible injury,growth parameters,pigments content,gas exchange,chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant system were investigated during the growing season.At the end of experiment,foliage showed remarkable visible symptoms with dark-brown necrotic spots and patches which were concaved on the upper surface of the current-year leaves.Although relative height and diameter increment,total biomass and specific leaf weight(SLW) remained unaffected,E-O3 significantly decreased the percentage of stem biomass in total biomass.E-O3 induced significant decrease in net photosynthetic rate,chlorophyll a/b ratio and total phenolic compound content by 19%,9% and 36%,respectively.However,stomatal conductance,intercellular CO2 concentration,chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters,pigment contents,MDA contents,total antioxidant capacity and total ascorbate content remained unaffected by E-O3.The results suggested that E-O3-induced change in components of chlorophyll contributed to the reduction of photosynthesis in Ilex integra seedlings.In addition,although visible symptom was found during the experiment,antioxidant system,most of the physiological parameters and growth were not

  18. 大气O3浓度升高对毛竹光合生理的影响%Impacts of elevated atmospheric ozone concentration on the photosynthetic physiology of Phyllostachys edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎春; 李应; 陈双林; 庄明浩; 郭子武; 杨清平


    In this study, open-top chambers (OTCs) were employed to approach the impacts of elevated atmospheric ozone ( O3) concentration on the photosynthesis of Phyllostachys edulis. Five treatments were installed, i. e. , CF (background atmosphere after filtrated by activated car-bon, 22-25 nL·L-1) , NF (directly introduce the background atmosphere to the gas chamber, 40-45 nL·L-1) , T, (92-106 nL·L-1 of O3, averagely 100 nL·L-1) , T2( 142-160 nL·L-1 of O3, averagely 150 nL·L-1). Under different O3 concentrations, the diurnal variations of P. edulis leaf Pn and Tr represented one-peak curves. With the increasing concentration of O3, the diurnal variations of the leaf Gs, Ci, and Ls trended to be simplified, while that of WUE be-came stable gradually. Under higher concentrations (≥100 nL·L-1)O3, the diurnal means of Pn, Ls, and WUE and the contents Chl, Chl-a, Chl-b, and Car decreased significantly, those of Gs and Tr had a significant increase, while the diurnal mean of Ci and the composition of photo-synthetic pigment changed less. In treatments T1 and T2, the Pn, Tr, and Gs were significantly correlated with the environmental factors FpdL, Tair, Ca and RH, and the Pn and Tr were signifi-cantly correlated with the PPED while the Gs was less correlated with the PPED. All the results indicated that 100 and 150 nL·L-1 of O3 could induce the leaf stomatal or non-stomatal limita-tion of P. edulis, respectively, and the stoma became insensitive to the environment, which im-pacted the leaf' s normal feedback mechanisms, increased leaf evapotranspiration, and inhibited the degradation or synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, exerting serious negative effects on the photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation of P. edulis.%以毛竹(phyllostachys edulis)为试材,运用开顶式气室(OTCs)模拟了4个大气O3浓度情景,分别为CF(背景大气经活性炭过滤后的处理,22~25 nL·L-1)、NF(直接将背景大气输入气室内,40~45 nL·L-1)、T1(O3

  19. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang


    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980-2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management.

  20. Detection of 6 November 1997 Ground Level Event by Milagrito

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B


    Solar Energetic Particles from the 6 November 1997 solar flare/CME(coronal mass ejection) with energies exceeding 10 GeV have been detected by Milagrito, a prototype of the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory. While particle acceleration beyond 1 GeV at the Sun is well established, few data exist for protons or ions beyond 10 GeV. The Milagro observatory, a ground based water Cherenkov detector designed for observing very high energy gamma ray sources, can also be used to study the Sun. Milagrito, which operated for approximately one year in 1997/98, was sensitive to solar proton and neutron fluxes above ~5- 10 GeV. Milagrito operated in a scaler mode, which was primarily sensitive to muons, low energy photons, and electrons, and the detector operated in a mode sensitive to showers and high zenith angle muons. In its scaler mode, Milagrito registered a rate increase coincident with the 6 November 1997 ground level event observed by Climax and other neutron monitors. A preliminary analysis suggests the presence of >...

  1. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA


    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  2. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone. (United States)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui


    Although elevated ground-level O₃ has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O₃ pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O₃ Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O₃-tolerant (YD6) and the O₃-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O₃ pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O₃ negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O₃ pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O₃ pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O₃ pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, Kerry R., E-mail: [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Peel, Jennifer L. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Robinson, Byron F. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Busacker, Ashley [Field Support Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Grandpre, Joseph [Chronic Disease Epidemiologist, Wyoming Department of Health, 6101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States); Bisgard, Kristine M. [Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Road, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Yip, Fuyuen Y. [Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 600 Clifton Rd, NE, E-92, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Murphy, Tracy D. [Wyoming Department of Health, 101 Yellowstone Road, Suite 510, Cheyenne, WY 82002 (United States)


    Objective: Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone has been linked to adverse respiratory and other health effects; previous studies typically have focused on summer ground-level ozone in urban areas. During 2008–2011, Sublette County, Wyoming (population: ~10,000 persons), experienced periods of elevated ground-level ozone concentrations during the winter. This study sought to evaluate the association of daily ground-level ozone concentrations and health clinic visits for respiratory disease in this rural county. Methods: Clinic visits for respiratory disease were ascertained from electronic billing records of the two clinics in Sublette County for January 1, 2008–December 31, 2011. A time-stratified case-crossover design, adjusted for temperature and humidity, was used to investigate associations between ground-level ozone concentrations measured at one station and clinic visits for a respiratory health concern by using an unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days and single-day lags of 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Results: The data set included 12,742 case-days and 43,285 selected control-days. The mean ground-level ozone observed was 47±8 ppb. The unconstrained distributed lag of 0–3 days was consistent with a null association (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.990–1.012); results for lags 0, 2, and 3 days were consistent with the null. However, the results for lag 1 were indicative of a positive association; for every 10-ppb increase in the 8-h maximum average ground-level ozone, a 3.0% increase in respiratory clinic visits the following day was observed (aOR: 1.031; 95% CI: 0.994–1.069). Season modified the adverse respiratory effects: ground-level ozone was significantly associated with respiratory clinic visits during the winter months. The patterns of results from all sensitivity analyzes were consistent with the a priori model. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an association of increasing ground-level

  4. Influence of nanoparticle concentration on pressure drop of Al2O3/R141b boiling flow in micro heat exchanger by direct metal laser sintering%DMLS微型换热器内纳米粒子浓度对Al2O3/R141b流动沸腾压降的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建阳; 罗小平; 谢鸣宇; 邓聪


    Uniform and stable nanorefrigerant coolants of 0.05%—0.4%Al2O3/R141b (mass fraction) were prepared by ultrasonic vibration and used to investigate nanoparticle concentration on pressure drop of gas-liquid two-phase boiling flow of a nanorefrigerant in micro channels. A micro heat exchanger was fabricated by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) with designed capacity of system pressure at 176 kPa and inlet temperature at 40℃. At conditions of heat flux 21.2—38.2 kW·m−2and mass flow rate 183.13—457.83 kg·m−2·s−1, the experimental results show that the nanoparticle concentration had significant impact on pressure drop of Al2O3/R141b nanoparticle coolant boiling flow in micro channels and the pressure drop decreased with the increase of nanoparticle concentration. After added Al2O3nanoparticles to pure R141b coolant, pressure drop of the pure refrigerant in micro channels was reduced by 5.5%—32.6% depending on mass faction of nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static contact angle measurement revealed that deposition of some Al2O3 nanoparticles on the microchannel surface increased surface wettability, which might lower pressure drop of Al2O3/R141b upon increase of nanoparticle concentration. Considered three classic pressure drop models and correlations of Qu-Mudawar’s and Zhang’s for gas-liquid two-phase boiling flow, a revised correlation was developed that 85% of the experimental data points on pressure drop were fallen within a±15% range of model calculation. The revised correlation can effectively predict the experimental results under these conditions as supported by small MAE number of 11.7%, which was relative deviation between experimental results and revised model predictions.%为探究纳米粒子浓度对纳米流体制冷剂在微细通道中流动沸腾气液两相压降影响,运用超声波振动法制备质量分数为0.05%、0.1%、0.2%、0.3%、0.4%均匀、稳定的Al2O3/R141b纳米流体制冷剂,在

  5. Defect chemistry modelling of oxygen-stoichiometry, vacancy concentrations, and conductivity of (La1-xSrx)(y)MnO3 +/-delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F.W.


    Two precise algorithms are devised for the calculation of defect concentrations in A-site acceptor doped ABO(3) perovskites. The two models contain nine species including cation vacancies on the A- and B-site. The small polaron model is based on three redox levels of the B-ion. A large polaron mo......(-2) arm. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Synthesis, Structure, and Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of In2O3 Nanorods Decorated with Bi2O3 Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Soohyun; Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Chongmu


    Bi2O3-decorated In2O3 nanorods were synthesized using a one-step process, and their structure, as well as the effects of decoration of In2O3 nanorods with Bi2O3 on the ethanol gas-sensing properties were examined. The multiple networked Bi2O3-decorated In2O3 nanorod sensor showed responses of 171-1774% at ethanol concentrations of 10-200 ppm at 200 °C. The responses of the Bi2O3-decorated In2O3 nanorod sensor were stronger than those of the pristine-In2O3 nanorod sensors by 1.5-4.9 times at the corresponding concentrations. The two sensors exhibited short response times and long recovery times. The optimal Bi concentration in the Bi2O3-decorated In2O3 nanorod sensor and the optimal operation temperature of the sensor were 20% and 200 °C, respectively. The Bi2O3-decorated In2O3 nanorod sensor showed selectivity for ethanol gas over other gases. The origin of the enhanced response, sensing speed, and selectivity for ethanol gas of the Bi2O3-decorated In2O3 nanorod sensor to ethanol gas is discussed.

  7. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system. (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku


    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations.

  8. 太阳辐射减弱和O3增加对冬小麦植株磷含量、分配和转运的影响%Effects of Reduced Solar Irradiance and Enhanced O3 on Phosphorus Concentration, Distribution and Translocation of Winter Wheat Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑有飞; 李萍; 吴芳芳; 吴荣军; 姚娟


    采用开顶式气室(OTC)和遮阳网模拟O3增加和地表太阳辐射减弱条件,测定冬小麦不同生育期不同器官的磷含量,并分析O3增加和太阳辐射减弱对植株体内磷含量、分配和转运的影响.结果表明,(1)太阳辐射减弱条件下冬小麦根、茎、叶和穗中磷含量均比自然光条件下显著增加(P<0.05),根和穗中磷的分配率降低,叶和生育后期茎中磷的分配率增加,植株营养器官中磷的总转运量(P<0.01)和转运率降低(P<0.05);(2)100nL·L-1O3处理(T)会增加根、茎、穗和生育后期叶中磷含量,降低乳熟期-成熟期根和穗中磷的分配率,增大成熟期茎和叶中磷的分配率,极显著降低根、茎、叶和营养器官中的磷转运量(P<0.01),增加叶和营养器官中磷的转运率.(3)O3增加和不同太阳辐射减弱的复合处理均会增加根、茎、叶和穗中磷含量,极显著降低植株根、茎、叶和营养器官中磷的转运量(P<0.01),降低穗和孕穗期-抽穗期根中磷的分配率(P<0.05),增加灌浆期-成熟期磷在茎和叶中的分配率(P<0.05),各复合处理对茎和穗中磷分配率的影响,随着太阳辐射减弱程度的增加而增大,并且在乳熟期-成熟期表现为协同作用.%The experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of the solar radiation attenuation and ozone ( O3 ) concentration increasing on phosphorus concentration, distribution and translocation of winter wheat by using OTCs (open top chambers) and shade-nets in field. The dynamic changes of phosphorus concentration in triticum aestivum different organs were measured in the growing/development (G/D) periods including jointing, booting, heading, filing, milking and mature stages. The results showed that ( 1 ) the concentration of phosphorus were promoted significantly in root, stem, leaf, spike when winter wheat suffered in shadow 20% (SI) , 40% (S2) and 60% (S3) (P <0. 05) , phosphorus distribution rate were reduced in root

  9. Up- and Downconversion Luminescence Properties of Nd3+ Ions Doped in Bi2O3–BaO–B2O3 Glass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ruamnikhom


    Full Text Available Physical, optical, and luminescence properties of Nd3+ ions in bismuth barium borate glass system were studied. The glasses prepared by a melt quenching method were doped at various Nd2O3 concentrations in compositions (40-xB2O3 : 40Bi2O3 : 20BaO : xNd2O3 (where x = 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, and 2.50 in mol%. Luminescence properties of the glasses were studied under two excitations of 585 and 750 nm for downconversion. From both excitations, the results show emission bands in NIR region corresponding to the transitions between 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 (900 nm, 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 (1,060 nm, and 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 (1,345 nm. The luminescence intensity obtained with 585 nm excitation was stronger than 750 nm, with the strongest NIR emission at 1,060 nm. The upconversion emission spectrum exhibits strong fluorescence bands in the UV region at 394 nm (λex=591 nm. The processes are associated with excited state absorption (ESA from 4F3/2 level to 4D3/2 level and it is the radiative decay from the 4D3/2 to ground levels (4D3/2 → 4I13/2 which are responsible for the emission at 394 nm.

  10. Modeling of Regional Climate Change Effects on Ground-Level Ozone and Childhood Asthma (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E.; Knowlton, Kim; Carr, Jessie L.; Kinney, Patrick L.


    Background The adverse respiratory effects of ground-level ozone are well-established. Ozone is the air pollutant most consistently projected to increase under future climate change. Purpose To project future pediatric asthma emergency department visits associated with ground-level ozone changes, comparing 1990s to 2020s. Methods This study assessed future numbers of asthma emergency department visits for children aged 0–17 years using (1) baseline New York City metropolitan area emergency department rates, (2) a dose–response relationship between ozone levels and pediatric asthma emergency department visits, and (3) projected daily 8-hour maximum ozone concentrations for the 2020s as simulated by a global-to-regional climate change and atmospheric chemistry model. Sensitivity analyses included population projections and ozone precursor changes. This analysis occurred in 2010. Results In this model, climate change could cause an increase in regional summer ozone-related asthma emergency department visits for children aged 0–17 years of 7.3% across the New York City metropolitan region by the 2020s. This effect diminished with inclusion of ozone precursor changes. When population growth is included, the projections of morbidity related to ozone are even larger. Conclusions The results of this analysis demonstrate that the use of regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models make possible the projection of local climate change health effects for specific age groups and specific disease outcomes – such as emergency department visits for asthma. Efforts should be made to improve on this type of modeling to inform local and wider-scale climate change mitigation and adaptation policy. PMID:21855738

  11. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim


    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...

  12. Efeitos da concentração de Tm3+ nas propriedades de cerâmicas do sistema (Pb,La(Zr,TiO3 Effects of the Tm3+ concentration on the properties of (Pb,La(Zr,TiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Botero


    Full Text Available As propriedades estruturais, ferroelétricas e dielétricas do sistema cerâmico ferroelétrico (Pb0,91La0,09(Zr0,65Ti0,35O3, PLZT, dopado com Tm, foram investigadas em função da concentração de dopante adicionada à matriz. Os corpos cerâmicos foram preparados pelo método convencional de síntese de estado sólido. Por meio da análise dos perfis de difração de raios X foi possível identificar a formação da fase cristalina desejada, perovskita, com simetria indistinta da cúbica e uma pequena concentração de uma fase secundária, rica em Tm3+ e Zr4+, para concentrações de dopante > 1.7% em mol. Os valores dos parâmetros de rede mostraram a existência de no mínimo dois processos de incorporação dos dopantes pela matriz de PLZT. Por meio da caracterização das propriedades elétricas, também foi possível observar os efeitos da incorporação de íons Tm3+ pela rede cristalina do PLZT, concordando com os resultados encontrados pelas caracterizações estruturais.This study explores the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties of the Tm-doped (Pb0.91La0.09(Zr0.65Ti0.35O3 (PLZT ferroelectric system as a function of the dopant concentration in the ferroelectric matrix. The ceramic bodies were prepared by the conventional solid state synthesis method. The X-ray diffraction pattterns reveal a formation of the desired crystalline phase, perovskite, with pseudo-cubic symmetry plus a small amount of a secondary phase for the dopant concentration > 1.7 mol%, constituted mainly by Tm3+ and Zr4+. The lattice volume, evaluated by the diffraction peaks position, showed at least two dopant incorporation mechanism on the PLZT matrix. From the electrical properties it was possible to verify the effects of the dopant ion Tm3+ occupancy in the PLZT lattice, in agreement with the structural results.

  13. Synchronized Periodicities of Cosmic Rays, Solar Flares and Ground Level Enhancements (United States)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Perez-Peraza, Jorge


    The behaviour changes in galactic cosmic rays before the occurrence of a ground level enhancement may be used as a predictor of ground level enhancements occurrence. In order to go deep into the determination of which is the agent for such connections we study in this work the common periodicities among them and the source of ground level enhancements, namely solar flares. To find the relationships among different indexes in time-frequency space, we use wavelet coherence analysis. Also we used the probability density function in galactic cosmic rays and solar flare, which allowed the finding of a binomial asymmetric distribution and a Beta distribution respectively.

  14. 神经网络模型在O_3浓度预测中的应用%Application of Artificial Neural Networks on the Prediction of Surface Ozone Concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈路路; 王聿绚; 段雷


    Ozone is an important secondary air pollutant in the lower atmosphere.In order to predict the hourly maximum ozone one day in advance based on the meteorological variables for the Wanqingsha site in Guangzhou,Guangdong province,a neural network model(Multi-Layer Perceptron) and a multiple linear regression model were used and compared.Model inputs are meteorological parameters(wind speed,wind direction,air temperature,relative humidity,barometric pressure and solar radiation) of the next day and hourly maximum ozone concentration of the previous day.The OBS(optimal brain surgeon) was adopted to prune the neutral work,to reduce its complexity and to improve its generalization ability.We find that the pruned neural network has the capacity to predict the peak ozone,with an agreement index of 92.3%,the root mean square error of 0.042 8 mg/m3,the R-square of 0.737 and the success index of threshold exceedance 77.0%(the threshold O3 mixing ratio of 0.20 mg/m3).When the neural classifier was added to the neural network model,the success index of threshold exceedance increased to 83.6%.Through comparison of the performance indices between the multiple linear regression model and the neural network model,we conclud that that neural network is a better choice to predict peak ozone from meteorological forecast,which may be applied to practical prediction of ozone concentration.%O3是近地面大气中一种重要的二次污染物.本研究采用神经网络多层感知器(Multi-Layer Perceptron)和多元线性回归2种模型,以广州万顷沙站2006年的气象观测数据为输入,对该站O3的1 h平均峰值浓度进行提前1 d的预测,并比较了2种模型的预测效果.模型的输入参数为前1d O3的最高1h平均浓度和第二天的气象参数(温度、湿度、风速、风向、气压和光照).为了降低神经网络的复杂度以提高模型的泛化能力,采用了OBS(Optimal brain surgeon)方法对神经网络模型进行了修剪.结果表


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Measurement of solar radiation at ground level in the region 1950-2150 A using ammonia actinometry (United States)

    Knoot, P.; Reeves, R. R., Jr.


    The use of ammonia as an actinometer for measurement of the solar flux in the region 1950-2150 A is presented. The solar flux was found to be 270 million photons/sq cm per sec at ground level in this wavelength interval in an area with minimum overhead ozone concentration. The advantages of this method over previously used methods are discussed, and the results are related to the present estimates of the tropospheric photodissociation rates for the freons CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 by radiation in this wavelength region.

  17. The pulse shape of cosmic-ray ground-level enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Moraal, H; Caballero-Lopez, R A


    Enhancements of the comic-ray intensity as observed by detectors on the ground have been observed 71 times since 1942. They are due to solar energetic particles accelerated in the regions of solar flares deep in the corona, or in the shock front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. The latter is the favoured model for the classical gradual ground-level enhancement (GLE). In several papers since the one of McCracken et al. (2008), we pointed out, however, that some GLEs are too impulsive to be accelerated in the CME shocks. With this hypothesis in mind we study the time profiles of all the available GLEs. The main results are that there is a continuous range from gradual to impulsive, that the fastest risers are concentrated at heliolongitudes that are magnetically well-connected to Earth, and that the shape of the pulse is a powerful indicator of propagation conditions between Sun and Earth. This ranges from relatively quiet to highly disturbed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑昌玲; 王春乙



  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of (Bi2O3)1– (Y2O3) and (Bi2O3)1– (Gd2O3) solid solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srikant Ekhelikar; G K Bichile


    Solid solution series, (Bi2O3)1– (Y2O$_3) and (Bi2O$_3)1– (Gd2O$_3), for = 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40 were synthesized by standard ceramic technique. The structural phase characterization was carried out using X-ray powder diffraction technique. It was found that the solid solution containing 20–40 mole% of Y2O3 had face-centred cubic structure. All samples of the solid solution series, (Bi2O3)1– (Gd2O3), had rhombohedral single phase in the concentration range 0.10 ≤ ≤ 0.40. Lattice parameters of fcc phase of Y2O3 doped samples were calculated from the X-ray diffraction data. The lattice constant `’ gradually decreases with increasing content of dopant concentration () for the Y2O3 doped system and obeys Vegard’s rule. The unit cell parameters for the (Bi2O3)1– (Gd2O3) doped samples showing rhombohedral phase were obtained on hexagonal setting.

  20. Nanosized As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia selectively target liver cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Yu Wang; Jian Song; Dong-Sheng Zhang


    AIM: To study the methods of preparing the magnetic nano-microspheres of Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes and their therapeutic effects with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). METHODS: Nanospheres were prepared by chemical co-precipitation and their shape and diameter were observed. Hemolysis, micronucleus, cell viability, and LD50 along with other in vivo tests were performed to evaluate the Fe2O3 microsphere biocompatibility. The inhibition ratio of tumors after Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 injections combined with induced hyperthermia in xenograft human hepatocarcinoma was calculated. RESULTS: Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 particles were round with an average diameter of 20 nm and 100 nm as observed under transmission electron microscope. Upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), the temperature of the suspension of magnetic particles increased to 41-51℃, depending on different particle concentrations, and remained stable thereafter. Nanosized Fe2O3 microspheres are a new kind of biomaterial without cytotoxic effects. The LD50 of both Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 in mice was higher than 5 g/kg. One to four weeks after Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complex injections into healthy pig livers, no significant differences were found in serum AST, ALT, BUN and Cr levels among the pigs of all groups (P > 0.05), and no obvious pathological alterations were observed. After exposure to alternating magnetic fields, the inhibition ratio of the tumors was significantly different from controls in the Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 groups (68.74% and 82.79%, respectively; P < 0.01). Tumors of mice in treatment groups showed obvious necrosis, while normal tissues adjoining the tumor and internal organs did not.CONCLUSION: Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes exerted radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia and drug toxicity on tumors without any liver or kidney damage. Therefore, nanospheres are ideal carriers for tumortargeted therapy.

  1. Analysis on the change of ozone concentration in Nansha district of Guangzhou and it relationship with meteorological factors%广州南沙区O3浓度变化及其与气象因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开燕; 邓雪娇; 张剑; 李菲; 邓涛; 麦博儒


    Base on the Os concentration and meteorological data collected in 2010 at Nansha meteorological observation base, the variation characteristics of O3 concentration and it relationship with meteorological lactors are researched. The results show that the maximum hourly average O3 concentration was found in August and the most excessive hours were found in September. The diurnal variation of O3 was distributed in mono-peak pattern. The diurnal changes was biggest in autumn, which was followed by summer, spring and winter, the seasonal change of ozone was autumn>spring>summer>winter. Temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover are the main meteorological factors that influence Os concentration. O3 concentration is the highest in autumn when Oa was mainly produced by local photochemistry reaction; ozone in spring, summer and winter was mainly transportation from outside. Backward trajectory analysis shows that in the autumn air-mass is mainly from the continent, while in trie spring, summer and winter, air-mass is mainly from the southeastern coast or relative clean South China sea.%利用广州南沙区气象探测基地2010年O3浓度和常规气象观测资料,分析了O3浓度变化特征及其气象因子的关系.结果表明,广州南沙区2010年O3浓度最高时均值的最大值出现在8月,超标时数最多的是9月;O3浓度日变化呈单峰型分布,O3浓度日变化最大的季节是秋季,其次为夏季、春季、冬季;O3浓度呈现秋季>春季>夏季>冬季的变化特征.气温、相对湿度、日照时数和云量与O3浓度相关系数大,是影响南沙O3浓度的主要气象因子.秋季O3浓度高,O3主要以局地光化学反应生成为主;春季、夏季和冬季O3主要以外来源的输送为主.气团后向轨迹分析表明南沙区秋季气团主要来自污染的大陆地区,春季、夏季和冬季气团主要是来自东南沿海附近或较为清洁的南海.

  2. Conversion of Airborne Gamma ray Spectra to Ground Level Air Kerma Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Korsbech, Uffe C C


    A new method for relating airborne gamma-ray spectra to dose rates and kerma rates at ground level is presented. Dependent on flying altitude 50 m to 125 m the method gives correct results for gamma energies above 250 keV respective 350 keV. At lower energies the method underestimate the dose...... or kerma rates; by having a large fraction of the ground level gamma-rays at energies below 350 keV special care should be taken at an interpretation of the results....

  3. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.


    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  4. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.


    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern

  5. Effect of TiO2 Concentration on Properties of MgO - TiO2 - Al2O3 Clinker%TiO2加入量对MgO - TiO2-Al2O3系熟料特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏适; 全荣



  6. Derivation of the radiation budget at ground level from satellite measurements (United States)

    Raschke, E.


    Determination of the Earth radiaton budget and progress in measurement of the budget components and in the treatment of imaging data from satellites are described. Methods for calculating the radiation budget in a general circulation model, radiative transfer characteristics of clouds, computation of solar radiation at ground level using meteorological data and development of a 10-channel radiometer are discussed.

  7. Space Weather and the Ground-Level Solar Proton Events of the 23rd Solar Cycle (United States)

    Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.


    Solar proton events can adversely affect space and ground-based systems. Ground-level events are a subset of solar proton events that have a harder spectrum than average solar proton events and are detectable on Earth's surface by cosmic radiation ionization chambers, muon detectors, and neutron monitors. This paper summarizes the space weather effects associated with ground-level solar proton events during the 23rd solar cycle. These effects include communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations. The major effect of ground-level events that affect manned spacecraft operations is increased radiation exposure. The primary effect on commercial aircraft operations is the loss of high frequency communication and, at extreme polar latitudes, an increase in the radiation exposure above that experienced from the background galactic cosmic radiation. Calculations of the maximum potential aircraft polar route exposure for each ground-level event of the 23rd solar cycle are presented. The space weather effects in October and November 2003 are highlighted together with on-going efforts to utilize cosmic ray neutron monitors to predict high energy solar proton events, thus providing an alert so that system operators can possibly make adjustments to vulnerable spacecraft operations and polar aircraft routes.

  8. Progress in understanding the formation of fine particulate matter and ground-level ozone in Pearl River Delta region, China (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Junyu; Shao, Min; Wang, Xinming


    In the past three decades, the Pearl River Delta of China has been suffered from severe air pollution due to the rapid increase in energy consumption associated with industrialization and urbanization of the region. The number of hazy days, increased from below 20 days in a year before 1970, to more than 150 days a year during 1980 and 2000. The ground-level ozone levels have also on the rise, with hourly concentration of 160 ppbv being observed in Guangzhou and 201 ppbv in nearby Hong Kong (Zhang et al., 2008). The ozone pollution has been difficult to reduce even in air quality improvement program for the Guangzhou Asian Games (Liu et al., 2013).

  9. Effect of the Yb3+ Concentration in Up-Conversion and Electrical Properties of Ho3+/Yb3+ Co-doped (0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3) Ceramics (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Li, Yanxia; Li, Jun; Chai, Xiaona; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Xusheng; Yao, Xi


    Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped 0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-BT:Ho3+/Yb3+) ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), luminescent, dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric measurements. The XRD diffraction data showed that all the ceramics were single phase with a perovskite structure. Bright green up-conversion (UC) emission bands (545 nm) and weak red UC emission bands (660 nm) corresponded to the transitions from (5F4, 5S2) → 5I8 and 4I5 → 5I8, respectively. Furthermore, optimized UC emission intensity was observed in the NBT-BT:0.005Ho3+/0.03Yb3+ samples. The thermal behavior of UC emission in the ceramics was also investigated and the maximum sensitivity based on fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technology was approximately 0.0042 K-1 at 100 K. Moreover, relatively good dielectric properties ( ɛ = 4475) and ferroelectric properties ( P r = 32 μ/cm2 and E c = 37 kV) were obtained in NBT-BT:0.005Ho3+/0.005Yb3+. As a multi-functional material, NBT-BT:Ho3+/Yb3+ ceramics may be useful in electro-optical devices.

  10. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel


    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  11. TETRA Observation of Gamma Rays at Ground Level Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Cherry, Michael L; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P


    Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) -- very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms -- have been detected with satellite instruments. TETRA, an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, twenty-four events with durations 0.02- 4.2 msec have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ~1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 msec and 3 miles of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

  12. Search for tachyons associated with extensive air showers in the ground level cosmic radiation (United States)

    Masjed, H. F.; Ashton, F.


    Events detected in a shielded plastic scintillation counter occurring in the 26 microsec preceding the arrival of an extensive air shower at ground level with local electron density or = 20 m to the -2 power and the 240 microsec after its arrival have been studied. No significant excess of events (tachyons) arriving in the early time domain have been observed in a sample of 11,585 air shower triggers.

  13. Whole-tree seasonal nitrogen uptake and partitioning in adult Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies L. [Karst.] trees exposed to elevated ground-level ozone. (United States)

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Rötzer, T; Matyssek, R


    The effect of long-term exposure of twice-ambient O(3) (2 × O(3)) on whole-tree nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning of adult beech and spruce was studied in a mixed forest stand, SE-Germany. N uptake as (15)N tracer and N pools were calculated using N concentrations and biomass of tree compartments. Whole-tree N uptake tended to be lower under 2 × O(3) in both species compared to trees under ambient O(3) (1 × O(3)). Internal partitioning in beech showed significantly higher allocation of new N to roots, with mycorrhizal root tips and fine roots together receiving about 17% of new N (2 × O(3)) versus 7% (1 × O(3)). Conversely, in spruce, N allocation to roots was decreased under 2 × O(3). These contrasting effects on belowground N partitioning and pool sizes, being largely consistent with the pattern of N concentrations, suggest enhanced N demand and consumption of stored N with higher relevance for tree-internal N cycling in beech than in spruce.

  14. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman


    ppbv during the SPE period due to the small loss rates during winter. Computed NOx increases, which were statistically significant at the 95 % level, lasted about a month past the SPEs. The SCISAT-1 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer NOx measurements and MIPAS NO2 measurements for the polar Northern Hemisphere are in reasonable agreement with these predictions. An extremely large ground level enhancement (GLE occurred during the SPE period on 20 January 2005. We find that protons of energies 300 to 20 000 MeV, associated with this GLE, led to very small enhanced lower stratospheric odd nitrogen concentrations of less than 0.1 % and ozone decreases of less than 0.01 %.

  15. 东北春大豆品种东生1号对臭氧胁迫的响应%Responses of Soybean Cultivar Dongsheng-1 to Different O3 Concentrations in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍巍; 王光华; 王美玉; 刘晓冰; 冯兆忠


    采用开顶式气室(OTCs)方法,研究了不同臭氧(O3)浓度处理对春大豆品种“东生1号”的影响,主要包括产量与产量构成因子,叶片与籽粒碳、氮元素与碳氮比、盛花期叶片气体交换速率、叶绿素荧光参数与光合色素含量变化.试验设置3个臭氧水平:过滤大气(CFA,10 nL·L-1)、自然大气(NFA)与自然大气添加40 nL·L-(NFA+O3).结果表明,经过一个生长季处理(AOT40值累积为10.6 μL·L-1·h),与CFA相比,NFA处理东生1号大豆单株产量与百粒重降低4.5%、4%,而NFA+O3处理分别显著降低34%、18% (P <0.05),而处理间株高、主茎节数、单株荚数与每荚粒数均无显著变化.鼓粒期NFA+O3处理叶片C、N元素含量分别显著增加3%、26%,碳氮比则显著降低18%.CFA与NFA相比,NFA+O3显著降低盛花期大豆叶片净光合速率(Asat)、气孔导度(gs)、水分利用效率(WUE)、开放的光系统反应中心激发能捕获效率(F'v/'m)和作用光下光系统Ⅱ的实际量子效率(ΦPsⅡ),而胞间CO2浓度(ci)、光化学猝灭系数(gP)和光合色素含量则无显著变化.结果表明,O3浓度升高导致东生1号单株产量下降的主要原因是其显著降低百粒重、净光合速率和电子传递效率.

  16. Insights into aerosol chemistry during the 2015 China Victory Day parade: results from simultaneous measurements at ground level and 260 m in Beijing (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Du, Wei; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Chen; Xu, Weiqi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Yuying; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Li, Zhanqing; Sun, Yele


    Strict emission controls were implemented in Beijing and adjacent provinces to ensure good air quality during the 2015 China Victory Day parade. Here, we conducted synchronous measurements of submicron aerosols (PM1) at ground level and 260 m on a meteorological tower by using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor, respectively, in Beijing from 22 August to 30 September. Our results showed that the average PM1 concentrations are 19.3 and 14.8 µg m-3 at ground level and 260 m, respectively, during the control period (20 August-3 September), which are 57 and 50 % lower than those after the control period (4-30 September). Organic aerosols (OAs) dominated PM1 during the control period at both ground level and 260 m (55 and 53 %, respectively), while their contribution showed substantial decreases (˜ 40 %) associated with an increase in secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs) after the parade, indicating a larger impact of emission controls on SIA than OA. Positive matrix factorization of OA further illustrated that primary OA (POA) showed similar decreases as secondary OA (SOA) at both ground level (40 % vs. 42 %) and 260 m (35 % vs. 36 %). However, we also observed significant changes in SOA composition at ground level. While the more oxidized SOA showed a large decrease by 75 %, the less oxidized SOA was comparable during (5.6 µg m-3) and after the control periods (6.5 µg m-3). Our results demonstrated that the changes in meteorological conditions and PM loadings have affected SOA formation mechanisms, and the photochemical production of fresh SOA was more important during the control period. By isolating the influences of meteorological conditions and footprint regions in polluted episodes, we found that regional emission controls on average reduced PM levels by 44-45 %, and the reductions were close among SIA, SOA and POA at 260 m, whereas primary species showed relatively more reductions (55-67 %) than secondary

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on quantitative characteristics of mature leaf stomata in Ginkgo biloba%大气中CO2、O3浓度升高对银杏成年叶片气孔数量特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文铎; 齐淑艳; 何兴元; 陈玮; 赵桂玲; 周园


    利用开放式气室(OTC)持续观测了2个生长季(2005-2006年).在每年9月30日停止供气后,采样1次.观测高浓度CO2和O3处理的银杏(Ginkgo biloba)成年叶片气孔数量的变化规律.结果表明:在700 μmol·mol-1CO2处理条件下,叶片气孔的长度、宽度、周长和面积均明显高于对照(P0.05),而气孔指数显著减少(P0.05),气孔指数显著减少(P<0.05);银杏成年叶片气孔的长度、宽度与气孔比密度存在一定的负相关关系,可用一元二次曲线方程较好地描述.

  18. A Simple Method for Simulating Horizontal Ozone Concentration Fields over Coastal Areas: A Case Study of the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Kim


    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple semi-empirical photo chemical simulation method to generate horizontal ozone (O3 concentration fields over coastal areas. Based on a simple semi-empirical photochemical reaction model (SEGRS, consisting of a simple photochemical reaction set and a diagnostic wind model, aggregated VOC emission strength is empirically scaled from measured photochemical gas phase concentrations of (O3-2NO-NO2 against cumulative actinic light flux for the case of relatively weak off-shore geostrophic wind at 850 hPa in sum mer. This scaled emission rate for volatile organic compounds (VOCs is equally applied to horizontal O3 concentration simulation under on-shore synoptic conditions, and results are com pared with observations. The results indicate that spatial distribution patterns and temporal variations of spatially aver aged ground level ozone concentrations are reasonably well simulated. In addition, from the more than 100 box-form SEGRS simulations, close agreement between simulated and ob served daily maximum O3 concentrations suggests that the semi empirical SEGRS model has great potential in getting horizontal ozone distribution pat terns. This indicates that this simple semi-empirical approach to the simulation of O3 concentration pat terns using SEGRS makes for an easy alternative method in multi-year simulation for impact studies of O3 concentrations by lowering heavy computational cost.

  19. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman


    this time period. Polar mesospheric enhancements of NOx are computed to be greater than 50 ppbv during the SPE period due to the small loss rates during winter. Computed NOx increases, which were statistically significant at the 95% level, lasted about a month past the SPEs. The SCISAT-1 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer NOx measurements and MIPAS NO2 measurements for the polar Northern Hemisphere are in reasonable agreement with these predictions. An extremely large ground level enhancement (GLE occurred during the SPE period on 20 January 2005. We find that protons of energies 300 to 20 000 MeV, not normally included in our computations, led to enhanced lower stratospheric odd nitrogen concentrations of less than 0.1% as a result of this GLE.

  20. Magnetism of Rare-Earth Compounds with Non-Magnetic Crystal-Field Ground Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-Sen


    @@ Among rare-earth compounds, there are many materials having non-magnetic crystal-field (CF) ground levels.To understand their magnetic behaviour at low temperatures, we study the effects of the CF levels and the Heisenberg-like coupling on the magnetic process of such a crystalline with mean-field and CF theory. It is found that the material can be magnetically ordered if the Heisenberg exchange is sufficiently strong. Additionally we obtain a condition for initial magnetic ordering, and derive a formula for estimating the Curie temperature if the ordering occurs.

  1. Luminescence and energy transfer of Tb(3+)-doped BaO-Gd2O3-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses. (United States)

    Zuo, Chenggang; Huang, Jinze; Liu, Shaoyou; Xiao, Anguo; Shen, Youming; Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhou, Zhihua; Zhu, Ligang


    Transparent Tb(3+)-doped BaO-Gd2O3-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses with the greater than 4g/cm(3) were prepared by high temperature melting method and its luminescent properties have been investigated by measured UV-vis transmission, excitation, emission and luminescence decay spectra. The transmission spectrum shows there are three weak absorption bands locate at about 312, 378 and 484nm in the glasses and it has good transmittance in the visible spectrum region. Intense green emission can be observed under UV excitation. The effective energy transfer from Gd(3+) ion to Tb(3+) ion could occur and sensitize the luminescence of Tb(3+) ion. The green emission intensity of Tb(3+) ion could change with the increasing SiO2/B2O3 ratio in the borosilicate glass matrix. With the increasing concentration of Tb(3+) ion, (5)D4→(7)FJ transitions could be enhanced through the cross relaxation between the two nearby Tb(3+) ions. Luminescence decay time of 2.12ms from 546nm emission is obtained. The results indicate that Tb(3+)-doped BaO-Gd2O3-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses would be potential scintillating material for applications in X-ray imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Biofuel Poplar Cultivation on Ground-Level Ozone and Premature Human Mortality Depends on Cultivar Selection and Planting Location. (United States)

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Wild, Oliver; Eller, Allyson S D; Hewitt, C Nick


    Isoprene and other volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation play a key role in governing the formation of ground-level ozone. Emission rates of such compounds depend critically on the plant species. The cultivation of biofuel feedstocks will contribute to future land use change, altering the distribution of plant species and hence the magnitude and distribution of emissions. Here we use relationships between biomass yield and isoprene emissions derived from experimental data for 29 commercially available poplar hybrids to assess the impact that the large-scale cultivation of poplar for use as a biofuel feedstock will have on air quality, specifically ground-level ozone concentrations, in Europe. We show that the increases in ground-level ozone across Europe will increase the number of premature deaths attributable to ozone pollution each year by up to 6%. Substantial crop losses (up to ∼9 Mt y(-1) of wheat and maize) are also projected. We further demonstrate that these impacts are strongly dependent on the location of the poplar plantations, due to the prevailing meteorology, the population density, and the dominant crop type of the region. Our findings indicate the need for a concerted and centralized decision-making process that considers all aspects of future land use change in Europe, and not just the effect on greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of doped BaCeO3-BaZrO3 systems (United States)

    Basu, S.; Sawant, P.; Varma, S.; Wani, B. N.; Bharadwaj, S. R.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.


    A solid solution of BaCeO3-BaZrO3 combines the high protonic conductivity of BaCeO3 in presence of hydrogen containing atmospheres at elevated temperatures and appreciable chemical and mechanical stability of BaZrO3 towards water and CO2. EXAFS measurements on the BaCe0.8-xZrxY0.2O3-δ system with x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 at the Y (dopant) K-edge (17046 eV) were carried out. Two different structural phases were identified as a consequence of change in the doping concentrations.

  4. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Xue


    Full Text Available We analyzed measurements of ozone (O3 and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv, while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in-situ production. The O3 production was in a VOCs-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-controlled regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2 on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO, were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  5. The Polar Nano Regions $\\rightleftharpoons$ Relaxor Transition in $Pb_{1-X}(Sc_{1/2}Nb_{1/2})O_{3-X}$; $X$ = bulk concentration of nearest neighbor [Pb-O] divacancies

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, B P; Gopman, D B; Dogan, Gunay; Hood, Sarah


    In previous work, molecular dynamics simulations based on a first-principles-derived effective Hamiltonian for $Pb_{1-X}(Sc_{1/2}Nb_{1/2})O_{3-X}$~ (PSN), with nearest-neighbor Pb-O divacancy pairs, was used to calculate $X_{\\rm [Pb-O]}$~vs.~T, phase diagrams for PSN with: ideal rock-salt type chemical order; nanoscale chemical short-range order; and random chemical disorder. Here, we show that the phase diagrams should include additional regions in which a glassy relaxor-phase (or state) is predicted. With respect to phase diagram topology, these results strongly support the analogy between relaxors and magnetic spin-glass-systems.

  6. Microwave Synthesis of Fe2 O3 and ZnO Nanoparticles and Evaluation Its Application on Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their Relationships to Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Khaghani


    Full Text Available Fe2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a fast microwave method. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction  and scanning electron microscopy. The goal of bio-fortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. The micronutrients magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu, boron (B and calcium (Ca are essential for plants and the humans and animals that consume plants. Increasing the micronutrient density of staple crops, will greatly improve human nutrition on a global scale. In order to investigate the effect of Iron and Zinc on nutrient uptake of two line of wheat. The experimental design used for this research was a factorial experiment under complete randomized block design with three replications and two variety of wheat including Roshan back cross (V1 and C-78-14 line (V2, three levels of Iron from Fe-EDDHA (Sequestrene138 including no application (F0, Fe sulphate (F1 and Nano Fe2O3 (F2 and three Levels of  Zinc as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 including no application (Z0, 25 kg/ha-1 (Z1 and 50 kg/ha-1 (Z2 were used. The result is showed that application of nanoparticles increased the study of parameters such as magnesium, manganese, copper, boron and calcium. Highest levels of grain yield with 5.13 ton/ha-1 was obtained in C-78-14 variety.

  7. Autocorrelation in ultraviolet radiation measured at ground level using detrended fluctuation analysis (United States)

    da Silva Filho, Paulo Cavalcante; da Silva, Francisco Raimundo; Corso, Gilberto


    In this study, we analyzed the autocorrelation among four ultraviolet (UV) radiation data sets obtained at 305 nm, 320 nm, 340 nm, and 380 nm. The data were recorded at ground level at the INPE climate station in Natal, RN, Brazil, which is a site close to the equator. The autocorrelations were computed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to estimate the index α. We found that the ​fluctuations in the UV radiation data were fractal, with scale-free behavior at a DFA index α ≃ 0.7. In addition, we performed a power law spectral analysis, which showed that the power spectrum exhibited a power law behavior with an exponent of β ≃ 0.45. Given that the theoretical result is β = 2 α - 1, these two results are in good agreement. Moreover, the application of the DFA ​method to the UV radiation data required detrending using a polynomial with an order of at least eight, which was related to the complex daily solar radiation curve obtained at ground level in a tropical region. The results indicated that the α exponent of UV radiation is similar to other climatic records such as air temperature, wind, or rain, but not solar activity.

  8. Simple method to measure effects of horizontal atmospherical turbulence at ground level (United States)

    Tíjaro Rojas, Omar J.; Galeano Traslaviña, Yuber A.; Torres Moreno, Yezid


    The Kolmogorov's theory has been used to explain physical phenomena like the vertical turbulence in atmosphere, others recent works have made new advances and have improved K41 theory. In addition, this theory has been applied to studying different issues associated to measure atmospheric effects, and have special interest to find answers in optics to questions as e.g. at ground level, Could it find edges of two or more close objects, from a distant observer? (Classic resolution problem). Although this subject is still open, we did a model using the statistics of the centroid and the diameter of the laser beam propagated under horizontal turbulence at ground level until the object plane. The goal is to measure efficiently the turbulence effects in the long horizontal path propagation of electromagnetic wave. Natural movement of laser beam within the cavity needs be subtracted from the total transversal displacement in order to obtain a best approach. This simple proposed method is used to find the actual statistics of the centroid and beam diameter on the object plane where the turbulence introduces an additional transversal shift. And it has been tested for different values of horizontal distances under non-controlled environment in a synchronized acquisition scheme. Finally, we show test results in open very strong turbulence with high controlled temperature. This paper presents the implemented tests mainly into laboratory and discuss issues to resolve.

  9. An analysis of the trend in ground-level ozone using non-homogeneous poisson processes (United States)

    Shively, Thomas S.

    This paper provides a method for measuring the long-term trend in the frequency with which ground-level ozone present in the ambient air exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. A major weakness of previous studies that estimate the long-term trend in the very high values of ozone, and therefore the long-term trend in the probability of satisfying the NAAQS for ozone, is their failure to account for the confounding effects of meterological conditions on ozone levels. Meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, and frontal passage play an important role in the formation of ground-level ozone. A non-homogenous Poisson process is used to account for the relationship between very high values of ozone and meteorological conditions. This model provides an estimate of the trend in the ozone values after allowing for the effects of meteorological conditions. Therefore, this model provides a means to measure the effectiveness of pollution control programs after accounting for the effects of changing weather conditions. When our approach is applied to data collected at two sites in Houston, TX, we find evidence of a gradual long-term downward trend in the frequency of high values of ozone. The empirical results indicate how possibly misleading results can be obtained if the analysis does not account for changing weather conditions.

  10. Radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere in Vilnius, Lithuania, in March 2011, detected by gamma-ray spectrometry. (United States)

    Gudelis, A; Druteikienė, R; Lujanienė, G; Maceika, E; Plukis, A; Remeikis, V


    This study presents the ground-level air monitoring results obtained in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, on 14 March-14 April 2011 after the recent earthquake and subsequent Tsunami having a crucial impact on Japanese nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on 11 March 2011. To collect representative diurnal aerosol samples a powerful sampling system ensuring the air filtration rate of 5500 m(3) h(-1) was used. The following artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclides have been determined: (129m)Te, (132)Te (in equilibrium with its daughter (132)I), (131)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs and (137)Cs. Activity concentration of the globally distributed fission product (137)Cs has increased from a background value of 1.6 μBq m(-3) to the value of 0.9 mBq m(-3) at the beginning of April. The activity ratio (134)Cs/(137)Cs was found to be close to 1, with a slightly higher activity of (134)Cs. The maximum aerosol-associated (131)I activity concentration of 3.45 mBq m(-3) was by four orders of magnitude lower than that measured at the same location in April-May 1986 as a consequence of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The estimated gaseous fraction of iodine-131 constituted about 70% of the total (131)I activity.

  11. Effects of Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er Dopant on Electrical Properties of BaTiO3 Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Sue; Wei Yongde; Xing Xiaoxu


    BaTiO3 ceramics doped with various quantities of Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Dy2O3 and Er2O3 were prepared respectively ( the adulterate concentrations were 0. 001,0. 002, 0. 003, 0.005, 0. 007 mol fraction) through a sol-gel method and their electrical properties were researched. It is found that each adulteration of Nd2O3, Sm2O3 Gd2O3,Dy2O3 and Er2O3 all can make the resistivity of BaTiO3 ceramics decline , especially Sm2O3 and Gd2O3. When the addition of Sm2O3 is 0. 001 mol, the resistivity is the smallest, declining from 4.0 × 1012 to 6.5 × 103 Ω different kind of rare earth exhibits different regularity. The grain resistance of BaTiO3 ceramics doped with Sm2O3 or Gd2O3 exhibits a NTC effect, at the same time the grain boundary resistance has a PTC effect, and the grain boundary resistance is much larger than the grain resistance, so the PTC effects of BaTiO3 ceramics doped with Sm2O3 or Gd2O3 originate from the grain boundary. The additions of Nd2O3 , Gd2O3 or Er2O3 make the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of BaTiO3 ceramics change evidently, especially Nd2O3. The dielectric constant is larger than that of pure BaTiO3 ceramics, on the other hand, the dielectric loss is much lower, which is useful in capacitor fields.

  12. Effect of Elevated Surface O3 Concentration on Soil Microbial FunctionalDiversity in Wheat Field%近地层臭氧浓度升高对麦田土壤微生物群落功能多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余永昌; 林先贵; 张晶; 李全胜; 朱建国


    The effect of elevated surface O3 concentration (~70 nmol mol-1) on soil microbial functional diversity was investigated by determining water-solution organic carbon (WSOC) content, soil respiration intension and BIOLOG in China O3-FACE (Free-air ozone concentration enrichment) field based on a rice/wheat rotation system. The results showed that with the enhancing of O3 concentration, the WSOC content, soil respiration intension and AWCD (average well colour development) were significantly increased (P<0.05). Diversity indexes showed that with the enhancing of O3 concentration, Shannon and Simpson indices had no differences, but Mclntosh indices was significantly increased (P<0.05). The PCA results showed that the elevated O3 concentration significantly affected the soil microbial ability of utilizing glucide and better than any other substrates. This research suggested that elevated O3 concentration (~70 nmol mol-1) significantly increased soil microbial functional diversity in wheat field. Fig 4, Tab 2, Ref 23%利用中国臭氧FACE(Free-air O3 concentration enrichment,开放式空气臭氧浓度增高)试验平台,通过测定麦季土壤水溶性有机碳含量、土壤呼吸强度和BIOLOG指标,研究了近地层臭氧浓度升高50%条件下(~70 nmol mol-1),麦田土壤微生物功能多样性的响应.结果发现,臭氧浓度升高F麦田土壤水溶性有机碳含量提高,土壤微呼吸强度增加,平均吸光值显著高于对照(P<0.05).多样性指数结果显示,臭氧浓度升高对麦田土壤微生物丰富度和优势度指数没有显著影响,但是臭氧处理下均一度指数显著高于对照(P<0.05);主成分分析显示,相对于其它碳源,臭氧浓度升高对麦田土壤微生物的糖类物质利用能力的影响最大.研究揭示了1.5倍的近地层臭氧浓度增强了麦田土壤微生物碳源利用能力,特别是非优势微生物.图4表2参23

  13. Effect of Bi2O3 Additives on Properties of La0.7Ca0.3CrO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Honghai; Zhou Xiaoliang; Liu Xingqin; Meng Guangyao


    Sintering characteristics of Ca-doped lanthanum chromite [La(Ca)CrO3] powder, prepared by gel-casting process were studied by measuring density and the evaluation of micro structural information. Bi2O3 is found to be an effective sintering additive for this material. The amount of Bi2O3 is altered to investigate Bi2O3 effect on the properties of La0.7Ca0.3CrO3. The amount of 10% (mass fraction) Bi2O3 is suitable to increase sinter-ability of La0.7Ca0.3CrO3. Increased concentration of point defects arising form substitution of Bi in La site is the plausible cause of enhanced sintering. Measurement of electrical conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient indicate that the doping of Bi2O3 does not have any significant effect on these properties.

  14. Effect of Y2O3 and Al2O3 on the oxidation resistance of Si3N4 (United States)

    Hench, L. L.; Vaidyanathan, P. N.; Dutta, S.


    Oxidation of cold-pressed and sintered Si3N4 containing 15 wt% Y2O3 and 2, 4, 6, and 8% Al2O3 is observed at temperatures as low as 1000 C with IR reflection spectroscopy. Concentrations of Al2O3 in excess of 4% greatly retard the rate of oxidation and alter the mechanism of surface attack by promoting formation of a glassy layer on the surface containing mixed oxynitride bonds. The glassy layer retards heterogeneous attack and reduces the effect of an oxidation transition temperature between 1000 and 1100 C for these materials.

  15. Origin of interface magnetism in BiMnO3/SrTiO3 and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. (United States)

    Salluzzo, M; Gariglio, S; Stornaiuolo, D; Sessi, V; Rusponi, S; Piamonteze, C; De Luca, G M; Minola, M; Marré, D; Gadaleta, A; Brune, H; Nolting, F; Brookes, N B; Ghiringhelli, G


    Possible ferromagnetism induced in otherwise nonmagnetic materials has been motivating intense research in complex oxide heterostructures. Here we show that a confined magnetism is realized at the interface between SrTiO3 and two insulating polar oxides, BiMnO3 and LaAlO3. By using polarization dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we find that in both cases the magnetism can be stabilized by a negative exchange interaction between the electrons transferred to the interface and local magnetic moments. These local magnetic moments are associated with magnetic Ti3+ ions at the interface itself for LaAlO3/SrTiO3 and to Mn3+ ions in the overlayer for BiMnO3/SrTiO3. In LaAlO3/SrTiO3 the induced magnetism is quenched by annealing in oxygen, suggesting a decisive role of oxygen vacancies in this phenomenon.

  16. A Possible Detection of Solar Gamma-Rays by the Ground Level Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Muraki, Y; Gonzalez, L X; Koga, K; Matsumoto, H; Masuda, S; Matsubara, Y; Nagai, Y; Tanaka, Y; Sakai, T; Sako, T; Shibata, S; Watanabe, K


    On March 7, 2011 from 19:48:00 to 20:03:00 UT, the solar neutron telescope located at Mt. Sierra Negra, Mexico (4,600m) observed a 8.8sigma enhancement. In this paper, we would like to try to explain this enhancement by a hypothesis that a few GeV gamma-rays arrived at the top of the mountain produced by the Sun. We postulate that protons were accelerated at the shock front. They precipitate at the solar surface and produced those gamma-rays. If hypothesis is confirmed, this enhancement is the first sample of GeV gamma-rays observed by a ground level detector.

  17. The cosmic-ray ground-level enhancements of 29 September 1989 and 20 January 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Moraal, H; McCracken, K G


    Enhancements of the comic-ray intensity as observed by detectors on the ground have been observed 71 times since 1942. They are due to solar energetic particles accelerated in the regions of solar flares deep in the corona, or in the shock front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. The latter is the favoured model for the classical gradual ground level enhancement (GLE). In several papers since the one of McCracken et al. (2008), we pointed out, however, that some GLEs are too impulsive to be accelerated in the CME shocks. This hypothesis, together with other properties of GLEs, is demonstrated graphically in this paper by plotting and comparing the time profiles of GLEs 42 of 29 September 1989 and GLE 69 of 20 January. These two events are respectively the largest examples of gradual and prompt events.

  18. Cost-Effective Control of Ground-Level Ozone Pollution in and around Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xuxuan; Zhang Shiqiu; Xu Jianhua; Wu Dan; Zhu Tong


    Ground level ozone pollution has become a significant air pollution problem in Beijing. Because of the complex way in which ozone is formed, it is difficult for policy makers to identify optimal control options on a cost-effective basis. This paper identi- fies and assesses a range of options for addressing this problem. We apply the Ambient Least Cost Model and compare the eco- nomic costs of control options, then recommend the most effective sequence to realize pollution control at the lowest cost. The study finds that installing of Stage II gasoline vapor recovery system at Beijing's 1446 gasoline stations would be the most cost-effective option. Overall, options to reduce ozone pollution by cutting ve- hicular emissions are much more cost-effective than options to "clean up" coal-fired power plants.

  19. Solar Energetic-Particle Release Times in Historic Ground-Level Events (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.


    Ground-level events (GLEs) are large solar energetic-particle events with sufficiently hard spectra for GeV protons to be detected by neutron monitors at ground level. For each of 30 well-observed historic GLEs from four solar cycles, extending back to 1973, I have plotted onset times versus velocity-1 for particles observed on the IMP-7 and 8, ISEE-3, Wind, and GOES spacecraft and by neutron monitors. A linear fit on such a plot for each GLE determines the initial solar particle release (SPR) time, as the intercept, and the magnetic path length traversed, as the slope, of the fitted line. Magnetic path lengths and SPR times are well determined by the fits and cannot be used as adjustable parameters to make particle and photon emission times coincide. SPR times follow the onsets of shock-induced type II radio bursts and the coronal height of the coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shock at SPR time can be determined for GLEs spanning an interval of solar longitude of ~140 deg. For a given GLE, all particle species and energies diverge from a single SPR point at a given coronal height and footpoint longitude of the field line to the Earth. These heights tend to increase with longitudinal distance away from the source, a pattern expected for shock acceleration. Acceleration for magnetically well-connected large GLEs begins at ~2 solar radii, in contrast to non-GLEs that have been found to be strongly associated with shocks above ~3 solar radii. The higher densities and magnetic field strengths at lower altitudes may be responsible for the acceleration of higher-energy particles in GLEs, while those GLEs that begin above 3R S may compensate by having higher shock speeds. These results support the joint dependence of maximum particle energy on magnetic field strength, injected particle density, and shock speed, all predicted theoretically.

  20. Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 in China based on ground-level observations for 190 cities. (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Zhaohai; Zhang, Wenzhong


    Whereas air pollution in many Chinese cities has reached epidemic levels in recent years, limited research has explored the spatial and temporal patterns of fine air particles such as PM2.5, or particulate matter with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm, using nationally representative data. This article applied spatial statistical approaches including spatial interpolation and spatial regression to the analysis of ground-level PM2.5 observations for 190 Chinese cities in 2014 obtained from the Chinese Air Quality Online Monitoring Platform. Results of this article suggest that most Chinese cities included in the dataset recorded severe levels of PM2.5 in excess of the WHO's interim target and cities in the North China Plain had the highest levels of PM2.5 regardless of city size. Spatially interpolated maps of PM2.5 and population-weighted PM2.5 indicate vast majority of China's land and population was exposed to disastrous levels of PM2.5 concentrations. The regression results suggest that PM2.5 in a city was positively related to its population size, amount of atmospheric pollutants, and emissions from nearby cities, but inversely related to precipitation and wind speed. Findings from this research can shed new light on the complex spatiotemporal patterns of PM2.5 throughout China and provide insights into policies aiming to mitigate air pollution in China.

  1. Surface aerosol and rehabilitation properties of ground-level atmosphere in the mountains of the North Caucasus (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina; Abramtsova, Anna; Ischenko, Dmitriy; Senik, Irina; Slepikh, Victor


    The rehabilitative properties (RP) of ground-level atmosphere (GA) of Russian resorts are considered as natural healing resources and received state legal protection [1]. Due to global urbanization the chemical composition and particle size distribution of the surface aerosol are changing rapidly. However, the influence of surface aerosol on the RP of GA has been insufficiently studied. At the resort region of the North Caucasus complex monitoring (aerosol, trace gases NOx, CO, O3, CH4; periodically - heavy metals) is performed at two high levels (860 masl - a park zone of a large mountain resort, 2070 masl - alpine grassland, the net station). The results of the measurements are used in programs of bioclimatic, landscape and medical monitoring to specify the influence of aerosol on rehabilitation properties of the environment and human adaptative reserves. The aerosol particles of size range 500-1000 nm are used as a marker of the pathogenic effect of aerosol [2]. In the conditions of regional urbanization and complicated mountain atmospheric circulation the influence of aerosol on RP of GA and the variability of heart rhythm with the volunteers at different heights were investigated. At the height of 860 masl (urbanized resort) there have been noticed aerosol variations in the range of 0,04-0,35 particles/cm3 (slightly aerosol polluted), in mountain conditions - background pollution aerosol level. The difference of bioclimatic conditions at the specified high-rise levels has been referred to the category of contrasts. The natural aero ionization ∑(N+)+(N-) varied from 960 ion/cm3 to 1460 ion/cm3 in the resort park (860 m); from 1295 ion/cm3 to 4850 ion/cm3 on the Alpine meadow (2070 m); from 1128 ion/cm3 to 3420 ion/cm3 - on the tested site near the edge of the pinewood (1720 m). In the group of volunteers the trip from low-hill terrain zone (860 m) to the lower zone of highlands (2070 m) caused the activation of neuro and humoral regulation, vegetative and

  2. Elemental intermixing within an ultrathin SrRuO3 electrode layer in epitaxial heterostructure BaTiO3/SrRuO3/SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Zhang


    Full Text Available Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to directly observe atom columns in an epitaxial BaTiO3 thin film deposited on a 3.6 nm-thick SrRuO3 electrode layer above an SrTiO3 (001 substrate. Compositional gradients across the heterointerfaces were examined using electron energy-loss spectroscopy techniques. It was found that a small amount of Ba and Ti had diffused into the SrRuO3 layer, and that this layer contained a non-negligible concentration of oxygen vacancies. Such point defects are expected to degrade the electrode’s electronic conductivity drastically, resulting in a much longer screening length. This may explain the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretical estimates of the ferroelectric critical thickness of a BaTiO3 ferroelectric barrier sandwiched between metallic SrRuO3 electrodes, since theoretical calculations generally assume ideal (stoichiometric perovskite SrRuO3.

  3. An estimation of COPD cases and respiratory mortality related to Ground-Level Ozone in the metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study :  Ground-Level Ozone (GLO is the component of one of greatest concern that threatened human health in both developing as well as developed countries. The GLO mainly enters the body through the respiration and can cause decrements in pulmonary complications, eye burning, shortness of breath, coughing, failure of immune defense, decreases forced vital capacity, reduce lung function of the lungs and increase rate of mortality. Ahwaz with high emission air pollutants because of numerous industries is one of the metropolitan Iranian polluted. The aim of this study is evaluate to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and respiratory mortality related to GLO in the air of metropolitan Ahvaz during 2011. Materials & Methods: We used the generalized additive Air Q model for estimation of COPD and respiratory mortality attributed to GLO pollutant. Data of GLO were collected in four monitoring stations Ahvaz Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software and at final step they were converted as input file to the Air Q model for estimate number of COPD Cases and respiratory mortality. Results: According to result this study, The Naderi and Havashenasi had the highest and the lowest GLO concentrations. The results of this study showed that cumulative cases of COPD and respiratory mortality which related to GLO were 34 and 30 persons, respectively. Also, Findings showed that approximately 11 % COPD and respiratory mortality happened when the GLO concentrations was more than 20 μg/m 3 . Conclusions: exposure to GLO pollution has stronger effects on human health in Ahvaz. Findings showed that there were a significant relationship between concentration of GLO and COPD and respiratory mortality. Therefore; the higher ozone pollutant value can depict mismanagement in urban air quality.  

  4. Lead adsorption study on combustion derived -Fe2O3 surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arunkumar Lagashetty; H Vijayanand; S Basavaraja; N N Mallikarjuna; A Venkataraman


    New combustion synthetic route for the synthesis of nanosized -Fe2O3 by microwave-assisted route is reported. X-ray density, tap density and powder density of prepared -Fe2O3 are calculated. Adsorption study of Pb2+ on combustion derived nanosized -Fe2O3 is studied by dynamic method. The -Fe2O3 structure and lead adsorbed -Fe2O3 (Pb--Fe2O3) are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additional lead peaks in Pb--Fe2O3 sample pattern confirm the lead adsorption. Morphology of as prepared -Fe2O3 and Pb--Fe2O3 is studied by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) technique. Varied morphology for Pb--Fe2O3 compared to its -Fe2O3 is observed. Variation of bonding in Pb--Fe2O3 sample due to lead adsorption is viewed by infrared spectroscopic (IR) technique. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) is scanned for the lead adsorbed -Fe2O3 to know the presence of lead on -Fe2O3 surface. The eluent lead solution is characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and solution conductivity (SC). Reduction in the concentration and increase in conductance of eluent lead solution is observed. The potential use of solid adsorbents for the adsorption of heavy metal pollutants is envisaged in the present work.

  5. Investigation of luminescence and laser transition of Dy3+ in Li2O-Gd2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses (United States)

    Zaman, F.; Kaewkhao, J.; Srisittipokakun, N.; Wantana, N.; Kim, H. J.; Rooh, G.


    The aim of this study is to develop Li2O-Gd2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass doped with different concentration of Dy3+ ions by melt quenching technique for different applications in photonics and laser devices. From the experimental oscillator strength (fexp) of the absorption spectra the JO intensity parameters (Ω λ = 2, 4, 6) have been calculated, and by using these JO intensity parameters various radiative parameters were calculated. By using JO theory the radiative transition probability (AR), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratio (βR) for Dy3+ ion have been found. A decrease in lifetimes of the prepared glass by increasing concentration of Dy3+ is because of the energy transfer through cross relaxation and resonant energy transfer channels in the present glass matrix. Using experimental and calculated lifetimes, the quantum efficiency (η) and non-radiative relaxation rates (WNR) of 4F9/2 excited state have been calculated. From emission spectra, effective bandwidths (Δλeff) and emission stimulated emission cross section σ (λp) were found for 4F9/2 → 6HJ (J = 15/2, 13/2, 11/2 and 9/2). Chromaticity results revealed that the CCT values of the LGBiBDy glass samples are in between to those of day light and commercial white light LED sources. Further investigations are under way for the optimization of dopant concentration in the Li2O-Gd2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass.

  6. Luminescent properties of praseodymium doped Y2O3 and LaAlO3 nanocrystallites and polymer composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Dudek; A. Jusza; K. Anders; L. Lipi(n)ska; M. Baran; R. Piramidowicz


    Luminescent properties of Y2O3 and LaAlO3 nanopowders doped with Pr3+ ions and PMMA-based composite materials doped with these powders were reported.The set of active nanopowders differing in praseodymium ions concentration was prepared using sol-gel method and carefully characterized with respect to emission properties in the visible spectral range.In particular,the excitation and emission spectra were measured together with fluorescence decay profiles and the differences between optical properties of these materials were discussed and compared with data available for bulk materials.Finally,the PMMA-based composite materials doped with pr3+:Y2O3 and Pr3+:LaA1O3 nanopowders were manufactured and characterized.The obtained results showed that polymer composites doped with active nanopowders in general tended to keep the luminescent properties of the original nanopowders.

  7. Solar cosmic rays during the extremely high ground level enhancement on 23 February 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belov


    Full Text Available The 23 February 1956 ground level enhancement of the solar cosmic ray intensity (GLE05 is the most famous among the proton events observed since 1942. But we do not have a great deal of information on this event due to the absence of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements at that time. Furthermore, there were no X-Ray or gamma observations and the information on the associated flare is limited. Cosmic ray data was obtained exclusively by ground level detectors of small size and in some cases of a non-standard design. In the present work all available data from neutron monitors operating in 1956 were analyzed, in order to develop a model of the solar cosmic ray behavior during the event. The time-dependent characteristics of the cosmic ray energy spectrum, cosmic ray anisotropy, and differential and integral fluxes have been evaluated utilizing different isotropic and anisotropic models. It is shown that the most outstanding features of this proton enhancement were a narrow and extremely intense beam of ultra-relativistic particles arriving at Earth just after the onset and the unusually high maximum solar particle energy. However, the contribution of this beam to the overall solar particle density and fluency was not significant because of its very short duration and small width. Our estimate of the integral flux for particles with energies over 100 MeV places this event above all subsequent. Perhaps the number of accelerated low energy particles was closer to a record value, but these particles passed mainly to the west of Earth.

    Many features of this GLE are apparently explained by the peculiarity of the particle interplanetary propagation from a remote (near the limb source. The quality of the available neutron monitor data does not allow us to be certain of some details; these may be cleared up by the incorporation into the analysis of data from muonic telescopes and ionization chambers

  8. Ground-Level Geriatric Falls: A Not-So-Minor Mechanism of Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Parker


    Full Text Available Introduction. Ground-level falls are typically regarded as a minor mechanism of injury that do not necessitate trauma team activation; however, they represent a significant proportion of hospitalised trauma and can result in multisystem injury. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old nursing home resident was brought to the emergency department following an unwitnessed fall. She suffered dementia and had a seizure in the department resulting in a reduced GCS, making history and examination difficult. She was diagnosed with a right proximal humerus fracture and admitted under joint orthopedic and medical care. Following orthopedic review, further X-rays were requested which showed bilateral neck of femur fractures. The following day she had bilateral hip hemiarthroplasties and K-wire stabilisation of the right shoulder. Several days later, when cognition had improved, she was noted to be avoiding use of the left arm and was found to also have a left proximal humerus fracture which was managed conservatively. Conclusion. Trauma patients with reduced cognitive function should undergo full ATLS assessment, and a prospective trial is required to see if age should be incorporated as a criteria for trauma team activation. More liberal use of advanced imaging such as a full body CT-scan may be beneficial.

  9. The Time Structure of Ground Level Enhancements in Solar Cycle 23 (United States)

    Moraal, H.; McCracken, K. G.


    In a recent paper McCracken et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 113:A12101, 2008) proposed that the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of 20 January 2005 may have been produced by more than one acceleration mechanism, with the first acceleration due to the solar flare and the second one due to the CME associated with that event. They also noted several other GLEs with similar multiple pulse structures. This paper systematically investigates all the GLEs of solar cycle 23, from GLE 55 on 6 November 1997 to GLE 70 on 13 December 2006, to study their morphology and pulse structure, and to determine whether the multiple structures that may be found in these events are qualitatively similar to that of the GLE of 20 January 2005. We use all the data of all NMs that saw each event, to have as much directional and spectral information as possible. It is shown that three of these 16 events do contain such double-pulse structures, and the properties of these three are discussed in some detail.

  10. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.


    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  11. Small Ground-Level Enhancement of 6 January 2014: Acceleration by CME-Driven Shock? (United States)

    Li, C.; Miroshnichenko, L. I.; Sdobnov, V. E.


    Available spectral data for solar energetic particles (SEPs) measured near the Earth's orbit (GOES-13) and on the terrestrial surface (polar neutron monitors) on 6 January 2014 are analyzed. A feature of this solar proton event (SPE) and weak ground-level enhancement (GLE) is that the source was located behind the limb. For the purpose of comparison, we also use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data on sub-relativistic electrons and GOES-13 measurements of a strong and extended proton event on 8 - 9 January 2014. It was found that the surface observations at energies {>} 433 MeV and GOES-13 data at {>} 30 - {>} 700 MeV may be satisfactorily reconciled by a power-law time-of-maximum (TOM) spectrum with a characteristic exponential tail (cutoff). Some methodological difficulties of spectrum determination are discussed. Assuming that the TOM spectrum near the Earth is a proxy of the spectrum of accelerated particles in the source, we critically consider the possibility of shock acceleration to relativistic energies in the solar corona. Finally, it is suggested to interpret the observational features of this GLE under the assumption that small GLEs may be produced by shocks driven by coronal mass ejections. However, the serious limitations of such an approach to the problem of the SCR spectrum prevent drawing firm conclusions in this controversial field.

  12. Electron and proton acceleration during the first ground level enhancement of solar cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Li, C; Sun, L P; Miroshnichenko, L I


    High-energy particles were recorded by near-Earth spacecraft and ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) on 2012 May 17. This event was the first ground level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 24. In this study, we try to identify the acceleration source(s) of solar energetic particles by combining in situ particle measurements from the WIND/3DP, GOES 13, and solar cosmic rays registered by several NMs, as well as remote-sensing solar observations from SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, and RHESSI. We derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) path length (1.25 +/- 0.05 AU) and solar particle release time (01:29 +/- 00:01 UT) of the first arriving electrons by using their velocity dispersion and taking into account contamination effects. We found that the electron impulsive injection phase, indicated by the dramatic change in the spectral index, is consistent with flare non-thermal emission and type III radio bursts. Based on the potential field source surface concept, modeling of the open-field lines rooted in the active r...

  13. Development of a ground level enhancement alarm system based upon neutron monitors (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.


    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, which triggers an alarm if a ground level enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate at a very low level. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. The highest-level alarm, which we term an "alert," is generated when a 4% increase is recorded at three stations in 3 min averaged data. At this level, the false alarm rate obtained by backtesting over the past 4.4 years is zero. Ten GLEs occurred in this period, and our system produced GLE alarms for nine events. Alarm times for these nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert precedes the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ˜10-30 min. Real-time GLE data may be viewed at An automated e-mail alert system is under development.

  14. What Are Special About Ground-Level Events? Flares, CMEs, Active Regions And Magnetic Field Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, N V; DeRosa, M L; Nightingale, R W


    Ground level events (GLEs) occupy the high-energy end of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. They are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, but we still do not clearly understand the special conditions that produce these rare events. During Solar Cycle 23, a total of 16 GLEs were registered, using ground-based neutron monitor data. We first ask if these GLEs are clearly distinguishable from other SEP events observed from space. Setting aside possible difficulties in identifying all GLEs consistently, we then try to find observables which may unmistakably isolate these GLEs by studying the basic properties of the associated eruptions and the active regions (ARs) that produced them. It is found that neither the magnitudes of the CMEs and flares nor the complexities of the ARs give sufficient conditions for GLEs. It is possible to find CMEs, flares or ARs that are not associated with GLEs but that have more extreme properties than those associated with GLEs. We also try to ev...

  15. Ground level photosynthetically active radiation dynamics in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (United States)

    Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Sanquetta, Carlos R; Caron, Braulio O; Behling, Alexandre; Simon, Augusto A; Corte, Ana Paula D; Bamberg, Rogério


    The objective is to study the dynamics of photosynthetic radiation reaching the soil surface in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and its influence on height growth in stands. This fact gives rise to the formulation of the following hypothesis for this study: "The reduction of the incidence of light inside the stand of black wattle will cause the inflection point in its height growth when this reaches 4 to 5 m in height, i.e. when the stand is between 2 and 3 years of age". The study was conducted in stands in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where diameters at breast height, total height and photosynthetically active radiation available at ground level were measured. The frequency tended to be more intense when the age of the stands increases. It was evident that a reduction of light incidence inside the forest occurred, caused by canopy closure. Consequently, closed canopy propitiated the competition of plants. This has affected the conditions for growth in diameter and height of this species, reason why it becomes possible to conceive the occurrence of an inflection point in the growth of these two variables, confirming the formulated hypothesis.

  16. Superior solid solubility of MnSiO3 in CaSiO3 perovskite (United States)

    Li, Lin; Nagai, Takaya; Seto, Yusuke; Fujino, Kiyoshi; Kawano, Jun; Itoh, Shoich


    The silicate perovskite phase relation between CaSiO3 and MnSiO3 was investigated at 35-52 GPa and at 1,800 K using laser-heated diamond anvil cells combined with angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic chemical analyses with scanning or transmission electron microscopy. We found that MnSiO3 can be incorporated into CaSiO3 perovskite up to 55, and 20 mol % of CaSiO3 is soluble in MnSiO3 perovskite. The range of 55-80 mol % of MnSiO3 in the CaSiO3-MnSiO3 perovskite system could be immiscible. We also observed that the two perovskite structured phases of the Mn-bearing CaSiO3 and the Ca-bearing MnSiO3 coexisted at these conditions. The Mn-bearing CaSiO3 perovskite has non-cubic symmetry and the Ca-bearing MnSiO3 perovskite has an orthorhombic structure with space group Pbnm. All the perovskite structured phases in the CaSiO3-MnSiO3 system convert to the amorphous phase during pressure release. MnSiO3 is the first chemical component confirmed to show such a superior solid solubility in CaSiO3 perovskite.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巧俊; 王雪梅; 吴志勇; 王志铭


    In this study, a new generation of fully-coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model, WRF-Chem) model is used to simulate the impacts of urban expansion on major meteorological variables and ozone concentration in spring over the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Results showed that urban expansion increases monthly-averaged 2 m air temperature in urban areas by 0.35 ℃. In urban areas, the relative humidity decreases by 4%-6%, especially during nighttime. Higher roughness elements in urban areas reduce daytime and nighttime wind speed, leading to a decrease of 1.89 m/s in monthly urban-averaged 10-m wind speed. The same dynamic effect generates more vigorous daytime and nighttime planetary boundary layer (PBL) and results in an increase of 39.82 m in monthly urban-averaged PBL height. These subtle changes due to urban expansion result in decernable increases in ozone concentration. Ozone concentration increases mainly in Foshan, Dongguan and south Guangzhou (around 1.5 ppbv), and the increase is larger in daytime than that of nighttime. Monthly ozone concentrations increased by 0.89 ppbv for the whole urban areas in PRD, and the areas of ozone concentration increase coincide with areas of meteorological parameters variation. At 14:00 LST, total ozone concentrations within the mixed layer in urban areas increased 80ppbv. The ozone-concentration change is mostly sensitive to changes in temperature, followed by those in PBL height and wind speed, and least to changes in the relative humidity. During the daytime (08:00-18:00 local time) the ozone concentrations increase is a U-type, in which the fewest increase is 0.2 ppbv at 14:00 LST, while at nighttime the ozone concentration increase is a V-type, and the largest increase is at 20:00 LST (more than 1.5ppbv).%利用新一代大气化学在线耦合模式WRF-Chem研究城市扩张对珠三角地区春季气象条件的改变及其对地面O3浓度的影响.研究结果表

  18. Growth and structural investigations of La1-xPrxCaO3 solid solution single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkowski, M; Fink-Finowicki, J; Byszewski, P; Diduszko, R; Kowalska, E; Aleksiyko, R; Piekarczyk, W; Vasylechko, LO; Savytskij, DI; Perchuc, L

    Growth of single crystals in the pseudobinary LaGaO3-PrGaO3 system by the Czochralski and floating-zone methods was investigated. It has been found that solid solution crystals La1-xPrxGaO3 exist in the whole concentration range x, The segregation coefficients of Pr in LaGaO3 and La in PrGaO3 have

  19. Growth and structural investigations of La1-xPrxCaO3 solid solution single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkowski, M; Fink-Finowicki, J; Byszewski, P; Diduszko, R; Kowalska, E; Aleksiyko, R; Piekarczyk, W; Vasylechko, LO; Savytskij, DI; Perchuc, L


    Growth of single crystals in the pseudobinary LaGaO3-PrGaO3 system by the Czochralski and floating-zone methods was investigated. It has been found that solid solution crystals La1-xPrxGaO3 exist in the whole concentration range x, The segregation coefficients of Pr in LaGaO3 and La in PrGaO3 have b

  20. Eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 triad above the forest canopy at the ATTO Site in the Amazon Basin (United States)

    Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Wolff, Stefan; Sörgel, Matthias; Berger, Martina; Zelger, Michael; Dlugi, Ralf


    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (denoted together as NOx) determine the abundance of the tropospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 that regulate atmospheric self-cleaning. The three reactive trace gases NO, NO2 and O3 undergo a series of interconnected photochemical reactions and are often referred to as the NO-O3-NO2 triad. Ozone deposition is mainly controlled by stomatal uptake, thus contributes to oxidative stress for the plants. Similarly, nitrogen dioxide from above or below the canopy is deposited to leaves through stomatal uptake. NO emissions from soils contribute to above canopy O3 formation and accelerate OH recycling. Therefore, quantification of the exchange fluxes of these species between the atmosphere and the biosphere are important for atmospheric chemistry and ecosystem research as well. The eddy covariance method is state of the art for direct measurements of ecosystem fluxes of trace gases. Eddy covariance measurements of NOx in pristine environments are rare because of lack of availability of instruments with the required precision to resolve concentrations characteristic of these environments. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. It is the ideal site for studying the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the NO-O3-NO2 triad, being largely undisturbed by anthropogenic sources. During an intensive measurement campaign in November 2015 at the ATTO site, measurements of NO, NO2 and O3 were carried out at 42 m above ground level on the 80 m walk-up tower with a fast (5 Hz) and sensitive (< 30 ppt) instrument (CLD790SR2, Eco Physics) for NO and NO2 and with 10 Hz for O3 (Enviscope). Additionally, measurements of turbulent and micrometeorological parameters were conducted with a profile of 3-dimensional sonic anemometers and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and radiation. Vertical concentration profile

  1. Design of the Mexico City UV monitoring network: UV-B measurements at ground level in the urban environment (United States)

    Acosta, L. R.; Evans, W. F. J.


    Although there is concern for future stratospheric ozone depletion, several large urban populations are already being exposed to very high UV levels due to geographical factors. In Mexico City, ultraviolet radiation (UV) plays an important role in the generation of high levels of tropospheric ozone and other photochemical pollutants. The measurement of ultraviolet-B radiation in Mexico began in the spring 1993, as a pilot project for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) monitoring and as support for the first Hispanic public information program on the UV index through the Televisa (Mexican television network, which covers the Spanish speaking world). In 1996, based on our preliminary measurements, the Mexico City government commissioned the authors to design the Valley of Mexico UV-monitoring Network. The design of the network is presented. The preliminary measurements show that biologically active (UV-B) solar radiation can reach levels above 5 minimum erythemal dose (MED/hour) or 12 UV index units during spring and summer months. Annual UV measurements have shown seasonal variations of 40% between winter and summer months. Strong attenuation of UV-B radiation at ground level in the urban troposphere has been detected under polluted conditions. Measurements of the morphology of UV-B radiation have been taken at downtown and suburban monitoring stations, over diurnal, monthly and yearly periods. The network measurements show that the downtown UV-B levels are 20% lower than suburban levels on a seasonal basis, but differences can be greater than 40% on polluted days. The relationship between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone column and tropospheric ozone concentrations in Mexico City is also discussed.

  2. Estimating urban ground-level PM10 using MODIS 3km AOD product and meteorological parameters from WRF model (United States)

    Ghotbi, Saba; Sotoudeheian, Saeed; Arhami, Mohammad


    Satellite remote sensing products of AOD from MODIS along with appropriate meteorological parameters were used to develop statistical models and estimate ground-level PM10. Most of previous studies obtained meteorological data from synoptic weather stations, with rather sparse spatial distribution, and used it along with 10 km AOD product to develop statistical models, applicable for PM variations in regional scale (resolution of ≥10 km). In the current study, meteorological parameters were simulated with 3 km resolution using WRF model and used along with the rather new 3 km AOD product (launched in 2014). The resulting PM statistical models were assessed for a polluted and largely variable urban area, Tehran, Iran. Despite the critical particulate pollution problem, very few PM studies were conducted in this area. The issue of rather poor direct PM-AOD associations existed, due to different factors such as variations in particles optical properties, in addition to bright background issue for satellite data, as the studied area located in the semi-arid areas of Middle East. Statistical approach of linear mixed effect (LME) was used, and three types of statistical models including single variable LME model (using AOD as independent variable) and multiple variables LME model by using meteorological data from two sources, WRF model and synoptic stations, were examined. Meteorological simulations were performed using a multiscale approach and creating an appropriate physic for the studied region, and the results showed rather good agreements with recordings of the synoptic stations. The single variable LME model was able to explain about 61%-73% of daily PM10 variations, reflecting a rather acceptable performance. Statistical models performance improved through using multivariable LME and incorporating meteorological data as auxiliary variables, particularly by using fine resolution outputs from WRF (R2 = 0.73-0.81). In addition, rather fine resolution for PM

  3. Dissolution mechanism of Al2O3 in refining slags containing Ce2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L.J.


    Full Text Available In the present work, the rate of dissolution of Al2O3 rod in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Ce2O3 slags were carried out in the temperature range of 1793 K (1520ºC - 1853 K (1580ºC under static conditions. The cross section of the rod and the boundary layers were identified and analyzed by SEM-EDS. The dissolution of Al2O3 was favored with the increasing CaO/Al2O3 ratio, elevating temperatures as well as the addition of Ce2O3. An intermediate product 3CaO5Al2O3Ce2O3 was detected. The mechanism of dissolution of Al2O3 in the Ce2O3 containing slag were also proposed as three steps involved: 1 the formation of calcium aluminates CaO•Al2O3 at the interface 2 the formation of 3CaO5Al2O3Ce2O3 as the reaction progresses; and 3 the dissolution of 3CaO5Al2O3Ce2O3 into the slag.

  4. Optimization and interpretation of O3 and O3/H2O2 oxidation processes to pretreat hydrocortisone pharmaceutical wastewater. (United States)

    Li, Guiju; He, Jingjing; Wang, Dandan; Meng, Panpan; Zeng, Ming


    Chemical synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater must be pretreated before traditional biological treatment to improve the biodegradability of pollutants due to their high concentration and complex composition. This study investigated O3 and O3/H2O2 systems to pretreat hydrocortisone wastewater. The optimum treatment efficiency of the O3 system was achieved under pH value of 5.76, dosage of O3 of 217.5 mg/L, and reaction time of 90 min. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) was 94% and 92%, respectively. The ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and COD (B/C) increased from 0.066 to 0.310. Moreover, the optimum H2O2/O3 molar ratio was 0.3 with the optimum pH of 3, and reaction time was reduced to 15 min to reach COD removal efficiency of 67.3% in the O3/H2O2 oxidation system. Interestingly, isobutanol was assumed to be a good hydroxyl radical trapping agent due to the great decrease of Fenton reagent reaction rate constant. By comparing two different kinetic models, oxidation mechanism could be interpreted by the pseudo first-order kinetic model with the high correlation coefficient R2 above 0.9787. It can be concluded that ozonation system was controlled by both direct oxidation and free radical oxidation, and particularly the later one played a dominant role.

  5. Characteristics of ethylene glycol-Al2O3 nanofluids prepared by utilizing Al2O3 nanoparticles synthesized from local bauxite (United States)

    Syarif, D. G.


    Nanoparticles of Al2O3 have been synthesized from local bauxite mineral, and ethylene glycol (EG)-Al2O3 nanofluids have been prepared. Powder Al(OOH) was extracted from local bauxite using bayer process, and heated at 600°C for 3 hours to get Al2O3 nanoparticles. XRD analyses showed that the Al2O3 nanoparticles crystallizes in γ-Al2O3 with crystallite size of 4.12 nm. The specific surface area of the ACO3 nanoparticles was 296.72 m2/gr. Viscosity of the EG-Al2O3 nanofluids was temperature dependent, and decreased with increasing temperature. The viscosity of the nanofluids increased with the concentration of the Al2O3 nanoparticles. Meanwhile, Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement of the nanofluids increased with the concentration of the Al2O3 nanoparticles. The largest CHF enhancement was 54% at Al2O3 concentration of 0.095 vol %.

  6. Synthesis and several features of the Na2O-B2O3-Bi2O3-MoO3 glasses (United States)

    Saddeek, Yasser B.; Abousehly, A. M.; Hussien, Shaban I.


    Glasses in the system Na2-2xB4-4xBixMo0.5xO7-4x, 0 molar volume increase while both sound velocities and the determined glass transition temperatures decrease with increase in x. Infrared spectra of the glasses reveal that the strong borate network consists of diborate units and is affected by the increase in the concentration of Bi2O3, and MoO3. These results are interpreted in terms of the increase in the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms, substitution of longer bond lengths of Bi-O, and Mo-O in place of shorter B-O bond and the change in Na+ ion concentration. The results indicate that bismuth and molybdenum ions have been substituted for boron ions as network modifier ions. The elastic moduli are observed to increase with the increase in Bi2O3 and MoO3 content. This contradiction in the elastic moduli-molar volume relation is attributed to the role of the respective bonds.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.; Sun, L. P. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Firoz, Kazi A. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Miroshnichenko, L. I., E-mail: [N. V. Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, 142190 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    High-energy particles were recorded by near-Earth spacecraft and ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) on 2012 May 17. This event was the first ground level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 24. In this study, we try to identify the acceleration source(s) of solar energetic particles by combining in situ particle measurements from the WIND/3DP, GOES 13, and solar cosmic rays registered by several NMs, as well as remote-sensing solar observations from SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, and RHESSI. We derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) path length (1.25 {+-} 0.05 AU) and solar particle release time (01:29 {+-} 00:01 UT) of the first arriving electrons by using their velocity dispersion and taking into account contamination effects. We found that the electron impulsive injection phase, indicated by the dramatic change in the spectral index, is consistent with flare non-thermal emission and type III radio bursts. Based on the potential field source surface concept, modeling of the open-field lines rooted in the active region has been performed to provide escape channels for flare-accelerated electrons. Meanwhile, relativistic protons are found to be released {approx}10 minutes later than the electrons, assuming their scatter-free travel along the same IMF path length. Combining multi-wavelength imaging data of the prominence eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME), we obtain evidence that GLE protons, with an estimated kinetic energy of {approx}1.12 GeV, are probably accelerated by the CME-driven shock when it travels to {approx}3.07 solar radii. The time-of-maximum spectrum of protons is typical for shock wave acceleration.

  8. Energy Spectra, Composition, and Other Properties of Ground-Level Events During Solar Cycle 23 (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; COhen, C. M. S.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Looper, M. D.; Haggerty, D. K.; Mason, G. M.; Mazur, J. E.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.


    We report spacecraft measurements of the energy spectra of solar protons and other solar energetic particle properties during the 16 Ground Level Events (GLEs) of Solar Cycle 23. The measurements were made by eight instruments on the ACE, GOES, SAMPBX, and STEREO spacecraft and extend from approximately 0.1 to approximately 500-700 MeV. All of the proton spectra exhibit spectral breaks at energies ranging from approximately 2 to approximately 46 MeV and all are well fit by a double power-law shape. A comparison of GLE events with a larger sample of other solar energetic particle (SEP) events shows that the typical spectral indices are harder in GLE events, with a mean slope of -3.18 at greater than 40 MeV/nuc. In the energy range 45 to 80 MeV/nucleon about approximately 50% of GLE events have properties in common with impulsive He-3-rich SEP events, including enrichments in Ne/O, Fe/O, Ne-22/Ne-20, and elevated mean charge states of Fe. These He-3 rich events contribute to the seed population accelerated by CME-driven shocks. An analysis is presented of whether highly-ionized Fe ions observed in five events could be due to electron stripping during shock acceleration in the low corona. Making use of stripping calculations by others and a coronal density model, we can account for events with mean Fe charge states of (Q(sub Fe) is approximately equal to +20 if the acceleration starts at approximately 1.24-1.6 solar radii, consistent with recent comparisons of CME trajectories and type-II radio bursts. In addition, we suggest that gradual stripping of remnant ions from earlier large SEP events may also contribute a highly-ionized suprathermal seed population. We also discuss how observed SEP spectral slopes relate to the energetics of particle acceleration in GLE and other large SEP events.

  9. The cosmic-ray ground-level enhancement of 1989 September 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraal, H. [Centre for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Caballero-Lopez, R. A. [Ciencias Espaciales, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)


    The ground-level enhancement (GLE) of 1989 September 29 is one of the largest of 71 solar energetic particle events observed by neutron monitors on Earth. It was smaller than the record-breaking GLE 5 of 1956 February 23, but by some measures it was larger than GLE 69 of 2005 January 20. It is also the most extensively studied of the 71 GLEs, and it was observed by more than 50 ground-based detectors in the worldwide network. This paper contains another study of the event, with the main difference from previous studies that all the existing observations are employed, instead of the usual selection of stations. An effort is made to represent all the information graphically. This reveals new insight in the event, mainly about its time profile. The main conclusion is that the event is the best example available of a 'classical' GLE that has a gradual increase toward peak intensity and does not contain two or more distinct peaks as inferred previously. It does, however, suggest that there were two acceleration or release mechanisms: a prompt, rapid one and a delayed, slower one. This conclusion is based on a detailed comparison with GLE 69 of 2005 January 20, which is the best-known example of a double-peaked event with a 'prompt' component. It is also found that the rigidity spectrum was probably softer than derived in several previous studies, and that the decay phase of the event reveals that the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient in the neutron monitor range is proportional to rigidity.

  10. Inverse modeling of InSAR and ground leveling data for 3D volumetric strain distribution (United States)

    Gallardo, L. A.; Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.


    Wide availability of modern Interferometric Synthetic aperture Radar (InSAR) data have made possible the extensive observation of differential surface displacements and are becoming an efficient tool for the detailed monitoring of terrain subsidence associated to reservoir dynamics, volcanic deformation and active tectonism. Unfortunately, this increasing popularity has not been matched by the availability of automated codes to estimate underground deformation, since many of them still rely on trial-error subsurface model building strategies. We posit that an efficient algorithm for the volumetric modeling of differential surface displacements should match the availability of current leveling and InSAR data and have developed an algorithm for the joint inversion of ground leveling and dInSAR data in 3D. We assume the ground displacements are originated by a stress free-volume strain distribution in a homogeneous elastic media and determined the displacement field associated to an ensemble of rectangular prisms. This formulation is then used to develop a 3D conjugate gradient inversion code that searches for the three-dimensional distribution of the volumetric strains that predict InSAR and leveling surface displacements simultaneously. The algorithm is regularized applying discontinuos first and zero order Thikonov constraints. For efficiency, the resulting computational code takes advantage of the resulting convolution integral associated to the deformation field and some basic tools for multithreading parallelization. We extensively test our algorithm on leveling and InSAR test and field data of the Northwest of Mexico and compare to some feasible geological scenarios of underground deformation.

  11. Upconversion spectroscopy of $Al_2O_3:Er^{3+}$

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agazzi, L.; Bradley, J.D.B.; Ay, F.; Kahn, A.; Scheife, H.; Petermann, K.; Huber, G.; Ridder, de R.M.; Wörhoff, K.; Pollnau, M.; Wörhoff, K.; Agazzi, L.; Ismail, N.; Leijtens, X.


    The spectroscopic properties of $Al_2O_3:Er^{3+}$ thin films have been investigated by lifetime measurements. The luminescence decay curves show an initial non-exponential component, followed by an exponential tail, whose decay time decreases with increasing $Er^{3+}$ concentration. This behavior ca

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and its function under elevated atmospheric O3: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D


    We quantitatively evaluated the effects of elevated O3 on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formation and on AM role in promoting plant growth in regard to several moderating variables (O3 levels, O3 exposure duration, plant types, AM fungi family, and additional stress) by means of meta-analysis of published data. The analysis consisted of 117 trials representing 20 peer-reviewed articles and 16 unpublished trials. Relative to non-mycorrhizal controls, AM inoculation did not significantly alter plant growth (shoot biomass, root biomass, total biomass and plant height) when O3 concentration was less than 80 ppb, but at concentrations above 80 ppb symbiosis was associated with increases of 68% in shoot biomass and 131% in root biomass. AM effects on plant growth were affected by the duration of O3 exposure but did not differ much with AM fungi taxa or plant type. AM symbiosis has also led to higher yields under O3 stress, relative to the non-mycorrhizal plants, and the AM effects have been more pronounced as O3 concentration increases. As with biomass, AM effects on yield have been affected by the duration of O3 exposure, with the greatest increase (100%) occurring at 61-90 d. AM-induced promotion of yield differed with fungal species but not with plant type or other abiotic stress. Colonization of roots by AM fungi has been negatively affected by elevated O3 compared to ambient O3; total mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR), arbuscular MCR, vesicular MCR and hyphal coil MCR declined as O3 levels rose. AM colonization rates were affected by duration of O3 exposure, plant type, AM fungal taxa and other concurrent stresses in most cases. The analysis showed that AM inoculation has the potential to ameliorate detrimental effects of elevated O3 on plant growth and productivity, despite colonization rates being negatively affected by elevated O3. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Direct charge carrier injection into Ga2O3 thin films using an In2O3 cathode buffer layer: their optical, electrical and surface state properties (United States)

    Cui, W.; Zhao, X. L.; An, Y. H.; Guo, D. Y.; Qing, X. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Li, P. G.; Li, L. H.; Cui, C.; Tang, W. H.


    Conductive Ga2O3 thin films with an In2O3 buffer layer have been prepared on c-plane sapphire substrates using a laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The effects of the In2O3 buffer layer on the structure and optical, electrical and surface state properties of the Ga2O3 films have been studied. The change in conductivity of the thin films is attributed to different thicknesses of the In2O3 buffer layer, which determine the concentration of charge carriers injected into the upper Ga2O3 layer from the interface of the bilayer thin films. In addition, the increase in flat band voltage shift and capacitance values as the In2O3 buffer layer thickens are attributed to the increase in surface state density, which also contributes to the rapid shrinkage of the optical band gap of the Ga2O3. With transparency to visible light, high n-type conduction and the ability to tune the optical band gap and surface state density, we propose that Ga2O3/In2O3 bilayer thin film is an ideal n-type semiconductor for fabrication of transparent power devices, solar cell electrodes and gas sensors.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin B. Parnell


    Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd−1 d−1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd−1 d−1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from

  15. Assessing Vegetation Composition and Characteristics Using Ground-Level Hyperspectral Data in Northern Virginia (United States)

    Aneece, I.; Epstein, H. E.


    The study of ecosystem properties and processes through remote sensing allows ecological questions to be answered more efficiently for large geographical expanses than field work alone, especially in areas that are relatively inaccessible. These properties and processes are often studied at coarse spatial scales with multispectral data; however, the use of hyperspectral data to ask plant community and species-level questions is still a developing field. Many applications, such as understanding the influence of disturbances and assessing management strategies, need finer-scale information than is currently available using multispectral data. In this study, we used hyperspectral data to examine vegetation community properties in preparation for addressing these finer-scale questions. Specifically, we examined the ability to assess vegetation composition and diversity using ground-level hyperspectral data for early successional and other non-forested fields in north-central Virginia. Twelve 5m by 5m plots were established at which a vegetation survey was conducted at the ground, understory, and canopy levels at 0.5m intervals. We additionally collected twelve spectra with approximately 1m footprints at each plot. We then ran ordinations to assess clustering of plots by similarity in species compositions and assessed the spectral bands most strongly correlated with clustering. We found that plots do cluster by species composition, but the most influential wavelengths varied by year of data collection. In 2012, the most influential bands were in the near-infrared plateau region followed by some influence from the red region. The most influential bands in 2014 were in the blue-green and red regions. The correlations between species diversity and spectral diversity also differed by year; however, when an outlier was removed from each of the years, there was a weak positive correlation between species diversity and spectral diversity during both years. These results are

  16. SPARTAN: a global network to evaluate and enhance satellite-based estimates of ground-level particulate matter for global health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Snider


    Full Text Available Ground-based observations have insufficient spatial coverage to assess long-term human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 at the global scale. Satellite remote sensing offers a promising approach to provide information on both short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5 at local-to-global scales, but there are limitations and outstanding questions about the accuracy and precision with which ground-level aerosol mass concentrations can be inferred from satellite remote sensing alone. A key source of uncertainty is the global distribution of the relationship between annual average PM2.5 and discontinuous satellite observations of columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD. We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations designed to evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates for application in health effects research and risk assessment. This Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN includes a global federation of ground-level monitors of hourly PM2.5 situated primarily in highly populated regions and collocated with existing ground-based sun photometers that measure AOD. The instruments, a three-wavelength nephelometer and impaction filter sampler for both PM2.5 and PM10, are highly autonomous. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations are inferred from the combination of weighed filters and nephelometer data. Data from existing networks were used to develop and evaluate network sampling characteristics. SPARTAN filters are analyzed for mass, black carbon, water-soluble ions, and metals. These measurements provide, in a variety of global regions, the key data required to evaluate and enhance satellite-based PM2.5 estimates used for assessing the health effects of aerosols. Mean PM2.5 concentrations across sites vary by an order of magnitude. Initial measurements indicate that the AOD column to PM2.5 ratio is driven temporally primarily by the vertical profile of aerosol scattering; and spatially by a~ more complex interaction

  17. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barela Ana MF


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight support (BWS systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Methods Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. Results The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Conclusion Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical

  18. Synthesis and thermal characterization of Al2O3 nanoparticles (United States)

    Ismardi, A.; Rosadi, O. M.; Kirom, M. R.; Syarif, D. G.


    Al2O3 nanoparticle has been successfully synthesized using sol gel method from AlCl3. The obtained nanoparticles was then characterized for grain size measurement, the size of nanoparticles was 6 nm by using surface area meter (SAM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity property of the product was then checked with XRD spectroscopy, the result shows that the diffraction peaks were match with the 10-0425 JCPDS database. Thermal property of the Al2O3 nanoparticles was then studied by mixing it with engine base fluid as nanofluid. The usage of nanofluid was expected to be heat absorber and woulo increase cooling process in cooling machine. The results showed that cooling time increases when the concentration of nanofluid was increased. Finally, it is concluded that thermal property of Al2O3 was studied and applicable to be mixed with engine coolant of cooler machine to reduce cooling time process.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈效华; 赵国庆; 等


    D2+ ions of 70 and 90keV were separately implanted into two thick samples of sintered alumina ceramic and the distribution of deuterium has been measured for three runs at an interval of 5 months using high energy proton backscattering and elastic recoil detection (ERD).The measured data show that there is little diffusion of dueterium in Al2O3 and the diffusion coefficient is deduced to be 1.1×10-17 cm2/s.The measured total concentration of implanted deuterium is 4.5×1018at.cm2.The profile of hydrogen adsorbed on the surface of Al2O3 samples was also observed by ERD and 1H(19E,αγ)16O analysis.The distribution range of 1H in Al2O3 after deuterium implantation is much larger than that before one.

  20. Hexagonal LuMnO3 revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, Bas B. van; Meetsma, Auke; Palstra, Thomas T.M.


    The crystal structure of hexagonal LuMnO3 at room temperature is isomorphous with YMnO3 and deviates in important details from early work. Mn is near the centre of its oxygen coordination environment. On the threefold axes, the apical O-Lu bonds have alternating long and short bond lengths, leading

  1. Excellent ethanol sensing properties based on Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘唱白; 何滢; 王圣蕾


    In this work, pureα-Fe2O3 and Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes were synthesized by a simple single-capillary electrospin-ning technology followed by calcination treatment. The morphologies and crystal structures of the as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The gas-sensing properties of the as-prepared samples have been researched, and the result shows that the Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes exhibit much better sen-sitivity to ethanol. The response value of Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes to 10 ppm ethanol is 21 at the operating temperature 240◦, which is 14 times larger than that of pureα-Fe2O3 nanotubes (response value is 1.5). The ethanol sensing properties ofα-Fe2O3 nanotubes are remarkably enhanced by doping Er, and the lowest detection limit of Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes is 300 ppb, to which the response value is about 2. The response and recovery times are about 4 s and 70 s to 10 ppm ethanol, respectively. In addition, the Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes possess good selectivity and long-term stability.

  2. Democratic Mass Matrices from Broken $O(3)_{L} \\times O(3)_{R}$ Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, M; Yanagida, T


    We impose $O(3)_L\\times O(3)_R$ flavor symmetry in the supersymmetric standard model. Three lepton doublets $\\ell_i$ transform as an $O(3)_L$ triplet and three charged leptons $\\bar e_i$ as an $O(3)_R$ triplet, while Higgs doublets $H$ and $\\bar H$ are $O(3)_L\\times O(3)_R$ singlets. We discuss a flavor $O(3)_L\\times O(3)_R$ breaking mechanism that leads to "successful" phenomenological mass matrices, so-called "democratic" ones, in which the large degenerate masses of order $0.1\\eV$ which may be accesible to future double that it is well consistent with the observed quark mass hierarchies and the CKM matrix elements.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Fe2O3/Al2O3 Nano-composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Al2O3/Fe2O3 nano-composites were prepared by sol-gel route. The effect of Fe2O3 content on the structure, grain size and characterization of the composite were investigated through X-ray diffraction and M(o)ssbauer spectrum. The X-ray diffraction results show that Al2O3/Fe2O3 nano-composites with the Fe2O3, content of 40 wt% can be obtained after heat-treated at 900℃. The M(o)ssbauer effect results show that all samples exhibit clear super-paramagnetic phenomenon. Particles grow and defects reduce with the increasing of Fe2O3 conteni and some α-Fe2O3 stay magnetic order.

  4. Atmospheric effects on infrared measurements at ground level: Application to monitoring of transport infrastructures (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Dumoulin, Jean


    Being able to perform easily non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of critical transport infrastructures is a major preoccupation of many technical offices. Among all the existing electromagnetic methods [1], long term thermal monitoring by uncooled infrared camera [2] is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its low cost on the market. Nevertheless, Knowledge of environmental parameters during measurement in outdoor applications is required to carry out accurate measurement corrections induced by atmospheric effects at ground level. Particularly considering atmospheric effects and measurements in foggy conditions close as possible to those that can be encountered around transport infrastructures, both in visible and infrared spectra. In the present study, atmospheric effects are first addressed by using data base available in literature and modelling. Atmospheric attenuation by particles depends greatly of aerosols density, but when relative humidity increases, water vapor condenses onto the particulates suspended in the atmosphere. This condensed water increases the size of the aerosols and changes their composition and their effective refractive index. The resulting effect of the aerosols on the absorption and scattering of radiation will correspondingly be modified. In a first approach, we used aerosols size distributions derived from Shettle and Fenn [3] for urban area which could match some of experimental conditions encountered during trials on transport infrastructures opened to traffic. In order to calculate the influence of relative humidity on refractive index, the Hänel's model [4] could be used. The change in the particulate size is first related to relative humidity through dry particle radius, particle density and water activity. Once the wet aerosol particle size is found, the effective complex refractive index is the volume weighted average of the refractive indexes of the dry aerosol substance

  5. Variation of Piezoelectric properties and mechanisms across the relaxor-like/Ferroelectric continuum in BiFeO3- (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics. (United States)

    Bennett, James; Shrout, Thomas R; Zhang, Shujun; Owston, Heather E; Stevenson, Tim J; Esat, Faye; Bell, Andrew J; Comyn, T P


    1- x - y)BiFeO3-x(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-yPbTiO3 (BFKBT- PT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated across the compositional space and contrasted against the xBiFeO3- (1-x)(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (BF-KBT) system, whereby a range of relaxor-like/ferroelectric behavior was observed. Structural and piezoelectric properties were closely related to the PbTiO3 concentration; below a critical concentration, relaxor-like behavior was identified. The mechanisms governing the piezoelectric behavior were investigated with structural, electrical, and imaging techniques. X-ray diffraction established that longrange non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order was evident above a critical PbTiO3 concentration, y > 0.1125. Commensurate with the structural analysis, electric-field-induced strain responses showed electrostrictive behavior in the PbTiO3-reduced compositions, with increased piezoelectric switching in PbTiO3-rich compositions. Positive-up-negative-down (PUND) analysis was used to confirm electric-field-induced polarization measurements, elucidating that the addition of PbTiO3 increased the switchable polarization and ferroelectric ordering. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) of the BF-KBT-PT system exhibited typical domain patterns above a critical PbTiO3 threshold, with no ferroelectric domains observed in the BF-KBT system in the pseudocubic region. Doping of BiFeO3-PbTiO3 has been unsuccessful in the search for hightemperature materials that offer satisfactory piezoelectric properties; however, this system demonstrates that the partial substitution of alternative end-members can be an effective method. The partial substitution of PbTiO3 into BF-KBT enables long-range non-centrosymmetric crystallographic order, resulting in increased polar order and TC, compared with the pseudocubic region. The search for novel high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics can therefore exploit the accommodating nature of the perovskite family, which allows significant variance in chemical and physical

  6. Stomatal uptake of O3 in aspen and aspen-birch forests under free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment. (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Hogg, Alan J; Teclaw, Ronald M; Carroll, Mary Anne; Ellsworth, David S


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) may alleviate the toxicological impacts of concurrently rising tropospheric ozone (O3) during the present century if higher CO2 is accompanied by lower stomatal conductance (gs), as assumed by many models. We investigated how elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3, alone and in combination, affected the accumulated stomatal flux of O3 (AFst) by canopies and sun leaves in closed aspen and aspen-birch forests in the free-air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Stomatal conductance for O3 was derived from sap flux data and AFst was estimated either neglecting or accounting for the potential influence of non-stomatal leaf surface O3 deposition. Leaf-level AFst (AFst(l)) was not reduced by elevated CO2. Instead, there was a significant CO2 x O(3) interaction on AFst(l), as a consequence of lower values of gs in control plots and the combination treatment than in the two single-gas treatments. In addition, aspen leaves had higher AFst(l) than birch leaves, and estimates of AFst(l) were not very sensitive to non-stomatal leaf surface O3 deposition. Our results suggest that model projections of large CO2-induced reductions in gs alleviating the adverse effect of rising tropospheric O3 may not be reasonable for northern hardwood forests.

  7. Analysis of the ground level enhancements on 14 July 2000 and on 13 December 2006 using neutron monitor data

    CERN Document Server

    Mishev, Alexander


    On the basis of neutron monitor data we estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction and pitch-angle distribution of solar energetic particles during two major ground level enhancements (GLE 59 on 14 July 2000 and GLE 70 on 13 December 2006). For the analysis we use a newly computed neutron monitor yield function. The method consists of several consecutive steps: definition of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations considered for the data analysis by computations of cosmic ray particles propagation in a model magnetosphere with the MAGNETOCOSMICS code; computation of the neutron monitor model responses and derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics on the basis of inverse problem solution. The pitch-angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of ground level enhancements. A comparison with previously reported results is performed and reasonable agreement is achieved. A discussion of the obtained res...

  8. The 3-Hour-Interval Prediction of Ground-Level Temperature in South Korea Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keon-Tae SOHN; Deuk-Kyun RHA; Young-Kyung SEO


    The 3-hour-interval prediction of ground-level temperature from +00 h out to +45 h in South Korea(38 stations) is performed using the DLM (dynamic linear model) in order to eliminate the systematicerror of numerical model forecasts. Numerical model forecasts and observations are used as input values ofthe DLM. According to the comparison of the DLM forecasts to the KFM (Kalman filter model) forecastswith RMSE and bias, the DLM is useful to improve the accuracy of prediction.

  9. Visible light catalysis of rhodamine B using nanostructured Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2) and TiO(2)/Fe(2)O(3) thin films. (United States)

    Mahadik, M A; Shinde, S S; Mohite, V S; Kumbhar, S S; Moholkar, A V; Rajpure, K Y; Ganesan, V; Nayak, J; Barman, S R; Bhosale, C H


    The Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2) and TiO(2)/Fe(2)O(3) composite films are deposited using spray pyrolysis method onto glass and FTO coated substrates. The structural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic properties of Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2) and TiO(2)/Fe(2)O(3) thin films are studied. XRD analysis confirms that films are polycrystalline with rhombohedral and tetragonal crystal structures for Fe2O3 and TiO(2) respectively. The photocatalytic activity was tested for the degradation of Rhrodamine B (Rh B) in aqueous medium. The rate constant (-k) was evaluated as a function of the initial concentration of species. Substantial reduction in concentrations of organic species was observed from COD and TOC analysis. Photocatalytic degradation effect is relatively higher in case of the TiO(2)/Fe(2)O(3) than TiO(2) and Fe(2)O(3) thin film photoelectrodes in the degradation of Rh B and 98% removal efficiency of Rh B is obtained after 20min. The photocatalytic experimental results indicate that TiO(2)/α-Fe(2)O(3) photoelectrode is promising material for removing of water pollutants.

  10. Long-term O3–precursor relationships in Hong Kong: field observation and model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang


    Full Text Available Over the past 10 years (2005–2014, ground-level O3 in Hong Kong has consistently increased in all seasons except winter, despite the yearly reduction of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx =  NO + NO2, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, and carbon monoxide (CO. To explain the contradictory phenomena, an observation-based box model (OBM coupled with CB05 mechanism was applied in order to understand the influence of both locally produced O3 and regional transport. The simulation of locally produced O3 showed an increasing trend in spring, a decreasing trend in autumn, and no changes in summer and winter. The O3 increase in spring was caused by the net effect of more rapid decrease in NO titration and unchanged TVOC reactivity despite decreased TVOC mixing ratios, while the decreased local O3 formation in autumn was mainly due to the reduction of aromatic VOC mixing ratios and the TVOC reactivity and much slower decrease in NO titration. However, the decreased in situ O3 formation in autumn was overridden by the regional contribution, resulting in elevated O3 observations. Furthermore, the OBM-derived relative incremental reactivity indicated that the O3 formation was VOC-limited in all seasons, and that the long-term O3 formation was more sensitive to VOCs and less to NOx and CO in the past 10 years. In addition, the OBM results found that the contributions of aromatics to O3 formation decreased in all seasons of these years, particularly in autumn, probably due to the effective control of solvent-related sources. In contrast, the contributions of alkenes increased, suggesting a continuing need to reduce traffic emissions. The findings provide updated information on photochemical pollution and its impact in Hong Kong.

  11. Anomalous high mobility in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanowires. (United States)

    Irvin, Patrick; Veazey, Joshua P; Cheng, Guanglei; Lu, Shicheng; Bark, Chung-Wung; Ryu, Sangwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Levy, Jeremy


    Nanoscale control of the metal-insulator transition at the interface between LaAlO(3) and SrTiO(3) provides a pathway for reconfigurable, oxide-based nanoelectronics. Four-terminal transport measurements of LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) nanowires at room temperature (T = 300 K) reveal an equivalent 2D Hall mobility greatly surpassing that of bulk SrTiO(3) and approaching that of n-type Si nanowires of comparable dimensions. This large enhancement of mobility is relevant for room-temperature device applications.

  12. Relation between structural instabilities in EuTiO3 and SrTiO3 (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, A.; Köhler, J.; Kremer, R. K.; Law, J. M.


    Specific heat measurements and theoretical calculations reveal an intimate analogy between EuTiO3 and SrTiO3. For EuTiO3, a hitherto unknown specific heat anomaly is discovered at temperatures TA= 282(1)K, which is analogous to the well-known specific heat anomaly of SrTiO3 at the temperature TA= 105K caused by an antiferrodistortive transition. Because the zone center soft phonon mode observed in both systems can be modeled with the same parameters, we ascribe the new 282(1)K instability of EuTiO3 to an antiferrodistortive phase transition. The higher transition temperature of EuTiO3 as compared to SrTiO3 results from spin-phonon coupling.

  13. Transport in ferromagnetic GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures (United States)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Zhang, Jack Y.; Kozhanov, Alexander; Jalan, Bharat; Seshadri, Ram; Allen, S. James; Stemmer, Susanne


    Epitaxial GdTiO3/SrTiO3 structures with different SrTiO3 layer thicknesses are grown on (001) (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 substrate surfaces by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that the formation of the pyrochlore (Gd2Ti2O7) phase can be avoided if GdTiO3 is grown by shuttered growth, supplying alternating monolayer doses of Gd and of the metalorganic precursor that supplies both Ti and O. Phase-pure GdTiO3 films grown by this approach exhibit magnetic ordering with a Curie temperature of 30 K. The electrical transport characteristics can be understood as being dominated by a conductive interface layer within the SrTiO3.

  14. Elevated CO2 or O3 effects on fine-root survivorship in ponderosa pine (United States)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations are rising, which may have opposing effects on tree C balance and allocation to fine roots. More information is needed on interactive CO2 and O3 effects on roots, particularly fine-root life span, a critical demograp...


    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations are rising, which may have opposing effects on tree C balance and allocation to fine roots. More information is needed on interactive CO2 and O3 effects on roots, particularly fine-root life span, a critical demograph...

  16. Anomalies of total column CO and O3 associated with great earthquakes in recent years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui


    Full Text Available Variations of total column CO and O3 in the atmosphere over the epicenter areas of 35 great earthquakes that occurred throughout the world in recent years were studied based on the hyper-spectrum data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. It was found that anomalous increases of CO and/or O3 concentrations occurred over the epicenter areas of 12 earthquakes among the 35 studied ones. However, increases in both CO and O3 concentrations were found for 6 earthquakes. The O3 anomalies appeared in the month when the earthquake occurred and lasted for a few months, whereas CO anomalies occurred irregularly. The duration of CO and O3 anomalies related to the earthquakes ranged from 1 to 6 months. The anomalies of CO concentration related to the earthquake can be mainly attributed to gas emission from the lithosphere and photochemical reaction, while the anomalous increases in O3 concentration can be mainly due to the transport of O3-enriched air and photochemical reaction. However, more work needs to be done in order to understand the mechanism of the CO and O3 anomalies further.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBURG, M; DEHOSSON, JTM; Burg, M. van den

    This paper concentrates on the microstructural features of steel containing 22 wt.% Cr, coated with Cr2O3 by laser processing. It turned out that after laser coating the Cr2O3 powder has completely transformed to Fe0.3Cr2.7O4 having the tetragonal distorted spinel structure. Dispersed in the coating


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBURG, M; DEHOSSON, JTM; Burg, M. van den


    This paper concentrates on the microstructural features of steel containing 22 wt.% Cr, coated with Cr2O3 by laser processing. It turned out that after laser coating the Cr2O3 powder has completely transformed to Fe0.3Cr2.7O4 having the tetragonal distorted spinel structure. Dispersed in the coating

  19. Air pollution effect of O3 on crop yield in rural India. (United States)

    Debaje, S B; Kakade, A D; Jeyakumar, S Johnson


    Measurement of surface ozone (O(3)) mixing ratio was made from January 2006 to December 2007 in Ahmednagar (19.1°N, 74.8°E, 657 m above sea level), India. The monthly average of daytime maximum of O(3) mixing ratio ranged from 14 to 57 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) with an annual average of about 20 ppbv. The estimated winter wheat and summer crop yield reduction by 10% and 15%, respectively from present O(3) pollution level associated with AOT40 (accumulation exposure of O(3) concentration over a threshold of 40 ppbv) index values 7370-9150 ppbv h in rural areas.

  20. Predictive Control over Charge Density in the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas at the Polar-Nonpolar NdTiO3/SrTiO3 Interface (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Ayino, Yilikal; Cheng, Christopher; Pribiag, Vlad S.; Comes, Ryan B.; Sushko, Peter V.; Chambers, Scott A.; Jalan, Bharat


    Through systematic control of the Nd concentration, we show that the carrier density of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in SrTiO3/NdTiO3/SrTiO3(001 ) can be modulated over a wide range. We also demonstrate that the NdTiO3 in heterojunctions without a SrTiO3 cap is degraded by oxygen absorption from air, resulting in the immobilization of donor electrons that could otherwise contribute to the 2DEG. This system is, thus, an ideal model to understand and control the insulator-to-metal transition in a 2DEG based on both environmental conditions and film-growth processing parameters.

  1. Photocatalytic properties of KBiO3 and LiBiO3 with tunnel structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajalakshmi Ramachandran; M Sathiya; K Ramesha; A S Prakash; Giridhar Madras; A K Shukla


    In the present study, KBiO3 is synthesized by a standard oxidation technique while LiBiO3 is prepared by hydrothermal method. The synthesized catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning ElectronMicroscopy (SEM), BET surface area analysis and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS). The XRD patterns suggest that KBiO3 crystallizes in the cubic structure while LiBiO3 crystallizes in orthorhombic structure and both of these adopt the tunnel structure. The SEM images reveal micron size polyhedral shaped KBiO3 particles and rod-like or prismatic shape particles for LiBiO3. The band gap is calculated from the diffuse reflectance spectrum and is found to be 2.1 eV and 1.8 eV for KBiO3 and LiBiO3, respectively. The band gap and the crystal structure data suggest that these materials can be used as photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of KBiO3 and LiBiO3 are evaluated for the degradation of anionic and cationic dyes, respectively, under UV and solar radiations.

  2. Pressureless reactive sintering mechanism of nanocrystalline Bi2O3-Y2O3 solid electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The nanocrystalline Bi2O3-Y2O3 solid electrolyte material was synthesized by pressureless reactive sintering process with Bi2O3 and Y2O3 nano mixed powder as raw materials, which was prepared by a chemical coprecipitation process. The study on the behavior of nano δ-Bi2O3 formation and its grain growth showed that the solid solution reaction of Y2O3 and β-Bi2O3 to form δ-Bi2O3occurs mainly in the initial stage of sintering process, and nano δ-Bi2O3 crystal grains grow approximately following the rule of paracurve ((D-D0)2=K.t) during sintering process. After sintered at 600℃ for 2 h, the samples could reach above 96% in relative density and have dense microstructure with few remaining pores, the δ-Bi2O3 grains are less than 100 nm in size.

  3. Characterization of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume over the Iberian Peninsula by lidar remote sensing and ground-level data collection (United States)

    Revuelta, M. A.; Sastre, M.; Fernández, A. J.; Martín, L.; García, R.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Artíñano, B.; Pujadas, M.; Molero, F.


    In April and May 2010 the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano disrupted air traffic across Europe. The vast economic impact of this event has stirred interest on accurate plume dispersion estimation and detailed ash characterization, in order to establish a more precise threshold for safe aircraft operation. In this work we study the physical and chemical properties of volcanogenic aerosol detected at ground level at several locations over the Iberian Peninsula, nearly 3000 km away from the Icelandic volcano. Between 4 and 14 May, the volcanogenic plume was detected at ground level, identified by an increase in sulfur dioxide, particle mass concentrations, and particulate sulfate concentration, at most EMEP stations as well as at the CIEMAT site (for the sulfate concentration in PM). At the CIEMAT site, the synergic use of Raman lidar and on-site instruments provided relevant information on the evolution and properties of the plume over the central part of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerosol extinction coefficient profiles provided by the lidar station show the presence of remarkable aerosol layers between 6 May and 15 May. Provenance studies using FLEXTRA backtrajectories confirmed that most of the aerosol layers originated in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The large suite of semi-continuous instruments present in the latter site allowed a better characterization of the aerosol properties. Size distribution and chemical composition were continuously monitored during the event, revealing a large increase in the aerosol fine mode, in coincidence with increases in ambient sulfate concentration, while the coarse mode remained almost unaltered. These results show that the plume carried mainly fine particles, with sizes between 0.1 and 0.7 μm in diameter, in contrast with studies of the plume that affected Central Europe in April, where particles with diameters larger than 20 μm were present in the ash layers. A possible explanation for this can be related to the

  4. Dielectric Properties of Dy2O3 -Doped ( Ba, Sr) TiO3 Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xinyou; Gao Chunhua; Chen Xiangchong; Zheng Xialian; Huang Guojun; Liu Huiping


    The effects of Dy2O3 doping on the dielectric properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 series capacitor ceramics prepared using solid-state reaction method were studied. With the increasing of Dy2O3 additive , the dielectric constant (ε) of materials increases to a maximum when w(Dy2O3 ) is about 0.5% ,while the dielectric loss(tanδ) decreases. The BST ceramics with highε ( = 5245 ), low tanδ ( = 0. 0026 ) and high DC breakdown voltage ( = 5.5 mV ·m-1 ) were obtained. The influencing mechanism of Dy2O3 on the dielectric properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 ceramics was studied, thus providing the basis for preparation of capacitor ceramics.

  5. Interfacial Ferromagnetism in LaNiO3/CaMnO3 Superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Alexander J.; Yang, Hao; Kirby, B. J.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Browning, Nigel D.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, Elke; Mehta, V. V.; Alaan, U. S.; Suzuki, Y.


    We observe interfacial ferromagnetism in superlattices of the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3 and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3. LaNiO3 exhibits a thickness dependent metal-insulator transition and we find the emergence of ferromagnetism to be coincident with the conducting state of LaNiO3. That is, only superlattices in which the LaNiO3 layers are metallic exhibit ferromagnetism. Using several magnetic probes, we have determined that the ferromagnetism arises in a single unit cell of CaMnO3 at the interface. Together these results suggest that ferromagnetism can be attributed to a double exchange interaction among Mn ions mediated by the adjacent itinerant metal.

  6. Interfacial ferromagnetism in LaNiO3/CaMnO3 superlattices. (United States)

    Grutter, A J; Yang, H; Kirby, B J; Fitzsimmons, M R; Aguiar, J A; Browning, N D; Jenkins, C A; Arenholz, E; Mehta, V V; Alaan, U S; Suzuki, Y


    We observe interfacial ferromagnetism in superlattices of the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3 and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3. LaNiO3 exhibits a thickness dependent metal-insulator transition and we find the emergence of ferromagnetism to be coincident with the conducting state of LaNiO3. That is, only superlattices in which the LaNiO3 layers are metallic exhibit ferromagnetism. Using several magnetic probes, we have determined that the ferromagnetism arises in a single unit cell of CaMnO3 at the interface. Together these results suggest that ferromagnetism can be attributed to a double exchange interaction among Mn ions mediated by the adjacent itinerant metal.

  7. Chemical stability of La2O3 in La2O3-Mo cathode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chemical stability of La2O3 in carbonized and uncarbonized La2O3-Mo cathodes was studied by in-situ XPS analysis. Experimental results show that chemical stability of La2O3 is not good enough. In vacuum and at high temperature, oxygen can be dissociated from the lattice of La2O3 in the uncarbonized La2O3-Mo cathode. Binding energy shifts of La?3d5/2 and La?3d3/2 core peaks, and obvious decrease of satellite peak intensity in La?3d doublet with increasing temperature show that metallic La appears at carbonized La2O3-Mo cathode surface at high temperature.

  8. Preparation of h-MoO3 and α-MoO3 nanocrystals: comparative study on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. (United States)

    Chithambararaj, A; Sanjini, N S; Velmathi, S; Bose, A Chandra


    A detailed study on visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) has been investigated in aqueous heterogeneous media containing hexagonal phase molybdenum oxide (h-MoO3) nanocrystals (NCs) which was identified as a new material for visible light driven photocatalysis. A simple and template-free solution based chemical precipitation method was employed to synthesize h-MoO3 NCs by reacting ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate (AHM) with nitric acid. The formation and growth mechanism of h-MoO3 microstructures was explained. In addition, by annealing the h-MoO3 sample, the phase stability of hexagonal was retained up to 410 °C and showed an irreversible phase transition from hexagonal (h-MoO3) to highly stable orthorhombic phase (α-MoO3). Finally, the photocatalytic activities of h-MoO3 and α-MoO3 samples were evaluated using the degradation of MB, representing an organic pollutant of dye wastewater. The effects of various experimental parameters such as catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, light intensity, and operating temperature were analyzed for the degradation of MB. The results demonstrated that the efficiency of visible light assisted MB degradation using h-MoO3 NCs can be effectively enhanced by catalyst loading, light intensity, and operating temperature. However, the efficiency declined with the increase in initial dye concentration. Optimum conditions for higher photocatalytic performance were recognized as a catalyst loading of 100 mg L(-1), a dye concentration of 12 mg L(-1), a light intensity of 350 mW cm(-2), and an operating temperature of 45 °C.

  9. Long-term trend of O3 in a mega City (Shanghai), China: Characteristics, causes, and interactions with precursors. (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Tie, Xuexi; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Rujin; Mao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Guangqiang; Chang, Luyu


    In recent years, ozone (O3) is often the major pollutant during summertime in China. In order to better understand this problem, a long-term measurement of ozone (from 2006 to 2015) and its precursors (NOx and VOCs) as well as the photochemical parameter (UV radiation) in a mega city of China (Shanghai) is analyzed. The focus of this study is to investigate the trend of O3 and the causes of the O3 trend in large cities in China. In order to understand the relationship between the O3 precursors and O3 formation, two distinguished different sites of measurements are selected in the study, including an urbanization site (XJH-Xujiahui) and a remote site (DT-Dongtan). At the XJH site, there are high local emissions of ozone precursors (such as VOCs and NOx), which is suitable to study the effect of O3 precursors on O3 formation. In contrast, at the DT site, where there are low local emissions, the measured result can be used to analyze the background conditions nearby the city of Shanghai. The analysis shows that there were long-term trends of O3 and NOx concentrations at the urban site (XJH) from 2006 to 2015 (O3 increasing 67% and NOx decreasing 38%), while there were very small trends of O3 and NOx concentrations at the background site (DT). The analysis for causing the O3 trend suggests that (1) the large O3 increase at the urban area (XJH) was not due to the regional transport of O3; (2) the measurement of solar radiation had not significant trend during the period, and was not the major cause for the long-term O3 trend; (3) the measurement of VOCs had small change during the same period, suggesting that the trend in NOx concentrations at the urban site (XJH) was a major factor for causing the long-term change of O3 at the urban area of Shanghai. As a result, the O3 and NOx concentrations from 2006 to 2015 at the urban area of Shanghai were strongly anti-correlated, suggesting that the extremely high NOx concentration in the urban area depressed the O3

  10. Coseismic Ground level Changes Associated with the Great Andaman-Sumatra Earthquake: A Tour from Nicobar to North Andaman (United States)

    Rajendran, K.; Rajendran, C.; Earnest, A.; Freymueller, J.


    The 26 December 2004 in the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone led to significant ground level changes, uplift as well as subsidence of land, along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Falling nearly 400 km north of the epicenter of the main shock, and extending northwards, the second phase of the rupture observed in these islands account for more about two thirds of the total rupture. Ground level changes were observed along both the eastern and western margins of the islands. The western margins were generally characterized by uplift of about 1m, while the eastern margins subsided by nearly 1 m, permanently submerging many parts of these islands. Elevated beaches, uplifted coral colonies and biological markers such as mangroves, lines of barnacles on rock exposures and man-made structures provide spectacular visual effects of ground uplift. Along the western margin of the Interview Island, in the middle Andamans, we observed at least two older terraces, probably formed by the predecessors of the 2004 earthquake. In the Diglipur region, north Andaman, we observed elevation change of about 1 m, and in this part of the arc, both the western and eastern margins are characterized by uplift. Coseismic vertical offset observed from GPS data suggest a change of +0.6m at Diglipur, a region that also marks the termination of rupture in the north. Field observations conform to nearly +1m change in this region. Maximum subsidence of nearly 1.5 m was documented in Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar, and a GPS site there shows a change in elevation of -1.05m. This paper gives a short tour of the sites of ground level changes from Car Nicobar in the south to Diglipur in the North Andaman.

  11. Vacancy induced metallicity at the CaHfO3/SrTiO3 interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar


    Density functional theory is used to study the electronic properties of the oxide heterointerfaceCaHfO3/SrTiO3. Structural relaxation is carried out with and without O vacancies. As compared to related interfaces, strongly reduced octahedral distortions are found. Stoichiometric interfaces between the wide band gap insulatorsCaHfO3 and SrTiO3 turn out to exhibit an insulating state. However, interface metallicity is introduced by O vacancies, in agreement with experiment. The reduced octahedral distortions and necessity of O deficiency indicate a less complicated mechanism for the creation of the interfacial electron gas.

  12. The 3-Hour-Interval Prediction of Ground-Level Temperature in South Korea Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keon-TaeSOHN; Deuk-KyunRHA; Young-KyungSEO


    The 3-hour-interval prediction of ground-level temperature from +00 h out to +45 h in South Korea(38 stations) is performed using the DLM (dynamic linear model) in order to eliminate the systematic error of numerical model forecasts. Numerical model forecasts and observations are used as input values of the DLM. According to the comparison of the DLM forecasts to the KFM (Kalman filter model) forecasts with RMSE and bias, the DLM is useful to improve the accuracy of prediction.

  13. Unraveling the sources of ground level ozone in the Intermountain Western United States using Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, John N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Weiss-Penzias, Peter [University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fine, Rebekka [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); McDade, Charles E.; Trzepla, Krystyna [University of California at Davis, Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, Davis, CA (United States); Brown, Shaun T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Ozone as an atmospheric pollutant is largely produced by anthropogenic precursors and can significantly impact human and ecosystem health, and climate. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed lowering the ozone standard from 75 ppbv (MDA8 = Maximum Daily 8-Hour Average) to between 65 and 70 ppbv. This will result in remote areas of the Intermountain West that includes many U.S. National Parks being out of compliance, despite a lack of significant local sources. We used Pb isotope fingerprinting and back-trajectory analysis to distinguish sources of imported ozone to Great Basin National Park in eastern Nevada. During discrete Chinese Pb events (> 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} & > 80% Asian Pb) trans-Pacific transported ozone was 5 ± 5.5 ppbv above 19 year averages for those dates. In contrast, concentrations during regional transport from the Los Angeles and Las Vegas areas were 15 ± 2 ppbv above the long-term averages, and those characterized by high-altitude transport 3 days prior to sampling were 19 ± 4 ppbv above. However, over the study period the contribution of trans-Pacific transported ozone increased at a rate of 0.8 ± 0.3 ppbv/year, suggesting that Asian inputs will exceed regional and high altitude sources by 2015–2020. All of these sources will impact regulatory compliance with a new ozone standard, given increasing global background. - Highlights: • Ozone can significantly impact human and ecosystem health and climate. • Pb isotopes and back-trajectory analysis were used to distinguish sources of O{sub 3}. • Baseline concentrations in the Western US are ~ 54 ppbv. • During discrete Asia events O{sub 3} increased by 5 ± 5.5 ppbv and during S CA events by 15 ± 2 ppbv. • Data indicate that Asian ozone inputs will exceed other sources by 2015–2020.

  14. Upconversion emission of BaTiO3:Er nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pushpal Ghosh; Suparna Sadhu; Tapasi Sen; Amitava Patra


    Here, we report the dopant concentration and pump-power dependence upconversion emission properties of erbium doped BaTiO3 nanocrystals derived from sol–emulsion–gel method. Green (550 nm) and red (670 nm) upconversion emissions were observed at room temperature from the ${}^{4}S_{3/2}$ and ${}^{4}F_{9/2}$ levels of Er3+ : BaTiO3 nanocrystals. It is found that at 850 mW of cw excitation power (at 980 nm) the total luminescence was 17130 Cd/m2 for 1000°C heated 0.25 mol% Er-doped BaTiO3 nanocrystals. It is worthwhile to mention that the unusual power-dependent upconversion luminescence (saturation) is observed at higher dopant concentration (2.5 mol%) and high pump power. Our analysis confirms that the depletion of the excited state is responsible for the relevant fluorescence upconversion. We have again confirmed that a twophoton excited state absorption process occurs for all samples.

  15. Wettability of silicon carbide ceramic by Al2O3/Dy2O3 and Al2O3/Yb2O3 systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.da Silva; B.M.Moreschi; G.C.R.Garcia; S.Ribeiro


    Wettability is an important phenomenon in the liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics.This work involved a study of the wetting of SiC ceramics by two oxide systems,Al2O3/Dy2O3 and Al2O3/Yb2O3,which have so far not been studied for application in the sintering of SiC ceramics.Five mixtures of each system were prepared,with different compositions close to their respective eutectic ones.Samples of the mixtures were pressed into cylindrical specimens,which were placed on a SiC plate and subjected to temperatures above their melting points using a graphite resistance furnace.The behavior of the melted mixtures on the SiC plate was observed by means of an imaging system using a CCD camera and the sessile drop method was employed to determine the contact angle,the parameter that measures the degree of wettability.The results of variation in the contact angle as a function of temperature were plotted in graphic form which showed that the curves displayed a fast decline and good spreading.All the samples of the two systems presented final contact angles of 40° to 10° indicating their good wetting on SiC in the argon atmosphere.The melted/solidified area and interface between SiC and melted/solidified phase were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (DRX).The DRX analysis showed that Al2O3 and RE2O3 reacted and formed the Dy3Al5O12 (DyAg) and Yb3Al5O12 (YbAg) phases.The results indicated that the two systems had a promising potential as additives for the sintering of SiC ceramics.

  16. Extrathoracic and intrathoracic removal of O3 in tidal-breathing humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrity, T.R.; Weaver, R.A.; Berntsen, J.; House, D.E.; O' Neil, J.J.


    We measured the efficiency of O3 removal from inspired air by the extrathoracic and intrathoracic airways in 18 healthy, nonsmoking, young male volunteers. Removal efficiencies were measured as a function of O3 concentration (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ppm), mode of breathing (nose only, mouth only, and oronasal), and respiration frequency (12 and 24 breaths/min). Subjects were placed in a controlled environmental chamber into which O3 was introduced. A small polyethylene tube was then inserted into the nose of each subject, with the tip positioned in the posterior pharynx. Samples of air were collected from the posterior pharynx through the tube and into a rapidly responding O3 analyzer yielding inspiratory and expiratory O3 concentrations in the posterior pharynx. The O3 removal efficiency of the extrathoracic airways was computed with the use of the inspiratory concentration and the chamber concentration, and intrathoracic removal efficiency was computed with the use of the inspiratory and expiratory concentrations. The mean extrathoracic removal efficiency for all measurements was 39.6 +/- 0.7% (SE), and the mean intrathoracic removal efficiency was 91.0 +/- 0.5%. Significantly less O3 was removed both extrathoracically and intrathoracically when subjects breathed at 24 breaths/min compared with 12 breaths/min (P less than 0.001). O3 concentration had no effect on extrathoracic removal efficiency, but there was a significantly greater intrathoracic removal efficiency at 0.4 ppm than at 0.1 ppm (P less than 0.05). Mode of breathing significantly affected extrathoracic removal efficiency, with less O3 removed during nasal breathing than during either mouth breathing or oronasal breathing (P less than 0.01).

  17. O(^3 p) Doped Helium Droplets (United States)

    Brice, Joseph T.; Douberly, Gary E.


    Atomic oxygen (^3 P) is generated via thermolysis in a commerical thermal gas cracker (Mantis Ltd. MGC-75). Complexes with HCN were investigated to qualitatively assess the doping efficiency of O(^3 P) into a helium droplet. Theoretical calculations of a linear O \\cdot\\cdot\\cdot HCN (^3 Σ) complex at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level are consistent with the rotational constants extracted from the rotational substructure in the experimental spectra, and with dipole moments approximated from Stark spectra. The thermal source will be used to study reactions between O(^3 P) and hydrocarbons in helium droplets, and preliminary data on this topic will be presented.

  18. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Do Kim, Keum; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong


    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization – voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization.


    Shen, Hangyan; Maekawa, Hideki; Fujimaki, Yutaka; Kawada, Koutaro; Yamamura, Tsutomu

    Mesoporous Al2O3 was synthesized by the sol-gel method and the pore size was controlled over the range of 3-15nm. Proton conductivity of these samples was examined, which was as high as 0.004 S·cm-1 at 25°C. A systematic dependence of conductivity upon pore size was observed, in which the conductivity increased with increasing the pore size. Meanwhile the conductivity increased with increasing the humidity. Two peaks were observed in 1H NMR spectra, assigned to a "mobile" and an "immobile" proton, respectively. It can be seen that the conductivity of mesoporous-Al2O3 increased with increasing the "mobile" proton concentration. From TG-DTA measurement, proton species were categorized into three groups. It is suggested the group II protons have close relation with the NMR observed "mobile" protons.

  20. Ho2O3 additive effects on BaTiO3 ceramics microstructure and dielectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Vesna


    Full Text Available Doped BaTiO3-ceramics is very interesting for their application as PTCR resistors, multilayer ceramic capacitors, thermal sensors etc. Ho doped BaTiO3 ceramics, with different Ho2O3 content, ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 wt% Ho, were investigated regarding their microstructural and dielectric characteristics. The samples were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction and sintered at 1320° and 1380°C in an air atmosphere for 4 hours. The grain size and microstructure characteristics for various samples and their phase composition was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with EDS system. SEM analysis of Ho/BaTiO3 doped ceramics showed that in samples doped with a rare-earth ions low level, the grain size ranged from 20-30μm, while with the higher dopant concentration the abnormal grain growth is inhibited and the grain size ranged between 2- 10μm. Dielectric measurements were carried out as a function of temperature up to 180°C. The low doped samples sintered at 1380°C, display the high value of dielectric permittivity at room temperature, 2400 for 0.01Ho/BaTiO3. A nearly flat permittivity-response was obtained in specimens with higher additive content. Using a Curie-Weiss low and modified Curie-Weiss low the Curie constant (C, Curie temperature (Tc and a critical exponent of nonlinearity (γ were calculated. The obtained value of γ pointed out that the specimens have almost sharp phase transition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  1. Synthesis of Co2+-doped Fe2O3 photocatalyst for degradation of pararosaniline dye (United States)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Solorza, Jorge Yanez; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.


    In this paper, x (=2, 5, 7 and 10mol%) Co2+-doped Fe2O3 (xCo:Fe2O3) nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity have been reported. xCo:Fe2O3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by co-precipitation followed thermal decomposition method. The structural, optical and morphological properties of the prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance (DR) UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained results revealed that Co2+ ions were well doped within the lattices of Fe2O3. Also, Co2+ ions suppress the formation of the most stable α- Fe2O3 and stabilize less stable γ-Fe2O3 at 450 °C. The photocatalytic activity of xCo:Fe2O3 was examined by using pararosaniline (PR) dye. It was found that photocatalytic degradation of PR depends on dopant concentration (Co2+ ions). Relatively, the highest photocatalytic activity was observed for 5%Co:Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The plausible photocatalytic degradation pathway of PR at xCo:Fe2O3 surface has also been proposed.

  2. Fe2O3/ Co3O4 composite nanoparticle ethanol sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzaei, Ali; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Lee, Sangmin; lee, Chongmu


    In this study Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal route. The X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that synthesized powders were pure, and nanocrystalline in nature. Moreover, Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Fe2O3 nanoparticles had spherical shapes while Co3O4 particles had a rod-like morphology. Ethanol sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were examined and compared with those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles. It was shown that the gas sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were superior to those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles and for all concentrations of ethanol, the response of the nanocomposite sensor was higher than the pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticle sensor. In detail, the response of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor to 200 ppm of ethanol at 300{\\deg}C was about 3 times higher than pristine one. Also in general, the response and recovery times of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor were shorter than those of the pristine one. The impr...

  3. Effect of copper and aluminium on the event rate of cosmic ray muons at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia (United States)

    Altameemi, Rasha N. I.; Gopir, G.


    In this study we determine the effect of aluminium (Al) and copper (Cu) shielding on the event rate of cosmic ray muons at ground level. The experiment was performed at Bangi in Malaysia with coordinates of 101.78° E, 2.92° N and elevation 30 m above sea level. Measurements were made along the vertical direction using muon telescopes (MTs) of parallel Geiger-Muller (GM) tubes with metal sheets above the MTs of up to 2.4 cm for Al and 2.7 cm for Cu. For these ranges of metal thicknesses, we find that the muon count rates increase linearly with the increase in metal thicknesses. The observed increase rate values are (0.18 ± 0.10) cm-1 and (0.26 ± 0.10)cm-1 for Al and Cu, respectively, with the larger value for Cu as expected from its higher atomic number and density. This indicates that for this thickness range, only the lower region of the Rossi curve is observed, with incoming cosmic ray muons producing charged particles in the metal layers, resulting in shower events or electromagnetic cascade. Thus, for this range of layer thickness, both aluminium and copper are not suitable to be used as shielding materials for ground level cosmic ray muons.

  4. Analysis of the ground level enhancement on 17 May 2012 using data from the global neutron monitor network (United States)

    Mishev, A. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Usoskin, I. G.


    We have analyzed the data of the world neutron monitor network for the first ground level enhancement of solar cycle 24, the ground level enhancement (GLE) on 17 May 2012. A newly computed neutron monitor yield function and an inverse method are applied to estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction, and pitch angle distribution of the high-energy solar particles in interplanetary space. The method includes the determination of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations through computations of trajectories of cosmic rays in a model magnetosphere. The cosmic ray particle trajectories are determined with the GEANT-based MAGNETOCOSMICS code using Tsyganenko 1989 and International Geomagnetic Reference Field models. Subsequent calculation of the neutron monitor responses with the model function is carried out, that represents an initial guess of the inverse problem. Derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics is fulfilled by fitting the data of the global neutron monitor network using the Levenberg-Marquardt method over the nine-dimensional parameter space. The pitch angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of the GLE. The angular distribution appears quite complicated. It comprises a focused beam along the interplanetary magnetic field line from the Sun and a loss-cone feature around the opposite direction, possibly indicative of the particle transport in interplanetary magnetic field structures associated with previous coronal mass ejections.

  5. Ground-level climate at a peatland wind farm in Scotland is affected by wind turbine operation (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Burton, Ralph R.; Lee, Susan E.; Mobbs, Stephen; Ostle, Nicholas; Smith, Victoria; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette


    The global drive to produce low-carbon energy has resulted in an unprecedented deployment of onshore wind turbines, representing a significant land use change for wind energy generation with uncertain consequences for local climatic conditions and the regulation of ecosystem processes. Here, we present high-resolution data from a wind farm collected during operational and idle periods that shows the wind farm affected several measures of ground-level climate. Specifically, we discovered that operational wind turbines raised air temperature by 0.18 °C and absolute humidity (AH) by 0.03 g m-3 during the night, and increased the variability in air, surface and soil temperature throughout the diurnal cycle. Further, the microclimatic influence of turbines on air temperature and AH decreased logarithmically with distance from the nearest turbine. These effects on ground-level microclimate, including soil temperature, have uncertain implications for biogeochemical processes and ecosystem carbon cycling, including soil carbon stocks. Consequently, understanding needs to be improved to determine the overall carbon balance of wind energy.

  6. Synthesis of Gd2O3:Eu nanoplatelets for MRI and fluorescence imaging (United States)

    Maalej, Nabil M.; Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq; Assadi, Achraf Amir; Maalej, Ramzi; Shaikh, Mohammed Nasiruzzaman; Ilyas, Muhammad; Gondal, Mohammad A.


    We synthesized Gd2O3 and Gd2O3 doped by europium (Eu) (2% to 10%) nanoplatelets using the polyol chemical method. The synthesized nanoplatelets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FESEM, TEM, and EDX techniques. The optical properties of the synthesized nanoplatelets were investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy. We also studied the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of T1 relaxivity using 3 T MRI. The XRD for Gd2O3 revealed a cubic crystalline structure. The XRD of Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanoplatelets were highly consistent with Gd2O3 indicating the total incorporation of the Eu3+ ions in the Gd2O3 matrix. The Eu doping of Gd2O3 produced red luminescence around 612 nm corresponding to the radiative transitions from the Eu-excited state 5D0 to the 7F2. The photoluminescence was maximal at 5% Eu doping concentration. The stimulated CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated. Judd-Ofelt analysis was used to obtain the radiative properties of the sample from the emission spectra. The MRI contrast enhancement due to Gd2O3 was compared to DOTAREM commercial contrast agent at similar concentration of gadolinium oxide and provided similar contrast enhancement. The incorporation of Eu, however, decreased the MRI contrast due to replacement of gadolinium by Eu.

  7. Synthesis of Gd2O3:Eu nanoplatelets for MRI and fluorescence imaging. (United States)

    Maalej, Nabil M; Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq; Assadi, Achraf Amir; Maalej, Ramzi; Shaikh, Mohammed Nasiruzzaman; Ilyas, Muhammad; Gondal, Mohammad A


    We synthesized Gd2O3 and Gd2O3 doped by europium (Eu) (2% to 10%) nanoplatelets using the polyol chemical method. The synthesized nanoplatelets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FESEM, TEM, and EDX techniques. The optical properties of the synthesized nanoplatelets were investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy. We also studied the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of T1 relaxivity using 3 T MRI. The XRD for Gd2O3 revealed a cubic crystalline structure. The XRD of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanoplatelets were highly consistent with Gd2O3 indicating the total incorporation of the Eu(3+) ions in the Gd2O3 matrix. The Eu doping of Gd2O3 produced red luminescence around 612 nm corresponding to the radiative transitions from the Eu-excited state (5)D0 to the (7)F2. The photoluminescence was maximal at 5% Eu doping concentration. The stimulated CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated. Judd-Ofelt analysis was used to obtain the radiative properties of the sample from the emission spectra. The MRI contrast enhancement due to Gd2O3 was compared to DOTAREM commercial contrast agent at similar concentration of gadolinium oxide and provided similar contrast enhancement. The incorporation of Eu, however, decreased the MRI contrast due to replacement of gadolinium by Eu.

  8. Resistance switching at the interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Zhao, J.L.; Sun, J.R.


    At the interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 with film thickness of 3 unit cells or greater, a reproducible electric-field-induced bipolar resistance switching of the interfacial conduction is observed on nanometer scale by a biased conducting atomic force microscopy under vacuum environment. The switching...

  9. Growing LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces by sputter deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dildar, I.M.; Neklyudova, M.; Xu, Q.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Harkema, S.; Boltje, D.; Aarts, J.


    Sputter deposition of oxide materials in a high-pressure oxygen atmosphere is a well-known technique to produce thin films of perovskite oxides in particular. Also interfaces can be fabricated, which we demonstrated recently by growing LaAlO3 on SrTiO3 substrates and showing that the interface showe

  10. Upper limit to magnetism in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Hengartner, N.W.; Singh, S.; Zhernenkov, M.; Bruno, F.Y.; Santamaria, J.; Brinkman, Alexander; Huijben, Mark; Molegraaf, Hajo; de la Venta, J.; Schuller, Ivan K.


    Using polarized neutron reflectometry we measured the neutron spin-dependent reflectivity from four LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. Our results imply that the upper limit for the magnetization averaged over the lateral dimensions of the sample induced by an 11 T magnetic field at 1.7 K is less than 2 G

  11. Tailoring the structure and piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3-(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-PbTiO3 ceramics for high temperature applications (United States)

    Bennett, J.; Bell, A. J.; Stevenson, T. J.; Comyn, T. P.


    There is a growing requirement for piezoelectric materials and systems which can operate in extreme environments, for example, oil & gas, and aerospace. Here, we present the high temperature BiFeO3-K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-PbTiO3 (BF-KBT-PT) polycrystalline perovskite system. X-ray diffraction, impedance analysis, and Berlincourt measurements reveal a large region of phase coexistence, which can be tailored to optimise performance; Tc and the tetragonal spontaneous strain correlate strongly with the PbTiO3 concentration. The highest temperature composition has a d33 of 140 pmV-1 with a Tc = 542 °C, occupying previously unchartered territory on the classical d33-TC plot.

  12. Oxidation Resistance of Fe-13Cr Alloy with Micro-Laminated (ZrO2-Y2O3)/(Al2O3-Y2O3) Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Mingming; He Yedong; Wang Deren; Gao Wei


    The micro-laminated (ZrO2-Y2O3)/(Al2O3-Y2O3) composite films were prepared on the surface of Fe-13Cr alloy by an electrochemical process and a sintering process alternately. High-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to characterize the laminated films, indicating that the micro-laminated (ZrO2-Y2O3)/(Al2O3-Y2O3) films have nano-structures. SEM, EDS and mass gain measurement were adopted to study the oxidation resistance of films on Fe-13Cr alloy. It is proved that such micro-laminated films are more effective than ZrO2-Y2O3 or Al2O3-Y2O3 films to resist the oxidation of the alloy, and the oxidation resistance is increased with increasing layers in micro-laminated films. These beneficial effects can be contributed to the mechanism, by which such micro-laminated (ZrO2-Y2O3)/(Al2O3-Y2O3) composite film combines all the beneficial effects and overcomes all the disadvantages of both ZrO2-Y2O3 film and Al2O3-Y2O3 film during oxidation of alloy.

  13. Thermodynamic Assessment of the Y2o3-yb2o3-zro2 System (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan


    Yttria-zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2) is the most widely used of the rare earth oxide-zirconia systems. There are numerous experimental studies of the phase boundaries in this system. In this paper, we assess these data and derive parameters for the solution models in this system. There is current interest in other rare earth oxide-zirconia systems as well as systems with several rare earth oxides and zirconia, which may offer improved properties over the Y2O3-ZrO2 system. For this reason, we also assess the ytterbia-zirconia (Yb2O3-ZrO2) and Y2O3-Yb2O3-ZrO2 system.

  14. Assessment of Ga2O3 technology (United States)


    architecture [60]. ....................................................................... 10 Figure 5: Photograph of 4-inch diameter Ga2O3 wafer...breakdown voltages can provide orders of magnitude reduction in system size, cost and weight. Figure 4: A More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) architecture [60...Technology base is narrowly located in Japan . Mainstream technology. Czochralski • Mature technology base. • Crucible-free crystal growth

  15. The first-principles study of ferroelectric behaviours of PbTiO3/SrTiO3 and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhen-Ye; Wang Biao; Wang Hai; Zheng Yue; Li Qing-Kun


    We have performed the first-principles calculation to investigate the origins of ferroelectricities and different polarization behaviours of superlattices BaTiO3/SrTiO3 and PbTiO3/SrTiO3- The density of state (DOS) and electronic charge profiles show that there are strong hybridizations between atoms Ti and O and between atoms Pb and O which play very important roles in producing the ferroelectricities of superlattices BaTiO3/rTiO3 and PbTiO3/SrTiO3. Owing to the decline of internal electric field in SrTiO3 (ST) layer, the tetragonality and polarizations of superlattices decrease with increasing the fraction of SrTiO3 in the superlattices. We find that the polarization of PbTiO3/SrTiO3 is largerthan that of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 at the same ratio of components, because the polarization mismatch between PbTiO3 and SrTiO3 is larger than that between BaTiO3 and SrTiO3. The polarization and tetragonality are enhanced with respect to those of bulk tetragonal BaTiO3 in the superlattices BaTiO3/SrTiO3, while the polarization and tetragonality are reduced with respect to those of bulk tetragonal PbTiO3 in superlattices PbTiO3/SrTiO3.

  16. Dielectric response of polystyrene - BaTiO3 nanocomposites (United States)

    Korotkova, Tatyana N.; Sysoev, Oleg I.; Belov, Pavel A.; Emelianov, Nikita A.; Velyaev, Yury O.; Mandalawi, Wissam M. Al; Korotkov, Leonid N.


    The series of composite materials based on polystyrene and non-ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles ((1-x)PS-xBT, where the volume concentration x = 0-1.0) was prepared. Their dielectric properties were studied within the temperature range 20-160 °C at the frequency of 100 kHz. It is found that an increase in the barium titanate concentration leads to increase of the both dielectric permittivity (ɛ) and dielectric losses (tgδ). The concentration dependence of ɛ can be described by the modified Kerner model. It was found that the glass transition in polystyrene matrix is diffused and its temperature is increased with concentration x.

  17. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.


    Ozone can have a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and the environment. To quantify these impacts, tropospheric chemistry models are often employed, which are continually increasing in complexity and resolution. In order to validate these sophisticated models and provide good quality parameterisation and initialisation data, complementary measurements are often made. However, these measurements can often be difficult to perform, expensive and time consuming to make. A low cost sensor network can overcome some of these limitations, by making spatially dense measurements for a fraction of the cost of traditional measurements. Since the mid-1980s, when reliable observations from the fixed monitoring network began, high ozone concentrations have been a health concern in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), BC, Canada and numerous studies have been carried out in the LFV previously [1-4]. In the summer of 2012 we embarked on a programme to advance these studies by deploying the world's first ultra-dense fully automated ozone measurement network. The network consisted of approximately 60 high quality tungsten oxide semi-conductor ozone sensors integrated with low-cost cellular telephone modems and GPS receivers, returning data to a webserver in real-time at 1 minute temporal resolution. This ultra-dense network of sensors has enabled us to perform a detailed study of ozone formation and dispersal in the LFV and associated tributary valleys. Peak ozone production areas have been mapped out, particularly in the surrounding region where ozone is not routinely monitored. This has provided a detailed understanding of small scale variability and ozone transport phenomena, with particular emphasis placed on the previously unknown role of tributary valleys to the south of the LFV, Howe Sound, and Hope. Data quality was routinely checked by co-locating sensors with the local authority, MetroVancouver, reference ozone analysers. A statistical method to check data

  18. Influence of CaZrO3 on dielectric properties and microstructures of BaTiO3-based X8R ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influences of CaZrO3 on the dielectric properties and microstructures of BaTiO3 (BT)-based ceramics have been investigated. The experiment results showed that the dielectric constant at room temperature increased with the addition of CaZrO3 in the range of 0―3.0 mol%, which could be explained by the growth of BT grains. XRD analysis revealed that the tetragonality declined as CaZrO3 concentration in-creased. XRD patterns of BT ceramics with different amounts of CaZrO3 doping were analyzed by a recently developed procedure-materials analysis using diffrac-tion (MAUD), which was based on the Rietveld method combined with Fourier analysis. The results depicted that the high temperature peak of tempera-ture-capacitance characteristics (TCC) was largely dependent on the micro-strain of samples. Furthermore, more CaZrO3 doping resulted in lower porosity and higher density. It was revealed that proper usage of CaZrO3 could improve the di-electric properties significantly, which was benefit to develop X8R multi-layer ce-ramic capacitors.

  19. Influence of CaZrO3 on dielectric properties and microstructures of BaTiO3-based X8R ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Bin; ZHANG ShuRen; YUAN Ying; ZHOU XiaoHua; LIANG YiShuai


    The influences of CaZrO3 on the dielectric properties and microstructures of BaTiO3 (BT)-based ceramics have been investigated. The experiment results showed that the dielectric constant at room temperature increased with the addition of CaZrO3 in the range of 0-3.0 mol%, which could be explained by the growth of BT grains. XRD analysis revealed that the tetragonality declined as CaZrO3 concentration in- creased. XRD patterns of BT ceramics with different amounts of CaZrO3 doping were analyzed by a recently developed procedure-materials analysis using diffrac- tion (MAUD), which was based on the Rietveld method combined with Fourier analysis. The results depicted that the high temperature peak of tempera- ture-capacitance characteristics (TCC) was largely dependent on the micro-strain of samples. Furthermore, more CaZrO3 doping resulted in lower porosity and higher density. It was revealed that proper usage of CaZrO3 could improve the di- electric properties significantly, which was benefit to develop X8R multi-layer ce- ramic capacitors.

  20. 超声波辅助浸渍法制备Fe2 O3/γ-Al2 O3吸附剂脱除气相As2 O3的实验研究%Experimental study on As2 O3 capture from gas phase using ultrasound-assisted prepared Fe2 O3/γ-Al2 O3 sorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月; 李文瀚; 王春波; 刘慧敏; 张永生; 潘伟平


    使用超声波辅助浸渍法制备Fe2 O3/γ-Al2 O3吸附材料,在固定床反应器上研究了前驱液浸渍浓度、载体粒径、吸附温度、吸附气氛等因素对脱除气相As2 O3的影响。结果表明,前驱液浸渍浓度、载体粒径等会对吸附剂表面结构产生影响从而影响其砷吸附性能;吸附温度升高增强了其化学吸附能力,然而,温度过高反而造成吸附性能的下降;吸附气氛中的SO2促进了Fe2 O3/γ-Al2 O3对气相砷的吸附,气氛中的NO对气相砷的影响不大。%Ultrasound-assisted wet impregnation method was used to prepare the Fe2 O3/γ-Al2 O3 sorbent. The effects of the precursor solution content, carrier size, adsorption temperature and atmosphere on the arsenic capture efficiency in a fixed-bed reactor were investigated. The results show that the precursor solution concentration and the size of carrier can affect the arsenic adsorption efficiency. The increasing of adsorption temperature enhances the chemical adsorption ability. However, the efficiency will be decreased if the temperature is over 600℃. The addition of SO2 in the atmosphere will enhance the arsenic adsorption ability of Fe2 O3/γ-Al2 O3 . The influence of NO on the capture efficiency is not significant during this study.

  1. Mixed Conduction in Tb2O3 Doped BaCeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Li-Gana; MA Gui-Lin


    BaxCe0.8Tb0.2O3-α (x=0.98-1.03) solid electrolytes were synthesized and characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). By using AC impedance spectroscopy and gas concentration cell electromotive force (EMF) measurements, the electrical conduction behavior of the specimens was investigated in different gases during 500-1000 ℃.The influence of nonstoichiometry in the specimens with x≠ 1 on conduction properties was studied and comparedwith that in the specimen with x= 1. The results show that the specimens are all of perovskite-type orthorhombic structure. In 500-1000 ℃, electronic hole conduction is dominant in dry and wet oxygen, air or nitrogen. Protonic conduction is dominant in wet hydrogen and it is about two orders of magnitude higher than that in hydrogen-free atmospheres (oxygen, air and nitrogen). The electrical conductivity of the same specimen in water apor-saturated oxygen, air or nitrogen is slightly higher than that in corresponding gas without water vapor. The electrical conductivities of the nonstoichiometric specimens are higher than those of the stoichiometric one.

  2. Electrodeposition of Ni-Co-Fe2O3 composite coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li; ZHOU Ke-chao; LI Zhi-you; WEI Qiu-ping


    Ni-Co-Fe2O3 composite coatings were electrodeposited using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB)-modified Watt's nickel bath with Fe2O3 particles dispersed in it.The effects of the plating parameters on the chemical composition,structural and morphological characteristics of the electrodeposited Ni-Co-Fe2O3 composite coatings were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray(EDS)spectroscopy,X-ray diffractometry(XRD)and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).The results reveal that Fe2O3 particles can be codeposited in the Ni-Co matrix.The codeposition of Fe2O3 particles with Ni-Co is favoured at high Fe2O3 particle concentration and medium stirring,and the deposition of Co is favoured at high concentration of CTAB.Moreover,the study of the textural perfection of the deposits reveals that the presence of particles leads to the worsening of the quality of the observed preferred orientation.Composites with high concentration of embedded particles exhibit a preferred crystal orientation of .The more the embedded Fe2O3 particles in the metallic matrix,the smaller the sizes of the crystallite for the composite deposits.

  3. Kinetics of Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Over CaTiO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Chong; YANG He; XUE Xiangxin


    Kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) over CaTiO3 was studied. Effects of the solution pH, the MB concentration, the CaTiO3 dosage, and the type of light source on photocatalytic degradation rate of MB over CaTiO3 were investigated in detail. The results show that photocatalytic degradation of MB over CaTiO3 followed the first-order reaction. The apparent rate constant (kobs) of MB signiifcantly increased with increasing solution pH while it greatly decreased with increasing MB concentration. Thekobs of MB increased with increasing CaTiO3 dosage from 0.05 to 0.1 g, whereas it slightly decreased with increasing CaTiO3 dosage in the range of 0.1-0.4 g. Thekobs of MB under UV-visible light irradiation was larger by factors of 2.2 than that under visible light irradiation. Thekobs of MB was (4.8±0.3)×10-1 h-1 under optimal conditions with the solution pH of 11, the MB concentration of 1 ppm, the CaTiO3 dosage of 0.1 g, and UV-visible light irradiation.

  4. Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of CeO2, Er2O3, Nd2O3, Tm2O3, Yb2O3, La2O3, and Tb4O7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlan Cui


    Full Text Available To better understand and ascertain the mechanisms of flotation reagent interaction with rare earth (RE minerals, it is necessary to determine the physical and chemical properties of the constituent components. Seven rare earth oxides (CeO2, Er2O3, Nd2O3, Tm2O3, Yb2O3, La2O3, and Tb4O7 that cover the rare earth elements (REEs from light to heavy REEs have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Multiple laser sources (wavelengths of 325 nm, 442 nm, 514 nm, and 632.8 nm for the Raman shift ranges from 100 cm−1 to 5000 cm−1 of these excitations were used for each individual rare earth oxide. Raman shifts and fluorescence emission have been identified. Theoretical energy levels for Er, Nd, and Yb were used for the interpretation of fluorescence emission. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical calculation for Er2O3 and Nd2O3. Additional fluorescence emission was observed with Yb2O3 that did not fit the reported energy level diagram. Tb4O7 was observed undergoing laser induced changes during examination.

  5. Synthesis and Downconversion Emission Property of Yb2O3:Eu3+ Nanosheets and Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Qian


    Full Text Available Ytterbium oxide (Yb2O3 nanocrystals with different Eu3+ (1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% doped concentrations were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, subsequently by calcination at 700°C. The crystal phase, size, and morphology of prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that the as-prepared Yb2O3 nanocrystals with sheet- and tube-like shape have cubic phase structure. The Eu3+ doped Yb2O3 nanocrystals were revealed to have good down conversion (DC property and intensity of the DC luminescence can be modified by Eu3+ contents. In our experiment the 1% Eu3+ doped Yb2O3 nanocrystals showed the strongest DC luminescence among the obtained Yb2O3 nanocrystals.

  6. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of iodine-doped NaTaO3 nanoparticles. (United States)

    Han, Peilin; Su, Yiguo; Meng, Yue; Wang, Shuwei; Jia, Qingyue; Wang, Xiaojing


    Iodine-doped NaTaO3 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal conditions and explored as the visible-light-driven photocatalysts for photodegradation of methylene blue in water. It is found that I-doped NaTaO3 showed photodegradation efficiency superior over the un-doped NaTaO3. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate that the absorption edges shifted towards longer wavelength with increasing the iodine concentration. The energy band structure and the transient behavior of the photogenerated charge carriers for both un-doped and doped NaTaO3 powders were investigated using density functional theory. The improved photocatalytic activity under visible light for I-doped NaTaO3 may be caused by both the broadening of valence band that inhibited the recombination of e-h+ pairs and the narrowing of energy band gap due to the much negative energy levels in the bottom of conduction bands.

  7. Good Quality Factor in GdMnO3-Doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics (United States)

    Bucur, Raul Alin; Badea, Iuliana; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Novaconi, Stefan


    (1 - x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 - xGdMnO3 (KNN- xGM) ferroelectric ceramics (0 ≤ x ≤ 5 mol.%) were obtained through a solid state technique. For all the studied compositions, orthorhombic perovskite crystalline structures were obtained at room temperature. GdMnO3 suppresses the grain growth and gives rather homogenous microstructures as the concentration increases. The doped ceramics exhibita good dielectric response, a "hard" ferroelectric behavior and good piezoelectric properties. An improved mechanical quality factor of 1180 and a high Curie temperature T C = 400°C, coupled with k p = 0.426, makes the composition x = 1 mol.% GdMnO3 suitable for lead-free piezoelectric materials for high-power and high-temperature applications.

  8. Effect of La2O3 on Methanation of CO and CO2 over Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 methanation catalysts containing La2O3 were prepared by impregnation. The activities of catalysts for CO and CO2 methanation were investigated. The surface properties of the catalysts were studied by TEM, XPS and chemisorption of CO. The experimental results show that the addition of La2O3 increases the activities for the methanation of CO and CO2, the dispersity of nickel on catalysts, the active nickel surface area and the concentration of nickel atoms on the surface of Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalysts. At the same time, it also decreases the binding energy of Ni2P3/2 in catalysts.

  9. Chemistry of the Fe2O3/BiFeO3 Interface in BiFeO3 Thin Film Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valanoor Nagarajan


    Full Text Available We investigate the interfacial chemistry of secondary Fe2O3 phases formed in a BiFeO3 (BFO layer in BFO/ La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO/SrTiO3 (STO heterostructures. A combination of high-resolution spherical aberration corrected scanning TEM and spectroscopy results, reveals that specific chemical and crystallographic similarities between Fe2O3 and BFO, enable the BFO layer to form a facile host for Fe2O3.

  10. Research on Y2O3:Eu Phosphor Coated with In2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Y2O3:Eu red phosphor for FED application was prepared by high temperature solid-state reaction. The In2O3 coating by precipitation method to the phosphor was applied and the analyses of XRD, Zeta potential, SEM, EDS and low voltage cathodoluminescence (CL) were conducted for investigating the coating effect. The results showed that In2O3 coating promoted the low voltage CL of the phosphor efficiently. The promotion was possibly due to the enhancement of the surface conductivity of the phosphor grains.

  11. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.


    This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...... actual monitoring. In a response to the acute characteristics of air pollution, the basic principle is that up-to-date and accurate information about air pollution levels will help 1) citizens to protect their health, 2) policy makers in assessing the state of the environment, and 3) researchers...... in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air...

  12. Study of the Forbush Decreases, Geomagnetic Storms, and Ground-Level Enhancements in Selected Intervals and Their Space Weather Implications (United States)

    Badruddin; Kumar, Anand


    We analysed geomagnetic storms, ground-level enhancements (GLEs), and Forbush decreases in cosmic-ray intensity that occurred in selected intervals. We used data of ground-based neutron monitors for the cosmic-ray intensity. We used the geomagnetic index Dst as a measure of the geomagnetic storm intensity. Solar observations and interplanetary plasma/field parameters were used to identify the solar cause(s), interplanetary structure(s), and physical mechanism(s) responsible for the geomagnetic storms, the Forbush decreases, and the GLEs of different amplitudes and time profiles; all of them occurring within four selected periods of one month each. The observed differences in cosmic-ray and geomagnetic-activity responses to the same solar sources were used to distinguish the structures and mechanisms responsible for transient cosmic-ray modulation and geomagnetic storms.

  13. Preliminary Results on Simulations of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) detected by The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) (United States)

    Enriquez Rivera, O.; Lara, A.


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently under construction at the Sierra Negra Volcano, Puebla in Mexico. Located 4100 m above sea level, this large array is mainly designed to observe high energy gamma rays (TeV). However, by recording scaler data that correspond to the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes, the detection and study of solar energetic particles (known as Ground Level Enhancements) as well as the decrease of the cosmic ray flux due to solar transients (known as Forbush decreases) will also be possible. In order to determine the response of the array to solar transients, we have performed simulations of the scaler output using different sub-array configurations. We present here our preliminary results of such simulations and their comparison with observed Forbush decreases.

  14. Photochemical grid model implementation of VOC, NOx, and O3 source apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. F. Kwok


    Full Text Available For the purposes of developing optimal emissions control strategies, efficient approaches are needed to identify the major sources or groups of sources that contribute to elevated ozone (O3 concentrations. Source based apportionment techniques implemented in photochemical grid models track sources through the physical and chemical processes important to the formation and transport of air pollutants. Photochemical model source apportionment has been used to estimate impacts of specific sources, groups of sources (sectors, sources in specific geographic areas, and stratospheric and lateral boundary inflow on O3. The implementation and application of a source apportionment technique for O3 and its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC, for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model are described here. The Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM O3 approach is a hybrid of source apportionment and source sensitivity in that O3 production is attributed to precursor sources based on O3 formation regime (e.g., for a NOx-sensitive regime, O3 is apportioned to participating NOx emissions. This implementation is illustrated by tracking multiple emissions source sectors and lateral boundary inflow. NOx, VOC, and O3 attribution to tracked sectors in the application are consistent with spatial and temporal patterns of precursor emissions. The O3 ISAM implementation is further evaluated through comparisons of apportioned ambient concentrations and deposition amounts with those derived from brute force zero-out scenarios, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.58 and 0.99 depending on specific combination of target species and tracked precursor emissions. Low correlation coefficients occur for chemical regimes that have strong non-linearity in O3 sensitivity, which demonstrates different functionalities between source apportionment and zero-out approaches, depending on whether sources of interest are either to

  15. A comparison of the structural changes and optical properties of LiNbO3, Al2O3 and ZnO after Er+ ion implantation (United States)

    Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Pupikova, H.; Nekvindova, P.; Cajzl, J.; Svecova, B.; Oswald, J.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Kolitsch, A.


    This paper reports on the structural as well as compositional changes of LiNbO3, Al2O3 and ZnO crystals, implanted with Er+ ions at 190 keV a with fluence of 1.0 × 1016 cm-2 into the crystallographic cuts. Post-implantation annealing at 1000 °C in oxygen atmosphere was also done. The chemical compositions and erbium concentration-depth profiles of implanted layers were studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and compared to SRIM simulations. The same value of the maximum erbium concentration (up to 2 at.%) was observed at a depth of about 40 nm for all crystals. The structural properties of the prepared layers were characterised by RBS/channelling. The relative numbers of disordered atoms in the prepared implanted layers were compared with each other and discussed for various crystals. It has been found that erbium is located in LiNbO3 and in Al2O3 preferably in interstitial positions, unlike ZnO, where the largest amount of erbium (about 83%) is placed in substitutional positions after the implantation. The erbium position in the host matrix was substantially influenced by the annealing procedure. In ZnO, after the annealing, the erbium amount in substitutional positions significantly decreased; in LiNbO3 and Al2O3 the increase of erbium in substitutional positions was observed simultaneously with the improvement of the quality of the reconstructed host matrix. Since we are interested in the relationship between structural changes and optical properties, the erbium luminescence properties were measured in the region of wavelength 1440-1650 nm for all crystals. After ion implantation LiNbO3 samples had zero luminescence intensity, while ZnO and Al2O3 samples had one significant luminescence band at 1537 and 1530 nm, respectively. The annealing improved the luminescent properties significantly in all investigated crystalline materials.

  16. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: A case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberson, Lisa D. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Bueker, Patrick [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Ashmore, Mike R. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)


    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO{sub 3}SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O{sub 3} risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O{sub 3} risk. - A new flux-based model provides a revised assessment of risks of ozone impacts to European forests.

  17. Research on Glass Forming Ability of Er2O3 -Al2O3 -B2O3 -SiO2 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qitu; Fu Zhenxiao; Ni Yaru; Lu Chunhua; Xu Zhongzi


    The glass forming range of Er2O3-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 system was explored, and the effect of the content of Al2 O3 and Er2 O3 on glass-forming region was experimentally examined. It is shown that the region of glass formation range expends when the content of Al2O3 is changed from 15% to 20%, while it shrinks when the content of Er2O3 is changed from 20% to 30%. At the same time, the glass forming ability of Er2O3-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 system was also discussed using a value of β, which is an indication of crystallization tendency of glasses, calculated from thermo-analysis data. It is found that the glass forming ability of Er2O3-Al2O3-B2O3- SiO2 glasses is poor, while the glasses network may be enhanced when Al2O3 is added to the system, the glass forming ability being heightened. In addition, the crystallization temperatures of the rare earth glasses were determined using differential thermal analysis technique. The Er2O3-Al2O;-B2O3-SiO2 glass samples were heat treated at 1000,1100 and 1260℃ respectively. The results show that it is the Er2O3 phase that separates out from the glasses after crystaline heat treatment, and it is tiered up in glasses, as detected through XRD and SEM. This indicates that the phase separation occurs when the glasses are heated, Er3+ being mainly distributed in the boron rich phase, then separated out from glasses, while the silicate rich phase remaining glassy state.

  18. Transport properties of a quasi-two-dimensional electron system formed in LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures (United States)

    De Luca, G. M.; Di Capua, R.; Di Gennaro, E.; Granozio, F. Miletto; Stornaiuolo, D.; Salluzzo, M.; Gadaleta, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Marrè, D.; Piamonteze, C.; Radovic, M.; Ristic, Z.; Rusponi, S.


    We study the structural, magnetic, and transport properties of LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures grown by pulsed laser deposition. The samples are characterized in situ by electron diffraction and scanning probe microscopy and ex situ by transport measurements and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 films show a ferromagnetic transition at T ≤7.5 K, related to the ordering of Eu2+ spins, even in samples characterized by just two EuTiO3 unit cells. A finite metallic conductivity is observed only in the case of samples composed by one or two EuTiO3 unit cells and, simultaneously, by a LaAlO3 thickness greater than or equal to four unit cells. The effect of ferromagnetic EuTiO3 on the transport properties of δ-doped LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 is critically discussed.

  19. O(3)-invariant tunneling in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.A.; Tkachev, I.I.; Kuzmin, V.A.


    We derived a general formula for the action for any O(3)-invariant tunneling processes in false vacuum decay in general relativity. The general classification of the bubble euclidean trajectories is elaborated and explicit expressions for bounces for some processes like the vacuum creation of a double bubble in particular in the vicinity of a black hole, the subbarrier creation of the Einstein-Rosen bridge, creation from nothing of two Minkowski worlds connected by a shell, etc., are given.

  20. Porous Cube-like In2O3 Nanoparticles and Their Sensing Characteristics toward Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih-Chia HUANG; Chen-Sheng YEH


    Porous cube-like crystalline In2O3 nanoparticles with an average diagonal length of 34.8 nm were fabricated by a laser ablation-reflux process to form In(OH)3, followed by a calcination treatment to yield porous In2O3. HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis were used to characterize their crystalline structures, grain sizes, surface areas, and surface compositions. The as-prepared porous indium oxides were tested for their sensing properties toward ethanol. Non-porous In2O3 nanopowder (about 40 nm) was also examined in order to compare the results with the as-prepared porous In2O3 nanomaterials. The porous In2O3 exhibited much better performance than that of non-porosus In2O3, and showed enhanced sensitivity with a lower detection limit than other reported In2O3-based materials when exposed to ethanol. Good gas sensitivity and linear behavior as a function of ethanol concentration were observed in the porous In2O3 nanoparticles.

  1. Schottky contacts to In2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Wenckstern


    Full Text Available n-type binary compound semiconductors such as InN, InAs, or In2O3 are especial because the branch-point energy or charge neutrality level lies within the conduction band. Their tendency to form a surface electron accumulation layer prevents the formation of rectifying Schottky contacts. Utilizing a reactive sputtering process in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, we demonstrate Schottky barrier diodes on indium oxide thin films with rectifying properties being sufficient for space charge layer spectroscopy. Conventional non-reactive sputtering resulted in ohmic contacts. We compare the rectification of Pt, Pd, and Au Schottky contacts on In2O3 and discuss temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of Pt/In2O3 in detail. The results substantiate the picture of oxygen vacancies being the source of electrons accumulating at the surface, however, the position of the charge neutrality level and/or the prediction of Schottky barrier heights from it are questioned.

  2. Influence of Eu(3+) doping content on antioxidant properties of Lu2O3 sol-gel derived nanoparticles. (United States)

    Olvera Salazar, Arturo; García Hernández, Margarita; López Camacho, Perla Yolanda; López Marure, Arturo; Reyes de la Torre, Adriana Isabel; Morales Ramírez, Ángel de Jesús; Hernández Santiago, Felipe; Aguilera Vázquez, Luciano


    This paper presents the synthesis of pure and europium-doped lutetium oxide (Lu2O3) powders prepared by sol-gel method. The influence of europium ion concentration into Lu2O3 nanocrystallites was investigated for first time in an in vitro system using a modified ABTS radical cation decolorization assay to determine the antioxidant activity. The crystalline structure of Lu2O3 and Eu:Lu2O3 powders was elucidated by XRD obtaining cubic phase in all system without secondary products in accordance with FT-IR results. By TEM and Scherrer equation, it was determined that Lu2O3 and Eu:Lu2O3 powders presented nearly spherical particle morphology with crystallites sizes in the range of 8 to 13nm. The antioxidant assays results revealed that europium ion enhance Lu2O3 powders antioxidant properties, showing that 12.5mol% of europium is sufficient to reach its maximum capacity.

  3. Upper limit to magnetism in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Michael


    In 2004 Ohtomo and Hwang reported unusually high conductivity in LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 bilayer samples. Since then, metallic conduction, superconductivity, magnetism, and coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism have been attributed to LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. Very recently, two studies have reported large magnetic moments attributed to interfaces from measurement techniques that are unable to distinguish between interfacial and bulk magnetism. Consequently, it is imperative to perform magnetic measurements that by being intrinsically sensitive to interface magnetism are impervious to experimental artifacts suffered by bulk measurements. Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we measured the neutron spin dependent reflectivity from four LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. Our results indicate the upper limit for the magnetization averaged over the lateral dimensions of the sample induced by an 11 T magnetic field at 1.7 K is less than 2 G. SQUID magnetometry of the neutron superlattice samples sporadically finds an enhanced moment (consistent with past reports), possibly due to experimental artifacts. These observations set important restrictions on theories which imply a strongly enhanced magnetism at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Work performed in collaboration with N.W. Hengartner, S. Singh, M. Zhernenkov (LANL), F.Y. Bruno, J. Santamaria (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), A. Brinkman, M.J.A. Huijben, H. Molegraaf (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology), J. de la Venta and Ivan K. Schuller (UCSD). [4pt] Work supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS and DMR under grant DE FG03-87ER-45332. Work at UCM is supported by Consolider Ingenio CSD2009-00013 (IMAGINE), CAM S2009-MAT 1756 (PHAMA) and work at Twente is supported by the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM).

  4. Synthesis, characterization and a.c. conductivity of polypyrrole/Y2O3 composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Vishnuvardhan; V R Kulkarni; C Basavaraja; S C Raghavendra


    Conducting polymer composites of polypyrrole/yttrium oxide (PPy/Y2O3) were synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole with Y2O3 using FeCl3 as an oxidant. The Y2O3 is varied in five different weight percentages of PPy in PPy/Y2O3 composites. The synthesized polymer composites are characterized by infrared and X-ray diffraction techniques. The surface morphology of the composite is studied by scanning electron microscopy. The glass transition temperature of the polymer and its composite is discussed by DSC. Electrical conductivity of the compressed pellets depends on the concentration of Y2O3 in PPy. The frequency dependent a.c. conductivity reveals that the Y2O3 concentration in PPy is responsible for the variation of conductivity of the composites. Frequency dependent dielectric constant at room temperature for different composites are due to interfacial space charge (Maxwell Wagner) polarization leading to the large value of dielectric constant. Frequency dependent dielectric loss, as well as variation of dielectric loss as a function of mass percentage of Y2O3 is also presented and discussed.

  5. Al2O3 on Black Phosphorus by Atomic Layer Deposition: An in Situ Interface Study. (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; McDonnell, Stephen; Qin, Xiaoye; Azcatl, Angelica; Cheng, Lanxia; Addou, Rafik; Kim, Jiyoung; Ye, Peide D; Wallace, Robert M


    In situ "half cycle" atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 was carried out on black phosphorus ("black-P") surfaces with modified phosphorus oxide concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to investigate the interfacial chemistry and the nucleation of the Al2O3 on black-P surfaces. This work suggests that exposing a sample that is initially free of phosphorus oxide to the ALD precursors does not result in detectable oxidation. However, when the phosphorus oxide is formed on the surface prior to deposition, the black-P can react with both the surface adventitious oxygen contamination and the H2O precursor at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. As a result, the concentration of the phosphorus oxide increases after both annealing and the atomic layer deposition process. The nucleation rate of Al2O3 on black-P is correlated with the amount of oxygen on samples prior to the deposition. The growth of Al2O3 follows a "substrate inhibited growth" behavior where an incubation period is required. Ex situ atomic force microscopy is also used to investigate the deposited Al2O3 morphologies on black-P where the Al2O3 tends to form islands on the exfoliated black-P samples. Therefore, surface functionalization may be needed to get a conformal coverage of Al2O3 on the phosphorus oxide free samples.

  6. Nature of weak magnetism in SrTiO3/LaAlO3 multilayers. (United States)

    Salman, Z; Ofer, O; Radovic, M; Hao, H; Ben Shalom, M; Chow, K H; Dagan, Y; Hossain, M D; Levy, C D P; Macfarlane, W A; Morris, G M; Patthey, L; Pearson, M R; Saadaoui, H; Schmitt, T; Wang, D; Kiefl, R F


    We report the observation of weak magnetism in superlattices of LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) using β-detected nuclear magnetic resonance. The spin lattice relaxation rate of ^{8}Li in superlattices with a spacer layers of 8 and 6 unit cells of LaAlO(3) exhibits a strong peak near ~35 K, whereas no such peak is observed in a superlattice with spacer layer thickness of 3 unit cells. We attribute the observed temperature dependence to slowing down of weakly coupled electronic moments at the LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) interface. These results show that the magnetism at the interface depends strongly on the thickness of the spacer layer, and that a minimal thickness of ~4-6 unit cells is required for the appearance of magnetism. A simple model is used to determine that the observed relaxation is due to small fluctuating moments (~0.002μ(B)) in the two samples with a larger LaAlO(3) spacer thickness.

  7. Interfacial-layers-free Ga2O3(Gd2O3)/Ge MOS Diodes (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Lin, T. D.; Lee, K. Y.; Huang, M. L.; Tung, L. T.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.


    High κ dielectric Ga2O3(Gd2O3) films were deposited directly on Ge by Molecular-Beam-Epitaxy without the employment of GeON interfacial layer. Excellent electrical properties, such as a high κ value of 14.5, a low leakage current density of only 3x10-9 A/cm^2 at Vfb+1V, and well-behaved CV characteristics, were demonstrated, even being subjected to a 500^oC annealing in N2 ambient for 5 min. An abrupt Ga2O3(Gd2O3)/Ge interface without any interfacial layer was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed XPS studies indicate that the oxide/Ge interface consists of mainly Ge-O-Gd bonding, distinctly different from that of native oxide. Furthermore, the 500^oC annealing did not change the chemical bonding, implying a great thermodynamic stability of the hetero-structure. The outstanding electrical and thermodynamic properties qualified Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as a promising dielectric for Ge and proved the GeON interfacial layer to be unnecessary.

  8. Finite element analysis of WC-Al2O3 composites (United States)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul


    Object oriented finite element analysis (OOF2) is used to estimate the thermal and mechanical properties of WC-Al2O3 composites. In the present work, five compositions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% Al2O3 (by volume) are studied. Young's modulus, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated using OOF2 and compared with other known analytical methods. Stress and strain contours are plotted to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of composites. It is found that the stresses are largely concentrated at the interfaces of the WC-Al2O3 phases.

  9. Direct writing of three-dimensional woodpile BaTiO3 structures (United States)

    Li, Jijiao; Li, Bo; Wu, Hongya; Zhou, Ji


    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) woodpile structures with designed, three-dimensional (3D) geometry have been fabricated by direct-writing assembly techniques. Concentrated BaTiO3 inks with suitable rheological properties were prepared to enable the fabrication of the complex 3D structures. It was demonstrated that BaTiO3 inks with a total solids volume fraction of 0.41 are shear thinning and have a high storage modulus 1 × 105Pa with a yield stress of 300 Pa. Additionally, the woodpile lattice structures exhibited an excellent self-supporting feature.

  10. The Photocatalyzed Reduction of Aqueous Sodium Carbonate Using Nano SrFeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Heterogenous photocatalyzed reduction of aqueous Na2CO3 has been carried out byusing nano SrFeO3 semiconductor powders. Formic acid, formaldehyde and methyl alcoholwere identified as photoproducts, and were measured spectrophotometrically. The effect of thevariation of different parameters such as sodium carbonate concentration, amount of photocatalystand different light sources on the yield of photoproducts was also investigated. It shows thatnano SrFeO3 has photocatalytic activity. Irradiation leads to the production of electrons in theconduction band of the SrFeO3 semiconductor. It is likely that the photoproduced electronsreduce CO32- initially to HCOO-, and then to HCHO and CH3OH.

  11. Chemical stability and defect formation in CaHfO3

    KAUST Repository

    Alay-E-Abbas, Syed Muhammad


    Defects in CaHfO3 are investigated by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. Pristine and anion-deficient CaHfO 3 are found to be insulating, whereas cation-deficient CaHfO 3 is hole-doped. The formation energies of neutral and charged cation and anion vacancies are evaluated to determine the stability in different chemical environments. Moreover, the energies of the partial and full Schottky defect reactions are computed. We show that clustering of anion vacancies in the HfO layers is energetically favorable for sufficiently high defect concentrations and results in metallicity. © 2014 EPLA.

  12. Photochemical model evaluation of the ground-level ozone impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health in the Alberta oil sands region: Using present and future emission scenarios (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Pauls, Ron; Duffett, Katherine


    One of the potential environmental issues associated with oil sands development is increased ozone formation resulting from NOX and volatile organic compound emissions from bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading. To manage this issue in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeast Alberta, a regional multi-stakeholder group, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), developed an Ozone Management Framework that includes a modelling based assessment component. In this paper, we describe how the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to assess potential ground-level ozone formation and impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health for three different ozone precursor cases in the AOSR. Statistical analysis methods were applied, and the CMAQ performance results met the U.S. EPA model performance goal at all sites. The modelled 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations in the base and two future year scenarios did not exceed the Canada-wide standard of 65 ppb or the newer Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards of 63 ppb in 2015 and 62 ppb in 2020. Modelled maximum 1-h ozone concentrations in the study were well below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objective of 82 ppb in all three cases. Several ozone vegetation exposure metrics were also evaluated to investigate the potential impact of ground-level ozone on vegetation. The chronic 3-months SUM60 exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline range (0-2000 ppb-hr) everywhere in the AOSR. The AOT40 ozone exposure metric predicted by CMAQ did not exceed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) threshold of concern of 3000 ppb-hr in any of the cases but is just below the threshold in high-end future emissions scenario. In all three emission scenarios, the CMAQ predicted W126 ozone exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline threshold of 4000 ppb-hr. This study outlines the use of photochemical modelling of the impact of an industry (oil

  13. Research on Surface Modification of 96 Al2O3 by Ni Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhi; ZHU Xin; WANG Zhen-zhong


    A matrix of 96 Al2O3 ceramics was implanted with Ni ion of different dosages and energies using a MEVVA implanter. Then metallic structures of copper were made on the implanted ceramics, by using selective electroless copper plating. In addition, the characteristics and microstructure of the implanted layer were studied by using the SEM, RBS and XPS. The results show that: 1) the implanted Ni exits as Ni0 , Ni2+, and Ni3+ in the surface of Al2O3 and metal Ni particles precipitate on ceramics during implantation; 2) the concentration of Ni submits to the Gauss distribution along the direction of implantation on the surface of Al2O3 and high Ni concentration on the surface can be obtained if the Ni is implanted with low energy and a high dosage and 3) Ni ion implantation can activate the surface of Al2O3 and induce electroless copper plating on the ceramics.

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Doped α-Fe2O3 (United States)

    Suresh, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.


    Nanocrystalline pure and Co-doped α-Fe2O3 were obtained via the hydrolysis of FeCl3 in the temperature range from 90 to 95 °C under reflux condition for 8 h and the precipitate (FeOOH) is annealed at 600 °C for 6 h. The samples are characterized by various techniques. FTIR spectrum of the samples confirmed the formation of Fe2O3. The XRD studies show that the formation of pure α-Fe2O3 without any impurity phases. Both XRD and SEM micrograph of the samples show that the increase in cobalt concentration can effectively increases the agglomeration of the particles. The EDS spectrum of the samples show that the increase in concentration of cobalt increases the doping amount of the cobalt in α-Fe2O3

  15. Enhanced carrier density in Nb-doped SrTiO3 thermoelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Ozdogan, K.


    We study epitaxial SrTiO3 interfaced with Nb-doped SrTi1-x Nb x O3 (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) by full-potential density functional theory. From the electronic band structures obtained by our ab-initio calculations we determine the dependence of the induced metallicity on the Nb concentration. We obtain a monotonous increase of the carrier density with the Nb concentration. The results are confirmed by experiments for SrTi0.88Nb0.12O3 and SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3, demonstrating the predictive power and limitations of our theoretical approach. We also show that the Seebeck coefficient decreases monotonously with increasing temperature.

  16. Canopy-level stomatal narrowing in adult Fagus sylvatica under O3 stress - means of preventing enhanced O3 uptake under high O3 exposure? (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Baumgarten, M; Hummel, U; Häberle, K-H; Kitao, M; Wieser, G


    Spatio-temporally consistent O(3) doses are demonstrated in adult Fagus sylvatica from the Kranzberg Forest free-air fumigation experiment, covering cross-canopy and whole-seasonal scopes through sap flow measurement. Given O(3)-driven closure of stomata, we hypothesized enhanced whole-tree level O(3) influx to be prevented under enhanced O(3) exposure. Although foliage transpiration rate was lowered under twice-ambient O(3) around noon by 30% along with canopy conductance, the hypothesis was falsified, as O(3) influx was raised by 25%. Nevertheless, the twice-ambient/ambient ratio of O(3) uptake was smaller by about 20% than that of O(3) exposure, suggesting stomatal limitation of uptake. The O(3) response was traceable from leaves across branches to the canopy, where peak transpiration rates resembled those of shade rather than sun branches. Rainy/overcast-day and nightly O(3) uptake is quantified and discussed. Whole-seasonal canopy-level validation of modelled with sap flow-derived O(3) flux becomes available in assessing O(3) risk for forest trees.

  17. Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Multilayered BaTiO3/(Ba,Ca)TiO3/CaTiO3 Thin Films. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Na; Gao, Ting Ting; Xu, Xing; Liang, Wei Zheng; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Chonglin; Chen, Xiang Ming


    Highly oriented multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films were fabricated on Nb-doped (001) SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The configurations of multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films are designed with the thickness ratio of 1:1:1 and 2:1:1 and total thickness ∼300 nm. Microstructural characterization by X-ray diffraction indicates that the as-deposited thin films are highly c-axis oriented and large in-plane strain is determined in BaTiO3 and CaTiO3 layers. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies reveal an intense in-plane polarization component, whereas the out-of-plane shows inferior phase contrast. The optimized combination is found to be the BaTiO3-(Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3-CaTiO3 structure with combination ratio 2:1:1, which displays the largest domain switching amplitude under DC electric field, the largest room-temperature dielectric constant ∼646, a small dielectric loss of 0.03, and the largest dielectric tunability of ∼50% at 400 kV/cm. These results suggest that the enhanced dielectric and tunability performance are greatly associated with the large in-plane polarization component and domain switching.

  18. The effect of strontium incorporation into CaSiO3 ceramics on their physical and biological properties. (United States)

    Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Kwik, Danielle; Zreiqat, Hala


    CaSiO3 ceramics have been regarded as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration. Strontium (Sr) as a trace element in human body has been found to have beneficial effects on bone formation. The aim of this study was to incorporate Sr into CaSiO3 bioactive ceramics and to investigate their effect(s) on phase transition, sintering property, apatite-formation ability, ionic dissolution, and human bone-derived cells (HBDC) proliferation. Sr containing CaSiO3 (Sr-CaSiO3) ceramics at various concentrations (0-10% Sr) were prepared. The incorporation of Sr into CaSiO3 promoted the phase transition from beta to alpha-CaSiO3 and enhanced ceramic densification but did not alter the mechanism and ability of apatite formation in SBF. The ionic dissolution rate of the Sr-CaSiO3 decreased compared to the CaSiO3. The addition of Sr decreased pH value in SBF. The effect of Sr-CaSiO3 extracts, carried out according to the International Standard Organization, on HBDC proliferation was evaluated. At high extract concentration (100 and 200 mg/mL), CaSiO3 was found to stimulate HBDC proliferation, however, the incorporation of Sr into CaSiO3 stimulated HBDC proliferation even at low extract concentration (ranging from 12.5, 25 to 50 mg/mL). Our results indicate that Sr-CaSiO3 ceramics improved the physical and biological properties of the pure CaSiO3 ceramics.

  19. Conductivity of A- and B-site doped LaAlO3, LaGaO3, LaScO3 and LaInO3 perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybye, D.; Poulsen, F.W.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    The conductivity of the materials LaAlO3, LaGaO3, LaScO3 and LaInO3 all doped with 10% strontium on the A-site and 10% magnesium at the B-site has been measured at different temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. The doped LaGaO3 is found to be an almost pure ionic conductor with a conductivi...

  20. Fabricating superconducting interfaces between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Li


    Full Text Available Realization of a fully metallic two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at the interface between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films has been an exciting challenge. Here we present for the first time the successful realization of a superconducting 2DEG at interfaces between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films. Our results highlight the importance of two factors—the growth temperature and the SrTiO3 termination. We use local friction force microscopy and transport measurements to determine that in normal growth conditions the absence of a robust metallic state at low temperature in the artificially grown LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is due to the nanoscale SrO segregation occurring on the SrTiO3 film surface during the growth and the associated defects in the SrTiO3 film. By adopting an extremely high SrTiO3 growth temperature, we demonstrate a way to realize metallic, down to the lowest temperature, and superconducting 2DEG at interfaces between LaAlO3 layers and artificially grown SrTiO3 thin films. This study paves the way to the realization of functional LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices and/or artificial LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces on other substrates.

  1. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment. (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E


    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  2. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging (United States)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica


    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  3. Charge transfer and interfacial magnetism in (LaNiO3)n/(LaMnO3)2 superlattices


    Hoffman, Jason; Tung, I. C.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Liu, Ming; Freeland, John; Bhattacharya, Anand


    (LaNiO3)n/(LaMnO3)2 superlattices were grown using ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, where LaNiO3 is a paramagnetic metal and LaMnO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator. The superlattices exhibit excellent crystallinity and interfacial roughness of less than 1 unit cell. X-ray spectroscopy and dichroism measurements indicate that electrons are transferred from the LaMnO3 to the LaNiO3, inducing magnetism in LaNiO3. Magnetotransport measurements reveal a transition from metallic to insulati...

  4. Preparation of γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3/FeCl3(FeCl2 Composite Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Process Useful for Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmei Zhang


    Full Text Available Using a hydrothermal process in FeCl2 solution, γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3/FeCl3(FeCl2 composite nanoparticles were obtained from the FeOOH/Ni(OH2 precursor prepared by coprecipitation. The precursor and the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The experimental results showed that the paramagnetic amorphous precursor, in which Ni(OH2 is formed outside FeOOH, is transformed to ferrimagnetic γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3 composite when it is processed in FeCl2 solution (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 M in an autoclave at 100°C for 1 hr. In addition, the dismutation reaction of FeCl2 produces FeCl3 and Fe. Some FeCl3 and little FeCl2 can be absorbed to form γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3/FeCl3(FeCl2 composite nanoparticles in which Ni2O3 forms outside the γ-Fe2O3 core and the outermost layer is FeCl3 (FeCl2. The content of FeCl3 (FeCl2 in the particles increased, and the magnetization of the particles decreased with the concentration of FeCl2 solution increasing in the hydrothermal process. The FeCl3 (FeCl2 surface is chemically passive and nonmagnetic (paramagnetic. Accordingly, the composite nanoparticles are chemically stable, and their aggregation is prevented. The specific saturation magnetization of such composite nanoparticles can get to 57.4–62.2 emu/g and could be very suitable for synthesizing ferrofluids.

  5. Forecasting and analyzing high O3 time series in educational area through an improved chaotic approach (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Zila Abd; Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md


    Forecasting and analyzing the ozone (O3) concentration time series is important because the pollutant is harmful to health. This study is a pilot study for forecasting and analyzing the O3 time series in one of Malaysian educational area namely Shah Alam using chaotic approach. Through this approach, the observed hourly scalar time series is reconstructed into a multi-dimensional phase space, which is then used to forecast the future time series through the local linear approximation method. The main purpose is to forecast the high O3 concentrations. The original method performed poorly but the improved method addressed the weakness thereby enabling the high concentrations to be successfully forecast. The correlation coefficient between the observed and forecasted time series through the improved method is 0.9159 and both the mean absolute error and root mean squared error are low. Thus, the improved method is advantageous. The time series analysis by means of the phase space plot and Cao method identified the presence of low-dimensional chaotic dynamics in the observed O3 time series. Results showed that at least seven factors affect the studied O3 time series, which is consistent with the listed factors from the diurnal variations investigation and the sensitivity analysis from past studies. In conclusion, chaotic approach has been successfully forecast and analyzes the O3 time series in educational area of Shah Alam. These findings are expected to help stakeholders such as Ministry of Education and Department of Environment in having a better air pollution management.

  6. Synthesis of Y2O3 Nano-Powder from Yttrium Oxalate under Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ling


    High purity Y2O3 nano-powders was synthesized directly from solution of industrial YCl3 by method of oxalate precipitation through super-micro-reactors made by complex non-ionic surfactant. The purity and diameter of Y2O3 particles were controlled by such processing parameters as concentration of YCl3 and oxalic acid and complex non-ionic surfactant etc. TEM photomicrographs show that Y2O3 particles are spherical in shape, with an average diameter of less than 30 nm. Test results certify that the purity and particle diameter as well as the dispersion of Y2O3 nano-powder depend on the concentrations of YCl3, oxalic acid and complex non-ionic surfactant. The optimum ranges of the concentrations for YCl3 and complex non-ionic surfactant when the diameter of Y2O3 particles is smaller than 100 nm are 0.43~1.4 mol·L-1 and 0.031~0.112 mol·L-1 respectively, while the mass fraction range of oxalic acid is 10%~18%. The purity of Y2O3 nano-powder tested by ICP-AES analysis is 99.99%.

  7. Defect structure of zirconium oxide nanosized powders with Y2O3, Sc2O3, Cr2O3 impurities


    Yurchenko, L.; I. Bykov; Vasylyev, A; Vereshchak, V.; Suchaneck, G.; Jastrabik, L.; Dejneka, A.


    Formation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers originating from Zr3+ and Cr3+ ions as well as the influence of composition of nanoparticles on thermogeneration processes of these paramagnetic centers in ZrO2 structure were studied. A set of nanosized powders of zirconium oxide was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance method: nominally pure ZrO2; ZrO2 with Y2O3 and Sc2O3; ZrO2 with Cr2O3; ZrO2 with Y2O3 and Cr2O3. It is observed that the influence of annealing on EPR lines of Zr...

  8. Properties and Structures of Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoying Zhao; Ying Tian; Huiyan Fan; Junjie Zhang; Lili Hu


    Glass formation range of Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 system has been investigated (B2O3 ≤ 40 mol%).Four glasses with compositions xBi2O3-3OB2O3-(7O-x)TeO2 (x =40,50,60 and 70 mol%) have been prepared by using melt quenching technique.The effect of Bi2O3 content on thermal stability,optical properties and structures of these four Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 glasses is systematically investigated by inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).It is found that the density,refractive index and optical basicity increase with increasing Bi2O3.The Raman spectra and XPS spectra show that the glass network is mainly constituted by the [BiO6]octahedron,[TeO4] trigonal bipyramidal,[TeO3] trigonal pyramid,[BO3] trigonal pyramid and [BO4] tetrahedron structural units.With increasing Bi2O3,the coordination number around B atom changes from 3 to 4 and [TeO4] units are converted to [TeO3] units.Bi5+ ions may exist in Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 (BBT) system and their amount grows with increasing Bi2O3 content.

  9. Orbital configuration in CaTiO3 films on NdGaO3 (United States)

    Cao, Yanwei; Park, Se Young; Liu, Xiaoran; Choudhury, D.; Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Kareev, M.; Shafer, P.; Arenholz, E.; Chakhalian, J.


    Despite its use as a constituent layer for realization of a polar metal and interfacial conductivity, the microscopic study of electronic structure of CaTiO3 is still very limited. Here, we epitaxially stabilized CaTiO3 films on NdGaO3 (110) substrates in a layer-by-layer way by pulsed laser deposition. The structural and electronic properties of the films were characterized by reflection-high-energy-electron-diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and element-specific resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy. To reveal the orbital polarization and the crystal field splitting of the titanium 3d state, X-ray linear dichroism was carried out on CaTiO3 films, demonstrating the orbital configuration of dxz/dyz < dxy < d3 z2-r2 < dx2-y2 . To further explore the origin of this configuration, we performed the first-principles density function theory calculations, which linked the orbital occupation to the on-site energy of Ti 3d orbitals. These findings can be important for understanding and designing exotic quantum states in heterostructures based on CaTiO3.

  10. Metal-insulator transitions in LaTiO3 / CaTiO3 superlattices (United States)

    Seo, Sung Seok A.; Lee, Ho Nyung


    Strongly correlated electrons at an interface of complex oxide heterostructures often show interesting behaviors that require an introduction of new physical concepts. For example, the metallic transport behavior found in the superlattices of a Mott insulator LaTiO3 and a band insulator SrTiO3 (STO) has established the concept of interfacial electronic reconstruction. In this work, we have studied the transport property of a new type of Mott/band insulator LaTiO3/CaTiO3 (LTO/CTO) superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to rule out concerns about the PLD plume-triggered oxygen vacancies generated in STO substrates, which might influence transport measurement, and to investigate the effect of epitaxial strain, we have used insulating NdGaO3 substrates. While both LTO and CTO single films are highly insulating, we have observed intriguing metal-insulator transitions (MIT) in the LTO/CTO superlattices depending on the global LTO/CTO thickness ratio and temperature. (Note that LTO/STO superlattices are metallic at all temperatures (2-300 K)). In this talk, we will discuss the origin of the MIT in the scheme of self compensation mechanism of d-electrons at the hetero-interface between LTO and CTO.

  11. Structural and Magnetic Properties of LaCoO3/SrTiO3 Multilayers. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongrui; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Huaiwen; Lan, Qianqian; Hong, Deshun; Wang, Shufang; Shen, Xi; Khan, Tahira; Yu, Richeng; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen


    Structural and magnetic properties of the LaCoO3/SrTiO3 (LCO/STO) multilayers (MLs) with a fixed STO layer of 4 nm but varied LCO layer thicknesses have been systematically studied. The MLs grown on Sr0.7La0.3Al0.65Ta0.35O3 (LSAT) and SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit the in-plane lattice constant of the substrates, but those on LaAlO3 (LAO) show the in-plane lattice constant between those of the first two kinds of MLs. Compared with the LCO single layer (SL), the magnetic order of the MLs is significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by a very slow decrease, which is fast for the SL, of the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization as the LCO layer thickness decreases. For example, clear ferromagnetic order is observed in the ML with the LCO layer of ∼1.5 nm, whereas it vanishes below ∼6 nm for the LCO SL. This result is consistent with the observation that the dark stripes, which are believed to be closely related to the magnetic order, remain clear in the MLs while they are vague in the corresponding LCO SL. The present work suggests a novel route to tune the magnetism of perovskite oxide films.

  12. Properties of epitaxial LaMnO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. (United States)

    Christen, Hans M.; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Ho Nyung; Varela, Maria; Petit, Leon; Schulthess, Thomas


    Electronic effects at interfaces between dissimilar oxides are known to have fundamental consequences on their transport and magnetic properties. Interfaces between the band insulator SrTiO3 and the antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator LaMnO3 provide a particularly interesting platform to test such effects. Both perovskites are grown epitaxially by pulsed-laser deposition, and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) collected in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) show interfacial valence changes on the Mn-sites, while Ti remains in a 4+ state even in direct contact with the LaO layer of the LaMnO3. This observation is fully consistent with computational results obtained for such structures using the self-interaction corrected (SIC) local spin density (LSD) method. In this presentation, we discuss the physical origin and consequences of these valence changes in single interfaces as well as LaMnO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. This research was sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed and operated by UT-Battelle, LLC, and ORNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  13. FGF-2 Transcriptionally Down-Regulates the Expression of BNIP3L via PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a Signaling and Inhibits Necrosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by High Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide in H9c2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cardiovascular disease is a growing major global public health problem. Necrosis is one of the main forms of cardiomyocyte death in heart disease. Oxidative stress is regarded as one of the key regulators of cardiac necrosis, which eventually leads to cardiovascular disease. Many pharmacological and in vitro studies have suggested that FGF-2 can act directly on cardiomyocytes to maintain the integrity and function of the myocardium and prevent damage during oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms by which FGF-2 rescues the myocardium from oxidative stress damage in cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The present study explored the protective effects of FGF-2 in the H2O2-induced necrosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes as well as the possible signaling pathways involved. Methods: Necrosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was induced by H2O2 and assessed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8 assay and flow cytometry analysis. The cells were pretreated with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Wortmannin to investigate the possible involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the protection by FGF-2. The levels of Akt, p-Akt, FoxO3a, p-FoxO3a, and BNIP3L were detected by Western blot. Chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP analysis was used to test whether FoxO3a binds directly to the BNIP3L promoter region. A luciferase assay was used to study the effects of FoxO3a on BNIP3L gene promoter activity. Mitochondrial ΔΨM was quantified using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate (TMRM. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR was assessed with a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Results: Treatment with H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a, and it induced the nuclear localization of FoxO3a and the necrosis of H9c2 cells. These effects of H2O2 were abrogated by pretreatment with FGF-2. Furthermore, the protective effects of FGF-2 were abolished by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Wortmannin. ChIP analyses indicated that FoxO3a binds directly to the BNIP3L promoter

  14. Ambient Ozone Concentrations and the Risk of Perforated and Nonperforated Appendicitis: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study (United States)

    Tanyingoh, Divine; Dixon, Elijah; Johnson, Markey; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Myers, Robert P.; Bertazzon, Stefania; Saini, Vineet; Madsen, Karen; Ghosh, Subrata; Villeneuve, Paul J.


    Background: Environmental determinants of appendicitis are poorly understood. Past work suggests that air pollution may increase the risk of appendicitis. Objectives: We investigated whether ambient ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations were associated with appendicitis and whether these associations varied between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis. Methods: We based this time-stratified case-crossover study on 35,811 patients hospitalized with appendicitis from 2004 to 2008 in 12 Canadian cities. Data from a national network of fixed-site monitors were used to calculate daily maximum O3 concentrations for each city. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate city-specific odds ratios (ORs) relative to an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O3 adjusted for temperature and relative humidity. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to derive a pooled risk estimate. Stratified analyses were used to estimate associations separately for perforated and nonperforated appendicitis. Results: Overall, a 16-ppb increase in the 7-day cumulative average daily maximum O3 concentration was associated with all appendicitis cases across the 12 cities (pooled OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.13). The association was stronger among patients presenting with perforated appendicitis for the 7-day average (pooled OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.36) when compared with the corresponding estimate for nonperforated appendicitis [7-day average (pooled OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.09)]. Heterogeneity was not statistically significant across cities for either perforated or nonperforated appendicitis (p > 0.20). Conclusions: Higher levels of ambient O3 exposure may increase the risk of perforated appendicitis. PMID:23842601

  15. Deriving the properties of coronal pressure fronts in 3-D: application to the 17 May 2012 ground level enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Rouillard, Alexis P; Pinto, Rui F; Tirole, Margot; Lavarra, Michael; Zucca, Pietro; Vainio, Rami; Tylka, Allan J; Vourlidas, Angelos; De Rosa, Marc; Linker, Jon; Warmuth, Alexander; Mann, Gottfried; Cohen, Christina M; Mewaldt, Robert A


    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of 17 May 2012. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the 3-D expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3-D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M_FM, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magneto-hydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M_FM values appear along the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the CME eruption; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric and plasma sheet. We can also estimate the time evolution of the shock speed, shock geometry and Mach number along different modeled ma...

  16. Spectral Analyses and Radiation Exposures from Several Ground-Level Enhancement (GLE) Solar Proton Events: A Comparison of Methodologies (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan; Dietrich, William; Badavi, Francis; Rojdev, Kristina


    Several methods for analyzing the particle spectra from extremely large solar proton events, called Ground-Level Enhancements (GLEs), have been developed and utilized by the scientific community to describe the solar proton energy spectra and have been further applied to ascertain the radiation exposures to humans and radio-sensitive systems, namely electronics. In this paper 12 GLEs dating back to 1956 are discussed, and the three methods for describing the solar proton energy spectra are reviewed. The three spectral fitting methodologies are EXP [an exponential in proton rigidity (R)], WEIB [Weibull fit: an exponential in proton energy], and the Band function (BAND) [a double power law in proton rigidity]. The EXP and WEIB methods use low energy (MeV) GLE solar proton data and make extrapolations out to approx.1 GeV. On the other hand, the BAND method utilizes low- and medium-energy satellite solar proton data combined with high-energy solar proton data deduced from high-latitude neutron monitoring stations. Thus, the BAND method completely describes the entire proton energy spectrum based on actual solar proton observations out to 10 GeV. Using the differential spectra produced from each of the 12 selected GLEs for each of the three methods, radiation exposures are presented and discussed in detail. These radiation exposures are then compared with the current 30-day and annual crew exposure limits and the radiation effects to electronics.

  17. Establishment of a structural equation model for ground-level ozone: a case study at an urban roadside site. (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Ming; Yu, Tai-Yi; Chang, Len-Fu


    This study established a cause-effect relationship between ground-level ozone and latent variables employing partial least-squares analysis at an urban roadside site in four distinct seasons. Two multivariate analytic methods, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were adopted to cite and identify suitable latent variables from 14 observed variables (i.e., meteorological factors, wind and primary air pollutants) in 2008-2010. Analytical results showed that the first six components explained 80.3 % of the variance, and eigenvalues of the first four components were greater than 1. The effectiveness of this model was empirically confirmed with three indicators. Except for surface pressure, factor loadings of observed variables were 0.303-0.910 and reached statistical significance at the 5 % level. Composite reliabilities for latent variables were 0.672-0.812 and average variances were 0.404-0.547, except for latent variable "primary" in spring; thus, discriminant validity and convergent validity were marginally accepted. The developed model is suitable for the assessment of urban roadside surface ozone, considering interactions among meteorological factors, wind factors, and primary air pollutants in each season.

  18. Estudio de PMN cerámico dopado con KNbO3 y LiNbO3 sintetizado por Pechini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilense, M.


    Full Text Available PMN belongs to a special class of materials named relaxor ferroelectrics. It has high volumetric efficiency due to its high dielectric constant, which makes it in a perfect material for application in multilayer capacitors. When prepared the columbite route its preparation has many advantages. In this work, the preparations of columbite and PMN were done by Pechini and Partial Oxalate methods, respectively. The effects of the KNbO3 and LiNbO3 dopants added in various concentrations. The idea is founded on the correlations that they have with BaTiO3 y PbTiO3, respectively. The whole process was supervised by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM and determination of the specific surface area of the powders. LiNbO3 carries out the pre-sinterization of the particles, observed by a reduction in the surface area. There are not particle grow, but occur its lengthening. However, for KNbO3 these particle growth, but the agglomerates are softer. The effect produced by the doping during the synthesis of the PMN powder is different from the one produced in the columbite precursor. Pure precursor shows an average particle size of 0,2μm, but the addition of 5,0mol% of dopants carries out the formation of agglomerates close to 4μm. LiNbO3 addition carries out spherical particles and pre-sinterization, while KNbO3 addition does not change the particles shape.El PMN pertenece a una clase especial de materiales conocido como ferroeléctricos relaxores. Posee gran eficacia volumétrica debido a su gran constante dieléctrica, siendo un perfecto candidato para la aplicación en capacitores multicapas. Su preparación es más ventajosa cuando se sintetiza por la ruta de la columbita. Las preparaciones de la columbita y del PMN se basaron en los métodos Pechini y Oxalato Parcial, respectivamente. Se ha estudiado los efectos de los dopantes KNbO3 y LiNbO3 añadidos a varias concentraciones. La idea esta basada en las correlaciones que estos tienen con BaTiO3 y PbTiO3, respectivamente

  19. Stomatal regulation, structural acclimation and metabolic shift towards defensive compounds reduce O3 load in birch under chronic O3 stress (United States)

    Oksanen, E.; Riikonen, J.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Maenpaa, M.; Rousi, M.


    Northern forests are encountering new threats due to continuously increasing load of oxidative stress, e.g. due to rising tropospheric O3 levels, and simultaneous climate warming, which is more intense in northern latitudes as compared to global means. The proportion of silver birch (Betula pendula) in Finnish forests is expected to increase with climate warming. Unfortunately, we have growing evidence that the vitality and the carbon sink strength of birch trees are weakened under chronic O3 stress. In this study we investigated the effects of slightly elevated O3 concentration (1.3 x the ambient), temperature (T) and their combination on the antioxidant defense, gas exchange and leaf growth of Betula pendula saplings (clone 12) growing in open-field conditions over two growing seasons. The plants were measured for SLA (specific leaf area), total leaf area, net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc,max), maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), relative stomatal limitation to photosynthesis (ls), dark respiration (Rd), apoplastic concentrations of AA (ascorbic acid), DHA (dehydroascobate) and total ascorbate, the redox state of apoplastic ascorbate, and total antioxidant capacity. Elevated O3 enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast in the first year of the experiment at the ambient T. However, during the second year of the experiment, the saplings responded to elevated O3 level by closing the stomata and by developing leaves with a lower leaf area per mass, rather than by accumulating ascorbate in the apoplast. O3 did not affect the total leaf area, whereas Pn was slightly and gs significantly reduced in the second year. Elevated T enhanced the total leaf area, Pn and Vc,max, redox state of ascorbate and total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast. The effects of T and O3 on total leaf area and net photosynthesis were counteractive. We were not able to detect significant differences in Rd between the

  20. Modulation-Doped In2O3/ZnO Heterojunction Transistors Processed from Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Khim, Dongyoon


    This paper reports the controlled growth of atomically sharp In2 O3 /ZnO and In2 O3 /Li-doped ZnO (In2 O3 /Li-ZnO) heterojunctions via spin-coating at 200 °C and assesses their application in n-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs). It is shown that addition of Li in ZnO leads to n-type doping and allows for the accurate tuning of its Fermi energy. In the case of In2 O3 /ZnO heterojunctions, presence of the n-doped ZnO layer results in an increased amount of electrons being transferred from its conduction band minimum to that of In2 O3 over the interface, in a process similar to modulation doping. Electrical characterization reveals the profound impact of the presence of the n-doped ZnO layer on the charge transport properties of the isotype In2 O3 /Li-ZnO heterojunctions as well as on the operating characteristics of the resulting TFTs. By judicious optimization of the In2 O3 /Li-ZnO interface microstructure, and Li concentration, significant enhancement in both the electron mobility and TFT bias stability is demonstrated.

  1. Multiferroic, magnetoelectric and optical properties of Mn doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunil; Kumar, Manoj; Chhoker, Sandeep; Katyal, S. C.; Singh, Hemant; Jewariya, Mukesh; Yadav, K. L.


    Mn doped BiFeO3 (5, 10 and 15 mol%) nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel technique. The influence of Mn doping on structural, dielectric, magnetic, magnetoelectric and optical properties of BiFeO3 was studied. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns showed rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition for 15 mol% Mn doped BiFeO3 sample. Magnetic measurements revealed the enhancement of ferromagnetic property with increasing Mn doping in BiFeO3. The characteristic dielectric anomaly, expected in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN (Neel temperature) was found in all Mn doped BiFeO3 samples. The magnetoelectric coupling was evidenced by the change in capacitance with the change in the applied magnetic field. On increasing Mn concentration from 5 to 15 mol% in BiFeO3, a change in magnetocapacitance from 1.46% to 2.6% showed the improvement of multiferroic properties. In order to explore the optical properties of Mn doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles, their photoluminescent properties were also investigated.

  2. Thermal and structural properties of Nd2O3-doped calcium boroaluminate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JDM Dias; GHA Melo; TA Lodi; JO Carvalho; PF Faanha Filho; MJ Barboza; A Steimacher; F Pedrochi


    Nd3+ doped CaO-Al2O-B2O3-CaF2 glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique, and their structural and thermal properties were studied. The amorphous nature of these samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The measured density showed an increase with Nd2O3 doping, at the expense of CaO. Raman spectra presented changes with addition of Nd2O3, which indicated that the network structure of the glasses studied presented various borate groups, such as tetraborates, metaborates, ortho-borates and pyroborates units. The N4 values calculated from FTIR spectra revealed that incorporation of Nd2O3 into glass network converted the structural units from BO4 to BO3. From the analysis of DTA curves, we verified thatTg increased with the addition of Nd2O3; it was similar to the behavior caused by modifier oxides in the structure of borate glasses. Besides that, the calculated glass stabilityTx–Tg for doped samples presented a decrease if compared to the undoped glass. Specific heat and thermal conductivity did not present significant changes with Nd2O3 concentration, up to 2.30 mol.%. The results of density, DTA, Raman and FTIR reinforced the idea that Nd2O3 acted as network modifier.

  3. Fabrication and characteristics of spindle Fe2O3@Au core/shell particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong-xia; YAO Jian-lin; GU Ren-ao


    The fabrication and characteristics of spindle Fe2O3@Au core/shell particle were investigated, and the effect of the core/shell nanoparticles as the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-active substrates was studied. By using the seed-catalyzed reduction technique, anisotropic Fe2O3@Au core/shell particles with spindle morphology were successfully prepared. The Fe2O3 particles with spindle morphology were initially prepared as original cores. The Au nanoparticles of 2 nm were attached onto the Fe2O3 particles through organosilane molecules. Uniform Au shell formed onto Fe2O3 core modified by Au nanoparticles through the in-situ reduction of HAuCl4. The shell thickness was controlled through regulating the concentration of HAuCl4 solution. The results of TEM, XRD and UV-vis characterization show that the core/shell particles with the original shape of the Fe2O3 particles are obtained and these surfaces are covered by Au shell completely. The surface enhanced Raman spectrum of the probe molecules adsorbed on these core/shell substrates is strong and the intensity is enhanced with the increase of the thickness of Au shell or the aspect ratio of particles. The spindle Fe2O3@Au core/shell particles exhibit optimum (SERS) activity.

  4. Octahedral rotations in strained LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (001 heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Fister


    Full Text Available Many complex oxides display an array of structural instabilities often tied to altered electronic behavior. For oxide heterostructures, several different interfacial effects can dramatically change the nature of these instabilities. Here, we investigate LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (001 heterostructures using synchrotron x-ray scattering. We find that when cooling from high temperature, LaAlO3 transforms from the Pm3¯m to the Imma phase due to strain. Furthermore, the first 4 unit cells of the film adjacent to the substrate exhibit a gradient in rotation angle that can couple with polar displacements in films thinner than that necessary for 2D electron gas formation.

  5. Impedance Spectroscopic Studies of BiFeO3-Pb(ZrTi)O3 Nanocomposites (United States)

    Choudhary, R. N. P.; Barik, Subrat K.; Katiyar, R. S.

    BiFeO3-Pb(ZrTi)O3 [i.e., (Bi1-xPbx)(Fe1-xZr0.6xTi0.4x)O3 (x = 0.15, 0.25, 0.40, 0.50)] nanocomposites were synthesized using mechanical activation followed by a solid-state reaction technique. The dielectric parameters (capacitance, dissipation factor D, impedance Z and phase angle Φ) of all the samples were measured in a wide range of frequencies (1 kHz-1 MHz) and temperatures (300-630 K) in air atmosphere using an impedance analyzer with low signal amplitude of 500 mV. Electrical properties of the compounds were studied using a complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. The frequency dependence of electrical data was analyzed in the framework of conductivity and modulus formalisms. AC conductivity spectrum obeys Jonscher's universal power law.

  6. Models for the physiological effects of short O3 exposures on plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, H.E.


    Some published effects of ozone on plant photosynthesis and evaporation are detailed, and attempts were made to develop explanatory models of increasing complexity. Stomatal regulation, which keeps the CO2 concentration inside the lead constant, is assumed. The O3 concentration inside the leaf is as

  7. Ethylenediurea (EDU): a research tool for assessment and verification of the effects of ground level ozone on plants under natural conditions. (United States)

    Manning, William J; Paoletti, Elena; Sandermann, Heinrich; Ernst, Dieter


    Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been widely used to prevent ozone (O(3)) injury and crop losses in crop plants and growth reductions in forest trees. Successful use requires establishing a dose/response curve for EDU and the proposed plant in the absence of O(3) and in the presence of O(3) before initiating multiple applications to prevent O(3) injury. EDU can be used to verify foliar O(3) symptoms in the field, and to screen plants for sensitivity to O(3) under ambient conditions. Despite considerable research, the mode of action of EDU remains elusive. Additional research on the mode of action of EDU in suppressing O(3) injury in plants may also be helpful in understanding the mode of action of O(3) in causing injury in plants.

  8. Interactive effects of O3 exposure on California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) seedlings with and without N amendment (United States)

    T. Handley; Nancy Grulke


    We examined the short-term separate and combined effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (fertilization) and ozone (O3) exposure on California black oak seedlings (Quercus kelloggii Newb.), an ecologically important tree of the San Bernardino Mountains downwind of Los Angeles. Realistic concentrations of O3...

  9. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-feng Ding


    Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 bulk ceramics with Mn concentration x up to 0.3 were prepared by rapid sintering using sol-gel derived fine powders. Structure transformation is found to depend on the Mn doping concentration by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 maintains the rhombohedral structure of BiFeO3 with x=0.05 and 0.1,but changes to the orthorhombic structure with x=0.3.Weak ferromagnetism is observed for Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 with x=0.05 and 0.1,but stronger paramagnetism is observed for Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 with x=0.3 indicating a magnetic phase change from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic with the structure changing from R3c to C222.Two anomalies at 30 and 140 K are observed for Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 with x=0.05 and 0.1.The anomaly at 30 K is concluded to be related to the freezing of cluster spin glass from dc magnetic memory and relaxation measurements.

  10. Mechanical alloying of an immiscible α-Fe2O3-SnO2 ceramic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, Rong; Mørup, Steen


    in the immiscible ceramic oxide system. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy investigations show that mechanical milling of alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 involves alloying on an atomic scale and that true solid solution formation occurs. We suggest that the high defect concentration and the chemical enthalpy of Fe3......+-O2--Sn4+ interfaces between nanostructured alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 regions may serve as a driving force for the formation of a solid solution in the immiscible ceramic system.......A solid solution of about 6 mol% SnO2 in alpha-Fe2O3 has been prepared by mechanical alloying of alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 powder blends. This result demonstrates that high energy ball milling can be used to prepare metastable oxide solid solutions with an extended range of compositions...

  11. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of BaTiO3 nanoparticles by micro-emulsion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Gao


    Full Text Available Barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using a surfactant-assisted method. The various processing parameters, namely, th e species of surfactant, reaction temperature and micro-emusion concentration had been varied, and the effects on the micrographs and crystal structure of BaTiO3 particles had been analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. XRD analyses confirming the tetragonal structure of the BaTiO3 nanoparticles using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium Bromide (CTAB or nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (NP-10 as surfactant. The SEM analysis showed that by changing the species of surfactant, grains with different dimensions could be synthesized. TEM analyses indicate that BaTiO3 nanoparticles with 15–20 nm in diameter were successfully synthesized.

  12. Synthesis and magnetic properties of CdS/α-Fe2O3 hierarchical nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    CdS/α-Fe2O3 hierarchical nanostructures, where the CdS nanorods grow irregularly on the side surface of α-Fe2O3 nanorods, were synthesized via a three-step process. The diameters and lengths of CdS nanorods can be tuned by changing the ethylenediamine (EDA) and Cd ion concentrations. The magnetic investigations by superconducting quantum interference device indicate that the hierarchical nanostructures have an Morin transition at lower temperature (230 K) than that of the single bulk α-Fe2O3 materials (263 K). Importantly, the hierarchical nanostructures exhibit weakly ferromagnetic characteristics at 300 K. A sharp peak assigned to the surface trap induced emission are observed in room temperature PL spectra. Combining with the optoelectronic properties of CdS, the CdS/ α-Fe2O3 hierarchical nanostructures may be used as multi-functional materials for optoelectronic and magnetic devices.

  13. Synthesis and magnetic properties of CdS/α-Fe2O3 hierarchical nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YuJin; SHI XiaoLing; CAO MaoSheng; ZHU ChunLing


    CdS/α-Fe2O3 hierarchical nanostructures, where the CdS nanorods grow irregularly on the side surface of α-Fe2O3 nanorods, were synthesized via a three-step process. The diameters and lengths of CdS nanorods can be tuned by changing the ethylenediamine (EDA) and Cd ion concentrations. The mag-netic investigations by superconducting quantum interference device indicate that the hierarchical nanostructures have an Morin transition at lower temperature (230 K) than that of the single bulk α-Fe2O3 materials (263 K). Importantly, the hierarchical nanostructures exhibit weakly ferromagnetic characteristics at 300 K. A sharp peak assigned to the surface trap induced emission are observed in room temperature PL spectra. Combining with the optoelectronic properties of CdS, the CdS/α-Fe2O3 hierarchical nanostructures may be used as multi-functional materials for optoelectronic and magnetic devices.

  14. Preparation and Thermo-Physical Properties of Fe2O3-Propylene Glycol Nanofluids. (United States)

    Shylaja, A; Manikandan, S; Suganthi, K S; Rajan, K S


    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were prepared from ferric chloride and ferrous sulphate by precipitation reaction. Fe2O3-propylene glycol nanofluid was prepared by dispersing Fe2O3 nanoparticles in propylene glycol through stirred bead milling, shear homogenization and probe ultrasonication. The nanofluid was characterized through measurement of viscosity, particle size distribution and thermal conductivity. The interactions between Fe2O3 nanoparticles and propylene glycol on the nanoparticle surfaces lead to reduction in viscosity, the magnitude of which increases with nanoparticle concentration (0-2 vol%) at room temperature. The thermal conductivity enhancement for 2 vol% nanofluid was about 21% at room temperature, with liquid layering being the major contributor for thermal conductivity enhancement.

  15. Sensitivity of bronchoprovocation and tracheal mucous velocity in detecting airway responses to O3. [Sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, W.M.; Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Mingle, M.; Welker, M.; Wanner, A.; Sackner, M.A.


    This study was undertaken to determine whether measurements of tracheal mucous velocity or airway reactivity to inhaled carbachol more sensitively detect airway effects of inhaled ozone (O3) in conscious sheep. Dose-response curves of mean pulmonary flow resistance (RL) to carbachol were obtained by measuring RL after five breaths of carbachol aerosol with stepwise increases in drug concentration. The animals then breathed 0.5 ppM O3 through an endotracheal tube for 2 h. The dose-response curves were repeated immediately after the 0.5 ppM O3 exposure and 24 h later. In conscious sheep, airway hyperreactivity appears to be a more sensitive indicator of airway effects produced by short-term exposure to 0.5 ppM O3 than depression of tracheal mucous velocity.

  16. Enhancement of photocatalytic activities of perovskite LaFeO3 composite by incorporating nanographene platelets (United States)

    Afifah, N.; Saleh, R.


    LaFeO3/NGP composites with several concentrations of NGP by weight percent were prepared using co-precipitation methods. The ferromagnetic behavior of LaFeO3/NGP composites was characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), while the structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The LaFeO3 nanoparticles with and without NGP show orthorhombic structure and ferromagnetic behavior. The samples were used to degrade methylene blue using visible light irradiation. The obtained results revealed that the photocatalytic performance of LaFeO3/NGP composites increased with increasing NGP from 3 wt.% up to 5 wt.%. The main factors influencing the photocatalytic activity were studied and are discussed herein.

  17. Interface charge behaviors of BaTiO3 film heterostructures with various crystal orientations (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ouyang, Jun; Cheng, Hongbo; Yang, Qian; Kang, Limin; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Fangren


    Heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 ferroelectric films with (001), (110), and (111) orientations were grown on SrRuO3-buffered SrTiO3 substrates by magnetron sputtering. The leakage current and interface charge behaviors were systematically investigated. Without a discernible orientation-dependence behavior, the leakage current behaviors were all well described by a modified Schottky-contact model. On the basis of this theory, the interface charge state parameters, including dynamic dielectric constant, potential barriers, depletion layer width, effective space-charge density and hole concentration, and their evolution behaviors were analyzed in detail. They all exhibited anisotropic characteristics and were proved to be essentially attributed to the macrophysical properties of BaTiO3 film heterostructures.

  18. Phase Transition and Optical Properties for Ultrathin KNbO3 Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulin Yang


    Full Text Available Fascicular KNbO3 nanowires with tetragonal perovskite structures and ultrasmall diameters are synthesized by hydrothermal route at about 150°C for 24 hours. The concentrations of medium alkalinity have influenced phase structures and the final morphologies of the products significantly by modifying the conditions in process. The as-prepared KNbO3 nanowires exhibit three phase transitions at about 343, 454.7, and 623 K as the temperature increases from 250 to 700 K. The band gap is about 3.78 eV for KNbO3 nanowires. Photoluminescence study at room temperature reveals two visible light emission bands peaking at ~551 and 597 nm, respectively, which may be due to the oxygen vacancies, site niobium (occupy the location of Nb, and antisite niobium (occupy the location of K in KNbO3 nanowires.

  19. Multivariate analysis of physiological parameters reveals a consistent O3 response pattern in leaves of adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica). (United States)

    Löw, Markus; Deckmyn, Gaby; Op de Beeck, Maarten; Blumenröther, Manuela C; Oßwald, Wolfgang; Alexou, Maria; Jehnes, Sascha; Haberer, Kristine; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herbinger, Karin; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Bahnweg, Günther; Hanke, David; Wieser, Gerhard; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Matyssek, Rainer; Tausz, Michael


    • Increasing atmospheric concentrations of phytotoxic ozone (O(3) ) can constrain growth and carbon sink strength of forest trees, potentially exacerbating global radiative forcing. Despite progress in the conceptual understanding of the impact of O(3) on plants, it is still difficult to detect response patterns at the leaf level. • Here, we employed principal component analysis (PCA) to analyse a database containing physiological leaf-level parameters of 60-yr-old Fagus sylvatica (European beech) trees. Data were collected over two climatically contrasting years under ambient and twice-ambient O(3) regimes in a free-air forest environment. • The first principal component (PC1) of the PCA was consistently responsive to O(3) and crown position within the trees over both years. Only a few of the original parameters showed an O(3) effect. PC1 was related to parameters indicative of oxidative stress signalling and changes in carbohydrate metabolism. PC1 correlated with cumulative O(3) uptake over preceding days. • PC1 represents an O(3) -responsive multivariate pattern detectable in the absence of consistently measurable O(3) effects on individual leaf-level parameters. An underlying effect of O(3) on physiological processes is indicated, providing experimental confirmation of theoretical O(3) response patterns suggested previously.

  20. Antiferromagnetic Resonance in Multiferroic YMnO3 and LuMnO3 (United States)

    Zvyagin, Sergei


    Multiferroic rare-earth manganites have attracted much attention because of the coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic orders. Combining conventional far-infrared Fourier-transform and THz-range free electron laser electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy techniques, magnetic excitations in hexagonal multiferroic YMnO3 and LuMnO3 in the antiferromagnetically (AFM) ordered phase have been studied. The gap in the excitation spectrum (˜42 and ˜48 cm-1 for YMnO3 and LuMnO3, respectively) was observed directly. Similar slope of the frequency-field dependences of AFM resonance modes, ˜ 0.5 cm-1/T, was revealed for both compounds. A fine structure of AFM resonance absorption has been revealed by means of high-resolution ESR techniques, which can be explained taking into account a finite interaction between the neighboring Mn^3+ layers. The work was done in collaboration with M. Ozerov, D. Kamensky, E. Cizm'ar, J. Wosnitza, A.K. Kolezhuk, D. Smirnov, H.D. Zhou, and C.R. Wiebe.

  1. Tuning the carrier density of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces by capping La1-xSrxMnO3 (United States)

    Shi, Y. J.; Wang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.


    We present a systematical study on the electronic transport properties of the insulating LaAlO3 (3 unit cells)/SrTiO3 interfaces capping with thin layers of La1-xSrxMnO3, whose formal polarization is continually tuned by Sr doping. When the Sr doping is lower than 2/3, the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces show metallic behaviors. The carrier mobility is almost independent on the Sr doping for metallic interface, indicating that the capping layer does not change the density of the oxygen vacancies and the interface intermixing. However, the sheet carrier densities monotonically decrease as increasing Sr doping, which is ascribed to the decrease of the La1-xSrxMnO3 formal polarization. These results strongly support the intrinsic mechanism of the polar catastrophe model and provide a new approach to tailor the interface states of complex oxide heterostructures.

  2. Drastic Dependence of the pH Sensitivity of Fe2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 Hydrophobic Glasses with Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanori Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Fe2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 (FeBiB glasses were developed as novel pH responsive hydrophobic glasses. The influence of the glass composition on the pH sensitivity of FeBiB glasses was investigated. The pH sensitivity drastically decreased with decreasing B2O3 content. A moderate amount of Fe2O3 and a small amount of B2O3 respectively produces bulk electronic conduction and a pH response on glass surfaces. Because the remaining components of the glass can be selected freely, this discovery could prove very useful in developing novel pH glass electrodes that are self-cleaning and resist fouling.

  3. Impact of Ground Level Enhancement from Solar Cosmic Rays on 20 January 2005 - Results for Ozone and Ionosphere Effects (United States)

    Velinov, P.; Tassev, Y.; Spassov, H.; Tomova, D.

    The influences of major solar proton flare from 20 January 2005 on the ionized and neutral components in the middle atmosphere are analyzed in this work This flare is accompanied by ground level enhancement of solar cosmic rays and strong geomagnetic storm with SSC on 22 January 2005 Kp index reaches 8 Short-term variations along the ozone profiles are discussed Ozone partial pressure measurements from the programme Halogen Occultation Experiment HALOE realized by the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite UARS are used The GOES-10 satellite obtained the data on high energy protons All energetic intervals 0 8 - 4 MeV 4 - 9 MeV 9 - 15 MeV 15 - 40 MeV 40 - 80 MeV 80 - 165 MeV 165 - 500 MeV are used Cosmic ray data from super neutron monitors Kiel - Germany 54 9 95 6 geomagnetic degree and Potchefstroom - South African Republic -27 3 -90 1 geomagnetic degree are analyzed also Statistical analysis with this big volume of data is accomplished Correlation and cross-correlation analysis between ozone and particle data is made Different behaviors of the ozone response in both hemispheres is obtained on the basis of these computations The ionosphere results for the same period are obtained in the observatory Sofia - Bulgaria by means of A3 method The minimal reflectance frequency fmin which characterizes the state of the lower ionosphere has unusual course For complement the other ionospheric parameters are involved also The present investigation is an example for complex analysis of solar and extra-terrestrial influence in the middle atmosphere

  4. Deriving the Properties of Coronal Pressure Fronts in 3D: Application to the 2012 May 17 Ground Level Enhancement (United States)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M.; Zucca, P.; Vainio, R.; Tylka, A. J.; Vourlidas, A.; De Rosa, M. L.; Linker, J.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.


    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M FM, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M FM values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical (M FM > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.

  5. Revisiting the fascinating properties of EuTiO3 and its mixed crystals with SrTiO3: Possible candidates for novel functionalities (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Köhler, Jürgen


    The research in perovskite oxides is ever increasing since their discovery in 1945. The number of compounds with this rather simple structure is growing continuously since then and fascinating properties ranging from magnetic via dielectric and superconducting have been reported for them. While an extreme research activity has been devoted to SrTiO3 from its discovery on, its analog EuTiO3 has attracted rather little interest until recently. In this review we concentrate on the recent results from studies of this perovskite and its mixed crystals with SrTiO3 and demonstrate that novel interesting properties are related to it. Specifically we provide evidence for the existence of hybrid-paramagnon-phonon coupling at elevated temperatures and its manifestations in bulk sensitive experiments. In addition, the phase diagram of the mixed crystal series is presented where pressure and temperature effects are included.

  6. Research on Gelcasting Formation of SiC-Al2O3-Y2O3-La2O3 Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文利; 徐廷献; 靳正国


    The rheological behavior and gelcasting of composite suspensions of SiC and synthesized Al2O3-Y2O3-La2O3 powder as sintering aid were investigated. It was found that the rheological behavior of SiC particles could be modified with a slightly oxidized surface that was similar to silica in colloidal behavior. The smaller the particles were, the more similar to silica the SiC powder was. The pH value of Al2O3-Y2O3-La2O3 synthesized powder slurry at isoelectric points (IEP) is higher than that of SiC powder. The dispersant PAA-NH4 changes the IEP of both SiC and Al2O3-Y2O3-La2O3 powder slurry to higher pH values. The experimental results indicate that the composite suspension could possess satisfactory stability and lower viscosity at pH =10.1 and PAA-NH4 as dispersant. The optimum solid loading was 5500 in volume. Machinable green bodies with uniform complex shape are gained after molding.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of n-type SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Sun


    Full Text Available We present an investigation of the thermoelectric properties of cubic perovskite SrTiO3. The results are derived from a combination of calculated transport functions obtained from Boltzmann transport theory in the constant scattering time approximation based on the electronic structure and existing experimental data for La-doped SrTiO3. The figure of merit ZT is modeled with respect to carrier concentration and temperature. The model predicts a relatively high ZT at optimized doping and suggests that the ZT value can reach 0.7 at T = 1400 K. Thus ZT can be improved from the current experimental values by carrier concentration optimization.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of n-type SrTiO3 (United States)

    Sun, Jifeng; Singh, David J.


    We present an investigation of the thermoelectric properties of cubic perovskite SrTiO3. The results are derived from a combination of calculated transport functions obtained from Boltzmann transport theory in the constant scattering time approximation based on the electronic structure and existing experimental data for La-doped SrTiO3. The figure of merit ZT is modeled with respect to carrier concentration and temperature. The model predicts a relatively high ZT at optimized doping and suggests that the ZT value can reach 0.7 at T = 1400 K. Thus ZT can be improved from the current experimental values by carrier concentration optimization.

  9. Compensating vacancy defects in Sn- and Mg-doped In2O3 (United States)

    Korhonen, E.; Tuomisto, F.; Bierwagen, O.; Speck, J. S.; Galazka, Z.


    MBE-grown Sn- and Mg-doped epitaxial In2O3 thin-film samples with varying doping concentrations have been measured using positron Doppler spectroscopy and compared to a bulk crystal reference. Samples were subjected to oxygen or vacuum annealing and the effect on vacancy type defects was studied. Results indicate that after oxygen annealing the samples are dominated by cation vacancies, the concentration of which changes with the amount of doping. In highly Sn-doped In2O3 , however, these vacancies are not the main compensating acceptor. Vacuum annealing increases the size of vacancies in all samples, possibly by clustering them with oxygen vacancies.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.X. Zhang; D.M. Liu; Y.Q. Liu; M.L. Zhou; T.Y. Zuo


    The mechanical properties of molybdenum wires doped with different contents of La2O3 were investigated systematically and the interaction between La2O3 particles with dislocations in MoLa2O3 wires were observed by SEM and TEM. It is shown that Mo-La2O3 wires possess much higher tensile strength than the pure Mo. In wires the dislocation motion is strongly hindered by La2O3 particles, which remains up to much higher temperature. Moreover, a number of prismatic dislocation loops and hexagonal dislocation network have been formed in annealed Mo-La2O3wires. The higher strength of Mo-La2O3 than the pure Mo is attributed to the La2O3 particles dispersion strengthening and dislocation strengthening.

  11. Effects of O3 and O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation on trace taste and odor treatment in drinking water%O3O3/H2O2氧化对饮用水中痕量臭味物质的处理效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 杨炳武


    This paper studied the O3 and O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation to treat the trace taste and odor matters, such as Geosmin, MIB, IBMP, IPMP, and TCA.When the O3 dosage was 4.66mg/L, the sequence of removal effect was as: IBMP, TCA, Geosmin, IPMP, and MIB; among them the absolute removal of Geosmin was the maximum reaching 140 ng/L.When the 0.43 mg/L O3 and 10 mg/L H2O2 were dosage to oxidize these five trace taste and odor matters, the removal rate of IBMP and TCA were 75% and 67.2% respectively, which were relatively higher.But with the dosages of O3 and O3/H2O2, the trace taste and odor matters still could not meet the odor threshold concentration standards for drinking water, so following process was needed.%研究了O3O3/H2O2深度氧化法对饮用水中的Geosmin、MIB、IBMP、IPMP及TCA等痕量异味物质的去除效能.当O3投加量为4.66 mg/L时,对痕量异味物质的去除率按IBMP、TCA、Geosmin、IPMP和MIB的排列,其中对Geosmin的绝对去除量最大,达到了140 ng/L.投加O3 0.43 mg/L和H2O2 10 mg/L氧化去除5种痕量异味物质,对IBMP和TCA去除率分别达到75%和67.2%,去除效率较高;但在O3O3/H2O2这样的投加量下,痕量异味物质尚不能达到标准中对嗅阈值的要求,还需配合后续处理工艺.

  12. High refractive index gold nanoparticle doped Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses for THz frequencies (United States)

    Singla, Shivani; Achanta, Venu Gopal; Mahendru, Nancy; Prabhu, Shriganesh S.; Falconieri, Mauro; Sharma, Gopi


    Direct incorporation of gold nanoparticles from suspensions in 30%Bi2O3:70%B2O3 glass was achieved. This method has advantage over traditional methods where a gold salt is added to the precursor mixture and gold nanoparticles are obtained with subsequent heat treatment, eventually inducing crystallization with associated scattering of light and hence resulting in reduced optical quality of material. X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis were carried out in order to confirm the amorphous nature of the material and thermal properties of the prepared glasses, respectively. The size of the gold nanoparticles in the prepared glass matrix was measured using scanning electron microscopy. Optical characterization of prepared glass samples in ultraviolet-visible and terahertz regions was performed using ellipsometry, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and THz-time-domain spectroscopy. Comparison was made between glasses with and without gold nanoparticles and the effect of gold nanoparticle concentration on their optical behaviour is studied. These glasses are found to have high refractive index in the THz region making them suitable for photonic applications.

  13. Correlation among electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter of Bi 2O 3-B 2O 3 glasses (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaoli; Lin, Hai; Wang, Zhiqiang


    For optical basicity and electronic polarizability, the previous studies basically concentrate on the wavelength range of the visible light region. However, heavy metal oxides glasses have a reputation of being good materials for infrared region. In this study, new data of the average electronic polarizability of the oxide ion α, optical basicity Λ and Yamashita-Kurosawa's interaction parameter A of Bi 2O 3-B 2O 3 glasses have been calculated in a wavelength range from 404.66 to 1083.03 nm. The present investigation suggests that both α and Λ increase gradually with increasing wave number, and A decreases with increasing wave number. Furthermore, close correlations are studied among α, Λ, A and refractive index n in this paper. Particularly, it has been found that a quantitative relationship between electronic polarizability and optical basicity is observed in a wavelength range from 404.66 to 1083.03 nm. Our present study extends over a wide range of α, Λ and A values.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ming Zhang; Yue Wang; Qiong Li; Liang-min Yu; Jadranka Travas-Sejdic; Li-juan Zhang


    In this paper,electromagnetic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/γ-Fe2O3 (PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3) micro-bowls,1-2 μm in diameter,were prepared by a simple environment-friendly process.In this method,the aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) instead of any organic solvent was used.FeCI3 acted as a source of FeIII for the formation of γ-Fe2O3 and as an oxidant for the polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT).The bowl-shaped morphology of PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3 composites was strongly influenced by the concentration of CTAB,FeC12,ammonia solution and the reaction temperature.The saturation magnetization of PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3 micro-bowls increased with the increase of FeC12 concentration and reached 6.20 Am2/kg at the FeC12 concentration of 0.30 mol/L.The conductivity of the PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3 composites was in the range of 101 S/cm.The electrical and magnetic sources of PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3 micro-bowls were confirmed by SEM-EDX,TEM,XRD and XPS spectra.And the possible formation mechanism of PEDOT//γ-Fe2O3 was proposed.

  15. Analysis on the damage threshold of MgO:LiNbO3 crystals under multiple femtosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Su, Zhuolin; Meng, Qinglong; Zhang, Bin


    An improved theoretical model of the interaction between multiple femtosecond laser pulses and MgO:LiNbO3 crystals with different doping concentrations has been established based on the classical two-temperature model. The evolutions of electron and lattice temperature with the duration, the repetition frequency and the numbers of multiple femtosecond laser pulses in MgO:LiNbO3 crystals have been simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicholson implicit finite-difference method. Furthermore, the variations of the damage threshold of MgO:LiNbO3 crystals with the parameters of multiple femtosecond laser pulses at different doping concentrations, as well as the influence of doping concentration on damage threshold have also been analyzed. The results show that, the damage threshold of MgO:LiNbO3 crystals increases with the increasing of the duration of the femtosecond laser pulse. The damage threshold of MgO:LiNbO3 crystals first decreases with the increasing of the numbers and the pulse repetition frequency of the laser pulses and then tends to be a constant. The damage threshold of a small amount of MgO-doped LiNbO3 crystals is higher than that of undoped LiNbO3 crystals. Consequently, the resist damage capability of LiNbO3 crystals can be enhanced by doping appropriate MgO in many practical applications.

  16. Effects of climate change, CO2 and O3 on wheat productivity in Eastern China, singly and in combination (United States)

    Tao, Fulu; Feng, Zhaozhong; Tang, Haoye; Chen, Yi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko


    Air pollution and climate change are increasing threats to agricultural production and food security. Extensive studies have focused on the effect of climate change, but the interactive effects of multiple global change factors are poorly understood. Here, we incorporate the interactions between climate change, carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) into an eco-physiological mechanistic model based on three years of O3 Free-Air Concentration Elevation (O3-FACE) experiments. We then investigate the effects of climate change, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and rising O3 concentration ([O3]) on wheat growth and productivity in eastern China in 1996-2005 (2000s) and 2016-2025 (2020s) under two climate change scenarios, singly and in combination. We find the interactive effects of climate change, CO2 and O3 on wheat productivity have spatially explicit patterns; the effect of climate change dominates the general pattern, which is however subject to the large uncertainties of climate change scenarios. Wheat productivity is estimated to increase by 2.8-9.0% due to elevated [CO2] however decline by 2.8-11.7% due to rising [O3] in the 2020s, relative to the 2000s. The combined effects of CO2 and O3 are less than that of O3 only, on average by 4.6-5.2%, however with O3 damage outweighing CO2 benefit in most of the region. This study demonstrates a more biologically meaningful and appropriate approach for assessing the interactive effects of climate change, CO2 and O3 on crop growth and productivity. Our findings promote the understanding on the interactive effects of multiple global change factors across contrasting climate conditions, cast doubt on the potential of CO2 fertilization effect in offsetting possible negative effect of climate change on crop productivity as suggested by many previous studies.

  17. [Removal of trace nitrobenzene in water by VUV/TiO2/O3]. (United States)

    Yin, Jing-jing; Zhang, Peng-yi


    The removal of trace nitrobenzene in water by the ozone-enhanced VUV photocatalysis process (VUV/TiO2/O3) was investigated, in which low-pressure mercury lamp emitting 185 nm vacuum ultraviolet and titanium dioxide film coated on the titanium plate were used as light source and photocatalyst respectively. The results show that, VUV/TiO2/O3 is an effective method to remove trace nitrobenzene in water, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant of nitrobenzene in the VUV/TiO2/O3 process is 102.8% and 30.8% higher than that in the UV/TiO2/O3 and VUV/O3 respectively. And 50 microg/L nitrobenzene in deionized water is totally removed within 60 s by the VUV/TiO2/O3 process. Higher ozone dosage is beneficial to accelerate nitrobenzene degradation, and the apparent rate constant at ozone dosage of 1.52 mg/L is 134.4% higher than that without ozone addition. Though the rate constant is slightly decreased with increase of nitrobenzene concentration, 170 microg/L nitrobenzene is removed to below the detection limit within 2 min. Common species such bicarbonate and humic acid in water significantly inhibit the removal of nitrobenzene, and the apparent rate constant is reduced 82.9% and 71.6% respectively when 2 mmol/L bicarbonate and 3.2 mg/L humic acid are added into the water. The inverse of the apparent rate constant is linear with the bicarbonate concentration. Trace nitrobenzene in surface water containing bicarbonate and natural organic matter can be removed fast and effectively by the VUV/TiO2/O3 process, and 96% nitrobenzene with initial concentration of 90 microg/L is removed within 4 min and the UV absorbance at 254 nm is also reduced 80%.

  18. PZT-like structural phase transitions in the BiFeO3-KNbO3 solid solution. (United States)

    Lennox, Robert C; Taylor, Daniel D; Vera Stimpson, Laura J; Stenning, Gavin B G; Jura, Marek; Price, Mark C; Rodriguez, Efrain E; Arnold, Donna C


    Despite the high prominence of the perovskites BiFeO(3) and KNbO(3) the solid solution between the two has received little attention. We report a detailed neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy study which demonstrates an R3c→P4mm→Amm2 series of structural phase transitions similar to that exhibited by the PbZrO(3)-PbTiO(3) solid solution.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline NaTaO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jingfang; HU Long; ZHAO Jianling; TANG Chengchun; LI Yangxian


    Tantalum pentoxide reacts actively with concentrated NaOH solution under hydrothermal conditions at 180 ℃.In the reaction between NaOH solution and Ta2O5, the structure and composition of the tantalates depend on the reaction time, and the structure evolution results in a remarkable change in light absorption.Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffused reflection spectrum were used to characterize various properties of the obtained solid products.At 180 ℃, the reaction proceeds rapidly.With the increase of time, the reflection peaks of unreacted Ta2O5 in the XRD patterns becomes weaker and weaker.Pure NaTaO3 is obtained after 60 min, which is well crystallized with a uniform cubic morphology.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of PMMA/Al2O3 composite particles by in situ emulsion polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Hongqi Ye; Tianquan Lin; Tao Zhou


    In order to improve its dispersibility, superfine alumina (Al2O3) was encapsulated with poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by in situ emulsion polymerization. It was found that only when the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was much higher than its critical micelle concentration, could PMMA/Al2O3 composite particles with high percentage of grafting (PG) be prepared. The same results were obtained between the experimental and stoichiometric amounts of tris (dodecylbenzenesulfonate) isopropoxide (NDZ), indicating that single-molecule-layer adsorption had taken place between NDZ and Al2O3. Analysis using FTIR. TEM and XPS showed that PMMA/Al2O3 composite particles with core-shell structure had been successfully synthesized by in sire emulsion polymerization. Compared to Al2O3, thermal stability and dispersibility of the composite particles showed marked improvement.

  1. Model study of the influence of cross-tropopause O3 transports on tropospheric O3 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, G.J.; Lelieveld, J.


    Cross-tropopause transport of O3 is a significant factor in the tropospheric budget and distribution of O3. Nevertheless, the distribution in the troposphere of O3 that originates from the stratosphere is uncertain. We study this with a chemistry - general circulation model with relatively high spat

  2. O3/TiO2/Al2O3处理钻井废水的试验研究%Experimental study on the treatment of drilling wastewater by O3/TiO2/Al2O3 process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德敏; 袁建梅


    Improved sol-gel has been used for preparing TiO2 heterogeneous catalyst which uses Al2O3 as its carrier. Drilling wastewater COD as target degradation products,the effects of catalyst dosage,ozone concentration,pH and reaction time on COD removal by O3/TiO2/Al2O3 catalytic oxidation are investigated. The results show that comparied with O3 and O3/TiO2 treatment processes separately,the wastewater COD removing rate is greatly improved by O3/TiO2/Al2O3 process,and alkalic pH environment is good for carrying on the TiO2/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation process. Under the conditions as follows:the catalyst dosage is 3.75 g/L,ozone mass concentration 80 mg/L,and pH 9.4,and after 25 min of reaction time,the COD removing rate can reach 92.35%,wastewater COD decreases from 890 mg/L to about 68 mg/L,meeting the first class requirements of Wastewater Comprehensive Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996).%试验采用改进的溶胶-凝胶法制备了以Al2O3为载体的TiO2多相催化剂,并以钻井废水COD为目标降解物,考察了催化剂投加量、臭氧浓度、pH和反应时间对O3/TiO2/Al2O3催化氧化去除COD的影响。结果表明:相比于单独O3O3/TiO2处理工艺,O3/TiO2/Al2O3明显地提高了对废水COD的去除率,且碱性pH环境利于TiO2/Al2O3催化臭氧化反应的进行;在催化剂投加量为3.75 g/L,臭氧质量浓度为80 mg/L,pH为9.4的条件下,反应25 min后,COD去除率可达92.35%,废水COD可从890 mg/L降至约68 mg/L,达到了《污水综合排放标准》(GB 8978-1996)的一级排放标准。

  3. Effect of cloud-to-ground lightning and meteorological conditions on surface NOx and O3 in Hong Kong (United States)

    Fei, Leilei; Chan, L. Y.; Bi, Xinhui; Guo, Hai; Liu, Yonglin; Lin, Qinhao; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying


    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, meteorological conditions and corresponding surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) variations in relation to thunderstorm and lightning activities over Hong Kong at Kwai Chung (urban), Tung Chung (new town) and Tap Mun (background) during active lightning seasons from 2009 to 2013 were studied by analyzing respective air quality monitoring station data along with CG lightning and meteorological data. We observed NOx enhancement and significant O3 decline on lightning days. Influences of land use types, lightning activities and meteorological conditions on surface NOx and O3 were examined. NOx and O3 concentrations shifted towards higher and lower levels, respectively, during lightning days especially in the dominant wind directions. Principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis were employed to examine the influence of thunderstorm related lightning and meteorological parameters on surface NOx and O3. Wind speed was supposed to be the most important meteorological parameter affecting the concentration of NOx, and lightning activities were observed to make a positive contribution to NOx. Negative contribution of hot, cloudy and wet weather and positive contribution of wind speed were found to affect the concentration of O3. Lightning parameters were also found to make a small positive contribution to O3 concentration at Tap Mun and Tung Chung, but the net effect of lightning activities and corresponding meteorological conditions was the decrease of O3 on lightning days. Reasonably good agreement between the predicted and observed NOx and O3 values indicates that PCA/APCS-MLR is a valuable method to study the thunderstorm induced NOx and O3 variations.

  4. Continuous measurements of PM at ground level over an industrial area of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar system and in situ sensors during TAMEX campaign (United States)

    Georgoussis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Remoudaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Mamouri, R.; Avdikos, G.; Chontidiadis, C.; Kokkalis, P.; Tzezos, M.; Veenstra, M.


    During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o,24'N, 24o 01'E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008. The industrial site of the city of Aliveri is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx while the second industrial complex (HLGC) emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene. The measuring site was equipped with a full meteorological station (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter. The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while a Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime

  5. Enhancing the photoluminescence intensity of CaTiO3:Eu3+ red phosphors with magnesium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰强; 范艳伟; 陈朝阳; 王军华; 赵鹏君; 郝斌


    Red phosphors MgxCa1–xTiO3:Eu3+ (0concentration was about 40 mol.%. It could readily be seen that the strongest PL emission was located at 617 nm monitored at 398 nm, which well matched with the near ultraviolet (NUV, 395–400 nm) GaN-LEDs. More impor-tantly, PL emission intensity (617 nm) of phosphor Mg0.4Ca0.6TiO3:0.03Eu3+ was 4.26 times of that of phosphor CaTiO3:0.03Eu3+. Based on these results, it implied that the PL intensity of phosphorCaTiO3:0.03Eu3+ could be significantly enhanced by introducing Mg2+ into CaTiO3 host lattices and the phosphor Mg0.4Ca0.6TiO3:0.03Eu3+ might be the promising red-emitting phosphor in making tricolor phosphor converted white-LEDs.

  6. Characteristic evaluation of Al2O3/CNTs hybrid materials for micro-electrical discharge machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Seok TAK; Chang-Seung HA; Ho-Jun LEE; Hyung-Woo LEE; Young-Keun JEONG; Myung-Chang KANG


    The characteristic evaluation of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid composites for micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) was described. Alumina matrix composites reinforced with CNTs were fabricated by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. Al2O3 composites with different CNT concentrations were synthesized. The electrical characteristic of Al2O3/CNTs composites was examined. These composites were machined by the EDM process according to the various EDM parameters, and the characteristics of machining were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The electrical conductivity has a increasing tendency as the CNTs content is increased and has a critical point at 5% Al2O3 (volume fraction). In the machining accuracy, many tangles of CNT in Al2O3/CNTs composites cause violent spark. Thus, it causes the poor dimensional accuracy and circularity. The results show that conductivity of the materials and homogeneous distribution of CNTs in the matrix are important factors for micro-EDM of Al2O3/CNTs hybrid composites.

  7. Electrochemical characterization and redox behavior of Nb-doped SrTiO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Wallenberg, L. Reine


    Sr-vacancy compensated Nb-doped SrTiO3 with the nominal composition Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3 has been evaluated as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material in terms of redox stability and electrochemical properties. Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3 has been synthesized with a recently developed modified glycine......-nitrate process. The phase purity and redox behavior have been analyzed with XRD and TGA. The electrochemical properties of Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3 and a composite electrode of Sr0.94Ti0.9Nb0.1O3/YSZ have been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on cone shaped electrodes and on electrodes...... in a symmetrical cell configuration. The experiments indicated that the Nb-doped SrTiO3 electrodes were redox stable and showed a potential ability to be used as a part of a SOFC anode. The electrochemical activity appeared to be governed by the concentration of defect species (especially Ti3+ and V-0...

  8. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects. (United States)

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K


    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions.

  9. Growing LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces by sputter deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Dildar


    Full Text Available Sputter deposition of oxide materials in a high-pressure oxygen atmosphere is a well-known technique to produce thin films of perovskite oxides in particular. Also interfaces can be fabricated, which we demonstrated recently by growing LaAlO3 on SrTiO3 substrates and showing that the interface showed the same high degree of epitaxy and atomic order as is made by pulsed laser deposition. However, the high pressure sputtering of oxides is not trivial and number of parameters are needed to be optimized for epitaxial growth. Here we elaborate on the earlier work to show that only a relatively small parameter window exists with respect to oxygen pressure, growth temperature, radiofrequency power supply and target to substrate distance. In particular the sensitivity to oxygen pressure makes it more difficult to vary the oxygen stoichiometry at the interface, yielding it insulating rather than conducting.

  10. A coprecipitation technique to prepare NaNbO3 and NaTaO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Samuel; A B Gaikwad; V Ravi


    A simple coprecipitation technique has been used successfully for the preparation of pure, ultrafine, single phases of NaNbO3 (NN) and NaTaO3 (NT). An alcoholic solution of ammonium carbonate and ammonium hydroxide was used to precipitate Na+ and Nb5+ (or Ta5+) cations under basic conditions as carbonate and hydroxide, respectively. On heating at 700°C, these precursors produce respective products. For comparison, both NN and NT powders were also prepared by the traditional solid state method. The phase purity and lattice parameters were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The particle size and morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. High Curie temperature BiInO3-PbTiO3 films. (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Wang, Wei; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan


    High Curie temperaturepiezoelectricthin films of xBiInO3-(1-x)PbTiO3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25) were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. It was found that the tetragonality of films decreased with increasing BI content. The dielectric constant and transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f ) exhibit the highest values of 665 and -13.6 C/m(2) at x = 0.20. Rayleigh analyses were performed to identify the extrinsic contributions to dielectric nonlinearity with different x. The composition with x = 0.20 also exhibits the largest extrinsic contributions to dielectric nonlinearity. The Curie temperature (TC ) is increased with increasing x content from 558 to 633 °C; TC at x = 0.20 is about 584 °C.

  12. Exchange bias between ferromagnetic metals and multiferroic BiFeO3, LuMnO3, and TbMnO3 (United States)

    Murakami, Makoto; Fujino, S.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.; Lim, S.-H.; Salamanca-Riba, L.; Kundaliya, D.; Ogale, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Higgins, J.; Wuttig, M.; Takeuchi, I.; Lofland, S.; Cheong, S.-W.


    We are using exchange bias at ferromagnet layer/multiferroic interfaces to study the nature of magnetism in multiferroic materials. Co 5 nm layers have been deposited by sputtering on surfaces of epitaxial BiFeO3 and TbMnO3 thin films and on LuMnO3 single crystals. Epitaxial BiFeO3 and TbMnO3 films were prepared by PLD. Magnetic properties of the Co/multiferroic bilayers are measured using SQUID, VSM, MOKE and XMCD. In BiFeO3, we find that the bilayers exhibit exchange bias even at room temperature. In the TbMnO3 system, increasing of coercive field and exchange bias was also clearly observed below the N'eel temperature. In LuMnO3, we observe positive exchange bias as well as switching of the sign of the exchange bias depending on the cooling procedure. This behavior may be related to the frustration in Mn spins. Difference in the exchange bias behavior between different multiferroic materials will be discussed. The effect of electric field on exchange bias is currently under investigation. Supported by ONR N000140110761, ONR N000140410085, NSF DMR 0094265, DMR 0231291, MRSEC DMR-00-0520471, and the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. LaAlO3 stoichiometry is key to electron liquid formation at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces (United States)

    Warusawithana, M. P.; Richter, C.; Mundy, J. A.; Roy, P.; Ludwig, J.; Paetel, S.; Heeg, T.; Pawlicki, A. A.; Kourkoutis, L. F.; Zheng, M.; Lee, M.; Mulcahy, B.; Zander, W.; Zhu, Y.; Schubert, J.; Eckstein, J. N.; Muller, D. A.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Mannhart, J.; Schlom, D. G.


    Emergent phenomena, including superconductivity and magnetism, found in the two-dimensional electron liquid (2-DEL) at the interface between the insulators lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) and strontium titanate (SrTiO3) distinguish this rich system from conventional 2D electron gases at compound semiconductor interfaces. The origin of this 2-DEL, however, is highly debated, with focus on the role of defects in the SrTiO3, while the LaAlO3 has been assumed perfect. Here we demonstrate, through experiments and first-principle calculations, that the cation stoichiometry of the nominal LaAlO3 layer is key to 2-DEL formation: only Al-rich LaAlO3 results in a 2-DEL. Although extrinsic defects, including oxygen deficiency, are known to render LaAlO3/SrTiO3 samples conducting, our results show that in the absence of such extrinsic defects an interface 2-DEL can form. Its origin is consistent with an intrinsic electronic reconstruction occurring to counteract a polarization catastrophe. This work provides insight for identifying other interfaces where emergent behaviours await discovery.

  14. Flame Spray Synthesis and Ammonia Sensing Properties of Pure α-MoO3 Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Jodhani


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the flame spray synthesis of α-MoO3 using ammonium molybdate as precursor. The as-synthesized particles obtained were found to be ammonium molybdenum oxide and belonged to the triclinic crystal system. The particles crystallized to α-MoO3 upon thermal treatment at 500°C. Sensors were prepared by drop coating the powders onto alumina substrates coated with platinum electrodes and sensing tests were conducted evaluating the detection of ammonia concentrations down to ppb level concentration in air. The flame synthesized α-MoO3 based sensors show high sensitivity towards ammonia and may potentially be used in breath ammonia gas diagnostics.

  15. Inhaled ozone (O3)-induces changes in serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiles in rats☆ (United States)

    Miller, Desinia B.; Karoly, Edward D.; Jones, Jan C.; Ward, William O.; Vallanat, Beena D.; Andrews, Debora L.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Snow, Samantha J.; Bass, Virginia L.; Richards, Judy E.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.


    Air pollution has been linked to increased incidence of diabetes. Recently, we showed that ozone (O3) induces glucose intolerance, and increases serum leptin and epinephrine in Brown Norway rats. In this study, we hypothesized that O3 exposure will cause systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis and that serum metabolomic and liver transcriptomic profiling will provide mechanistic insights. In the first experiment, male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to filtered air (FA) or O3 at 0.25, 0.50, or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for two days to establish concentration-related effects on glucose tolerance and lung injury. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to FA or 1.0 ppm O3, 6 h/day for either one or two consecutive days, and systemic metabolic responses were determined immediately after or 18 h post-exposure. O3 increased serum glucose and leptin on day 1. Glucose intolerance persisted through two days of exposure but reversed 18 h-post second exposure. O3 increased circulating metabolites of glycolysis, long-chain free fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids and cholesterol, while 1,5-anhydroglucitol, bile acids and metabolites of TCA cycle were decreased, indicating impaired glycemic control, proteolysis and lipolysis. Liver gene expression increased for markers of glycolysis, TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis, and decreased for markers of steroid and fat biosynthesis. Genes involved in apoptosis and mitochondrial function were also impacted by O3. In conclusion, short-term O3 exposure induces global metabolic derangement involving glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, typical of a stress–response. It remains to be examined if these alterations contribute to insulin resistance upon chronic exposure. PMID:25838073

  16. Catalytic Synthesis of Tert-Butyl Acetate by Nd2O3/Al2O3-Nd2O3/ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yajun; Han Limin; A Shan


    Nd2O3 was used to support Al2O3 and ZnO to prepare a supported solid base catalyst and investigate the effect of catalyst and reaction conditions on the synthesis of tert-butyl acetate. The composited oxide of Nd2O3/Al2O3-Nd2O3/ZnO exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the synthsis of tert-butyl acetate. The molar ratio of tert-butanol to acetic anhydride is 3:1, the catalyst in total amount of reactant nearly 0.5%, and reaction time 6 h. With the above conditions, yield of the reaction could reach to 65%. The structure of product were verified by the FT-IR, Element analysis, and MS, which proved that the product was tert-butyl acetate.

  17. Effects of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 as the buffer layers of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Can; Tian, ShiLu; Zhou, Yong; Ge, Chen; Guo, HaiZhong; He, Meng; Jin, KuiJuan; Yang, GuoZhen


    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films with BaTiO3 (BTO) or SrTiO3 (STO) as buffer layer were epitaxially grown on SrRuO3-covered SrTiO3 substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the BTO buffer causes tensile strain in the BFO films, whereas the STO buffer causes compressive strain. Different ferroelectric domain structures caused by these two strain statuses are revealed by piezoelectric force microscopy. Electrical and magnetical measurements show that the tensile-strained BFO/BTO samples have reduced leakage current and large ferroelectric polarization and magnetization, compared with compressively strained BFO/STO. These results demonstrate that the electrical and magnetical properties of BFO thin films can be artificially modified by using a buffer layer.

  18. Polaronic metal state at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface (United States)

    Cancellieri, C.; Mishchenko, A. S.; Aschauer, U.; Filippetti, A.; Faber, C.; Barišić, O. S.; Rogalev, V. A.; Schmitt, T.; Nagaosa, N.; Strocov, V. N.


    Interplay of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in oxide heterostructures results in a plethora of fascinating properties, which can be exploited in new generations of electronic devices with enhanced functionalities. The paradigm example is the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 that hosts a two-dimensional electron system. Apart from the mobile charge carriers, this system exhibits a range of intriguing properties such as field effect, superconductivity and ferromagnetism, whose fundamental origins are still debated. Here we use soft-X-ray angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy to penetrate through the LaAlO3 overlayer and access charge carriers at the buried interface. The experimental spectral function directly identifies the interface charge carriers as large polarons, emerging from coupling of charge and lattice degrees of freedom, and involving two phonons of different energy and thermal activity. This phenomenon fundamentally limits the carrier mobility and explains its puzzling drop at high temperatures.

  19. Effects of elevated pO3 on carbon cycle between above and belowground organs of trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-ping; Rennenberg Heinz; Matyssek Rainer


    Translocation of carbohydrate from leaves to roots via phloem and reallocation from roots to leaves via xylem regulate the allocation of carbon (C) between above and belowground organs of trees. To quantitatively analyze effects of elevated ozone concentrations pO3 on the internal cycle of C, juvenile beech and spruce were grown in phytotrons and exposed to ambient and elevated pO3 (i.e. twice-ambient O3 levels, restricted to < 150 ppb) for two growing seasons. The translocation of C in the phloem and xylem was quantitatively studied by investigating the phloem/xylem-loading of sugars, the differentiation of stem conductive tissue and the hourly water flow through the stem. Results in the present study shown, elevated pO3 significantly decreased C translocation from shoot to roots in beech by reducing both sugar concentration in the phloem and conductive phloem area. Elevated pO3 also significantly decreased C reallocation from the roots to the shoot in beech by reducing both of sugar concentration in the xylem and transpiration rate. The adverse effects of elevated pO3 on C translocation in the phloem and xylem, however, were small in spruce.Contrasting to beech, spruce is less sensitive to elevated pO3, regarding to phloem differentiation and sugar concentrations in the phloem and xylem.

  20. 2 dimensional electron gas in chemically stable SrSnO3/KTaO3 interface (United States)

    Kwon, Hyukwoo; Park, Chulkwon; Char, Kookrin; Materials and Devices Physics Lab. Team


    Recent 2DEGs are mostly formed at the interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3(LAO/STO) system, which is explained by the polar catastrophe mechanism. Because of large propensity of oxygen vacancy formation in SrTiO3, there remains a possibility that the origin of 2DEG of LAO/STO system may stem from extra charge of oxygen vacancy of SrTiO3, not from the polar layer of LaAlO3. In this presentation, we report the realization of 2DEG at the interface of SrSnO3/KTaO3(SSO/KTO), which is chemically stable due to extremely stable oxygen stoichiometry. This SrSnO3/KTaO3 heterosturcture was epitaxially grown by puled laser deposition and the interface was found atomically matched by transmission electron microscope and reciprocal space mapping. We measured the magnetic property of SSO/KTO heterostructure and acquired a large ferromagnetic signal, which is unchanged in the temperature range of 4 ~300 K by SQUID magnetometer measurement. As SrSnO3 and KTaO3 are non-magnetic materials, this ferromagnetic signal may result from 2DEG at the interface of SSO/KTO. We hope our results can shed lights on the exact mechanism of 2DEGs that are formed at oxide interfaces.

  1. Structural, Raman and dielectric behavior in Bi1-xSrxFeO3 multiferroic (United States)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Kumar, Ashwini


    The effect of Sr2+ doping on Bi1-xSrxFeO3 (x = 0.0, 0.15, 0.175, 0.25) multiferroic ceramics synthesized by citrate sol-gel method has been investigated by Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data, Raman spectroscopy and dielectric measurement. X-ray diffraction along with the Rietveld-refinement showed a gradual change in crystal structure from rhombohedral (R3c) to pseudotetragonal (P4/mmm) with enhanced divalent Sr2+ ion concentration. All the 13 Raman modes predicted by group theory (ΓR3c = 4A1 + 9E) for R3c structure of Bi1-xSrxFeO3 (x = 0.0, 0.15, 0.175, 0.25) were observed in the present study. The A1-2 and E-4 modes are completely suppressed, while that of A1-3, E-8 mode in Bi1-xSrxFeO3 (x = 0.175, 0.25) and E-2, E-5, and E-8 modes (x = 0.25) disappear completely as compared to parent BFO. The structural phase transition and weakening of long-range ferroelectric order with increasing doping concentration are thus further confirmed from Raman scattering spectra. The dielectric anomaly has been observed in dielectric constant and dielectric loss near 325 °C, 305 °C, 270 °C and 250 °C (f = 10 kHz) in BiFeO3, Bi0.85Sr0.15FeO3, Bi0.825Sr0.175FeO3 and Bi0.75Sr0.25FeO3, respectively.

  2. A modified micrometeorological gradient method for estimating O3 dry deposition over a forest canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Wu


    Full Text Available Small pollutant concentration gradients between levels above a plant canopy result in large uncertainties in estimated air–surface exchange fluxes when using existing micrometeorological gradient methods, including the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM and the modified Bowen-Ratio method (MBR. A modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM is proposed in this study for estimating O3 dry deposition fluxes over a forest canopy using concentration gradients between a level above and a level below the canopy top, taking advantage of relatively large gradients between these levels due to significant pollutant uptake at top layers of the canopy. The new method is compared with the AGM and MBR methods and is also evaluated using eddy-covariance (EC flux measurements collected at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site, Massachusetts during 1993–2000. All the three gradient methods (AGM, MBR and MGM produced similar diurnal cycles of O3 dry deposition velocity (Vd(O3 to the EC measurements, with the MGM method being the closest in magnitude to the EC measurements. The multi-year average Vd(O3 differed significantly between these methods, with the AGM, MBR and MGM method being 2.28, 1.45 and 1.18 times of that of the EC. Sensitivity experiments identified several input parameters for the MGM method as first-order parameters that affect the estimated Vd(O3. A 10% uncertainty in the wind speed attenuation coefficient or canopy displacement height can cause about 10% uncertainty in the estimated Vd(O3. An unrealistic leaf area density vertical profile can cause an uncertainty of a factor of 2.0 in the estimated Vd(O3. Other input parameters or formulas for stability functions only caused an uncertainly of a few percent. The new method provides an alternative approach in monitoring/estimating long-term deposition fluxes of similar pollutants over tall canopies.

  3. Trends in (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m superlattices with varying layer thicknesses

    KAUST Repository

    Jilili, J.


    We investigate the thickness dependence of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m (n, m = 2, 4, 6, 8) superlattices using density functional theory. The electronic structure turns out to be highly sensitive to the onsite Coulomb interaction. In contrast to bulk SrTiO3, strongly distorted O octahedra are observed in the SrTiO3 layers with a systematic off centering of the Ti atoms. The systems favour ferromagnetic spin ordering rather than the antiferromagnetic spin ordering of bulk LaMnO3 and all show half-metallicity, while a systematic reduction of the minority spin band gaps as a function of the LaMnO3 and SrTiO3 layer thicknesses originates from modifications of the Ti dxy states.

  4. Formation and Characterization of ZrO3 and HfO3 Molecules in Solid Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gong; Ming-fei Zhou


    ZrO3 and HfO3 molecules were prepared via reactions of metal monoxides with dioxygen in solid argon and were characterized using matrix isolation infrared absorption spectroscopy as well as theoretical calculations. Unlike the titanium monoxide molecule, which reacted spontaneously with dioxygen to form TiO3, the ZrO and HfO molecules reacted with dioxygen to give the ZrO3 and HfO3 molecules only under visible light irradiation. Density functional calculations predicted that both the ZrO3 and HfO3 molecules possess a closed-shell singlet ground state with a non-planar Cs geometry, in which the side-on coordinated O2 falls into the peroxide category.

  5. Influence of AlF3 and hydrothermal conditions on morphologies of α-Al2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Gao-feng; WANG Jing; KANG Jian


    Homogeneous α-Al2O3 platelets were synthesized by introducing AlF3 to alumina precursor.The effects of AlF3 additive on the phase transformation and morphology of the prepared α-Al2O3 platelets were investigated.The results show that a single phase of α-Al2O3 with an average particle size of 8μm can be obtained at 900℃ with 2% AlF3 additive.The transformation temperature decreasing IS attributed to introduction of Al3+ vacancy and to the formation of intermediate compound of AlOF,which is considered to accelerate the mass transportation from transitional Al2O3 to α-Al2O3.AlF3 concentration and hydrothermal temperature can also affect the morphology of α-Al2O3.When hydrothermal temperature is 120℃,the morphology of α-Al2O3 transforms from irregular to flat hexangular platelet with increasing AlF3 concentration.As hydrothermal temperature increases,the morphology of α-Al2O3 with 2% AlF3 additive changes from polyhedron to hexangular platelet and then to vermicular.

  6. Energy Spectra, g Factors and Their Pressure-Induced and/or Thermal Shifts of SrTiO3:Cr3+ and SrTiO3:Mn4+ Ⅲ: R-Line Thermal Shifts of SrTiO3:Mn4+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-Ping; ZHANG Ji-Ping


    By taking into account all the irreducible representations and their components in the electron-phonon interaction (EPI) as well as all the levels and the admixtures of basic wavefunctions within d3 electronic configuration,the values of the parameters in the expressions of thermal shift (TS) from EPI for the ground level, R level and R line of SrTiO3:Mn4+ have been evaluated; the R-line TS and various contributions to it have been calculated in the low-temperature region. It is found that all the three terms of R-line TS from EPI relevant to the lattice vibration are red shifts. The Raman term is the largest, the neighbor-level term is the second, and the optical-branch term is very small over the range of T ≤ 80 K. The contribution to R-line TS from thermal expansion has been approximately neglected in this work. The very strong EPI relevant to its lattice vibration for SrTiO3:Mn4+ causes its R-line TS to be an unusually large red-shift. Only by taking into account the strong softening of the low-frequency acoustic modes of the lattice vibration at low temperatures, can we successfully explain the variation of R-line TS of SrTiO3:Mn4+ with temperature.``

  7. Scintillation properties of Ce3+ doped SiO2-Al2O3-Gd2O3 glass%Ce3+掺杂SiO2-Al2O3-Gd2O3玻璃的闪烁性能∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力挽; 周秦岭; 邵冲云; 张瑜; 胡丽丽; 杨秋红; 陈丹平


    Scintillation glass is an attractive material due to its many advantages including low-cost and easy-manufacturing compared with single crystal. However the low density of glass scintillator restricts its applications. The introduction of heavy components such as PbO and Bi2O3 allows the density of the glass to be easily increased to more than 6.0 g/cm3 which is desirable for most applications. However, it is usually accompanied with a dramatic decrease in the luminescence response of Ce3+ions. Although Gd2O3 based glass has a relatively high light yield, it is far below the high silica glass. In order to explain why the luminescent efficiency of Ce3+ doped glass with low density is high while that with high density is low, a glass-forming region of SiO2-Al2O3-Gd2O3 ternary system is achieved by high-temperature melt-quenching method. Ce3+doped SiO2-Al2O3-Gd2O3 and SiO2-Al2O3-Gd2O3-Ln2O3 (Ln=Y, La, Lu) scintillation glasses are prepared at reducing atmosphere. Their optical and scintillation properties are investigated. The results show that the content of Gd2O3 can reach as high as 30%mol without phase separation. In addition, the UV cut-off position is red-shifted, PL intensity decreases and decay time reduces from 70 to 37.6 ns with increasing the Gd2O3 concentration. After Lu2O3, La2O3, Y2O3 are added in the glass, the UV cut-off position is red-shifted and PL intensity decreases. Moreover the UV cut-off position is in the order of La>Y>Lu and the decay time is in the order of La With the UV cut-off position red-shifted, the bandgap of glass becomes narrow, resulting in the 5 d level of Ce3+ions gradually approaching to the conduction band and the 5 d electrons easily combining with the holes in the glass through the conduction band. Namely, charge transferring quenching occurs. This is the reason why the PL intensity and decay time both decrease. It can also explain why the luminescent efficiency of Ce3+ doped glass with low density is high while that with

  8. A new approach to ozone plant fumigation: The Web-O3-Fumigation. Isoprene response to a gradient of ozone stress in leaves of Quercus pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricoli D


    Full Text Available The innovative Web-O3-Fumigation (WOF is a suitable technique to study O3 effects in plants. Through WOF, a very high dose of O3 fumigation may be obtained at the level of selected leaves, while allowing a gradient of ozone stress in branches at different distance from branch directly fumigated with O3 diffusing from perforated Teflon tubes. We used WOF to study the impact of O3 on the emission of isoprene, a putatively powerful antioxidant, in leaves of Quercus pubescens. In our experiment we produced with WOF: i approximately 300 ppb O3 on the leaves of the branch directly exposed to the pollutant; ii approximately 190 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant less than 30 cm from the treated branch; iii a summer ambient O3 concentration (100 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant more than 30 cm from the branch directly fumigated. High O3 concentrations induced a long-lasting inhibition of photosynthesis and isoprene emission in leaves which were directly fumigated. However, isoprene emission was stimulated by intermediate O3 concentration 288 hours after the end of the treatment. Isoprene stimulation, and the activation of the related antioxidant mechanism, may therefore be dependent on the O3 concentration and may be different in plant canopies depending on their exposure to the pollutant

  9. A new approach to ozone plant fumigation: The Web-O3-Fumigation. Isoprene response to a gradient of ozone stress in leaves of Quercus pubescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli P


    Full Text Available The innovative Web-O3-Fumigation (WOF is a suitable technique to study O3 effects in plants. Through WOF, a very high dose of O3 fumigation may be obtained at the level of selected leaves, while allowing a gradient of ozone stress in branches at different distance from branch directly fumigated with O3 diffusing from perforated Teflon tubes. We used WOF to study the impact of O3 on the emission of isoprene, a putatively powerful antioxidant, in leaves of Quercus pubescens. In our experiment we produced with WOF: i approximately 300 ppb O3 on the leaves of the branch directly exposed to the pollutant; ii approximately 190 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant less than 30 cm from the treated branch; iii a summer ambient O3 concentration (100 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant more than 30 cm from the branch directly fumigated. High O3 concentrations induced a long-lasting inhibition of photosynthesis and isoprene emission in leaves which were directly fumigated. However, isoprene emission was stimulated by intermediate O3 concentration 288 hours after the end of the treatment. Isoprene stimulation, and the activation of the related antioxidant mechanism, may therefore be dependent on the O3 concentration and may be different in plant canopies depending on their exposure to the pollutant

  10. Catalytic oxidation of gas-phase elemental mercury by nano-Fe2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanhai Kong; Jianrong Qiu; Hao Liu; Ran Zhao; Zhihui Ai


    Heterogeneous oxidation of gas-phase Hg0 by nano-Fe2O3 was investigated on a fixed bed reactor, and the effects of oxygen concentration, bed temperature, water vapour concentration and particle size have been discussed. The results showed that Hg0 could be oxidized by active oxygen atom on the surface of nano-Fe2O3 as well as lattice oxygen in nano-Fe2O3. Among the factors that affect Hg0 oxidation by nano-Fe2O3, bed temperature plays an important role. More than 40% of total mercury was oxidized at 300℃,however, the test temperature at 400℃ could cause sintering of nano-catalyst, which led to a lower efficiency of Hg0 oxidation. The increase of oxygen concentration could promote mercury oxidation and led to higher Hg0 oxidation efficiency. No obvious mercury oxidation was detected in the pure N2 atmosphere, which indicates that oxygen is required in the gas stream for mercury oxidation. The presence of water vapour showed different effects on mercury oxidation depending on its concentration. The lower content of water vapour could promote mercury oxidation, while the higher content of water vapour inhibits mercury oxidation.

  11. Non-linear Electrical Characteristics of ZnO Modified by Trioxides Sb2O3, Bi2O3, Fe2O3, Al2O3 and La2O3 (United States)

    Mekap, Anita; Das, Piyush R.; Choudhary, R. N. P.


    The non-linear behavior of polycrystalline-ZnO-based voltage-dependent resistors is considered in the present study. A high-temperature solid-state reaction route was used to synthesize polycrystalline samples of ZnO modified by small amounts of the trioxides Sb2O3, Bi2O3, Fe2O3, etc. in various proportions. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to study the structural and microstructural characteristics of modified ZnO. Detailed studies of non-linear phenomena of the I-V characteristics, dielectric permittivity ( ɛ r), impedance ( Z), etc. of the samples have provided many interesting results. All the samples exhibited dielectric anomaly. Non-linear variation in polarization with electric field for all the samples was observed. Moreover, significant non-linearity in the I-V characteristics was observed in the breakdown region of all the samples at room temperature. The non-linear coefficient ( α) in different cases, i.e. for I- V, ɛ r- f, ɛ r- T, and ɛ r- Z, was calculated and found to be appreciable. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity suggests that the material obeys Jonscher's universal power law.

  12. Raman studies in tetragonal structure PbTeO3 (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Wang, Wendan; Liu, Qijun; Zhang, Linji; Lei, Li; Zhang, Leilei; Liu, Zhengtang


    Raman spectra of tetragonal phase PbTeO3 have been acquired from single-crystal sample synthesized by hydrothermal method. Theory calculations have been carried out to analyze the Raman spectra. Raman bands between 600 cm-1 and 800 cm-1 are attributed to the internal modes of Te-O bonds in TeO3 pyramid, while Raman bands between 136 cm-1 and 400 cm-1 are assigned to the external modes of TeO3 pyramid. The vibration corresponding to Raman frequencies below 119 cm-1 are consisted of Pb lattice modes and external modes of TeO3. The effects of pressure on the Raman spectrum of PbTeO3 have been investigated up to 23 GPa. A splitting of 119 cm-1 peak was observed at 13.4 GPa, which may caused by the rotation of TeO3 pyramid instead of the phase transition.

  13. What is Eating Ozone? Thermal Reactions between SO2 and O3 and Implications for the Icy Satellites (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark; Hudson, Reggie L.; Gerakines, Perry A.


    Here we present first results on a non-radiolytic, thermally-driven reaction sequence in solid H2O + SO2 + O3 mixtures at 50 – 130 K, which produces bisulfate (HSO4-). The results show that at the temperatures of the Jovian satellites, SO2 and O3 will efficiently react making co-detection of these species unlikely. Our results also give a viable explanation for why O3 has not been detected on Callisto and why the concentration of SO2 appears to be highest in its leading hemisphere. Furthermore our results also predict that the SO2 concentration on Ganymede will be lowest in the trailing hemisphere, where the concentration of O3 is the highest. This work is supported by NASA's Outer Planets Research program.

  14. Material properties of perovskites in the quasi-ternary system LaFeO3-LaCoO3-LaNiO3 (United States)

    Tietz, F.; Arul Raj, I.; Ma, Q.; Baumann, S.; Mahmoud, A.; Hermann, R. P.


    An overview is presented on the variation of electrical conductivity, oxygen permeation, and thermal expansion coefficient as a function of the composition of perovskites in the quasi-ternary system LaFeO3-LaCoO3-LaNiO3. Powders of thirteen nominal perovskite compositions were synthesized under identical conditions by the Pechini method. The powder X-ray diffraction data of two series, namely La(Ni0.5Fe0.5)1-xCoxO3 and LaNi0.5-xFexCo0.5O3, are presented after the powders had been sintered at 1100 °C for 6 h in air. The measurements revealed a rhombohedral structure for all compositions except LaNi0.5Fe0.5O3 for which 60% rhombohedral and 40% orthorhombic phase was found. The maximum DC electrical conductivity value of the perovskites at 800 °C was 1229 S cm-1 for the composition LaCoO3 and the minimum was 91 S cm-1 for the composition LaCo0.5Fe0.5O3. The oxygen permeation of samples with promising conductivities at 800 °C was one order of magnitude lower than that of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF). The highest value of 0.017 ml cm-2 min-1 at 950 °C was obtained with LaNi0.5Co0.5O3. The coefficients of thermal expansion varied in the range of 13.2×10-6 K-1 and 21.9×10-6 K-1 for LaNi0.5Fe0.5O3 and LaCoO3, respectively. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used as probe for the oxidation states, local environment and magnetic properties of iron ions as a function of chemical composition. The substitution had a great influence on the chemical properties of the materials.

  15. Structural Behaviour of Solid Solutions in the NdAlO3-SrTiO3 System (United States)

    Ohon, Natalia; Stepchuk, Roman; Blazhivskyi, Kostiantyn; Vasylechko, Leonid


    Single-phase mixed aluminates-titanates Nd1- x Sr x Al1- x Ti x O3 ( x = 0.3 ÷ 0.9) were prepared from stoichiometric amounts of constituent oxides Nd2O3, Al2O3, TiO2 and strontium carbonate SrCO3 by solid-state reaction technique in air at 1773 K. Crystal structure parameters of Nd1- x Sr x Al1- x Ti x O3 were refined by full-profile Rietveld refinement in space groups R overline{3} c ( x = 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.8) and Pm overline{3} m ( x = 0.9). Comparison of the obtained structural parameters with the literature data for the end members of the system NdAlO3 and SrTiO3 revealed formation of two kinds of solid solutions Nd1-xSrxAl1-xTixO3 with the cubic and rhombohedral perovskite structure. Morphotropic rhombohedral-to-cubic phase transition in Nd1-xSrxAl1-xTixO3 series occurs at x = 0.84. Based on the results obtained as well as the literature data for the parent compounds, the tentative phase diagram of the NdAlO3-SrTiO3 pseudo-binary system have been constructed.

  16. Synergistic impacts of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on summer surface O3 in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qu; Junling An; Jian Li


    A factor separation technique and an improved regional air quality model (RAQM) were applied to calculate synergistic contributions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs),biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to daily maximum surface 03 (O3DM) concentrations in East Asia in summer (June to August 2000).The summer averaged synergistic impacts of AVOCs and NOx are dominant in most areas of North China,with a maximum of 60 ppbv,while those of BVOCs and NOx are notable only in some limited areas with high BVOC emissions in South China,with a maximum of 25 ppbv.This result implies that BVOCs contribute much less to summer averaged O3DM concentrations than AVOCs in most areas of East Asia at a coarse spatial resolution (1°×1°) although global emissions of BVOCs are much greater than those of AVOCs.Daily maximum total contributions of BVOCs can approach 20 ppbv in North China,but they can reach 40 ppbv in South China,approaching or exceeding those in some developed countries in Europe and North America.BVOC emissions in such special areas should be considered when O3 control measures are taken.Synergistic contributions among AVOCs,BVOCs and NOx significantly enhance O3 concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and decrease them in some areas in South China.Thus,the total contributions of BVOCs to O3DM vary significantly from day to day and from location to location.This result suggests that O3 control measures obtained from episodic studies could be limited for long-term applications.

  17. Optimization of photoluminescence of Y(2)O(3):Eu and Gd(2)O(3):Eu phosphors synthesized by thermolysis of 2,4-pentanedione complexes. (United States)

    Antic, B; Rogan, J; Kremenovic, A; Nikolic, A S; Vucinic-Vasic, M; Bozanic, D K; Goya, G F; Colomban, P H


    Spherical shaped nanoparticles of series Y(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3) (x = 0.06, 0.10, 0.20, and 2) and Gd(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3) (x = 0.06, 0.10) were prepared by thermolysis of 2,4-pentanedione complexes of Y, Gd, and Eu. The bixbyite phase of Gd(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3) samples was formed at 500 degrees C, whereas the thermal decomposition of Y and Eu complexes' mixtures occurred at higher temperatures. Linearity in the concentration dependence on lattice parameter confirmed the formation of solid solutions. The distribution of Eu(3+) in Gd(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3) was changed with thermal annealing: in the as-prepared sample (x = 0.10) the distribution was preferential at C(3i) sites while in the annealed samples, Eu(3+) were distributed at both C(2) and C(3i) sites. Rietveld refinement of site occupancies as well as emission spectra showed a random distribution of cations in Y(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3). The photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the sample showed red emission with the main peak at 614 nm ((5)D(0)-(7)F(2)). The PL intensity increased with increasing concentration of Eu(3+) in both series. Infrared excitation was required to obtain good Raman spectra. The linear dependence of the main Raman peak wavenumber offers a non-destructive method for monitoring the substitution level and its homogeneity at the micron scale.

  18. Formation of multiferroic PbTiO3/PbFe12O19 composite by exceeding the solubility limit of Fe in PbTiO3 (United States)

    Jaffari, G. Hassnain; Bilal, M.; Ur Rahman, Jamil; Lee, Soonil


    PbTiO3/PbFe12O19 composites have been synthesized by keeping the Fe concentration (x) in PbFexTi1-xO3 beyond solubility limit, i.e., x > 0.1% and 5% Pb excess. Both these factors have been successfully utilized to extract Fe doped PbTiO3 tetragonal phase which is composited with Magnetoplumbite (PbFe12O19) phase. A systematic evolution of the tetragonality of the former and improved stoichiometry of the later constituent has been observed. As x increases, emergence of additional Raman mode around 650 cm-1 with Fe addition was observed. Systematic increase in the relative intensity of this mode with x, showed that this mode corresponds to the magnetoplumbite phase. In addition to that resultant composite exhibited noticeable systematic decrease in the value of the energy gap as a function of x. Increasing Fe concentration in PbTiO3 constituent, led to monotonic decrease in c/a and increase in strain experienced by PbTiO3. Increase in the value of the saturation polarization was observed up to x = 0.4, which is identified to be associated with the strain induced by the dopant. A comprehensive magnetic characterization revealed monotonic decrease in magnetization with temperature for all compositions. Finally, we found an anomalous temperature dependent trend in the magnetic coercivity which is explained in terms of low temperature decrease in effective magnetic anisotropy by including magneto-electric coupling. Both constituent phases in the composite being ferroelectric and ferromagnetic at room temperature led to formation of better multiferroic properties and exhibited tunable physical properties with x.

  19. Pinning enhancement in MgB2 superconducting thin films by magnetic nanoparticles of Fe2O3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Taylan Koparan; A Surdu; K Kizilkaya; A Sidorenko; E Yanmaz


    MgB2 thin films were fabricated on -plane Al2O3 (1$\\bar{1}$02) substrates. First, deposition of boron was performed by rf magnetron sputtering on Al2O3 substrates and followed by a post-deposition annealing at 850 °C in magnesium vapour. In order to investigate the effect of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on the structural and magnetic properties of films, MgB2 films were coated with different concentrations of Fe2O3 nanoparticles by spin coating process. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density c was calculated from the M–H loops and magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density, p(), was investigated for the films containing different concentrations of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The critical current densities, c, in 3Tmagnetic field at 5 K were found to be around 2.7 × 104 A/cm2, 4.3 × 104 A/cm2, 1.3 × 105 A/cm2 and 5.2 × 104 A/cm2 for films with concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100% Fe2O3, respectively. It was found that the films coated with Fe2O3 nanoparticles have significantly enhanced the critical current density. It can be noted that especially the films coated by Fe2O3 became stronger in the magnetic field and at higher temperatures. It was believed that coated films indicated the presence of artificial pinning centres created by Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The results of AFM indicate that surface roughness of the films significantly decreased with increase in concentration of coating material.

  20. Interaction of O3+ Ions with Al2O3 Nanocapillaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-Meng; XU Jun-Kui; LOU Feng-Jun; YIN Yong-Zhi; ZHOU Chun-Lin; QIU Xi-Yu; WANG Jun; WANG Xing-An; SUN Guang-Zhi; CHEN Yi-Feng; XI Fa-Yuan; SAHO Jian-Xiong; CUI Ying; DING Bao-Wei


    @@ We investigate angular distributions of the transmitted 60 keV and 120 ke mV O3+ ions through nanocapillaries with 5Onm diameter and 10 μm length. The experimental results are in agreement with the 'guiding effect' found by Stolterfoht et al. For different tilted angles of the nanocapillary membrane with respect to the beam, the angular distributions of the transmitted ions are measured by a one-dimensional micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. Moreover, the dependence of this guiding effect on the projectile energy is studied.

  1. Fabrication and convergent X-ray nanobeam diffraction characterization of submicron-thickness SrTiO3 crystalline sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tilka


    Full Text Available The creation of thin SrTiO3 crystals from (001-oriented SrTiO3 bulk single crystals using focused ion beam milling techniques yields sheets with submicron thickness and arbitrary orientation within the (001 plane. Synchrotron x-ray nanodiffraction rocking curve widths of these SrTiO3 sheets are less than 0.02°, less than a factor of two larger than bulk SrTiO3, making these crystals suitable substrates for epitaxial thin film growth. The change in the rocking curve width is sufficiently small that we deduce that dislocations are not introduced into the SrTiO3 sheets. Observed lattice distortions are consistent with a low concentration of point defects.

  2. Fabrication and convergent X-ray nanobeam diffraction characterization of submicron-thickness SrTiO3 crystalline sheets (United States)

    Tilka, J. A.; Park, J.; Sampson, K. C.; Cai, Z.; Evans, P. G.


    The creation of thin SrTiO3 crystals from (001)-oriented SrTiO3 bulk single crystals using focused ion beam milling techniques yields sheets with submicron thickness and arbitrary orientation within the (001) plane. Synchrotron x-ray nanodiffraction rocking curve widths of these SrTiO3 sheets are less than 0.02°, less than a factor of two larger than bulk SrTiO3, making these crystals suitable substrates for epitaxial thin film growth. The change in the rocking curve width is sufficiently small that we deduce that dislocations are not introduced into the SrTiO3 sheets. Observed lattice distortions are consistent with a low concentration of point defects.

  3. A new combustion route to -Fe2O3 synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Venkataraman; Vijay A Hiremath; S K Date; S D Kulkarni


    A new combustion route for the synthesis of -Fe2O3 is reported by employing purified -Fe2O3 as aprecursor in the present investigation. This synthesis which is similar to a self propagation combustion reaction, involves fewer steps, a shorter overall processing time, is a low energy reaction without the need of any explosives, and also the reaction is completed in a single step yielding magnetic iron oxide i.e. -Fe2O3. The as synthesized -Fe2O3 is characterized employing thermal, XRD, SEM, magnetic hysteresis, and density measurements. The effect of ball-milling on magnetic properties is also presented.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of LaCrO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhanheng; XING Xianran; YUAN Wenxia; HUANG Xiaowei; LI Hongwei


    The nano powders of LaCrO3 were prepared by a sol-gel route. The heat capacity of LaCrO3 nano powders from 350 to 550 K was measured by DSC method and expressed as: Cp(LaCro3) (±0.112) = 166.844 - 8.500 × 10-3T - 1.022 ×vanic cell. From measured EMF data of the reversible cell, (-) Pt, La2O3, LaF3, O2 (1 atm)|CaF2|O2(1 atm), LaF3, LaCrO3, Cr2O3, Pt(+), and the relevant value of Gibbs free energy, the Gibbs free energy of formation of LaCrO3 was calculated from 700 to 885 K: △G(φ) f,LaCro3 = -1555.364 + 0.354T (kJ/mol) (700-885 K). And the Gibbs free energy change of reaction from simple oxides La2O3 and Cr2O3 was calculated to be: △G(φ) f,ox(LaCrO3) = -94.758 + 8.530 × 10-2T (kJ/mol) (700-885 K).

  5. Effect of microstructure on slag resistance of Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 bricks%Al2O3-Cr2O3砖显微结构对抗渣性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红刚; 李鹏涛; 付建莹; 闫双志; 王刚; 耿可明


    The slag resistance of two Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 bricks (with 10 mass%Cr2 O3 )A and B were researched using static crucible method and rotary slag method,respectively.The results show that,two Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 bricks have similar properties such as apparent porosity,bulk density,thermal shock resistance,and chem-ical compositions.Brick B has higher strength than brick A.Compared with brick B:brick A has smaller in-ner pores,because the white corundum aggregates in brick A are smoother and denser with continuous particle size distribution;Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 solid solution in brick A is smaller,crossing and forming net structure with small gaps,which reduces the penetration and wear of slag to refractories,meaning that brick A has better slag resistance than brick B.It’s obvious that optimizing microstructure is an effective way to im-prove the slag resistance of Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 materials.%分别采用静态坩埚抗渣法和回转抗渣法,对w(Cr2 O3)=10%的A和B两种Al2 O3-Cr2 O3砖进行了抗渣性能对比。结果发现:两种砖的化学组成、显气孔率、体积密度和抗热震性相近,B砖强度优于A砖的。但由于与B砖相比,A砖内部气孔尺寸更小,所用电熔白刚玉骨料形貌平滑,较为致密,粒度呈连续式分布,且A砖中Al2 O3-Cr2 O3固溶体发育较小,相互交错,形成了孔隙较小的空间网状结构,这种显微结构显著降低了熔渣对耐火材料的渗透和破坏,使A砖的抗渣性优于B砖的。因此,制备微气孔化结构的制品是提高Al2 O3-Cr2 O3材料抗渣性能的有效途径。

  6. Study of structural and electronic transport properties of Ce-doped LaMnO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahid Husain; R J Choudhary; Ravi Kumar; S I Patil; J P Srivastava


    The structural and electronic transport properties of La1-CeMnO3 (=0.0-1.0) have been studied. All the samples exhibit orthorhombic crystal symmetry and the unit cell volume decreases with Ce doping. They also make a metal–insulator transition (MIT) and transition temperature increases with increase in Ce concentration up to 50% doping. The system La0.5Ce0.5MnO3 also exhibits MIT instead of charge-ordered state as observed in the hole doped systems of the same composition.

  7. Structure Property and Visible Upconversion of Er3+ Doped Gd2O3 Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海; 张慰萍; 尹民; 楼立人; 夏上达


    Gd2O3∶Er nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. The structure properties of Gd2O3∶Er were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The visible up-converted luminescence spectra of Er3+ were investigated under excitation to 4I9/2 level by 785 nm laser. Laser power, Er3+ ion concentration and temperature dependences of the upconverted emissions were investigated to understand the upconversion mechanisms. Excited state absorption and energy transfer process are discussed as the possible mechanisms for the upconversion.

  8. Wind farm and solar park effects on plant-soil carbon cycling: uncertain impacts of changes in ground-level microclimate. (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas J


    Global energy demand is increasing as greenhouse gas driven climate change progresses, making renewable energy sources critical to future sustainable power provision. Land-based wind and solar electricity generation technologies are rapidly expanding, yet our understanding of their operational effects on biological carbon cycling in hosting ecosystems is limited. Wind turbines and photovoltaic panels can significantly change local ground-level climate by a magnitude that could affect the fundamental plant-soil processes that govern carbon dynamics. We believe that understanding the possible effects of changes in ground-level microclimates on these phenomena is crucial to reducing uncertainty of the true renewable energy carbon cost and to maximize beneficial effects. In this Opinions article, we examine the potential for the microclimatic effects of these land-based renewable energy sources to alter plant-soil carbon cycling, hypothesize likely effects and identify critical knowledge gaps for future carbon research.

  9. Potential Barrier Lowering and Electrical Transport at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interface (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuri


    Interfacial phenomena form the basis for modern-day devices and continue to be an area of fundamental interest in condensed matter research. Advances in oxide thin film fabrication have enabled the synthesis of atomically precise oxide interfaces and hence have allowed for controlled investigation of interfacial phenomena in these materials. With the rich variety of functionalities exhibited by transition-metal oxides, a wide array of novel properties may be achieved at oxide heterointerfaces. An exemplary study is the discovery of metallicity at the interface of two band insulators, LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO), which has stimulated many subsequent experimental as well as theoretical studies. However, there is still intense debate on the origin of metallicity, specifically whether it arises from electronic reconstruction or oxygen vacancies. Using a combination of vertical transport measurements across and lateral transport measurements along the LAO/STO heterointerface, we demonstrate that significant potential barrier lowering and band bending are the cause of interfacial metallicity. Transport measurements across the heterointerface, indicate that barrier lowering and enhanced band bending extends over 2.5 nm into LAO as well as STO. We explain the origins of high-temperature carrier saturation, lower carrier concentration, and higher mobility in the sample with the thinnest LAO film on a STO substrate. Lateral transport results suggest that parasitic interface scattering centers limit the low-temperature lateral electron mobility of the metallic channel. [4pt] *In collaboration with Franklin Wong, Miaofang Chi, Rajesh Chopdekar, Brittany Nelson-Cheeseman and Nigel Browning.

  10. Characteristics of UV-MicroO3 Reactor and Its Application to Microcystins Degradation during Surface Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangcan Zhu


    Full Text Available The UV-ozone (UV-O3 process is not widely applied in wastewater and potable water treatment partly for the relatively high cost since complicated UV radiation and ozone generating systems are utilized. The UV-microozone (UV-microO3, a new advanced process that can solve the abovementioned problems, was introduced in this study. The effects of air flux, air pressure, and air humidity on generation and concentration of O3 in UV-microO3 reactor were investigated. The utilization of this UV-microO3 reactor in microcystins (MCs degradation was also carried out. Experimental results indicated that the optimum air flux in the reactor equipped with 37 mm diameter quartz tube was determined to be 18∼25 L/h for efficient O3 generation. The air pressure and humidity in UV-microO3 reactor should be low enough in order to get optimum O3 output. Moreover, microcystin-RR, YR, and LR (MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR could be degraded effectively by UV-microO3 process. The degradation of different MCs was characterized by first-order reaction kinetics. The pseudofirst-order kinetic constants for MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR degradation were 0.0093, 0.0215, and 0.0286 min−1, respectively. Glucose had no influence on MC degradation through UV-microO3. The UV-microO3 process is hence recommended as a suitable advanced treatment method for dissolved MCs degradation.

  11. The impact of biofuel poplar cultivation on ground-level ozone and premature human mortality depends on cultivar selection and planting location


    Ashworth, Kirsti; Wild, Oliver; Eller, A. S. D.; Hewitt, C.N.


    Isoprene and other volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation play a key role in governing the formation of ground-level ozone. Emission rates of such compounds depend critically on the plant species. Future land use change, driven by the cultivation of biofuel feedstocks, will change the distribution of plant species and hence the magnitude and distribution of emissions. Here we use relationships between biomass yield and isoprene emissions derived from experimental data for 29 comme...

  12. Ground level ice nuclei particle measurements including Saharan dust events at a Po Valley rural site (San Pietro Capofiume, Italy) (United States)

    Belosi, F.; Rinaldi, M.; Decesari, S.; Tarozzi, L.; Nicosia, A.; Santachiara, G.


    Filter-collected aerosol samples in the PM1 and PM10 fractions and particle number concentration were measured during experimental campaigns in a rural area near Bologna (Italy) in the periods 10-21 February 2014 and 19-30 May 2014. Ice nuclei particle (INP) concentrations measured off-line showed prevalently higher average values in the morning with respect to the afternoon, in the PM1 fraction with respect to PM1-10 (with the exception of the first campaign, at Sw = 1.01), and at water saturation ratio Sw = 1.01 with respect to Sw = 0.96. The aerosol in the coarse size range (1-10 μm) contributed significantly to the total INP concentration. In the first campaign, the average INP concentration in the coarse fraction was 80% of the total in the morning and 74% in the afternoon, at Sw = 1.01. In the second campaign, the contribution of the coarse size fraction to the INP number concentration was lower. On the whole, the results showed that the freezing activity of aerosol diameters larger than 1 μm needs to be measured to obtain the entire INP population. Sahara dust events (SDEs) took place during both campaigns, in the periods 17-20 February and 21-23 May 2014. Results show that the averaged particle number concentration was higher during SDE than during no-Saharan dust events. A low correlation between INP and total aerosol number concentration was generally measured, except for SDEs observed in February, in which the correlation coefficient between aerosol concentration in the coarse fraction and INP in the same range, at water supersaturation, was about 0.8. Precipitation events influenced the aerosol concentration. In the February campaign, lower values of INP and particle concentrations were measured in case of heavy rain events. During the May campaign, an average number concentration of the aerosol in the range 0.5-10 μm was slightly higher than on days when no precipitation was measured, the rainfall intensity being low. Only in a few cases did we note

  13. Role of charge transfer configurations in LaMnO3, CaMnO3, and CaFeO3. (United States)

    Sadoc, Aymeric; Broer, Ria; de Graaf, Coen


    A simple scheme is proposed to analyze the N-electron wave function obtained in embedded cluster calculations in valence bond terms such as ligand-to-metal charge transfer and non-charge-transfer determinants. The analysis is based on a unitary transformation of pairs of natural orbitals to optimal atomiclike orbitals. The procedure is applied to compare the degree of ionicity in NiO and MnO and to explain the existence or absence of Jahn-Teller distortions in LaMnO3, CaMnO3, and CaFeO3. The authors find that the ground state of LaMnO3 is dominated by non-charge-transfer configurations, whereas the charge transfer configurations dominate the ground state wave function in the other two perovskites.

  14. Superconductivity in Ba(Pb,Bi,Sb)O 3, Ba(Pb,Bi,Te)O 3 and (Ba,La) (Pb,Bi,Tl)O 3 systems (United States)

    Nagarajan, R.; Vasanthacharya, N. Y.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Rao, C. N. R.


    It is possible to substitute Bi in the superconducting BaPb 0.75Bi 0.25O 3 by Sb or Te without destroying the superconductivity. With Sb, a continuous series of solid solutions BaPb 0.75Bi 0.25-ySb yO 3 (0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.25) exists, while with Te, perovskite BaPb 0.75Bi 0.25-yTe yO 3 exists only upto y = 0.15. With increasing substitution by Sb or Te, T c decreases continously in both the systems. Superconductivity with a maximum T c of 8K is found in Ba 0.9La 0.1Pb 0.9-yBi yTl 0.1O 3 for y = 0.25.

  15. Al2O3/Al2O3 Joint Brazed with Al2O3-particulate-contained Composite Ag-Cu-Ti Filler Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo YANG; Hongyuan FANG; Xin WAN


    Microstructure and interfacial reactions of Al2O3 joints brazed with Al2O3-particulate-contained composite Ag-Cu-Ti filler material were researched by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microscopy analysis (EPMA),energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interfacial reaction layer thickness of joints brazed with conventional active filler metal and active composite filler materials with different volume fraction of Al2O3 particulate was also studied. The experimental results indicated although there were Al2O3 particulates added into active filler metals, the time dependence of interfacial layer growth of joints brazed with active composite filler material is t1/2 as described by Fickian law as the joints brazed with conventional active filler metal.

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of NaNbO3, KNbO3 and K0.5Na0.5NbO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojac T.


    Full Text Available Mechanochemical synthesis of the K0.5Na0.5NbO3 solid solution (KNN is studied. In order to explore the mechanochemical interactions between the constituents in the Na2CO3 - K2CO3 - Nb2O5 system, NaNbO3 and KNbO3 as the boundary compositions of the KNN solid solution are also studied. It has been shown that NaNbO3 can be prepared by a single-step mechanochemical synthesis, while in the case of K2CO3 and Nb2O5, and Na2CO3, K2CO3 and Nb2O5 mixtures, only amorphisation occurs even after prolonged milling.

  17. [Preparation and photoluminescence study of Er3+ : Y2O3 transparent ceramics]. (United States)

    Luo, Jun-ming; Li, Yong-xiu; Deng, Li-ping


    Y2O3 acted as the matrix material, which was doped with different concentrations of Er3+, Er3+ : Y2O3 nanocrystalline powder was prepared by co-precipitation method, and Er3+ : Y2O3 transparent ceramics was fabricated by vacuum sintering at 1700 degrees C, 1 x 10(-3) Pa for 8 h. By using the X-ray diffraction (D/MAX-RB), transmission electron microscopy(Philips EM420), automatic logging spectrophotometer(DMR-22), fluorescence analyzer (F-4500) and 980 nm diode laser, the structural, morphological and luminescence properties of the sample were investigated. The results show that Er3+ dissolved completely in the Y2O3 cubic phase, the precursor was amorphous, weak diffraction peaks appeared after calcination at 400 degrees C, and if calcined at 700 degrees C, the precursor turned to pure cubic phase. With increasing the calcining temperature, the diffraction peaks became sharp quickly, and when the calcining temperature reached 1100 degrees C, the diffraction peaks became very sharp, indicating that the grains were very large. The particles of Er+ : Y2O3 is homogeneous and nearly spherical, the average diameter of the particles is in the range of 40-60 nm after being calcined at 1000 degrees C for 2 h. The relative density of Er3+ : Y2O3 transparent ceramics is 99.8%, the transmittance of the Er2+ : Y2O3 transparent ceramics is markedly lower than the single crystal at the short wavelength, but the transmittance is improved noticeably with increasing the wavelength, and the transmittance exceeds 60% at the wavelength of 1200 nm. Excited under the 980 nm diode laser, there are two main up-conversion emission bands, green emission centers at 562 nm and red emission centers at 660 nm, which correspond to (4)S(3/2) / (2)H(11/2) - (4)I(15/2) and (4)F(9/2) - (4)I(15/2) radiative transitions respectively. By changing the doping concentrations of Er3+, the color of up-conversion luminescence can be tuned from green to red gradually. The luminescence intensity is not reinforce

  18. Electric field effects in graphene/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures and nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchen Huang


    Full Text Available We report the development and characterization of graphene/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Complex-oxide heterostructures are created by pulsed laser deposition and are integrated with graphene using both mechanical exfoliation and transfer from chemical-vapor deposition on ultraflat copper substrates. Nanoscale control of the metal-insulator transition at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, achieved using conductive atomic force microscope lithography, is demonstrated to be possible through the graphene layer. LaAlO3/SrTiO3-based electric field effects using a graphene top gate are also demonstrated. The ability to create functional field-effect devices provides the potential of graphene-complex-oxide heterostructures for scientific and technological advancement.

  19. Electro-mechanical response of top-gated LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (United States)

    Bi, Feng; Huang, Mengchen; Bark, Chung-Wung; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lee, Sanghan; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy


    LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures are known to exhibit a sharp, hysteretic metal-insulator transition (MIT) with large enhanced capacitance near depletion. To understand the physical origin of this behavior, the electromechanical response of top-gated LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures is probed using two simultaneous measurement techniques: piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and capacitance spectroscopy. The observed hysteretic PFM responses show strong correlation with the capacitance signals, suggesting an interfacial carrier-mediated structural distortion associated with the gate-tuned MIT. In addition, the frequency dependence of the capacitance enhancement in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 is found to be well-matched to local PFM measurements. Our experimental results provide a fuller understanding of the top-gate tuned MIT in oxide heterostructure, which could be helpful for the development of future oxide-based nanoelectronics.

  20. Giant magnetocaloric effect in GdAlO3 and a comparative study with GdMnO3 (United States)

    Mahana, Sudipta; Manju, U.; Topwal, D.


    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of polycrystalline GdAlO3 and GdMnO3 have been investigated to assess their potential usage as magnetic refrigerants at cryogenic temperatures. These compounds undergo antiferromagnetic transitions at low temperatures which are associated with the giant magnetic entropy change effect (-\\bigtriangleup {{S}M} )  ˜40.9 J Kg · K-1 under a field change of 0-9 T for GdAlO3 while the moderate effect of 18 J Kg · K-1 is observed for polycrystalline GdMnO3. Though the relative cooling power of both the stated materials is similar however, the absence of magnetic and thermal hysteresis makes GdAlO3 a more efficient magnetic refrigerant than GdMnO3.

  1. Growth mechanism of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 crystals from aqueous solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Surender; N Arundhathi; K Kishan Rao


    A study of growth rates of NaClO3 and NaBrO3 has been carried out using a small growth cell by in situ observation. Normal growth rates of {100} faces of NaClO3 and {111} faces of NaBrO3 along $\\langle 110 \\rangle$ direction are measured under relatively high supersaturation ranging from 3–8%. In the initial stages of growth, {100}, {110} and {111} faces develop in NaClO3 and gradually all the faces are replaced by the {100} faces only. In the case of NaBrO3, mostly {111} faces develop with occasional occurrence of small {100} faces at the intersection of {111} faces. The growth mechanisms are investigated from growth rate vs supersaturation plots and from the observations of surface features. In the present supersaturation range, the growth mechanism appears to be due to two-dimensional growth mechanism.

  2. Impact of biaxial compressive strain on the heterostructures of paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang


    Full Text Available We have performed density functional theory calculations to explore the impact of biaxial compressive strain on the heterostructures of paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3. We find that the strain induces strong ferroelectric distortion in KTaO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures and it stabilizes the heterostructures in ferroelectric states.The strain influences the distribution of doped holes and leads to the localization of holes in TiO2 layer. It is very interesting that ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism simultaneously present in the strained heterostructures formed by the paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3. The reversal of ferroelectric polarization changes the interface magnetization and thus results in magnetoelectric coupling effect in the heterostructures.

  3. Structural and electronic properties of Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chao; Wang Chun-Lei; Li Ji-Chao; Yang Kun


    We have performed first principles calculations of Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3. Dopant formation energy, structure distortion, band structure and density of states have been computed. The dopant formation energy is found to be 6.8 eV and 6.5 eV for Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 respectively. The distances between Fe impurity and its nearest O atoms and between Fe atom and Ba or Sr atoms are smaller than those of the corresponding undoped bulk systems. The Fe defect energy band is obtained, which mainly originates from Fe 3d electrons. The band gap is still an indirect one after Fe doping for both BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, but the gap changes from Г-R point to Г-X point.

  4. Effect of Y2O3 and Dy2O3 on Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviors of Aluminum Nitride Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effects of two types of additives, Y2O3 and Dy2O3, on the sintering and mechanical behaviors of AlN ceramics were investigated. The experimental results show that the sintering temperature can be decreased and the mechanical behavior can be improved by adding rare earth in AlN ceramics. The strength of AlN ceramics with Y2O3 and Dy2O3 are 326 and 320 MPa, respectively, which are 97.6% and 93.9% higher than the un-doped AlN ceramics. The fracture behavior on the fracture surfaces of rare earth oxide AlN ceramics was found to be a mixed mode of transgranular fracture and intergranular fracture. As a result, it is concluded that the improvement of bending strength of AlN ceramics with Y2O3 and Dy2O3 addition are mainly achieved by strengthening the grain boundary.

  5. Effect of Y2O3 and Sm2O3 on Sintering and Mechanical Behaviors of Alumina Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yijun; Qiu Tai; Jiao Baoxiang


    The effects of Y2O3 and Sm2O3 doping on the sintering temperature, microstructure and mechanical behaviors of Al2O3 ceramics were investigated. The experimental results show that the sintering temperature can be decreased and the mechanical behavior can be improved by adding rare earth in alumina ceramics. The relative density of rare-earthdoped alumina ceramics reaches 98.8% after sintering at 1600 ℃ for 2 h, and its bending strength and fracture toughness reach 439 MPa and 5.28 MPa·m1/2,respectively.Introduction of Y2O3 and Sm2O3 in Al2O3 can restrain the growth of grains, refine the size of grains, and thus form a fine-grained structure. The fracture characteristic is the mixed modes of intergranular and transgranular fracture.

  6. Ionic liquid-based hydrothermal synthesis of Lu2O3 and Lu2O3:Eu3+ microcrysals (United States)

    Li, Yinyan; Xu, Shiqing


    Uniform and well-defined Lu2O3 and Lu2O3:Eu3+ microarchitectures have been successfully synthesized via a green and facile ionic liquid-based hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent calcination process. Novel 3D micro-rodbundles and 1D microrods of Lu2O3 and Lu2O3:Eu3+ were controllably obtained through this method. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the micromaterials. The proposed formation mechanisms have been investigated on the basis of a series of SEM studies of the products obtained at different hydrothermal durations. The results indicated that hydrothermal temperature and the ionic liquid-tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were two key factors for the formation as well as the morphology control of the Lu2O3 and Lu2O3:Eu3+ microarchitectures.

  7. Disordered ferroelectricity in the PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice thin film (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Yeop; Chu, Kanghyun; Sung, Kil-Dong; Lee, Hak-Sung; Kim, Sung-Dae; Song, Kyung; Choi, Taekjib; Lee, Jaichan; Buban, James P.; Yoon, Seog-Young; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Yang, Chan-Ho; Choi, Si-Young


    The PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice thin films with a low volume fraction of PbTiO3 have not attracted much interest because they are thought to exhibit only a paraelectric state. In this study, we focus on a superlattice thin film with thin PbTiO3 (PTO) and thick SrTiO3 (STO) layers, wherein the hidden ferroelectricity in the thin PbTiO3 layer is revealed. Atomic scale imaging analysis and electron energy loss spectroscopy reveal the existence of a disordered ferroelectric polarization state without innate tetragonal distortion in the (6PTO/15STO)5 superlattice. The piezoelectric force microscopy analysis confirms that this disordered ferroelectricity can enhance piezoelectric response.

  8. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah


    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  9. Doping of BiScO3-PbTiO3 Ceramics for Enhanced Properties (United States)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Dynys, Fred


    High-temperature piezoelectrics are a key technology for aeronautics and aerospace applications such as fuel modulation to increase the engine efficiency and decrease emissions. The principal challenge for the insertion of piezoelectric materials is the limitation on upper use temperature which is due to low Curie-Temperature (T(sub c) and increasing electrical conductivity. BiScO3 -PbTiO3 (BS-PT) system is a promising candidate for improving the operating temperature for piezoelectric actuators due to its high TC (>400 C). Effects of Zr and Mn doping of the BS-PT ceramics have been studied and all electrical and electromechanical properties for Sc-deficient and Ti-deficient BS- PT ceramics are reported as a function of electrical field and temperature. Donor doping with Zr and Mn (in Sc deficient compositions) increased the DC-resistivity and decreased tan at all temperatures. Resulting ceramics exhibited saturated hysteresis loops with low losses and showed no dependence on the applied field (above twice the coercive field) and measurement frequency.

  10. Al2O3/GdAlO3 fiber for dental porcelain reinforcement. (United States)

    Medeiros, Igor S; Luz, Luciana A; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Cesar, Paulo F; Hernandes, Antonio C


    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of continuous or milled GdAlO3/Al2O3 fibers to a dental porcelain increases its mechanical properties. Porcelain bars without reinforcement (control) were compared to those reinforced with long fibers (30 vol%). Also, disk specimens reinforced with milled fibers were produced by adding 0 (control), 5 or 10 vol% of particles. The reinforcement with continuous fibers resulted in significant increase in the uniaxial flexural strength from 91.5 to 217.4 MPa. The addition of varied amounts of milled fibers to the porcelain did not significantly affect its biaxial flexural strength compared to the control group. SEM analysis showed that the interface between the continuous fiber and the porcelain was free of defects. On the other hand, it was possible to note the presence of cracks surrounding the milled fiber/porcelain interface. In conclusion, the reinforcement of the porcelain with continuous fibers resulted in an efficient mechanism to increase its mechanical properties; however the addition of milled fibers had no significant effect on the material because the porcelain was not able to wet the ceramic particles during the firing cycle.

  11. Luminescent properties of BaO-La2O3-B2O3 glasses with dopant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鹏途; 舒万艮; 廉世勋; 吕兴栋; 刘又年


    The luminescent properties of glasses synthesized in air atmosphere by conventional high temperature process were studied. The emissions spectra of Eu2+ and Eu3+ were observed in BaO-La2O3-B2O3-Eu2O3 glasses. The results show that the broad emission peaks at 430 nm correspond to 5d→4f emission transition of Eu2+, the sharp emission peaks at 592, 616, 650 and 750 nm correspond to 5D0→7Fj(j=1-4) emission transition of Eu3+, respectively, which indicates that the BaO-La2O3-B2O3-Eu2O3 glass can convert ultraviolet and green components of sunlight into blue and red light so as to increase the intensity of blue and red light, respectively. The luminescent intensity of Eu2+ increases with increasing the molar ratio of Tb3+ in BaO-La2O3-B2O3-Eu2O3-Tb4O7 glasses, whereas the luminescent intensity of Eu3+ decreases. So the luminescent intensity of Eu(III, II) is influenced by Tb3+. These phenomena can be explained by electron transfer mechanism: Eu3+(4f6)+Tb3+(4f8)→Eu2+(4f7)+Tb4+(4f7). Taking advantage of the luminescent properties of BaO-La2O3-B2O3-Eu2O3 glasses, light-conversion glass for agriculture can be produced.

  12. What Is Eating Ozone? Thermal Reactions between SO2 and O3: Implications for Icy Environments (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.


    Laboratory studies are presented, showing for the first time that thermally driven reactions in solid H2O + SO2 + O3 mixtures can occur below 150 K, with the main sulfur-containing product being bisulfate ({{{HSO}}4}-). Using a technique not previously applied to the low-temperature kinetics of either interstellar or solar-system ice analogs, we estimate an activation energy of 32 kJ mol-1 for {{{HSO}}4}- formation. These results show that at the temperatures of the Jovian satellites, SO2 and O3 will efficiently react making detection of these molecules in the same vicinity unlikely. Our results also explain why O3 has not been detected on Callisto and why the SO2 concentration on Callisto appears to be highest on that world’s leading hemisphere. Furthermore, our results predict that the SO2 concentration on Ganymede will be lowest in the trailing hemisphere, where the concentration of O3 is the highest. Our work suggests that thermal reactions in ices play a much more important role in surface and sub-surface chemistry than generally appreciated, possibly explaining the low abundance of sulfur-containing molecules and the lack of ozone observed in comets and interstellar ices.

  13. EXAFS investigation and luminescent properties of nanosized Tb: Lu2O3 phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nanosized terbium doped Lu2O3 phosphors were synthesized via a modified co-precipitation processing.The as-prepared Tb:Lu2O3 phosphors was consisted of well crystallized nanosized sphere particles with a diameter of about 30 nnx Local structure of Tb ions in Lu2O3 lattice was investigated by an analytical approach based on Fourier transformation of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure(EXAFS) data.X-ray near edge structure (XANES) spectra suggested that all Tb ions doped were tervalonce.EXAFS results indicated that Tb ions have entered the Lu2O3 cubic lattice by means of solid solution.The coordination number and first shell Tb-O distance dropped with the increasing of Tb concentration.Emission spectra of the phosphors was shown to be typical for Tb3+ with main components at 542,550 and 490 nm,derived from irradiative relaxation of 5D4 level.The emission intensity decreased severely with the increasing of Tb concentration from 1 mol.% to 15 tool.%,suggesting a significant concentration quenching above 1 mol.% Tb.The reduction of emission intensity was interpreted by higher distortion derived relaxation among the surface state resident Tb3+ ions.

  14. Removal of nitrate and phosphate using chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibrous adsorbent: Comparison with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 beads. (United States)

    Bozorgpour, Farahnaz; Ramandi, Hossein Fasih; Jafari, Pooya; Samadi, Saman; Yazd, Shabnam Sharif; Aliabadi, Majid


    In the present study the chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibrous adsorbent was prepared by electrospinning process and its application for the removal of nitrate and phosphate were compared with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite bead adsorbent. The influence of Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite content, pH, contact time, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations and temperature on the nitrate and phosphate sorption using synthesized bead and nanofibrous adsorbents was investigated in a single system. The reusability of chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads and nanofibers after five sorption-desorption cycles were carried out. The Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the interaction effects of adsorbent dosage, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations on the nitrate and phosphate removal efficiency. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and known Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to describe the kinetic and equilibrium data of nitrate and phosphate sorption using chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads and nanofibers. The influence of other anions including chloride, fluoride and sulphate on the sorption efficiency of nitrate and phosphate was examined. The obtained results revealed the higher potential of chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers for nitrate and phosphate compared with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide with AlN/Y2O3, Al2O3/Y2O3 and SiO2/Y2O3 additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Strecker


    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of the additive system on the liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide has been investigated. The additives employed were mixtures of AlN/Y2O3, Al2O3/Y2O3 and SiO2/Y2O3. The total additive content was fixed at 20 vol.-%, maintaining the Y2O3 content in each additive system at 35 vol.-%. Cold isostatically pressed samples were sintered at 1900, 2000 and 2100 °C under Ar atmosphere during 30 min. The most promising results have been obtained by samples with AlN/Y2O3 additions sintered at 2000 °C, exhibiting the smallest weight loss of about 6% and the highest flexural strengths of about 433 MPa. Samples with Al2O3/Y2O3 and SiO2/Y2O3 additions exhibited high weight loss, because of reactions of Al2O3 and SiO2 with the SiC matrix, forming gaseous species such as Al2O, SiO and CO, resulting in depletion of the liquid phase, and, consequently, in inferior final densities and mechanical properties. Concerning the SiO2/Y2O3 additive system, the reactions seem to be completed already at temperatures below 1900 °C, turning this additive mixture unsuitable. The microstructural analysis indicated only the presence of the b-SiC phase for all samples; no phase transformation of the b-SiC into a-SiC has been observed.

  16. Structural and dynamic properties of LiNO3 + Al2O3 nanocomposites