WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground-infiltration disposal beds

  1. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  2. Air passivation of metal hydride beds for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. E.; Hsu, R. H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    One waste acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the bed be non-pyrophoric. Batch-wise air ingress tests were performed which determined the amount of air consumed by a metal hydride bed. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 deg.C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 deg.C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 sec air was consumed by the bed (0.08 sec per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12. cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water. (authors)

  3. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  4. Efficient expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells in a disposable fixed bed culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela D; Caruso, Sâmia R; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas T; Swiech, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    The need for efficient and reliable technologies for clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has led to the use of disposable bioreactors and culture systems. Here, we evaluate the expansion of cord blood-derived MSC in a disposable fixed bed culture system. Starting from an initial cell density of 6.0 × 10(7) cells, after 7 days of culture, it was possible to produce of 4.2(±0.8) × 10(8) cells, which represents a fold increase of 7.0 (±1.4). After enzymatic retrieval from Fibra-Cell disks, the cells were able to maintain their potential for differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes and were positive for many markers common to MSC (CD73, CD90, and CD105). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that MSC can be efficiently expanded in the culture system. This novel approach presents several advantages over the current expansion systems, based on culture flasks or microcarrier-based spinner flasks and represents a key element for MSC cellular therapy according to GMP compliant clinical-scale production system.

  5. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  6. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation, and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  7. Cultivation and Differentiation of Encapsulated hMSC-TERT in a Disposable Small-Scale Syringe-Like Fixed Bed Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christian; Pohl, Sebastian; Pörtner, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The use of commercially available plastic syringes is introduced as disposable small-scale fixed bed bioreactors for the cultivation of implantable therapeutic cell systems on the basis of an alginate-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cell line. The system introduced is fitted with a noninvasiv...... the fixed bed reactor an interesting option for GMP processes. The cultivation of the encapsulated cells in the fixed bed bioreactor system offered vitalities and adipogenic differentiation similar to well-mixed suspension cultures....

  8. Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallis, S.M.

    1973-12-01

    With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr/sup 90/, Cs/sup 137/, and Pu/sup 239/. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 150/sup 0/C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated.

  9. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  10. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  11. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence - phase II - small scale field demonstration. Topical report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Head, W.J.; Gray, D.D.; Siriwardane, H.J.; Sack, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been proposed that a mix made from fly and bottom ash from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed coal combusters (FBC ash), water, and stabilizers be injected from the surface into abandoned room and pillar coal mines through boreholes. Besides ash disposal, this process would prevent subsidence and acid mine drainage. Such a mix (called `grout`) needs to be an adequately stable and flowable suspension for it to spread and cover large areas in the mine. This is necessary as the drilling of the boreholes will be an expensive operation and the number such holes should be minimized. Addition of bentonite was found to be needed for this purpose. A suitable grout mix was tested rheologically to determine its fluid flow properties. Finding little published information on such materials, tests were performed using a commercial rotational viscometer with a T-bar rotor and a stand which produced a helical rotor path. Existing mixer viscometer test methods were modified and adapted to convert the measurements of torque vs. angular speed to the material properties appearing in several non-Newtonian constitutive equations. Yield stress was measured by an independent test called the vane method. The rheological behavior was a close fit to the Bingham fluid model. Bleed tests were conducted to ascertain the stability of the mixtures. Spread tests were conducted to compare the flowability of various mixes. Using the flow parameters determined in the laboratory, numerical simulations of grout flow were performed and compared with the results of scale model and field tests. A field injection of this grout was performed at the Fairfax mines in Preston county, W.V.. The observations there proved that this FBC ash grout flows as desired, is a very economical way of disposing the environmentally menacing ash, while also preventing the subsidence and acid mine drainage of the mines.

  12. Mineral sources of water in evaporite sequences (salado salt and adjacent beds at the proposed waste disposal facility near Carlsbad in Lea and Eddy Counties, New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, O.C.; Combs, D.W.

    1975-09-01

    Results of this study indicates that the Salado Salt is composed primarily of fine to coarse-grained halite with polyhalite, anhydrite, and clay minerals. Other minerals detected in small amounts include gypsum, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, sylvite, carnallite, celestite(question), glauconite, and kainite(question). Petrographic evidence (hopper crystals, and intergrowth of halite with other minerals) indicate that the Salado Salt was deposited in rather shallow water and may have been exposed subaerially at times. There must have been a major change in environmental conditions between the deposition of the Castile Formation and that of the Salado. The evidence also suggests that fluids have been able to move through the Salado Salt along beds and seams of clay and silt and somewhat along fractures. Water loss upon heating to 102 +- 5/sup 0/C ranges from 0.0 to 3.5 percent, considerably lower than those for Lyons, Kansas samples. Most of the dehydration water at 100/sup 0/C comes from clay minerals, while at higher temperatures, polyhalite contributes. The rock units in Salado Salt seem to release much less water when dehydrated than the Hutchinson Salt rocks at Lyons. During preparation of some of the samples, H/sub 2/S and possibly some natural gas were released when the samples were crushed. (DLC)

  13. Thermal Analysis of Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in a Generic Bedded Salt repository using the Semi-Analytical Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    An example case is presented for testing analytical thermal models. The example case represents thermal analysis of a generic repository in bedded salt at 500 m depth. The analysis is part of the study reported in Matteo et al. (2016). Ambient average ground surface temperature of 15°C, and a natural geothermal gradient of 25°C/km, were assumed to calculate temperature at the near field. For generic salt repository concept crushed salt backfill is assumed. For the semi-analytical analysis crushed salt thermal conductivity of 0.57 W/m-K was used. With time the crushed salt is expected to consolidate into intact salt. In this study a backfill thermal conductivity of 3.2 W/m-K (same as intact) is used for sensitivity analysis. Decay heat data for SRS glass is given in Table 1. The rest of the parameter values are shown below. Results of peak temperatures at the waste package surface are given in Table 2.

  14. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the summer of 1997 and monitored for the following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during Summer 1997, as well. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine. The Gantt Chart on the following page details progress by task.

  15. Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion -- FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the summer of 1997 and monitored for the following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during Summer 1997, as well. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  16. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  17. Disposal rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  18. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  19. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  20. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  1. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  2. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  3. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  4. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  5. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  6. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000581.htm Bed rest during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... few days or weeks. This is called bed rest. Bed rest used to be recommended routinely for ...

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  8. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  9. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  10. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  11. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  14. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  15. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  16. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  17. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  19. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that there are ways to control bed bugs. Getting good, solid information is the first step in both prevention and control. While there is no chemical quick fix, there are effective strategies to control bed bugs involving both non-chemical and chemical methods. Bed bugs can be hard to find and ...

  20. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  1. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  2. System for the Reduction of Substances in Reject Water from Reed-Bed Sludge Mineralization Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is a system for the reduction of substances in reject water from reed-bed sludge mineralization plants (also referred to as sludge dewatering reed-beds). The systems utilizes the composition of substances in reject water from reed-beds and that of sludge to reduce substance mass from...... within the container. The solution is then applied to the reed-beds, which dewaters, converts, and partially mineralize the sludge mixture. The reject water from the reed-beds is split where up to100% of the reject water is recirculated back to the mixed reactor and the remaining usually disposed...... the reject water via recirculation into a mixed reactor and back onto the reed-beds. The mixed rector consists of a container in which sludge (that is typically loaded directly on to reed-beds) is mixed with recirculated reject water from reed-beds. The sludge mixture has a definable hydraulic retention time...

  3. New Developments in Spinning Fluidised Bed Incineration Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, the sewage treatment plants in the UK produce about 25 million tons of sewage sludge each year at a concentration of 4% solids. New regulations forbid sea dumping and in the near future new incinerators will be required to dispose of about 5 million tons per year. Bubbling fluidised bed incinerators are widely used to burn sewage sludge at a typical consumption rate of about 0.02kg(dry)·s-1·m2, and it follows that over 300 conventional fluidised bed incinerators of 3m diameter could be required to cope with the increased demand.At Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) research work is being carried out to develop a novel spinning fluidised bed incinerator. The key factor to note is that when air flows up through a bed of near mono-sized particles, it fluidises when the pressure drop across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed. Normally, the weight of the bed is determined by gravity. However, if the bed is contained by a cylindrical air distributor 'plate' that is rotating rapidly about its axis, then the effective weight of the bed can be increased dramatically. The airflow passing through the bed can be increased proportionally to the "g" level produced by the rotation and it follows that the process has been intensified. In exploratory tests with a spinning fluidised bed we have achieved combustion intensities with coal combustion as high as 100MW/m3. A problem with burning coal is that it was difficult to remove the heat and rotating water seals had to be used to transfer cooling water into the bed. In the case of sewage and other sludges, this problem does not exist since the flue gases can remove the small amount of heat released. The rotating fluidised bed sludge incinerator is a novel device, which is very compact. It is able to solve the turndown problem encountered with conventional fluidised beds by simply changing the rotation speed. Bearing in mind that a centrifugal sludge de-watering unit is already used

  4. Lakeview, Oregon, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    9.1 Compliance Summary The Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I Disposal Site was inspected September 16 and 17, 2015. Other than some ongoing concern with erosion-control rock riprap degradation, the disposal cell was in good condition. Some minor fence repairs and vegetation removal, and minor erosion repair work along the west site fence is planned. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up or contingency inspection. Disposal cell riprap is evaluated annually to ensure continued long-term protection of the cell from erosion during a severe precipitation event. Degradation of the rock riprap was first observed at the site in the mid-1990s. Rock gradation monitoring of the riprap on the west side slope has been performed as part of the annual inspection since 1997 to determine the mean diameter (D50) value. As prescribed by the monitoring procedure, the rock monitoring is routinely conducted at random locations. However, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) request, the 2015 rock monitoring approach deviated from the normal procedure by using a pre-established monitoring grid in a subset area of the west side slope. This changed the monitoring approach from random sampling to biased sampling. The D50 value measured during the 2015 gradation monitoring is 2.39 inches, which falls below the original D50 design size range of 2.7–3.9 inches for the Type B size side slope riprap. At NRC’s request, rock durability monitoring was added to the gradation monitoring in 2009 to monitor durability by rock type. Results of the 2015 durability monitoring showed that74 percent of the total rock sampled is durability class code A rock with an assigned durability class of “highly durable” or durability class code B “durable” rock, and that over 90 percent of the 3-inch or larger rock is durability class code A or B. The rock durability

  5. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  6. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  7. Disposable diapers: safe and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-09-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  8. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  9. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  10. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, S.P. [ed.] [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK).

  11. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  12. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  13. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  14. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  15. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  16. Mix bed type desalting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Shuichi; Shiozawa, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Seiichi

    1998-12-18

    The present invention provides a condensate desalting device of a BWR type reactor capable of preventing degradation of ion exchange resins by water containing oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide thereby keeping reactor water at high purity. Namely, a mixed bed type desalting device comprises a desalting tower for removing impurities in water by ion exchange resins and a regeneration device for cleaning/regenerating the ion exchange resins. Means for loading iron cruds into water is disposed in the desalting tower. With such a constitution, oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide react with the iron cruds thereby enabling to suppress oxidative reaction during ion exchange. Since passage or cleaning/regeneration of water is conducted while loading the iron cruds between ion exchange resin particles and on the surface layer of an ion exchange resin layer by using the above-mentioned reaction, degradation of ion exchange performance of the ion exchange resins by hydrogen peroxide can be prevented upon condensate cleaning operation or resin cleaning/regeneration. As a result, degradation of quality of reactor water can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  17. SEWAGE SLUDGE COMBUSTION IN A SPOUTED BED CASCADE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirko Barz

    2003-01-01

    @@ In modern society, sewage is disposed of in a two-step process: it is first made into granules and the sewage sludge granules are then burned in an appropriate combustor. The present paper describes a spouted bed cascade system for sewage sludge combustion developed at the Technical University of Berlin at the turn of the present century. Combustion results in the recovery of the combustible matters of the sewage in the form of thermal energy.

  18. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  19. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined ... sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They ...

  20. Moving-bed sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, R.E.; Gupta, R.P.; Chuck, T.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop mixed-metal oxide sorbent formulations that are suitable for moving-bed, high-temperature, desulfurization of coal gas. Work continues on zinc titanates formulations and Z-sorb III sorbent.

  1. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  2. Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  3. Thermal degradation of PMMA in fluidised beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, K; Baeyens, J

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the production and consumption of plastics have increased significantly and wastes are commonly incinerated or dumped in a landfill. Plastics pyrolysis, on the other hand, may provide an alternative means for disposal of plastic wastes with recovery of valuable gasoline-range hydrocarbons or the monomer. Pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) may result in very high recycling rates (90-98%) of the monomer methylmethacrylate (MMA) since the cracking of MMA to lighter molecules (CO2, CO and light hydrocarbons) is limited. The MMA-yield is mainly dependent on the residence time of the gas in the reactor and to a lesser extent on the operating temperature. The paper presents experimental work performed in a lead bath and in a fluidised bed. At low temperatures, the reaction is kinetically controlled, whereas at high temperatures, heat transfer restricts the overall reaction rate. It was demonstrated that the heat transfer in the fluid bed could be estimated by the equation of Kothari. A design procedure for a fluid bed PMMA-depolymerisation reactor is outlined and illustrated for a process of 1 tpd PMMA.

  4. Integrated approach in fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyet, B.; Gautrin, M. [CERCHAR, Mazingarbe (France)

    1998-12-31

    Atmospheric fluidized bed technology for combustion is frequently found in different advanced power and steam generation systems, because the fluidization provides operating conditions which are favourable for pollutant control and also offers the possibility to utilise a wide range of fuels. The main objective of the study was to contribute to the development of a methodology for an easier global approach of the implementation of atmospheric fluidized bed reactors and upstream elements associated with taking into account the characteristics of fuels and sorbents, the requirements on gaseous pollutants and on solid by-products utilisation. Previous tests done in CERCHAR`s facilities were scrutinised, additional tests at laboratory and pilot level were carried out, some industrial plants were considered. Several fuels were considered (brown coals, coals, slurry,...), with a special attention to Gottelborn reference coal and Rheinbraun lignite. Experimental results and tentative conclusions viz. fuel characterization, batch fluidization set-up, 1 MW atmospheric fluidized bed pilot, ash utilisation/disposal, methodology and management of preliminary testing are presented. 12 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  6. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  7. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  8. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  9. The suitability of horse manure and bedding materials for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyni, S.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: sanna.tyni@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    The number of horses has increased in Finland since 1994 approximately by 2000 horse/ year and 2008 there was almost 70000 registered horses and ponies in Finland. This has derived to a considerable number of new stables at city area where the waste management, particularly of the mixture of manure and bedding material, is a challenge. These stables have disposed their residues often by land filling. The present legislation prohibits the dispose of organic material by land filling since the anaerobic decomposition emits for example methane that is a greenhouse gas. The legislation also regulates using of manure as fertilizer in fields. This leads to the situation where stable owners have urge for new ways to dispose of residues. In Finland peat, sawdust, and straw are commonly used as a bedding material for horses in stable boxes. The more important function of the bedding material is to keep the boxes dry and clean by absorbing urine. The selection of bedding material depends on the properties of the materials such as availability, price, absorption capacity, and hygiene properties. Composting of sawdust is slower than peat, therefore mixture of manure and sawdust is not preferred for utilization as fertilizer. Additionally use of the manure residues as fertilizers is limited by impurities such as plant seeds in manure. Combustion would be attractive way to solve disposal problems of the mixture of manure and bedding materials. At the moment legislation in Finland defines manure residues as a waste. Therefore the combustion is only allowed in waste combustion units. If the combustion of the manure residues would be allowed at farms or at small local boilers, it enables farms to have better degree of self-sufficiency of energy. The utilization of these new materials as a fuel demands study of combustion properties of these biomasses. It is also essential to have knowledge of chemical composition and behaviour of ashes, when the final disposing is considered e.g. as

  10. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  11. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  12. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  13. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  14. Disposables: saving by throwing away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, G

    1980-07-18

    The demand for health care facilities and services will remain insatiable, concludes a report by Frost and Sullivan due to be published shortly. The report on trends in the European clinical soft goods market says growth is guaranteed but that the market penetration of disposables is not.

  15. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  16. Test-bed’s Development of the Packed Bed with Both Revolution&Rotation’s High Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongpeng; Dong, Zhiqiang; He, Bianhua

    2017-06-01

    Rotating packed bed is a chemical reactor which used the effect of rotating centrifugal force to be equivalent in the gravity field. To increase the fluid flow time in bed, to extend the controlled process in bed’s reaction and to strengthen the role of influencing factor, a new type of rotating packed bed is proposed in the paper which is running on the revolution platform. Unfortunately, the bad synergy effect of revolution&rotation in packed bed has induced the serious vibration problem. Through optimizing the mass center of packed bed and disposing local weight, the stability of the operation of the bench was more improved. The stability of the operation of the bench was that more improved the bed’s vibration amplitude was analyzed by using the ANSYS. The results show that the test-bed of both the Revolution&Rotation’s Packed bed is a practical project in the Rotating packed bed’s development.

  17. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  18. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1985-03-25

    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  19. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  20. Surviving Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pregnancy — and your bed rest start a family tree that you can share with your child someday firm up your baby-name choices; use books and websites for ideas organize photo albums read anything — ... people (friends and family) whom you know will probably give gifts build ...

  1. New environment-compatible heat-power plant Moabit with circulating fluidized-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, H.; Kuenisch, H.J.

    1987-06-09

    The authors report on the optimal utilisation of a city location for generating power and heat in a heat-power plant using circulating atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. Because fluidized-bed combustion eliminates the need for secondary flue gas scrubbing equipment, the construction is highly compact. Also, this type of plant produces no waste water, so there is no disposal problem. Taking all aspects into consideration, circulating fluidized-bed combustion is especially interesting for heat-power plants in municipal areas with electrical block outputs of between 100 and 200 MW.

  2. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S.; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  3. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  4. Phytoextraction crop disposal--an unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Nowosielska, A; Kucharski, R; Małkowski, E; Pogrzeba, M; Kuperberg, J M; Kryński, K

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of contaminated crop disposal after phytoextraction process (composting, compaction, incineration, ashing, pyrolysis, direct disposal, liquid extraction) have been described. Advantages and disadvantages of methods are presented and discussed. Composting, compaction and pyrolysis are the pretreatment steps, since significant amount of contaminated biomass will still exist after each of the process. Four methods of final disposal were distinguished: incineration, direct disposal, ashing and liquid extraction. Among them, incineration (smelting) is proposed as the most feasible, economically acceptable and environmentally sound.

  5. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  6. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  7. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  8. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000427.htm Bathing a patient in bed To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For ...

  9. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  10. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  11. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful.

  12. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  13. Solid secondary waste testing for maintenance of the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment - FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being constructed to treat 56 million gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site. Operation of the WTP will generate several solid secondary waste (SSW) streams including used process equipment, contaminated tools and instruments, decontamination wastes, high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), carbon adsorption beds, silver mordenite iodine sorbent beds, and spent ion exchange resins (IXr) all of which are to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). An applied research and development program was developed using a phased approach to incrementally develop the information necessary to support the IDF PA with each phase of the testing building on results from the previous set of tests and considering new information from the IDF PA calculations. This report contains the results from the exploratory phase, Phase 1 and preliminary results from Phase 2. Phase 3 is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of FY17.

  14. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  15. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL BY SUBSURFACE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Virtual Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    project is to develop a benchmark system for evaluating models for predicting the characteristics of ocean wind waves. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES A...transformation-scale models (i.e. models which treat the physics of waves propagating from offshore areas into the coastline). Each phase is further divided...to be assembled within the virtual test bed. Wind fields for running these tests will be obtained from Oceanweather, Inc. from a separate ONR

  18. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  19. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  20. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up.

  1. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, D

    2000-07-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation.

  2. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  3. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  4. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  5. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  6. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  7. Geochemical and Geophysical Study in a Degraded Area Used for Disposal of Sludge from a Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cosme Arraes Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of disposal of sludge from water treatment plant (WTS in area damaged by laterite extraction and its consequences to soil and groundwater were investigated. Therefore, the presence and concentration of anthropogenic elements and chemical compounds were determinated. WTS disposal's influence was characterized by electroresistivity method. The WTS's geochemical dispersion was noticed in the first meters of the nonsaturated zone from the lending area. Lateritic profiles were characterized due to the large variation in chemical composition between the horizons. Infiltration and percolation of rainwater through the WTS have caused migration of total dissolved solids to the groundwater. WTS's disposing area has more similarities to local preserved vegetation than to gravel bed area. WTS can be considered a noninert residue if disposed in degraded areas located in regions with similar geological and hydrochemical characteristics.

  8. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  10. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-20

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  11. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  12. Disposable polymeric cryogel bioreactor matrix for therapeutic protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Era; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-05-01

    Low cost and high efficiency make disposable bioreactors feasible for small-scale therapeutic development and initial clinical trials. We have developed a cryogel-based disposable bioreactor matrix, which has been used for production of protein therapeutics such as urokinase and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The protocol discusses the application of a cryogel bioreactor for mAb production. Cryogels composed of either polyacrylamide (PAAm) coupled to gelatin or semi-interpenetrating PAAm-chitosan are synthesized by free-radical polymerization at -12 °C. Hybridoma cells are immobilized over the cryogel bioreactor and incubated for 48 h. Medium is circulated thereafter at 0.2 ml min(-1) and bioreactors can be run continuously for 60 d. The cryogel-based packed-bed bioreactor can be formulated as a monolith or as beads; it also has an efficiency four times what can be obtained using a tissue-culture flask, a high surface-to-volume ratio and effective nutrient transport. After incubation, the bioreactor setup will take about 60 min using a pre-prepared sterilized cryogel.

  13. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  14. Hydrogeologic setting east of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Core samples from 45 test wells and 4 borings were used to describe the glacial geology of the area east of the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Previous work has shown that shallow ground water beneath the disposal site flows east through a pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member of the Glasford Formation. The pebbly sand was found in core samples from wells in an area extending northeast from the waste-disposal site to a strip-mine lake and east along the south side of the lake. Other stratigraphic units identified in the study area are correlated with units found on the disposal site. The pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member grades from a pebbly sand on site into a coarse gravel with sand and pebbles towards the lake. The Hulick Till Member, a key bed, underlies the Toulon Member throughout most of the study area. A narrow channel-like depression in the Hulick Till is filled with coarse gravelly sand of the Toulon Member. The filled depression extends eastward from near the northeast corner of the waste-disposal site to the strip-mine lake. (USGS)

  15. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  16. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  17. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  18. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  19. NEP processing, operations, and disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Mike

    Several recent studies by ASAO/NPO staff members at LeRC and by other organizations have highlighted the potential benefits of using Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) as the primary transportation means for some of the proposed missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. These include the potential to reduce initial mass in orbit and Mars transit time. Modular NEP configurations also introduce fully redundant main propulsion to Mars flight systems adding several abort or fall back options not otherwise available. Recent studies have also identified mission operations, such as on orbital assembly, refurbishment, and reactor disposal, as important discriminators for propulsion system evaluation. This study is intended to identify and assess 'end-to-end' operational issues associated with using NEP for transporting crews and cargo between Earth and Mars. We also include some consideration of lunar cargo transfer as well.

  20. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  1. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  2. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  3. Bed Bug Laws and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    21 states have some level of regulation with regard to bed bugs. Most of these requirements focus on hotels and landlords or other property managers. The Department of Housing and Urban Development has guidance on controlling bed bugs in public housing.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Sharps disposal practices among diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waste is generated daily in the form of used needles and syringes. Used sharps are a biomedical hazard as incorrect disposal could lead to needle-stick ... Treatment Guidelines (STG)10 do not provide recommendations on the safe disposal ...

  5. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  6. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  7. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste disposal. 850.32 Section 850.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  8. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  9. Hydrologic implications of solid-water disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joseph

    1970-01-01

    The disposal of more than 1,400 million pounds of solid wastes in the United States each day is a major problem. This disposal in turn often leads to serious health, esthetic, and environmental problems. Among these is the pollution of vital ground-water resources.

  10. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea.

  11. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Feasibility study - Lowered bed temperature in Fluidised Bed boilers for waste; Foerstudie - Saenkt baeddtemperatur i FB-pannor foer avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2009-01-15

    Waste incineration generally serves two purposes; 1) dispose of waste and 2) generation of heat and power. In the process of power production from waste fuels, the steam temperatures in super heaters are generally limited by the severe fouling and corrosion that occurs at elevated material temperatures, caused by high concentrations of alkali metals and chloride in the flue gas and fly ash. The overall aim of a continuation of present project is to determine if a reduced temperature of the bed zone in a fluidized bed waste incinerator reduces the amount of alkali chlorides in the flue gas. If so, a reduced bed temperature might enable increased steam temperature in super heaters, or, at unchanged steam temperature, improve the lifespan of the super heaters. The results from the project are of interest for plant owners wishing to improve performance of existing plants. The results may also be used to modify the design of future plants by boiler manufacturers. The aim of present pre-study was to determine how far the bed temperature can be reduced in a waste fired fluidized bed boiler in Boraas while maintaining a stable operation with sufficient combustion temperature in the freeboard to fulfil the directives of waste incineration. A continuation of the project will be based on the results from present study. The work is based on experiments at the test boiler. During the present study, no other measurements were performed apart from some sampling of bed material and ashes at different modes of operation. The experiments show that it is possible to alter the air and recycled flue gas in such a manner that the bed temperature is reduced from about 870 deg C to 700 deg C at 100% load and normal fuel mixture, while fulfilling the directive of 850 deg C at 2 seconds. Within normal variations of the fuel properties, however, the bed temperature increases to somewhat above 700 deg C if the fuel turns dry, while it falls below 650 deg C when the fuel turns wet. With

  13. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  14. [Disposal of waste glass in sanitary departments: a sample survey in the Lazio region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sole, A; Fonda, A

    2004-01-01

    As a result of Italian law, DPR 15/7/2003 n. 254, about hospital waste, and given that little has been written about recycling waste glass in hospitals, a survey of 28 health departments in Lazio was performed. The objectives were: to estimate the mean quantity of clear vitreous waste in one year, to estimate how vitreous waste is administered, to estimate the extent of the use of plastic instead of glass, to analyse the costs and benefits of glass use and/or plastic use and to evaluate staff training about hospital waste disposal. The average production of clear vitreous waste was 0.28 kilogram per day per hospital bed occupied. (This would be the theoretical maximum quantity of glass to be recycled). Among the 28 departments studied, 82% separated waste products but only 36% disposed of glass in accordance with the law. The estimated possible savings on glass phleboclysis in 2002 year were 35,000 euro. Staff training could avoid this conspicuous waste of money. Fifteen departments also used plastic phleboclysis; of these, in 2 departments plastic waste is separated in the wards, but unfortunately this material is later disposed of in the bins for general solid urban waste. The other thirteen hospitals dispose of waste plastic as infectious material. Using glass phleboclysis instead of plastic phleboclysis would save about 680,000 euros per year. The disposal of glass waste material in practice was not found to follow the principles taught in the training courses. Theoretic data about glass production, estimated in this survey, refers only to clear glass and it is an underestimate of that of all glass used in departments. The quantity of glass actually recycled has been about 0.14 kilogram per day per hospital bed occupied and thus only 50% of the theoretical quantity (0.28 kilogram per day per hospital bed occupied). This percentage could be improved by effective training. Ideally, the disposal of waste glass would follow the legal requirements and be monitored

  15. Incineration: why this may be the most environmentally sound method of renal healthcare waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ray

    2010-09-01

    The environment and 'green' issues are currently being promoted in the healthcare sector through recently launched initiatives. This paper considers aspects of healthcare waste management, with particular reference to waste generated in dialysis units. With dialysis being dependent upon large amounts of disposables, it generates considerable volumes of waste. This paper focuses upon a typical haemodialysis unit, evaluating and quantifying the volumes and categories of waste generated. Each haemodialysis patient on thrice weekly dialysis generates some 323 kg per year of waste, of which 271 kg is classified as clinical. This equates to 1626 kg of (solid) clinical waste per dialysis bed, which is around three times the volume of clinical waste generated per general hospital bed. Waste disposal routes are considered and this suggests that present healthcare waste paradigms are outmoded. They do not allow for flexible approaches to solving what is a dynamic problem, and there is a need for new thinking models in terms of managing the unsustainable situation of disposal in constantly growing landfills. Healthcare waste management must be considered not only in terms of the environmental impact and potential long-term health effects, but also in terms of society's future energy requirements.

  16. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  17. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; Kelly, Richard; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system.

  18. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; III, Richard Kelly; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague–Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system. PMID:26817976

  19. [Prediction model of health workforce and beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ru; Liu, Jiawang

    2011-12-01

    To construct prediction model for health workforce and hospital beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression. We surveyed 16 counties in Hunan with stratified random sampling according to uniform questionnaires,and multiple linear regression analysis with 20 quotas selected by literature view was done. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on medical personnels in county hospitals included the counties' urban residents' income, crude death rate, medical beds, business occupancy, professional equipment value, the number of devices valued above 10 000 yuan, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, and utilization rate of hospital beds. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on county hospital beds included the the population of aged 65 and above in the counties, disposable income of urban residents, medical personnel of medical institutions in county area, business occupancy, the total value of professional equipment, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, utilization rate of hospital beds, and length of hospitalization. The prediction model shows good explanatory and fitting, and may be used for short- and mid-term forecasting.

  20. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  1. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms.

  2. Disposal of medical waste: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Karen; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2013-09-03

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. The illegal dumping of hazardous waste poses a danger to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection or toxicity, endangering the health of humans who might become exposed to infection and toxins. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation in South Africa. Reports of the illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in regard to the safe disposal of medical waste. 

  3. Thermal waste utilisation by means of rotating fluidised beds. Thermische Abfallverwertung mit rotierender Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitzerow, H.G. (Hoelter-ABT GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany))

    1994-10-01

    The legal requirement of material and thermal waste utilisation prior to disposal opens up a wide field of application for the rotating fluidised-bed technique. The advantages of this method are its applicability to processing plants for different types of waste and the large range of possible plant capacity from 0.8 MW upwards. The article presents a special variation of the process and gives application examples. (orig.)

  4. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  5. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  6. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperatures are necessary for successful heat treatment. Black plastic bags in the sun might work to kill bed ... Place the used bag in a tightly sealed plastic bag and in an outside garbage bin. 10. Turn ...

  7. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  8. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Orton, Christopher J; Lilly, David G; Russell, Richard C

    2011-04-15

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard 'A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia' that defines and promotes 'best practice' in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in 'best practice' while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  9. Print a Bed Bug Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  10. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  11. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...... mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...

  12. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  13. The Disposable Porous Bed Viscometer: A New Method for Measuring Blood Viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-02

    prevents the development of a fully established marginal plasma layer. They suggested that a "close approximation of in vivo flow geometry" would be...Schilling RF: A paucity of thalassemia trait in Italian men with myocardial infarction. Acta Haemat.. 78:249-251, 1987. 44. Zannad F, Voisin P, Brunotte

  14. Bed bugs in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Safdar, Nasia; Beier, John C; Doggett, Stephen L

    2012-11-01

    Infestations caused by bed bugs have resurfaced during the past decade across all continents. Even though bed bugs primarily cause skin manifestations in humans, a major stigma is placed upon people or institutions found to carry them. It is important for healthcare facilities to be prepared for this pest by implementing policies, carefully selecting materials used for hospital furniture, and educating providers on early identification and control.

  15. Bedømmelsens kompleksitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sammenholdes hverdagens bedømmelser af mennesker med de bedømmelser, der sker ved eksaminer. Der er forskelle på grund af det retlige grundlag, men også ligheder. Konkrete erfaringer med klage- og ankesager gennem 8 år fra faget psykologi på landsplan opsummeres. Nogle få praktiske løsninger beskrives.

  16. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  17. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  18. DISPOSABLE CANISTER WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2001-07-30

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

  19. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  20. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  1. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  2. Concept development for HLW disposal research tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queon, S. K.; Kim, K. S.; Park, J. H.; Jeo, W. J.; Han, P. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In order to dispose high-level radioactive waste in a geological formation, it is necessary to assess the safety of a disposal concept by excavating a research tunnel in the same geological formation as the host rock mass. The design concept of a research tunnel depends on the actual disposal concept, repository geometry, experiments to be carried at the tunnel, and geological conditions. In this study, analysis of the characteristics of the disposal research tunnel, which is planned to be constructed at KAERI site, calculation of the influence of basting impact on neighbor facilities, and computer simuation for mechanical stability analysis using a three-dimensional code, FLAC3D, had been carried out to develop the design concept of the research tunnel.

  3. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  4. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  5. Cavern/Vault Disposal Concepts and Thermal Calculations for Direct Disposal of 37-PWR Size DPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clayton, Daniel James [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides two sets of calculations not presented in previous reports on the technical feasibility of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal directly in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs): 1) thermal calculations for reference disposal concepts using larger 37-PWR size DPC-based waste packages, and 2) analysis and thermal calculations for underground vault-type storage and eventual disposal of DPCs. The reader is referred to the earlier reports (Hardin et al. 2011, 2012, 2013; Hardin and Voegele 2013) for contextual information on DPC direct disposal alternatives.

  6. STUDY ON SOLID WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL IN HOSPITALS AND HEALTA CARE CENTERS OF TEHRAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omrani

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to achieve a clear pattern of solid waste collection and disposal in selected hospital and health care establishments in certain cities of Tehran province. This study was done in more than 82 percent of all hospitals with 3017 beds during the year 1996. Solid waste produced per bed was evaluated to be 2.87 kg per day which was 8670 kg per day, for all beds, comprising less than 1% of the total solid waste generated in the same cities during the same period. According to the information gathered in the 84.2% hospitals and health care centres, solid wastes were collected manually by labourers from various sections. Detention time of the waste in 89.5% of the cases was nearly 24 h. Densities of this type of waste were estimated to be 193.18kg/m3 with plastic bag and 247.72 kg/m3 without bag. Physical analysis of the wastes indicated 15.1% plastic and rubbery, 9.6% linen, 12.45% paper and cardboard, 8.5% various types of metals, 1.7% glass and 52.4% other different materials. In Iran, hospital administrations are directly responsible for collection transport and ultimate disposal of hospital wastes. Incinerators installed in 21.1% of the clinical centres, were not operating at all. Overall conclusion is that, solid wastes collection transportation and disposal in Tehran district is not satisfactory, according to the health and management criteria.

  7. The impact of disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on SPM concentration and fluid mud in and outside the harbor of Zeebrugge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Cardoso, Claudio; Dujardin, Arvid; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Hoestenberghe, Thomas; Vanlede, Joris; Van Poucke, Luc; Velez, Carlos; Martens, Chantal

    2016-11-01

    The amount of sediments to be dredged and disposed depends to a large part on the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration. Tidal, meteorological, climatological, and seasonal forcings have an influence on the horizontal and vertical distribution of the SPM in the water column and on the bed and control the inflow of fine-grained sediments towards harbors and navigation channels. About 3 million tons (dry matter) per year of mainly fine-grained sediments is dredged in the port of Zeebrugge and is disposed on a nearby disposal site. The disposed sediments are quickly resuspended and transported away from the site. The hypothesis is that a significant part of the disposed sediments recirculates back to the dredging places and that a relocation of the disposal site to another location at equal distance to the dredging area would reduce this recirculation. In order to validate the hypothesis, a 1-year field study was set up in 2013-2014. During 1 month, the dredged material was disposed at a new site. Variations in SPM concentration were related to tides, storms, seasonal changes, and human impacts. In the high-turbidity Belgian near-shore area, the natural forcings are responsible for the major variability in the SPM concentration signal, while disposal has only a smaller influence. The conclusion from the measurements is that the SPM concentration decreases after relocation of the disposal site but indicate stronger (first half of field experiment) or weaker (second half of field experiment) effects that are, however, supported by the environmental conditions. The results of the field study may have consequences on the management of disposal operations as the effectiveness of the disposal site depends on environmental conditions, which are inherently associated with chaotic behavior.

  8. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  9. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m (1000 ft). The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m (660 ft) in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 l (180,000 gal) of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is approximately $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. The site is in the structurally complex Valley and Ridge Province. The stratigraphy consists of lower Paleozoic rocks. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  11. The Challenges of Waste Disposal in a Secondary City: Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Challenges of Waste Disposal in a Secondary City: Calabar Metropolis – Cross ... Waste disposal is a major aspect in environmental preservation for healthy living. ... irregular collection and evacuation of waste materials and lack of funds. ... agencies to partner in waste disposal, create awareness on waste disposal, ...

  12. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided... qualified bidder after formal advertising and other appropriate public notice; (b) Sale by...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  17. Disposal frequencies of selected recyclable wastes in Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya, Prosper; Nondek, Lubomir

    2004-01-01

    A statistical survey of households based upon questionnaires distributed via primary schools has been carried out in five wards of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to estimate disposal frequencies (number of items disposed per week) for newsprint, metal cans, glass and plastic containers and plastic shopping bags. Plastic shopping bags are disposed most frequently while glass containers are disposed least frequently. The statistical distribution of disposal frequencies, which seems to be influenced by household income, is well described by Poisson distribution. Disposal frequencies are mutually correlated at 95% level of probability despite the differences in disposal patterns of individual households.

  18. Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the project is to develop engineering evaluations of technologies for the capture, use, and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestering of unused CO{sub 2}. Commercially available CO{sub 2}-capture technology is providing a performance and economic baseline against which to compare innovative technologies. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The value used for the {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget is 1 kg of CO{sub 2} per kilowatt-hour (electric). The base case is a 458-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 454 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.835 kg/kWhe. Two additional life-cycle energy balances for emerging technologies were considered: (1) high-temperature CO{sub 2} separation with calcium- or magnesium-based sorbents, and (2) ambient-temperature facilitated-transport polymer membranes for acid-gas removal.

  19. Recovery of valuable materials from spent NIMH batteries using spouted bed elutriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Eduardo H; Schlemmer, Diego F; Aguiar, Mônica L; Dotto, Guilherme L; Bertuol, Daniel A

    2016-04-15

    In recent years, a great increase in the generation of spent batteries occurred. Then, efficient recycling ways and correct disposal of hazardous wastes are necessary. An alternative to recover the valuable materials from spent NiMH batteries is the spouted bed elutriation. The aim of this study was to apply the mechanical processing (grinding and sieving) followed by spouted bed elutriation to separate the valuable materials present in spent NiMH batteries. The results of the manual characterization showed that about 62 wt.% of the batteries are composed by positive and negative electrodes. After the mechanical separation processes (grinding, sieving and spouted bed elutriation), three different fractions were obtained: 24.21 wt.% of metals, 28.20 wt.% of polymers and 42.00 wt.% of powder (the positive and negative electrodes). It was demonstrated that the different materials present in the spent NiMH batteries can be efficiently separated using a simple and inexpensive mechanical processing.

  20. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  1. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters.

  2. Proposal of a SiC disposal canister for very deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong-Youl; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper authors proposed a silicon carbide, SiC, disposal canister for the DBD concept in Korea. A. Kerber et al. first proposed the SiC canister for a geological disposal of HLW, CANDU or HTR spent nuclear fuels. SiC has some drawbacks in welding or manufacturing a large canister. Thus, we designed a double layered disposal canister consisting of a stainless steel outer layer and a SiC inner layer. KAERI has been interested in developing a very deep borehole disposal (DBD) of HLW generated from pyroprocessing of PWR spent nuclear fuel and supported the relevant R and D with very limited its own budget. KAERI team reviewed the DBD concept proposed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and developed its own concept. The SNL concept was based on the steel disposal canister. The authors developed a new technology called cold spray coating method to manufacture a copper-cast iron disposal canister for a geological disposal of high level waste in Korea. With this method, 8 mm thin copper canister with 400 mm in diameter and 1200 mm in height was made. In general, they do not give any credit on the lifetime of a disposal canister in DBD concept unlike the geological disposal. In such case, the expensive copper canister should be replaced with another one. We designed a disposal canister using SiC for DBD. According to an experience in manufacturing a small size canister, the fabrication of a large-size one is a challenge. Also, welding of SiC canister is not easy. Several pathways are being paved to overcome it.

  3. Colors in Disposable Diapers: Addressing Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eric B; Helmes, C Tucker; Kirsch, Taryn; Ruble, Karen M

    2014-08-01

    Colors are frequently added to disposable diapers to enhance the diapering experience. The colors in the interior of diapers are composed of nonsensitizing pigments that are bound during the fiber-making process into the fibers of the nonwoven that covers the absorbent core materials. In the past, the use of color in diapers has been called into question based on the presumed use of disperse dyes, known sensitizers in the textile industry, and erroneous reports in literature. In fact, disperse dyes are not used in leading disposable diapers; the colors used in these disposable diapers are nonsensitizing pigments with favorable safety profiles. Numerous safety tests, such as skin patch tests with pigments used on diaper backsheets, have found no evidence of skin irritation or sensitization.

  4. Transformation products of clindamycin in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong; Escola Casas, Monica; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    treatment plants in removing clindamycin. Recently, it has been discovered that attached biofilm reactors, e.g., moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) obtain a higher removal of pharmaceuticals than conventional sludge wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, this study investigated the capability of MBBRs...... applied in the effluent of conventional wastewater treatment plants to remove clindamycin. First, a batch experiment was executed with a high initial concentration of clindamycin to identify the transformation products. It was shown that clindamycin can be removed from wastewater by MBBR and the treatment......Clindamycin is widely prescribed for its ability to treat a number of common bacterial infections. Thus, clindamycin enters wastewater via human excretion or disposal of unused medication and widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in rivers proves the insufficiency of conventional wastewater...

  5. Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosanke, J. [Quality Recycling Ltd., Henderson, NC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    This article described an innovative Waste-to-Energy (WtE) system that is currently being installed in the city of Odessa in the Ukraine. The city has a population of 1 million and is a major seaport on the Black Sea. Sewage sludge will be used as a biomass fuel to power an electrical generation plant. The system includes a clean-burning rotary cascading bed combustor (RCBC) linked to a boiler and an electricity-generating steam turbine. The RCBC spins in order to keep fuel cascading for maximum combustion, and is expected to burn over 50,000 tons of dewatered sewage sludge per year while generating 33,507,000 kWh of electricity per individual location. Eleven systems will be installed at major sewage processing modules in the Ukraine. A pilot program is also being conducted to test and monitor the system under United States emissions and operational standards. The RCBC is also being used to combust fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a site in Kansas. Other fuels that can be cleanly burned using the RCBC system included high sulfur bituminous coal; anthracite coal waste; carpet and carpet scrap, and tires and rubber wastes. Studies have demonstrated that some toxic wastes can be removed using the RCBC system. It was concluded that burning negative value fuels can allow some power plants to earn revenues from disposal fees. 3 figs.

  6. AFCI Storage & Disposal FY-06 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Wigeland, R; Dixon, B

    2006-09-27

    AFCI Storage and Disposal participants at LLNL, ANL and INL provide assessment of how AFCI technology can optimize the future evolution of the fuel cycle, including optimization of waste management. Evaluation of material storage and repository disposal technical issues provides feedback on criteria and metrics for AFCI, and evaluation of AFCI waste streams provides technical alternatives for future repository optimization. LLNL coordinates this effort that includes repository analysis at ANL and incorporation of repository impacts into AFCI criteria at INL. Cooperative evaluation with YMP staff is pursued to provide a mutually agreed technical base. Cooperation with select international programs is supported.

  7. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  8. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start w...

  9. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  10. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  11. Disposable Versus Reusable Absorbent Underpads for Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis and Pressure Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Kathleen; Pang, Sau Man; Cohen, Brenda; Salter, Helene; Homel, Peter

    The primary purpose of our study was to determine if there is a difference in the occurrence of hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) in incontinent adults using a disposable versus reusable absorptive underpads. We also compared hospital length of stay in the 2 groups. Randomized controlled trial using cluster randomization based on inpatient care unit. Four hundred sixty-two patients admitted to 4 medical-surgical study units participated in the study; 252 used reusable underpads (control group) and 210 subjects used disposable underpads (intervention group). The study setting was a 711-bed acute care hospital located in Brooklyn, New York. Two units were randomly allocated to use disposable incontinence pads, and the remaining 2 units used standard, reusable incontinence pads. Data for PI and IAD occurrences were collected weekly by specially trained RNs (skin care champions) on the assigned units. A 2-level hierarchical linear model was used to analyze the effects of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes separately from any effects of the unit of randomization. HAPIs were significantly lower in the disposable underpads group: 5% versus 12% (P = .02). Rates of hospital IAD were not significantly different between the groups (P = .22). Analysis of a secondary outcome, hospital length of stay, was also lower in patients who used disposable underpads (6 days vs 8 days; P = .02). Findings suggest that use of disposable incontinence pads reduces HAPI but not IAD occurrences. The effect of disposable, absorbent incontinence pads should be considered when initiating a hospital-wide skin and PI prevention and treatment plan.

  12. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Aaberg, R.L.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    This report contains the draft results of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste disposal criteria for the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of various defense TRU advanced disposal options at the Hanford Site. Advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. They will be used to complement the waste geologic disposal in achieving permanent disposal of selected TRU wastes. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 5 figures, 7 tables.

  13. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-09-13

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density

  14. Impact of different discharge patterns on bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time: a simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhecheng

    2011-01-01

    Beds are one of the most important resources in a healthcare system. How to manage beds efficiently is an important indicator of the efficiency of the healthcare system. Bed management is challenging to many healthcare service providers in many aspects. In recent years, population growth and aging society impose extra pressure on bed requirement. There are usually two key performance indicators of a bed management system: bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time. In this paper, different discharge patterns and their impacts on the bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time are studied. A discrete event simulation model is constructed to evaluate the existing discharge pattern in a Singapore regional hospital using actual hospital admission and discharge transaction data. Then different discharge patterns are tested in the same context. Simulation results show that a proper discharge pattern significantly smoothes the fluctuation of bed occupancy rate and reduce the bed waiting time.

  15. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  16. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  17. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  18. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  19. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  20. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  1. [Historical analysis of the hospital bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Until now the bed has been the basic physical resource in hospitals. This type of furniture has served to study and treat patients, through out the centuries it has undergone changes in the materials they are made of dimensions, functionality, accessories, aesthetic, and design. The hospital bed history is not well known, there are thousands of documents about the evolution of hospitals, but not enough is known about hospital beds, a link between the past and the present. The medical, anthropological, technological, social, and economic dynamics and knowledge have produced a variety of beds in general and hospital beds in particular. From instinctive, rustic, poor and irregular "sites" that have differed in shape and size they had evolved into ergonomic equipment. The history of the hospital bed reflects the culture, techniques and human thinking. Current hospital beds include several types: for adults, for children, for labor, for intensive therapy, emergency purposes, census and non census beds etc.

  2. Urban garbage disposal and management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change andregional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in fivebig cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showedthe output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition arealso increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing thegrowing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residentsare in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battlingagainst garbage.Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some polieymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a socialwelfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control,promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been putforward in the paper.

  3. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  4. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  5. Military Throwaways Why Acquirers Should Go Disposable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    would fit within the current budget limitations, grounded in a reasonableness determined by fair market value . As with anything, the determination...of “reasonableness” depends greatly on the environment and facts surrounding the pro - curement. Based upon the timelines a disposable tech policy

  6. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  7. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  8. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  9. Evaluation of Collection and Disposal of Hospital Waste in Hospitals and Healthcare Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of the environmental issues is waste of hospitals and healthcare facilities which due to hazardous, toxic, and disease-causing agents such as pharmaceutical, chemical and infectious disease, is of particular sensitivity. According to a 2002 survey by WHO, it was determined that 22 million people worldwide suffer from infectious diseases annually, because of contacting hospital wastes. Also based on a research conducted in 22 countries, 18 to 64 percent of hospitals wastes are not disposed properly [1]. The purpose f the study is to appraise collection and disposal of hospital wastes in hospitals and healthcare centers of Shahroud.In this sectional study, 3 university hospitals (580 beds and 10 healthcare facilities were investigated for six months (mehr-azar 89 at Shahroud. In order to determine the amount of waste, produced waste of an entire day was weighted in hospitals and health centers. In this research, proposed questionnaires of WHO for developing countries was used to evaluate collection and disposal system of hospitals waste. Collected data was coded and analyzed by SPSS ver.15.

  10. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  11. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  12. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  13. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  14. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6070 - Bed board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bed board. 880.6070 Section 880.6070 Food and... GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6070 Bed board. (a) Identification. A bed board is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  16. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described.

  17. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  18. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  19. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  20. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing countries are faced with. Health hazard, traffic ... The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. Communal collection, block ...

  1. 40 CFR 229.3 - Transportation and disposal of vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of these vessels shall take place in a site designated on current nautical charts for the disposal of... week, of the exact coordinates of the disposal site so that it may be marked on appropriate charts....

  2. Dredge spoil disposal off Kavaratti Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Maintenance dredging has been carried out along the navigational channel at Kavaratii Island and dredge spoil is disposed in the open sea. This paper describes the movement of sediment plume while dredging and disposal. The study indicates...

  3. Advanced disposal systems for transuranic waste: Preliminary disposal criteria for Plutonium-239 at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide ''greater confinement'' than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth.

  4. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000 year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/y to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  5. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  7. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste...

  8. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D.; Harbert, W.

    2008-01-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated towater salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin. ?? 2008 2008 Society of ExplorationGeophysicists. All rights reserved.

  9. Agglomeration-Free Distributor for Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, F.; Sinica, A.; Levenspiel, O.

    1986-01-01

    New gas distributor for fluidized beds prevents hot particles from reacting on it and forming hard crust. In reduction of iron ore in fluidized bed, ore particles do not sinter on distributor and perhaps clog it or otherwise interfere with gas flow. Distributor also relatively cool. In fluidized-bed production of silicon, inflowing silane does not decompose until within bed of hot silicon particles and deposits on them. Plates of spiral distributor arranged to direct incoming gas into spiral flow. Turbulence in flow reduces frequency of contact between fluidized-bed particles and distributor.

  10. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  11. 48 CFR 45.606 - Disposal of scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of scrap. 45.606 Section 45.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Disposal of scrap....

  12. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable flouride tray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposable flouride tray. 872.6870 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable flouride tray. (a) Identification. A disposable fluoride tray is a device made of styrofoam intended to apply fluoride topically to...

  13. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  14. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides water... additional priority points to the colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal systems and...

  15. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet in log scale measurement; linear estimates of pole timber, and amount of cord wood. The appraiser... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  16. Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, Július; Králík, Tomáš; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, Jiří; Starý, Oldřich

    2014-11-01

    This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

  17. 48 CFR 45.604-1 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 45.604-1 Section 45.604-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.604-1 Disposal methods. (a) Except as...

  18. 12 CFR 41.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 41.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Definitions as used in this section. (1) Bank means national banks... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 41.83...

  19. 12 CFR 334.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 334.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  20. 12 CFR 571.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 571.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Scope. This section applies to savings associations whose deposits... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  1. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-approved solid waste disposal area. Disposal sites in the permit area shall be designed and constructed to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section 816.89 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-approved solid waste disposal area. Disposal sites in the permit area shall be designed and constructed to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section 817.89 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  3. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  4. 5 CFR 581.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate disposable earnings. 581.401 Section 581.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... § 581.401 Aggregate disposable earnings. The “aggregate disposable earnings”, when used in reference...

  5. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  6. Equilibrium bed-concentration of nonuniform sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only dealt with the reference concentration of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration. This work is a first attempt to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonuniform sediment defined at the bed-surface. The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonuniform sediment near the bed, and described as a function of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability, pick-up probability, and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time. Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfactory agreement, indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the motion of suspended load.

  7. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  8. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  9. Foldable and Disposable Memory on Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Il; Bae, Hagyoul; Seong, Hyejeong; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seol, Myung-Lok; Han, Jin-Woo; Meyyappan, M.; Im, Sung-Gap; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-12-01

    Foldable organic memory on cellulose nanofibril paper with bendable and rollable characteristics is demonstrated by employing initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for polymerization of the resistive switching layer and inkjet printing of the electrode, where iCVD based on all-dry and room temperature process is very suitable for paper electronics. This memory exhibits a low operation voltage of 1.5 V enabling battery operation compared to previous reports and wide memory window. The memory performance is maintained after folding tests, showing high endurance. Furthermore, the quick and complete disposable nature demonstrated here is attractive for security applications. This work provides an effective platform for green, foldable and disposable electronics based on low cost and versatile materials.

  10. Periglacial phenomena affecting nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niini, H.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow future changes in astronomic phenomena seem to make it likely that Finland nll suffer several cold periods during the next 100,000 years. The paper analyses the characteristics of the periglacial factors that are most likely to influence the long-term safety of high-level radioactive waste disposed of in bedrock. These factors and their influences have been divided into two categories, natural and human. It is concluded that the basically natural phenomena are theoretically better understood than the complicated phenomena caused by man. It is therefore important in future research into periglacial phenomena, as well as of the disposal problem, to emphasize not only the proper applications of the results of natural sciences, but especially the effects and control of mankind's own present and future activities.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  12. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP, three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in Mitrovica Industrial Park, Kosovo. The combination of these methods can effectively identify the comprehensive and single pollution levels of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and As present in jarosite waste. Moreover, the great positive relevance between leaching behavior of heavy metals and F1 fraction was supported by principal component analysis (PCA. PERI results indicate that Cd showed a very high risk class to the environment. The ecological risk of heavy metals declines in the following order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>As.

  13. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  14. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    2012-04-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  15. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    pr_121508_energysecnom.cfm. 13 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Growing energy: Berkeley Lab’s Steve Chu on what termite guts have to do with global warming...does not seem an attractive alternative to the geological 60 Steven Nadis, “The Sub-Seabed Solution...could be done at Yucca Mountain.82 Such “salt creep” occurs more quickly at higher temperatures , which could result from the disposal of high-level waste

  16. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  17. Galileo disposal strategy: stability, chaos and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Daquin, Jérôme; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Deleflie, Florent; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the medium-Earth orbit (MEO) region of the global navigation satellite systems is permeated by a devious network of lunisolar secular resonances, which can interact to produce chaotic and diffusive motions. The precarious state of the four navigation constellations, perched on the threshold of instability, makes it understandable why all past efforts to define stable graveyard orbits, especially in the case of Galileo, were bound to fail; the region is far too complex to allow for an adoption of the simple geosynchronous disposal strategy. We retrace one such recent attempt, funded by ESA's General Studies Programme in the frame of the GreenOPS initiative, that uses a systematic parametric approach and the straightforward maximum-eccentricity method to identify long-term-stable regions, suitable for graveyards, as well as large-scale excursions in eccentricity, which can be used for post-mission deorbiting of constellation satellites. We then apply our new results on the stunningly rich dynamical structure of the MEO region towards the analysis of these disposal strategies for Galileo, and discuss the practical implications of resonances and chaos in this regime. We outline how the identification of the hyperbolic and elliptic fixed points of the resonances near Galileo can lead to explicit criteria for defining optimal disposal strategies.

  18. A Comparison of Distillery Stillage Disposal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sajbrt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the main stillage disposal methods from the point of view of technology, economics and energetics. Attention is paid to the disposal of both solid and liquid phase. Specifically, the following methods are considered: a livestock feeding, b combustion of granulated stillages, c fertilizer production, d anaerobic digestion with biogas production and e chemical pretreatment and subsequent secondary treatment. Other disposal techniques mentioned in the literature (electrofenton reaction, electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis have not been considered, due to their high costs and technological requirements.Energy and economic calculations were carried out for a planned production of 120 m3 of stillage per day in a given distillery. Only specific treatment operating costs (per 1 m3 of stillage were compared, including operational costs for energy, transport and chemicals. These values were determined for January 31st, 2009. Resulting sequence of cost effectiveness: 1. – chemical pretreatment, 2. – combustion of granulated stillage, 3. – transportation of stillage to a biogas station, 4. – fertilizer production, 5. – livestock feeding. This study found that chemical pretreatment of stillage with secondary treatment (a method developed at the Department of Process Engineering, CTU was more suitable than the other methods. Also, there are some important technical advantages. Using this method, the total operating costs are approximately 1 150 ??/day, i.e. about 9,5 ??/m3 of stillage. The price of chemicals is the most important item in these costs, representing about 85 % of the total operating costs.

  19. Apparatus to reduce or eliminate combustor perimeter wall erosion in fluidized bed boilers or reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.E.

    1993-08-31

    A fluidized bed boiler or reactor is described comprising a housing, a reaction chamber within said housing, air distribution means within said reaction chamber, a plurality of water wall tubes approximately vertically disposed and arranged about the interior walls of said housing so as to define said reaction chamber, wherein the improvement comprises: providing at least a portion of the vertically disposed water wall tubes with an outward slope in the range between 2.5 to 10 such that the cross-section of the upper portion of said reaction chamber is smaller than the cross-section of the lower portion of said reaction chamber so as to reduce or eliminate erosion of said water wall tubes caused by impact from downward flowing solid particles.

  20. Hospital Bed Type, the Electronic Medical Record, and Safe Bed Elevation in the Intensive Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Zachary W; Duquaine, Damon; Ohkuma, Rika; Schneider, Eric B; Whitman, Glenn J R

    2016-01-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients, head of bed (HOB) elevation above 30° decreases the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The research team studied (a) compliance with proper HOB elevation in their cardiac surgical intensive care unit, (b) the accuracy of HOB angles recorded in the electronic medical record (EMR), and (c) the effect of bed type on (a) and (b). Nurses were polled to discover how HOB angles were measured in practice. HOB angles were compliant in 80% of observations. Compliance was more frequent in beds with side-of-bed angle indicators (SBI) than beds with under-bed angle indicators (UBI; 88% vs 77%, P = .04). Charting in the EMR was accurate in 50% of SBI bed observations but only 20% of UBI bed observations (P bed type. Bedside indicators are underutilized. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  2. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  3. The status of LILW disposal facility construction in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Chung, Myung-Sub; Park, Kyu-Wan [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation (KRMC), 89, Bukseong-ro, Gyeongju-si,, Gyeongsangbuk-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the experiences during the construction of the first LILW disposal facility in South Korea. In December 2005, the South Korean Government designated Gyeongju-city as a host city of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste(LILW) disposal site through local referendums held in regions whose local governments had applied to host disposal facility in accordance with the site selection procedures. The LILW disposal facility is being constructed in Bongilri, Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju. The official name of the disposal facility is called 'Wolsong Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center (LILW Disposal Center)'. It can dispose of 800,000 drums of radioactive wastes in a site of 2,100,000 square meters. At the first stage, LILW repository of underground silo type with disposal capacity of 100,000 drums is under construction expected to be completed by June of 2014. The Wolsong Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center consists of surface facilities and underground facilities. The surface facilities include a reception and inspection facility, an interim storage facility, a radioactive waste treatment building, and supporting facilities such as main control center, equipment and maintenance shop. The underground facilities consist of a construction tunnel for transport of construction equipment and materials, an operation tunnel for transport of radioactive waste, an entrance shaft for workers, and six silos for final disposal of radioactive waste. As of Dec. 2012, the overall project progress rate is 93.8%. (authors)

  4. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need to face, before...... inspiration to researchers on how to possibly build their own customized systems....

  5. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  6. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Angélica Randoli de; Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2016-01-01

    To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit). The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps' disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%), sink drain (28.9%), sharps' box with orange bag (14.3%), and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%). No disposal was identified after drug administration. A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare) waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary. Verificar o descarte dos resíduos de medicamentos realizado em unidades pediátricas. Estudo descritivo e observacional, realizado em um hospital universitário. A amostra de conveniência foi constituída pelos medicamentos descartados durante o período de estudo. Observaram-se a manipulação e o descarte durante o preparo e a administração. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em horários preestabelecidos e realizada por meio de instrumento pré-validado. Identificaram-se 356 descartes de medicamentos (35,1% na clínica, 31,8% na unidade de cuidados intensivos, 23,8% na cirúrgica e 9,3% na infectologia). As classes farmacológicas mais descartadas foram: 22,7% antimicrobianos, 14,8% eletrólitos, 14,6% analgésicos, 9,5% diuréticos e 6,7% antiulcerosos. Vias mais utilizadas: caixa descartável para perfurocortante com

  7. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  8. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, December 1991--February 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Easter oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. 24 figs., 19 tabs. (AT)

  9. Performance Assessment of a Generic Repository in Bedded Salt for DOE-Managed Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Sevougian, S. D.; Hammond, G. E.; Frederick, J. M.; Mariner, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    A mined repository in salt is one of the concepts under consideration for disposal of DOE-managed defense-related spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW). Bedded salt is a favorable medium for disposal of nuclear waste due to its low permeability, high thermal conductivity, and ability to self-heal. Sandia's Generic Disposal System Analysis framework is used to assess the ability of a generic repository in bedded salt to isolate radionuclides from the biosphere. The performance assessment considers multiple waste types of varying thermal load and radionuclide inventory, the engineered barrier system comprising the waste packages, backfill, and emplacement drifts, and the natural barrier system formed by a bedded salt deposit and the overlying sedimentary sequence (including an aquifer). The model simulates disposal of nearly the entire inventory of DOE-managed, defense-related SNF (excluding Naval SNF) and HLW in a half-symmetry domain containing approximately 6 million grid cells. Grid refinement captures the detail of 25,200 individual waste packages in 180 disposal panels, associated access halls, and 4 shafts connecting the land surface to the repository. Equations describing coupled heat and fluid flow and reactive transport are solved numerically with PFLOTRAN, a massively parallel flow and transport code. Simulated processes include heat conduction and convection, waste package failure, waste form dissolution, radioactive decay and ingrowth, sorption, solubility limits, advection, dispersion, and diffusion. Simulations are run to 1 million years, and radionuclide concentrations are observed within an aquifer at a point approximately 4 kilometers downgradient of the repository. The software package DAKOTA is used to sample likely ranges of input parameters including waste form dissolution rates and properties of engineered and natural materials in order to quantify uncertainty in predicted concentrations and sensitivity to input parameters. Sandia

  10. Circulating fluidized bed combustion ash characterization. The case of the Provence 250 MW unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuyer, I.; Leduc, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Lefevre, R.; Ausset, P. [Paris-12 Univ., Creteil (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    1997-05-01

    The Provence 250 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Unit (Gardanne, France) is burning a high sulfur (2 to 4%), high ash content (30%) local lignite. This peculiar fuel already contains about 15% of CaO which allows it to capture the sulfur dioxide in situ without adding any complementary sorbent. The ash chemical composition (bed ash and ESP ash) that reflects the particularities of the coal is presented. SEM and DRX observations confirm the presence of anhydrite CaSO{sub 4}, lime, CaS, quartz and traces of hematite. Most of particles are roughly-shaped but microspheres can also be detected in fly ash. The very high sulfate content may be worrying for the environment in disposals. Hardened samples do not seem to retain compounds from leaching: high quantities of calcium and sulfates are still leached from these crushed samples. (author) 10 refs.

  11. Combustion characteristics of Athabasca froth treatment tailings in a simulated fluidilized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, P.; Ghosh, M.; Speirs, B. C. [Imperial Oil Resources (Canada); Leon, M. A.; Rao, S.; Dutta, A.; Basu, P. [Greenfield Research Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In surface-mined oil sands, a stream of water, asphaltenes, solids and residual bitumen/solvent, known as PFT tailings, is created during the bitumen production process. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of this PFT tailings stream as a fuel source for combustion in a fluidized bed for energy recovery. To do so, physical and fluidization characteristics of the fuel as well as combustion kinetics were assessed through laboratory analysis. In addition, the fuel's combustion characteristics were investigated through experiments in a quartz wool matrix tubular reactor and theoretical calculations at various moisture contents. Results showed that this fuel can be burned in a fluidized bed with a reactivity comparable to that of coal samples. This research found that PFT tailings could be used to generate energy during disposal but further work will have to be undertaken in a hot CFB combustor to confirm this.

  12. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Male, 62. Bipolar disorder. Bordeline personality disorder. - Bed bug infestation. Psychiatry. Unusual clinical course. In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. We present a case, based on a coroner's investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs.

  13. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  14. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  15. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2001-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  16. Moisture monitoring in waste disposal surface barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Alex; Huebner, Christof

    2003-05-01

    Surface barriers for waste disposal sites should prevent waste water and gas emission into the environment. It is necessary to assess their proper operation by monitoring the water regime of the containment. A set of three new water content measuring devices has been developed that provide an economical solution for monitoring the moisture distribution and water dynamic. They will give an early warning service if the barrier system is at risk of being damaged. The cryo soil moisture sensor 'LUMBRICUS' is an in situ self-calibrating absolute water content measuring device. It measures moisture profiles at spot locations down to 2.5 m depth with an accuracy of better than 1.5% and a depth resolution of 0.03 m. The sensor inherently measures density changes and initial cracks of shrinking materials like clay minerals. The large area soil moisture sensor 'TAUPE' is a moisture sensitive electric cable network to be buried in the mineral barrier material of the cover. A report will be given with results and experiences on an exemplary installation at the Waste Disposal Facility Karlsruhe-West. 800 m2 of the barrier construction have been continuously monitored since December 1997. Volumetric water content differences of 1.5% have been detected and localised within 4 m. This device is already installed in two other waste disposal sites. A modified 'TAUPE' was constructed for the control of tunnels and river dams as well. Thin sheet moisture sensor 'FORMI' is specifically designed for moisture measurements in liners like bentonite, textile and plastic. Due to its flexibility it follows the curvature of the liner. The sensor measures independently from neighbouring materials and can be matched to a wide range of different thickness of the material. The sensors are patented in several countries.

  17. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-07-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  18. Invert muds : cost and disposal roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garritty, N. [Engineered Drilling Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Since its inception, Engineered Drilling Solutions Incorporated (EDSI) has been focused on increasing drilling performance, increasing customer satisfaction, and decreasing drilling costs. Drilling fluid accounts for only 5 per cent of the cost to drill a well. It is necessary to look at how drilling fluid affects other aspects of drilling costs. Historically, the two main barriers to drilling with invert drilling fluids have been cost and disposal. EDSI's goal was to create an economical invert drilling fluid and develop an innovative way to dispose of the cuttings created while drilling it. This presentation discussed the costs and disposal roadblocks of invert muds. It provided a brief history of oil muds and the need for a new solution to the problem. Invert issues were identified. The presentation also discussed the removal of damaging components from the system and replacement of these materials with non-damaging alternatives which have allowed for the creation of a novel oil based drilling fluid formulation. The presentation discussed the development of 4G which was prepared with the use of a patent pending process using a colloid mill. The device achieved high levels of shear and, as a result, the fluid could be prepared to the consistency of paint. The 4G formulation was modified to 4GM in order to have a fluid that provided shear thinning at the bit for faster drilling, but that would gel up to provide for great hole cleaning. Shear thinning fluid also results in less fluid being lost over the shale shakers. 4GM was shown to enhance organophilic clay performance; significantly decrease maintenance; and decrease losses over the shaker. EDSI has also patented a solution that combines recycled tires and invert drill cuttings to create a product that replaces a portion of traditional aggregate in roads in order to offset the stresses on gravel road infrastructure as well as eliminating the waste going into landfills. figs.

  19. Multicapillary electrophoresis disposable cartridge for bioseparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan D.; Liu, Ming-Sun

    2003-07-01

    We have successfully demonstrated the development of a compact and cost-effective parallel multi-channel capillary electrophoresis system for bio-molecules analysis. The automated process includes a buffer/gel replenishment mechanism, high voltage control of fluidics and an automated sample tray transport capability. The bio-separation/analysis occurs in a disposable cartridge containing multi-column capillaries with integrated excitation optical fibers, detection micro-optics and a buffer reservoir common to all separation channels. Tests of this fully integrated system indicate, that large quantities of biological samples can be analyzed automatically in a short period with highly sensitive fluorescence detection.

  20. Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Waste Disposal Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    tons calcium sulfate (gypsum) per ton of titanium oxide (TiO2 ) produced. Because of the shear magnitude of the calcium sulfate disposal problem, one... pickling liquors that used as high as a 40:1 seed recycle ratio (we did not talk directly with Bethlehem Steel on their process). The Dorr Oliver...I I I 4-14 / Arthur D. Little, Inc. SECTION 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Aarons, R. and Taylor, R.A. (1967), The DuPont Waste Pickle Liquor Process, 22 Ind

  1. Electrochemical Disposal of Hydrazines in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseong; Gonzalez-Mar, Anuncia; Salinas, Carlos; Rutherford, Larris; Jeng, King-Tsai; Andrews, Craig; Yalamanchili, Ratlaya

    2007-01-01

    An electrochemical method of disposal of hydrazines dissolved in water has been devised. The method is applicable to hydrazine (N2H4), to monomethyl hydrazine [also denoted by MMH or by its chemical formula, (CH3)HNNH2], and to unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine [also denoted UDMH or by its chemical formula, (CH3)2NNH2]. The method involves a room-temperature process that converts the hydrazine to the harmless products N2, H2O, and, in some cases, CO2

  2. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field

  3. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited numb...

  4. Fluidized-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudjoi, A.; Heinolainen, A.; Hippinen, I.; Lu, Y. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Hybrid combined cycle processes have been presented as possibilities for power generation in the future. In the processes based on partial gasification of coal, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed char) contain unburned fuel, which is burned either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. Pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) combustion of gasification residues were studied experimentally by Helsinki University of Technology. The gasification residues, i.e. cyclone fines and bed chars, came from pilot scale PFB gasification tests of bituminous coals. The combustion efficiency was high in cyclone fines combustion. The calcium sulphide oxidised effectively to calcium sulphate in the combustion of cyclone fines. In bed char combustion the residual sulphide contents in solids after combustion were still relatively high. In general, sulphur dioxide emissions in residue combustion were low. The recarbonation of calcium oxide was observed in bed char combustion. Fuel-N conversion to NO{sub x} during bed char combustion and in most of the test runs with cyclone fines was higher than in bituminous coal combustion. In bed char combustion the conversion was significantly higher than in cyclone fines combustion. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing excess air for both residues, as was expected. In bed char combustion the highest NO{sub x} emissions were measured at higher pressure. Calculated mass reactivity values of equal particle size of all bed chars studied had similar trends with burnout. The biggest particles had the lowest reactivity values throughout the combustion, while reactivity for finer particles was at considerably higher level and sharply increases with burnout. In the constant combustion conditions used in the tests, no significant differences were observed in rate-controlling mechanisms for bed char fractions studied. 25 refs., 13 figs., 15 tab.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  6. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  7. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  8. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Praveen; Jones, Susan C; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-03-18

    Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.) through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases) towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance) with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  9. Physician-patient communication in single-bedded versus four-bedded hospital rooms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glind, I. van de; Dulmen, S. van; Goossensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether physician-patient communication in multi-bedded rooms differs from communication in single rooms during ward rounds. Methods: Ward rounds in single bedded patient rooms and ward rounds in four bedded rooms were audiotaped and analyzed with an adapted version of MIARS.

  10. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... should be selected so that projected population growth and future developments are not likely to affect...-year flood plain, coastal high-hazard area or wetland, as defined in Executive Order 11988, “Floodplain... of subpart C of this part being met. In no case will waste disposal be permitted in the zone of...

  11. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  12. Possible salt mine sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.

    1972-06-30

    The motivation for this investigation is the necessity for finding the safest possible repository for solid atomic plant wastes. It is believed that rooms mined in thick beds of salt would afford the best sanctuary. This is due especially to the impermeability of massive rock salt. This rock has enough plasticity so that it tends to give rather than fracture when disturbed by movements of the earth's crust. In addition, due to water conditions at the time of deposition, the rocks most commonly associated with salt (anhydrite and shale) are likewise relatively impervious. A number of areas have been selected for detailed discussion because of the excellence of the geological and environmental factors. The optimum requirements for a viable waste disposal prospect are described in detail and nine prospects are considered further.

  13. Increased circulating leptin in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to release and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, JJ; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine peptide that decreases appetite and thereby food intake and increases energy expenditure. It is produced in fat cells, but recent animal experiments have shown expression of leptin in modified stellate hepatic cells. Because a change in circulating leptin in cirrhosis could...... be caused by an altered production rate, altered disposal rate, or both, the present study was undertaken to identify regions of leptin overflow into the blood stream and regions of leptin extraction. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16) and control patients without liver disease (n = 12) were studied...... during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds. Blood samples for leptin determination (radioimmunoassay) were taken simultaneously from artery/hepatic vein, artery/renal vein, artery/iliac vein, and artery/cubital vein. Patients with cirrhosis had significantly...

  14. Remote controlled mover for disposal canister transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suikki, M. [Optimik Oy, Turku (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    This working report is an update for an earlier automatic guided vehicle design (Pietikaeinen 2003). The short horizontal transfers of disposal canisters manufactured in the encapsulation process are conducted with remote controlled movers both in the encapsulation plant and in the underground areas at the canister loading station of the disposal facility. The canister mover is a remote controlled transfer vehicle mobile on wheels. The handling of canisters is conducted with the assistance of transport platforms (pallets). The very small automatic guided vehicle of the earlier design was replaced with a commercial type mover. The most important reasons for this being the increased loadbearing requirement and the simpler, proven technology of the vehicle. The larger size of the vehicle induced changes to the plant layouts and in the principles for dealing with fault conditions. The selected mover is a vehicle, which is normally operated from alongside. In this application, the vehicle steering technology must be remote controlled. In addition, the area utilization must be as efficient as possible. This is why the vehicle was downsized in its outer dimensions and supplemented with certain auxiliary equipment and structures. This enables both remote controlled operation and improves the vehicle in terms of its failure tolerance. Operation of the vehicle was subjected to a risk analysis (PFMEA) and to a separate additional calculation conserning possible canister toppling risks. The total cost estimate, without value added tax for manufacturing the system amounts to 730 000 euros. (orig.)

  15. Radiation safety considerations in proton aperture disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Priscilla K; Edwards, Andrew C; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2014-04-01

    Beam shaping in scattered and uniform scanned proton beam therapy (PBT) is made commonly by brass apertures. Due to proton interactions, these devices become radioactive and could pose safety issues and radiation hazards. Nearly 2,000 patient-specific devices per year are used at Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO) and IU Health Proton Therapy Center (IUHPTC); these devices require proper guidelines for disposal. IUCO practice has been to store these apertures for at least 4 mo to allow for safe transfer to recycling contractors. The devices require decay in two staged secure locations, including at least 4 mo in a separate building, at which point half are ready for disposal. At 6 mo, 20-30% of apertures require further storage. This process requires significant space and manpower and should be considered in the design process for new clinical facilities. More widespread adoption of pencil beam or spot scanning nozzles may obviate this issue, as apertures then will no longer be necessary.

  16. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  17. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2015 and July 2016 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Los Alamos focused on two main activities during this period: Discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling to describe flow and radionuclide transport in complex fracture networks that are typical of crystalline rock environments, and a comprehensive interpretation of three different colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport experiments conducted in a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland between 2002 and 2013. Chapter 1 presents the results of the DFN work and is divided into three main sections: (1) we show results of our recent study on the correlation between fracture size and fracture transmissivity (2) we present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph for characterization of discrete fracture networks, and (3) we describe the Crystalline International work in support of the Swedish Task Force. Chapter 2 presents interpretation of the colloidfacilitated radionuclide transport experiments in the crystalline rock at the Grimsel Test Site.

  18. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  19. Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facility Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Facilities ( DALF ) at RVA" (USATHANA, 1984) provided the basis for the volume estimates for siting a disposal facility as discussed in Appendix 1.3. The... DALF also addressed on-site disposal options in addition to other technologies. This study supported the on-site disposal option by stating that a...impermeable bedrock do not exist at RMA. The DALF , drawing on the conclusions of the earlier WES 1983 report, recoumended a site in the northeast quarter of

  20. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  2. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...

  3. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  4. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described

  5. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  6. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  7. Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yuchuan; XU; Haijue; XU; Dong

    2006-01-01

    Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.

  8. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  9. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  10. Bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Dwyer, Dominic E; Peñas, Pablo F; Russell, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations.

  11. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels.

  12. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described b

  13. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  14. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  16. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  17. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  18. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Crane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  19. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  20. Bed bugs: they are back! The role of the school nurse in bed bug management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciscione, Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Recently there has been a resurgence of bed bugs in all facets of our society. Bed bugs have even been found in schools, causing unnecessary exclusion of students and unfounded hysteria. School nurses are again called upon to be front-line sources of information to quell the hysteria and confusion related to this unsavory condition. By arming themselves with the best evidence regarding proper identification of bed bugs and their bites and information about integrated prevention measures to control transmission of infestations, school nurses can contribute to the control and management of bed bugs and aid in the overall battle against this "new and improved" invasion of the bed bugs.

  1. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1990-12-31

    This paper concludes that a 70/30 wt % salt/bentonite mixture is preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, near Carlsbad, NM, is designed to be the first mined geologic repository for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by DOE defense programs since 1970. The repository is located about 655 m below the land surface in an extensive bedded salt formation. This report examines the performance of two backfill materials with regard to various selection criteria, such as the need for low permeability after closure, chemical stability, strength, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a state of permeability {le} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} that is adequate for satisfying regulations for nuclear repositories. The results of finite-element calculations that were used to arrive at this conclusion will be described. The real advantage of the salt/bentonite. backfill depends, therefore, on bentonite`s potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates of the impact of these properties on backfill performance are presented.

  2. The use of New Brunswick peat moss to treat contaminated groundwater at solid waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, N. [GEMTEC Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Alternative treatment methodology of solid waste disposal sites was investigated in an effort to find a reliable, and cost-effective, means of leachate or impacted groundwater. In particular, the investigation dealt with New Brunswick sphagnum peat moss as an agent capable of removing heavy metals, organics and nutrients. Initially, bench-scale trials were designed to determine optimum operating conditions for full-scale systems. Results of the bench-scale trial showed that increasing the hydraulic loading of the bio-filter did not significantly affect the removal efficiency for most contaminant parameters. On the other hand, incremental reduction of bed depth from 120 cm to 30 cm resulted in a reduction in the removal efficiency of the biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved organic carbon. Adjusting the influent to the bio-filter to pH 9 improved removal efficiency, particularly for heavy metals. It was found that the peat bio-filters eventually became ineffective either as a result of bio-fouling or saturation of the adsorption sites with heavy metals. Investigation of options for disposing of the spent peat is in progress.

  3. Innovative Bed Load Measurement System for Large Alpine Gravel-Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, H.; Habersack, H. M.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the work is to figure out the bed load transport processes using direct and surrogate measurement methods for the free flowing reach of the Drau River and its most important tributary Isel River, both large Alpine gravel-bed rivers, situated in the south western part of Austria. There are some techniques for bed load measurements in natural streams; we used collecting moving particles and indirectly determining transport intensity at the study sites. Former measurements in the study reach were performed also using mobile bed load samplers and fixed bed load samplers. Individually they all are adequate bed load measurement instruments - used in combination they are complementing one another, whereas each applied separately leads to specific deficits. The investigation payed special attention on results out of the geophone installations, whereas steel plate vibrations (the plates are mounted on top of concrete structures even with the river bed surface) caused by bed load particles with a diameter larger than about 20 mm are inducing a signal into the geophones. The signal above a defined threshold voltage than is recorded in a computer system as the sum of impacts during one minute intervals. The spatio-temporal distribution of the transported bed load material, its amount and the transport processes itself could be figured out for the first time out of continuous data collection since 2006 for large alpine gravel-bed rivers. Before building up the gauging stations there were no continuous recordings of bed load transport processes in large alpine rivers over their entire cross section, hence the investigation promises a better process understanding and the possibility to determine bed load transport rates and a rough approximation of the grain size distributions of the transported bed load material under different flow conditions. A relation between detected geophone records, the flow discharge and direct bed load sampling methods (Large Helley Smith

  4. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  5. On different regime relations between bed load transport and bed topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Ma, H.; Fu, X.; Duan, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Bed load transport is determined by the effective part of the total shear stress subtracting the form drag that arises from bed topography. Wang et al. (2004) quantified the overall topographic roughness of the channel bed with the parameter Sp and claimed that the increasing Sp corresponds with increasing flow resistance and decreasing bed load transport rate due to increasing form drag and decreasing skin friction. However, the flume experiments for non-uniform sediment transport on steep slope at the University of Arizona show opposite results that bed load transport increases with Sp. We investigate the physical reason of the contrasting results for the full understanding of the different regimes between bed load transport and bed topography. We develop the energy conveyance equation for water flow and bed load transport and apply it to the development of the equilibrium relation between bed load transport and energy dissipation due to the form drag. The energy theory for bed load transport shows that since our flume experiments achieved the equilibrium transport state with water and sediment circulating supplying, the bed topography Sp is determined by the flow and sediment grain size, and the bed load transport is positively related to the energy dissipation rate which is thus positively related to Sp. However, in the field experiment of Wang et al. (2004), at first, the referenced Sp is determined by the most recent significant flood whereas the bed load transport is always below the transport capacity with insufficient sediment supply. After one-time sediment feed, the bed load transport rapidly varies from ephemeral full capacity state to sediment starving state. In this process, the removal of relative fine sediment results in the rapid increment of Sp from the instant equilibrium state to the referenced Sp whereas the coarsen bed leads to decrement of bed load transport. Eventually, the sediment starving state results in the increasing Sp and decreasing

  6. Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  7. Targeted cryotherapy using disposable biopsy punches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avitus John Raakesh Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy is a commonly used office procedure that causes destruction of tissue by cryonecrosis due to rapid freezing and thawing of cells. The limitation in treating plantar warts and deeper dermal lesions is that the freeze time should be longer to penetrate deeper, which results in collateral damage to normal skin surrounding the lesion. This results in unwanted side effects of prolonged pain, blistering and haemorrhage and increased healing time. The cone spray technique was used to reduce collateral damage, but deeper penetration is difficult to achieve. An innovative technique using disposable biopsy punches is described that ensures deeper freezing as compared to the plastic cone. The metal cutting edge of the punch enters deeper into the lesions as the liquid nitrogen is passed, sparing damage to surrounding skin.

  8. Targeted Cryotherapy Using Disposable Biopsy Punches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Avitus John Raakesh

    2014-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a commonly used office procedure that causes destruction of tissue by cryonecrosis due to rapid freezing and thawing of cells. The limitation in treating plantar warts and deeper dermal lesions is that the freeze time should be longer to penetrate deeper, which results in collateral damage to normal skin surrounding the lesion. This results in unwanted side effects of prolonged pain, blistering and haemorrhage and increased healing time. The cone spray technique was used to reduce collateral damage, but deeper penetration is difficult to achieve. An innovative technique using disposable biopsy punches is described that ensures deeper freezing as compared to the plastic cone. The metal cutting edge of the punch enters deeper into the lesions as the liquid nitrogen is passed, sparing damage to surrounding skin. PMID:25136216

  9. TMI Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Taylor

    2003-09-01

    This report documents the reported contents of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) canisters. proposed packaging, and degradation scenarios expected in the repository. Most fuels within the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel inventory deal with highly enriched uranium, that in most cases require some form of neutronic poisoning inside the fuel canister. The TMI-2 fuel represents a departure from these fuel forms due to its lower enrichment (2.96% max.) values and the disrupted nature of the fuel itself. Criticality analysis of these fuel canisters has been performed over the years to reflect conditions expected during transit from the reactor to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, water pool storage,1 and transport/dry-pack storage at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.2,3 None of these prior analyses reflect the potential disposal conditions for this fuel inside a postclosure repository.

  10. Physics of Friction in Disposable Plastic Syringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann-Vinson, A.; Vogler, E. A.; Martin, D. A.; Montgomery, D. B.; Sugg, H. W.; Monahan, L. A.

    1997-03-01

    Nosocomial applications of disposable plastic syringes demand excellent frictional behavior with no stick-slip over a broad velocity range and, simultaneously, a tight seal between stopper and barrel. However, when used in syringe pumps at slow injection speeds, stick-slip motion is frequently observed and high "break-out" forces are often necessary to initiate plunger movement after extended storage times. We have traced this frictional behavior to a velocity-dependent interaction between the elastomeric stopper and the plastic syringe barrel mediated by the syringe lubricant, almost universally a polydimethyl siloxane fluid. Lubricant properties were altered by crosslinking the surface of the silicone oil in an oxygen plasma. Changes in surface chemistry and morphology of the crosslinked oil were correlated with changes in frictional performance.

  11. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  12. Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Neczaj, Ewa; Fijałkowski, Krzysztof; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Worwag, Małgorzata; Rorat, Agnieszka; Brattebo, Helge; Almås, Åsgeir; Singh, Bal Ram

    2017-03-14

    The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems. Therefore, some basic criteria for the best suitable option selection has been described, in the circular economy "from waste to resources" sense. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of matter and energy has been appreciated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of those strategies.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winogard, I J

    1981-06-26

    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolatic is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere.

  14. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  15. Disposable cartridge biosensor platform for portable diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaras, Yusuf S.; Cakmak, Onur; Gunduz, Ali B.; Saglam, Gokhan; Olcer, Selim; Mostafazadeh, Aref; Baris, Ibrahim; Civitci, Fehmi; Yaralioglu, Goksen G.; Urey, Hakan

    2017-03-01

    We developed two types of cantilever-based biosensors for portable diagnostics applications. One sensor is based on MEMS cantilever chip mounted in a microfluidic channel and the other sensor is based on a movable optical fiber placed across a microfluidic channel. Both types of sensors were aimed at direct mechanical measurement of coagulation time in a disposable cartridge using plasma or whole blood samples. There are several similarities and also some important differences between the MEMS based and the optical fiber based solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparison between the two solutions and the results. For both types of sensors, actuation of the cantilever or the moving fiber is achieved using an electro coil and the readout is optical. Since both the actuation and sensing are remote, no electrical connections are required for the cartridge. Therefore it is possible to build low cost disposable cartridges. The reader unit for the cartridge contains light sources, photodetectors, the electro coil, a heater, analog electronics, and a microprocessor. The reader unit has different optical interfaces for the cartridges that have MEMS cantilevers and moving fibers. MEMS based platform has better sensitivity but optomechanical alignment is a challenge and measurements with whole blood were not possible due to high scattering of light by the red blood cells. Fiber sensor based platform has relaxed optomechanical tolerances, ease of manufacturing, and it allows measurements in whole blood. Both sensors were tested using control plasma samples for activated-Partial-Thromboplastin-Time (aPTT) measurements. Control plasma test results matched with the manufacturer's datasheet. Optical fiber based system was tested for aPTT tests with human whole blood samples and the proposed platform provided repeatable test results making the system method of choice for portable diagnostics.

  16. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  17. Permeation of captan through disposable nitrile glove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phalen, R.N.; Que Hee, Shane S

    2003-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of an aqueous emulsion of the pesticide, captan, as a wettable powder (48.9% captan) through a disposable nitrile glove material using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. The goal was to investigate the protective capability of the gloves against dermatitis. The analytical method was based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The least quantifiable limit (LQL) was 6 ng for GC-ECD and 30 ng for GC-MS. Testing was conducted using the ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation method and a worst-case aqueous concentration 217 mg/ml of captan 50-WP. The average permeation rates were low, with 12{+-}5 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 2 h, 50{+-}25 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 4 h, and 77{+-}58 ng/(cm{sup 2} min) after 8 h. The calculated diffusion coefficient was (1.28{+-}0.10)x10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/h. No significant swelling or shrinkage occurred at P{<=}0.05. Infrared (IR) reflectance analysis of pre- and post-exposure glove surfaces confirmed no outer or inner surface degradation. The disposable nitrile glove showed excellent resistance to a highly concentrated aqueous emulsion of captan. Because the ASTM normalized breakthrough detection time of 250 ng/cm{sup 2} was <2 h, these gloves should not be reused once worn, and decontamination is not advised. Protection is also advised for agricultural reentry field workers, because captan has been shown to persist on crops with a half-life greater than the current reentry intervals of 1-4 days.

  18. A disposable, coated wire heparin sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J H; Fu, B; Meyerhoff, M E; Yang, V C

    1994-01-01

    The development of an ion-selective electrode heparin sensor consisting of a specially formulated polymer membrane doped with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride as the heparin complexing agent was recently reported. Because of the simple nature of the membrane technology used, the authors envisioned that the sensor could be configured as a disposable single-use device for rapid clinical or bedside measurement of heparin in a small, discrete sample. To explore this possibility, an inexpensive, disposable heparin sensor was created by dip-coating a copper wire with the specially formulated heparin-sensing polymeric membrane. Coated wire heparin sensors with a broad range of membrane thicknesses, prepared by repeatedly dipping the wire in the membrane solution for various times, were examined. Data show that increasing the membrane thickness of the sensor to a certain degree (more than 10 microns) enhanced the sensor's potentiometric response to heparin, although the time required to achieve 90% of the steady-state potential change was also prolonged. In addition, increasing membrane thickness also magnified the stirring effect on the sensor's response. In undiluted plasma samples, the coated-wire sensor with an optimized membrane thickness yielded a significant (5 to 30 mV) and reproducible response to heparin in a clinically relevant concentration range (0.5 to 12 units/ml, respectively). The clinical utility of the coated wire heparin sensor was shown using the sensor during protamine titration of heparinized plasma to assess the titration end-point. Preliminary results showed that the titration end-points determined by the heparin sensor strongly correlated with those determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time clotting assay. The overall time requirement to complete the titration process using a set of prefabricated coated wire heparin sensors, however, was less than 3 minutes. Further titration studies using undiluted clinical whole blood samples are

  19. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  20. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  1. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Ehsan; Fausey, Norman R; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-15

    Denitrification beds are promoted to reduce nitrate load in agricultural subsurface drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution of surface water. In this system, drainage water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transformed into nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to model a denitrification bed treating drainage water and evaluate its adverse greenhouse gas emissions. Field experiments were conducted at an existing denitrification bed. Evaluations showed very low greenhouse gas emissions (mean N2O emission of 0.12 μg N m(-2) min(-1)) from the denitrification bed surface. Field experiments indicated that nitrate removal rate was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant of 7.2 mg N L(-1). We developed a novel denitrification bed model based on the governing equations for water flow and nitrate removal kinetics. The model evaluation statistics showed satisfactory prediction of bed outflow nitrate concentration during subsurface drainage flow. The model can be used to design denitrification beds with efficient nitrate removal which in turn leads to enhanced drainage water quality.

  2. Factors Associated With Infant Bed-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heere, Megan; Moughan, Beth; Alfonsi, Joseph; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Aronoff, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Bed-sharing is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for newborn bed-sharing. Methods: Postpartum mothers from a university maternity service were contacted by phone to complete a survey. Demographic and environmental data were collected; newborn bed-sharing and sleep environment were self-reported. Results: A total of 1261 mothers completed surveys; bed-sharing was reported by 79 mothers (6.3%). Multivariate logistic regression identified referral to a nurse (odds ratio [OR] = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5-30) and sleep location “other” than a crib, bassinet, or Pack and Play (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.9-25.9) as factors associated with an increased risk of bed-sharing; formula feeding (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77) and crib sleeping (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26-0.86) reduced this risk. Conclusion: Infants with no identifiable places to sleep, significant health issues, and who are breastfed are more likely to bed-share. Interventional studies should be directed at these factors. PMID:28229101

  3. Heat and Mass Transfer Enforcement of Vibrating Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuZhide; YangJunhong; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad,elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed.the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer,it also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed,analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  4. Packed-bed reactor/silent-discharge plasma design data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facility Compliance Act requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) currently does not have adequate systems to treat the mixed wastes generated and stored at the nine DOE-AL sites. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, DOE-AL organized a Treatment Selection Team under the Mixed-Waste Treatment Program (MWTP) to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed waste. The strategy developed by the Treatment Selection Team, as described in the AL Mixed-Waste Treatment Plan (DOE 1994), is to use available off-site commercial treatment facilities for all wastes that can be successfully and cost-effectively treated by such facilities. Where no appropriate commercial treatment facilities exist, mobile treatment units (MTUs) would be developed to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste must not only address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. The packed-bed reactor/silent discharge plasma was chosen as a potential candidate for the treatment of the mixed wastes. The process is described.

  5. 7 CFR 301.89-12 - Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal. 301.89-12... Cleaning, disinfection, and disposal. (a) Mechanized harvesting equipment that has been used to harvest... and, if disinfection is determined to be necessary by an inspector, disinfected in accordance with...

  6. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  7. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  8. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a... manager, or the draining or dumping of oil, acids, pesticide wastes, poisons, or any other types of...

  9. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5143 - Disposal of ineligible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of ineligible investments. 615.5143 Section 615.5143 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5143 Disposal...

  11. 48 CFR 1404.805 - Disposal of contract files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of contract files. 1404.805 Section 1404.805 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 1404.805 Disposal of contract files. Disposition of files shall...

  12. 48 CFR 204.805 - Disposal of contract files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of contract files. 204.805 Section 204.805 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 204.805 Disposal of contract files....

  13. Production planning and inventory control with remanufacturing and disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); M. Salomon (Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider a stochastic inventory system with production, remanufacturing, and disposal operations. Customer demands must either be fulfilled from the production of new products or by the remanufacturing of used products. Used products are either remanufactured or disposed

  14. 12 CFR 222.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Definitions as used in this section. (1) You means... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  15. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406 Section 654.406 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.406 Excreta and liquid waste disposal....

  16. Production planning and inventory control with remanufacturing and disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); M. Salomon (Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider a stochastic inventory system with production, remanufacturing, and disposal operations. Customer demands must either be fulfilled from the production of new products or by the remanufacturing of used products. Used products are either remanufactured or disposed

  17. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, van der E.J.M.; Potting, J.

    2013-01-01

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have

  18. Project W-049H disposal facility test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckles, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report (ATR) for the Project W-049H, Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, is to verify that the equipment installed in the Disposal Facility has been installed in accordance with the design documents and function as required by the project criteria.

  19. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510 Section 600.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds...

  20. 5 CFR 582.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate disposable earnings. 582.401 Section 582.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Aggregate disposable earnings. In accordance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act, the...

  1. Free running droplets on packed powder beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Catherine P.; Bian, Xun; Sedev, Rossen

    2013-06-01

    We observed that water drops placed on horizontal beds of fine molybdenite particles move freely over the bed surface for about 1 second. The drops collect an irregular coating of unevenly distributed particles as they bounce and roll. We manipulated the distance that the drops travel, and hence the area of the droplet surface coated with particles, by varying the water surface tension and the kinetic energy of the initial droplet impact on the bed surface. Our results highlight the role of contact angle hysteresis in particle encapsulation of liquid drops.

  2. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  3. Modelling the bed characteristics in fluidised-beds for top-spray coating processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Vanderroost; Frederik Ronsse; Koen Dewettinck; Jan G.Pieters

    2012-01-01

    A particle sub-model describing the bed characteristics of a bubbling fluidised bed is presented.Atomisation air,applied at high pressures via a nozzle positioned above the bed for s pray formation,is incorporated in the model since its presence has a profound influence on the bed characteristics,though the spray itself is not yet considered.A particle sub-model is developed using well-known empirical relations for particle drag force,bubble growth and velocity and particle distribution above the fluidised-bed surface.Simple but effective assumptions and abstractions were made concerning bubble distribution,particle ejection at the bed surface and the behaviour of atomisation air flow upon impacting the surface of a bubbling fluidised bed.The model was shown to be capable of predicting the fluidised bed characteristics in terms of bed heights,voidage distributions and solids volume fractions with good accuracy in less than 5 min of calculation time on a regular desktop PC.It is therefore suitable for incorporation into general process control models aimed at dynamic control for process efficiency and product quality in top-spray fluidised bed coating processes.

  4. Passive acoustic monitoring of bed load discharge in a large gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, T.; Belleudy, P.; Gervaise, C.; Habersack, H.; Aigner, J.; Kreisler, A.; Seitz, H.; Laronne, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    Surrogate technologies to monitor bed load discharge have been developed to supplement and ultimately take over traditional direct methods. Our research deals with passive acoustic monitoring of bed load flux using a hydrophone continuously deployed near a river bed. This passive acoustic technology senses any acoustic waves propagated in the river environment and particularly the sound due to interparticle collisions emitted during bed load movement. A data set has been acquired in the large Alpine gravel-bedded Drau River. Analysis of the short-term frequency response of acoustic signals allows us to determine the origin of recorded noises and to consider their frequency variations. Results are compared with ancillary field data of water depth and bed load transport inferred from the signals of a geophone array. Hydrophone and geophone signals are well correlated. Thanks to the large network of deployed geophones, analysis of the spatial resolution of hydrophone measurements shows that the sensor is sensitive to bed load motion not only locally but over distances of 5-10 m (10-20% of river width). Our results are promising in terms of the potential use of hydrophones for monitoring bed load transport in large gravel bed rivers: acoustic signals represent a large river bed area, rather than being local; hydrophones can be installed in large floods; they can be deployed at a low cost and provide continuous monitoring at high temporal resolution.

  5. Paediatric burn unit in Portugal: Beds needed using a bed-day approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João V; Viana, João; Amarante, José; Freitas, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Despite the high burden of children with burns, there is not a paediatric burn unit (PBU) in Portugal. We aimed to estimate the Portuguese health care providing needs on paediatric burns. We performed a nation-wide retrospective study, between 2009 and 2013, among less than 16 years-old inpatients with burns that met the transfer criteria to a burn unit in Portugal. A bed-day approach was used, targeting an occupancy rate of 70-75%, and possible locations were studied. The primary outcome was the number of beds needed, and secondary outcomes were the overload and revenue for each possible number of beds in a PBU. A total of 1155 children met the transfer criteria to a burn unit, representing a total of 17,371 bed-days. Occupancy rates of 11-bed, 12-bed, 13-bed and 14-bed PBU were, respectively, 79.7%, 75.3%, 71.0% and 66.8%. The 13-bed PBU scenario would represent an overload of 523 bed-days, revenue of more than 5 million Euros and a ratio of 1 PBU bed per 123,409 children. Using a groundbreaking approach, the optimal number of PBU beds needed in Portugal is 13. However, as half of the patients who met burn transfer criteria are not transferred, this bed number might be overestimated if this pattern maintains, despite the underestimation with our method approach. If a PBU is to be created the preferable location is Porto. Cost-effectiveness studies should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.

  7. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.

  8. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  9. Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

    2006-12-01

    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that

  10. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm(3)). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  12. Ultra high temperature particle bed reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans; Perkins, K.; Powell, J.

    1990-01-01

    A direct nuclear propulsion engine which could be used for a mission to Mars is designed. The main features of this reactor design are high values for I(sub sp) and very efficient cooling. This particle bed reactor consists of 37 cylindrical fuel elements embedded in a cylinder of beryllium which acts as a moderator and reflector. The fuel consists of a packed bed of spherical fissionable fuel particles. Gaseous H2 passes over the fuel bed, removes the heat, and is exhausted out of the rocket. The design was found to be neutronically critical and to have tolerable heating rates. Therefore, this particle bed reactor design is suitable as a propulsion unit for this mission.

  13. Is bed rest following embryo transfer necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lashen, H; Elgendy, M; Morgan, C; Sinclair, L

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of no bed rest following ET on the results of an IVF program. Historical cohort-control study. A University-based assisted conception unit. One thousand and nineteen (1019) IVF cycles were performed at our unit from June 1994 to August 1996. The historical control consisted of all the 19,697 IVF cycles reported in the United Kingdom national database from April 1994 to March 1995. No bed rest following ET in our patients. Pregnancy rate (PR) and clinical PR per cycles started and per ET procedure. The clinical PR per ET was significantly higher in our patients than in the national data (30% versus 22.9%), as was the clinical PR per cycle (23.5% versus 18.6%). The implantation rate in our patients was 17.2%. The favorable PR in our patients despite no bed rest following ET suggests the bed rest is not necessary.

  14. D7 debris-bed experiment. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G W; Ottinger, C A; Lipinski, R J

    1983-08-01

    The D7 experiment investigated heat removal from a shallow, stratified bed of UO/sub 2/ particulate in sodium. The particle diameters ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, with the largest particles at the bottom. The bed thickness was 74 mm and the average porosity was 41%. The incipient dryout power varied from 0.43 W/g to 0.25 W/g as the sodium subcooling (saturation temperature minus overlying pool temperature) was reduced from 390/sup 0/C to 170/sup 0/C. These powers were only slighlty above the incipient boiling powers. Such low dryout powers are believed due to the interaction of capillary force with bed stratification. With a subccoling of 130/sup 0/C several sudden decreases in the saturation temperature occurred. These are believed due to channel formation, which causes a reduction in the capillary pressure in the bed.

  15. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  16. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bed bugs easier to see. Be sure to purchase a high quality encasement that will resist tearing ... Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions Follow. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram Last updated on December ...

  17. IceBridge BedMachine Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains bed topography beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet based on mass conservation derived from airborne radar tracks and satellite radar. The data...

  18. Bed Bug Clearinghouse Publications in Other Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These outreach materials are available in Spanish, Chinese, and French; and include action plans based on an IPM approach.

  19. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. Bed-wetting that starts in adulthood (secondary enuresis) is uncommon and requires medical evaluation. Causes of ... Erik P. Castle, M.D. References Adult nocturnal enuresis. National Association for Continence. http://www.nafc.org/ ...

  20. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  1. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling bed bugs is complex. Using an integrated pest management (IPM) approach incorporates both non-chemical and pesticide methods. Success depends on the extent of the infestation, clutter on site, and resident participation.

  2. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  3. PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS IN GAS-SOLIDS FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsiaotao Bi; Aihua Chen

    2003-01-01

    Pressure fluctuation data measured in a series of fluidized beds with diameters of 0.05, 0.1, 0.29, 0.60 and 1.56 m showed that the maximum amplitude or standard deviation increased with increasing the superficial gas velocity and static bed height for relatively shallow beds and became insensitive to the increase in static bed height in relatively deep beds. The amplitude appeared to be less dependent on the measurement location in the dense bed. Predictions based on bubble passage, bubble eruption at the upper bed surface and bed oscillation all failed to explain all observed trends and underestimated the amplitude of pressure fluctuations, suggesting that the global pressure fluctuations in gas-solids bubbling fluidized beds are the superposition of local pressure variations, bed oscillations and pressure waves generated from the bubble formation in the distributor region, bubble coalescence during their rise and bubble eruption at the upper bed surface.

  4. The influence of fibrous bed bulk density on the bed properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šećerov-Sokolović Radmila M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean properties of seven different fibrous materials and the properties of their different bed bulk densities were investigated. The morphology of the surface, size and geometry were measured by optical microscopy. The bed porosity was measured by the weighing method. The experimental bed permeability, in a high range of bulk density, was calculated from the values of the sanitary water pressure drop at a constant temperature of 15°C, since the data followed Darcy's law. The Reynolds number for a fibrous bed was calculated using a relation from the literature. The Reynolds number was less than 1 for all ranges of fluid velocity. Three empirical relations for fibrous bed permeability were used and compared with the experimental data. It was determined that the empirical data depended on the fiber diameter and fraction of solid in the bed. The relative error linearly increased with increasing fiber diameter.

  5. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.

    2007-07-01

    The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s{sup -1}), amplitude (0 mm-1 mm), bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m) as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups). The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within {+-}15%, was proposed. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Bed dynamics of gas-solid fluidized bed with rod promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a gas-solid fluidized bed with different rod promoters have been investigated in terms of bed expansion and fluctuation, minimum fluidization velocity and distributor-to-bed pressure drop ratio at minimum fluidization velocity. Experimentation based on statistical design has been carried out and model equations using factorial design of experiments have been developed for the above mentioned quantities for a promoted gas-solid fluidized bed. The model equations have been tested with additional experimental data. The system variables include four types of rod promoters of varying blockage volume, bed particles of four sizes and four initial static bed heights. A comparison between the predicted values of the output variables using the proposed model equation with their corresponding experimental ones shows fairly good agreement.

  7. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s-1, amplitude (0 mm-1 mm, bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups. The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within ±15%, was proposed.

  8. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  9. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  10. Pressure fluctuations in gas fluidized beds

    OpenAIRE

    Leckner Bo.; Palchonok Genadij I.; Johnsson Filip

    2002-01-01

    The pressure fluctuations in a fluidized bed are a result of the actions of the bubbles. However, the bubbles may be influenced by the air supply system and by the pressure drop of the air distributor. These interactions are treated for low as well as for high velocity beds by means of a simple model of the principal frequency of the pressure fluctuations. The model includes the interaction with the air supply system and describes qualitatively two important bubbling regimes: the single bubbl...

  11. BNNT Growth in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    fluidized bed and plasma assisted nanotube synthesis for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Within this context, we established new...bed and plasma assisted nanotube synthesis for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Within this context, we established new laboratories to...the path of using plasma assistance to growth BNNT in a manner similar to that of researchers at the Canadian Research Council. With our combined

  12. Water produced with coal-bed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas produced from coal beds (coal-bed methane, CBM) accounts for about 7.5 percent of the total natural gas production in the United States. Along with this gas, water is also brought to the surface. The amount of water produced from most CBM wells is relatively high compared to conventional natural gas wells because coal beds contain many fractures and pores that can contain and transmit large volumes of water. In some areas, coal beds may function as regional or local aquifers and important sources for ground water. The water in coal beds contributes to pressure in the reservoir that keeps methane gas adsorbed to the surface of the coal. This water must be removed by pumping in order to lower the pressure in the reservoir and stimulate desorption of methane from the coal (fi g. 1). Over time, volumes of pumped water typically decrease and the production of gas increases as coal beds near the well bore are dewatered.

  13. Calculating the need for intensive care beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Gale A; Reynolds, Fiona; Stickley, John

    2012-11-01

    Prompted by high refused admission rates, we sought to model demand for our 20 bed paediatric intensive care unit. We analysed activity (admissions) and demand (admissions plus refused admissions). The recommended method for calculating the required number of intensive care beds assumes a Poisson distribution based upon the size of the local catchment population, the incidence of intensive care admission and the average length of stay. We compared it to the Monte Carlo method which would also include supra-regional referrals not otherwise accounted for but which, due to their complexity, tend to have a longer stay than average. For the new method we assigned data from randomly selected emergency admissions to the refused admissions. We then compared occupancy scenarios obtained by random sampling from the data with replacement. There was an increase in demand for intensive care over time. Therefore, in order to provide an up-to-date model, we restricted the final analysis to data from the two most recent years (2327 admissions and 324 refused admissions). The conventional method suggested 27 beds covers 95% of the year. The Monte Carlo method showed 95% compliance with 34 beds, with seasonal variation quantified as 30 beds needed in the summer and 38 in the winter. Both approaches suggest that the high refused admission rate is due to insufficient capacity. The Monte Carlo analysis is based upon the total workload (including supra-regional referrals) and predicts a greater bed requirement than the current recommended approach.

  14. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  15. Notifications Dated October 2, 2014 Submitted by We Energies to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal Notifications Dated October 2, 2014 for We Energies and the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste at the Waste Management Disposal Sites in Menomonee Falls and Franklin, WI

  16. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  17. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  18. Multiscale statistical characterization of migrating bed forms in gravel and sand bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Lanzoni, Stefano; Wilcock, Peter R.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2011-12-01

    Migrating bed forms strongly influence hydraulics, transport, and habitat in river environments. Their dynamics are exceedingly complex, making it difficult to predict their geometry and their interaction with sediment transport. Acoustic instrumentation now permits high-resolution observations of bed elevation as well as flow velocity. We present a space-time characterization of bed elevation series in laboratory experiments of sand and gravel transport in a large 84 m long, 2.75 m wide flume. We use a simple filtering and thresholding methodology to estimate bed form heights and report that the shape of their probability density function (pdf) remains invariant to discharge for both gravel and sand and has a positive tail slightly thicker than Gaussian. Using a wavelet decomposition, we quantify the presence of a rich multiscale statistical structure and estimate the scale-dependent celerity of migrating bed forms, showing the faster movement of smaller bed forms relative to the larger ones. The nonlinear dynamics of gravel and sand bed forms is also examined, and the predictability time, i.e., the interval over which one can typically forecast the system, is estimated. Our results demonstrate that flow rate as well as bed sediment composition exert a significant influence on the multiscale dynamics and degree of nonlinearity and complexity of bed form evolution.

  19. Control of the Bed Temperature of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler by using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYGUN, H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Circulating fluidized bed boilers are increasingly used in the power generation due to their higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Such boilers require an effective control of the bed temperature, because it influences the boiler combustion efficiency and the rate of harmful emissions. A Particle-Swarm-Optimization-Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PSO-PID controller for the bed temperature of a circulating fluidized bed boiler is presented. In order to prove the capability of the proposed controller, its performances are compared at different boiler loads with those of a Fuzzy Logic (FL controller. The simulation results demonstrate some advantages of the proposed controller.

  20. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingwen Li; Pradeep Gopalakrishnana; Rahul Garg; Mehrdad Shahnam

    2012-01-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD-DEM simulations of small-scale systems.Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing,bed expansion,bubble behavior,solids velocities,and particle kinetic energy.Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters.However,a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters,indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20-40 particle diameters.Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds.Hence,for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns,the effect of wails has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  1. Effects of bed height on the biomechanics of hospital bed entry and egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryweather, Andrew S; Morse, Janice M; Doig, Alexa K; Godfrey, Nathan W; Gervais, Pierre; Bloswick, Donald S

    2015-01-01

    Although a significant proportion of patient falls in hospitals occur in the vicinity of the hospital bed, little is known about the contribution of bed height to fall risk. To compare lower extremity joint torques and angles during hospital bed entry and egress at two bed heights. Twelve adults (age > 55) were purposively selected and had variety of strength and mobility limitations. Biomechanical data for this pilot study were collected with three digital video cameras and processed to obtain estimates for joint torques and included angles. At the low bed height, hip torque for bed entry was significantly higher, and hip, knee, and ankle flexion angles were significantly smaller. The absence of significant differences in knee and ankle torques were the result of a compensation strategy that shifts the center of mass forward by flexing the torso during low bed ingress. Torque data from the egress motion were similar, however 50% of participants were unable to rise from the low bed without assistance. Healthcare providers should be aware that low bed heights pose safety risks to the population for which they were designed-elderly persons at high risk for falling.

  2. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  3. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  4. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V. [PECOS Management Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  5. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHRADER, T.; MACBETH, P.

    2002-01-01

    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  6. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  7. Wastewater Disposal Wells, Fracking, and Environmental Injustice in Southern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jill E; Werder, Emily; Sebastian, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    To investigate race and poverty in areas where oil and gas wastewater disposal wells, which are used to permanently inject wastewater from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations, are permitted. With location data of oil and gas disposal wells permitted between 2007 and 2014 in the Eagle Ford area, a region of intensive fracking in southern Texas, we analyzed the racial composition of residents living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well and those farther away, adjusting for rurality and poverty, using a Poisson regression. The proportion of people of color living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well was 1.3 times higher than was the proportion of non-Hispanic Whites. Adjusting for rurality, disposal wells were 2.04 times (95% confidence interval = 2.02, 2.06) as common in areas with 80% people of color or more than in majority White areas. Disposal wells are also disproportionately sited in high-poverty areas. Wastewater disposal wells in southern Texas are disproportionately permitted in areas with higher proportions of people of color and residents living in poverty, a pattern known as "environmental injustice."

  8. Wastewater Disposal Wells, Fracking, and Environmental Injustice in Southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werder, Emily; Sebastian, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate race and poverty in areas where oil and gas wastewater disposal wells, which are used to permanently inject wastewater from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations, are permitted. Methods. With location data of oil and gas disposal wells permitted between 2007 and 2014 in the Eagle Ford area, a region of intensive fracking in southern Texas, we analyzed the racial composition of residents living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well and those farther away, adjusting for rurality and poverty, using a Poisson regression. Results. The proportion of people of color living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well was 1.3 times higher than was the proportion of non-Hispanic Whites. Adjusting for rurality, disposal wells were 2.04 times (95% confidence interval = 2.02, 2.06) as common in areas with 80% people of color or more than in majority White areas. Disposal wells are also disproportionately sited in high-poverty areas. Conclusions. Wastewater disposal wells in southern Texas are disproportionately permitted in areas with higher proportions of people of color and residents living in poverty, a pattern known as “environmental injustice.” PMID:26794166

  9. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  10. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  11. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Slivac; V Gaurina Srček; K Radošević; I Kmetič; Z Kniewald

    2006-09-01

    A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of BHK 21 C13 cells in the wave bioreactor during 3-day period were determined. At the end of the 3-day culture period and cell density of 1.82 × 106 cells ml–1, the reactor was inoculated with 9 ml of gE- Bartha K-61 strain ADV suspension (105.9 TCID50) with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01. After a 144 h incubation period, 400 ml of ADV harvest was obtained with titre of 107.0 TCID50 ml–1, which corresponds to 40,000 doses of vaccine against AD. In conclusion, the results obtained with the wave bioreactor using BHK 21 C13 cells showed that this system can be considered as suitable for ADV or BHK 21 C13 cell biomass production.

  12. Permeation of captan through disposable nitrile glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

    2003-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of an aqueous emulsion of the pesticide, captan, as a wettable powder (48.9% captan) through a disposable nitrile glove material using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. The goal was to investigate the protective capability of the gloves against dermatitis. The analytical method was based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The least quantifiable limit (LQL) was 6 ng for GC-ECD and 30 ng for GC-MS. Testing was conducted using the ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation method and a worst-case aqueous concentration 217 mg/ml of captan 50-WP. The average permeation rates were low, with 12+/-5 ng/(cm(2)min) after 2h, 50+/-25 ng/(cm(2)min) after 4h, and 77+/-58 ng/(cm(2)min) after 8h. The calculated diffusion coefficient was (1.28+/-0.10) x 10(-5)cm(2)/h. No significant swelling or shrinkage occurred at Pcaptan. Because the ASTM normalized breakthrough detection time of 250 ng/cm(2) was captan has been shown to persist on crops with a half-life greater than the current reentry intervals of 1-4 days.

  13. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  14. Galileo disposal strategy: stability, chaos and predictability

    CERN Document Server

    Rosengren, Aaron J; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Deleflie, Florent; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the medium-Earth orbit (MEO) region of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems is permeated by a devious network of lunisolar secular resonances, which can interact to produce chaotic and diffusive motions. The precarious state of the four navigation constellations, perched on the threshold of instability, makes it understandable why all past efforts to define stable graveyard orbits, especially in the case of Galileo, were bound to fail; the region is far too complex to allow of an adoption of the simple geosynchronous disposal strategy. We retrace one such recent attempt, funded by ESA's General Studies Programme in the frame of the GreenOPS initiative, that uses a systematic parametric approach and the straightforward maximum-eccentricity method to identify long-term stable regions, suitable for graveyards, as well as large-scale excursions in eccentricity, which can be used for post-mission deorbiting of constellation satellites. We then apply our new results on the stunning...

  15. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  16. Carbon dioxide fumigation for controlling bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Xu, Ming

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fumigation as a method for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. The effect of bed bug developmental stage, temperature, and CO2 concentration on the minimum time to kill 100% of bed bugs was determined. The minimum CO2 concentration lethal to all bed bug stages was approximately 30% with 24 h exposure time at 25 degrees C. The minimum fumigation time required to kill 100% of eggs using 100% CO2 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C were 3, 7, and 8 h, respectively; the minimum fumigation time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs were 8, 13, and 14 h, respectively. The minimum time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs using 50 and 70% CO2 at 25 degrees C were 18 and 16 h, respectively. We found that eggs were not completely killed after 24 h fumigation when the CO2 concentration was lower than 80%. Thus, bed bug eggs were more susceptible to 100% CO2 fumigation than nymphs and adult males but more tolerant than nymphs and adult males with lower CO2 concentration (50-80%). There were no significant differences among nymphs, adult males, and adult females in their susceptibility to 100% CO2 fumigation. A 24 h fumigation in sealed 158 liter (42 gallon) heavy duty garbage bags filled 90% full with fabric materials and/or boxes and 1,350 g dry ice per bag was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs hidden in the materials at room temperature (23-24 degrees C). Sealed heavy duty garbage bags maintained > or = 94% CO2 for at least 24 h. Custom-made double zipper plastic bags (122 x 183 cm) were also used to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 fumigation for controlling bed bugs. Each bag was filled with fabric and boxes to 50-90% full. Bed bugs were hidden in various locations of each bag. CO2 was introduced into the bags through a CO2 cylinder. CO2 fumigation lasting 24-48 h was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs at room temperature, depending on the quantity of materials placed in each bag and whether CO2 was

  17. 21 CFR 880.5120 - Manual adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual adjustable hospital bed. 880.5120 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5120 Manual adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A manual adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a manual...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  19. Proceedings. NETEC workshop on shallow land disposal technology, 1997. 10. 20 - 10. 21, Taejon, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings cover the design and operational experience of shallow land disposal facility, and safety assessment and licensing issues of shallow land disposal facility. Ten articles are submitted.

  20. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  1. Low cost production of disposable microfluidics by blister packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disch, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2007-01-01

    Large scale production of disposable microfluidics mostly is accomplished by injection moulding techniques today. A cost effective alternative to injection moulding might be vacuum thermoforming of polymer films. Vacuum thermoforming is the basis for medical and pharmaceutical packaging such as pharmaceutical blister packs. It allows for cheap and reliable forming of polymer films and thus seems suitable for the fabrication of disposables. Our goal is to investigate and demonstrate the potential of vacuum thermoforming for the fabrication of microtechnology components. For this purpose we have developed a simple low cost process allowing for the fabrication of disposable microfluidics by vacuum thermoforming.

  2. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  3. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  4. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  5. Direct landfill disposal versus Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhawik Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of a new waste management system, in which recycling is the most dominating process, landfill disposal still appears to be the most popular method of waste management in Poland, in which waste undergoes gradual decomposition and the influence of climate conditions, for example, air and atmospheric fallout, leads to the production of leachate and biogas emissions, which contribute to continual threats to the natural environment and humans. The above-mentioned threats can be limited by applying suitable techniques of waste treatment before its disposal. A technology that is oriented to these aims is a mechanical biological treatment (MBT before disposal.

  6. A factorial analysis experimentation of inappropriate waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Oke, K. O. Awofeso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical approach to estimating the effects of psychological factors on humans due to inappropriate waste disposal in the environment. Factorial experimental analysis is combined with the concepts of transition matrix and steady state conditions. An adequate understanding into the statistical quantification of the waste disposal concept would aid policy makers in effective decision making and the proper control of environment. The feasibility of developing statistical parameters for assessing the waste disposal concept is confirmed. The work shows the novelty of the approach.

  7. Annual Summary of the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Austin, TX (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-27

    An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) is required each year (DOE O 435.1 Chg 1,1 DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1;2 and DOE/ORP-2000-013). The most recently approved PA is DOE/ORP-2000-24.4 The ILAW PA evaluated the adequacy of the ILAW disposal facility, now referred to as the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), for the safe disposal of vitrified Hanford Site tank waste.

  8. Effectiveness of bed bug monitors for detecting and trapping bed bugs in apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Tsai, Wan-Tien; Cooper, Richard; White, Jeffrey

    2011-02-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are now considered a serious urban pest in the United States. Because they are small and difficult to find, there has been strong interest in developing and using monitoring tools to detect bed bugs and evaluate the results of bed bug control efforts. Several bed bug monitoring devices were developed recently, but their effectiveness is unknown. We comparatively evaluated three active monitors that contain attractants: CDC3000, NightWatch, and a home-made dry ice trap. The Climbup Insect Interceptor, a passive monitor (without attractants), was used for estimating the bed bug numbers before and after placing active monitors. The results of the Interceptors also were compared with the results of the active monitors. In occupied apartments, the relative effectiveness of the active monitors was: dry ice trap > CDC3000 > NightWatch. In lightly infested apartments, the Interceptor (operated for 7 d) trapped similar number of bed bugs as the dry ice trap (operated for 1 d) and trapped more bed bugs than CDC3000 and NightWatch (operated for 1 d). The Interceptor was also more effective than visual inspections in detecting the presence of small numbers of bed bugs. CDC3000 and the dry ice trap operated for 1 d were equally as effective as the visual inspections for detecting very low level of infestations, whereas 1-d deployment of NightWatch detected significantly lower number of infestations compared with visual inspections. NightWatch was designed to be able to operate for several consecutive nights. When operated for four nights, NightWatch trapped similar number of bed bugs as the Interceptors operated for 10 d after deployment of NightWatch. We conclude these monitors are effective tools in detecting early bed bug infestations and evaluating the results of bed bug control programs.

  9. [Comparison of PAHs distribution in stabilized sludge by sludge drying bed and reed bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Bo; Sun, Hong-Jie; Ran, Chun-Qiu; Li, Jin-Feng; Xie, Yao

    2013-03-01

    The difference in the removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in planted and unplanted sludge drying bed was investigated. Pilot-scale sludge drying bed and reed bed had the same size of 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 1.3 m (L x W x H), and the bed height consisted of a 65 cm media layer and a 65 cm super height. Both beds had a ventilation pipe which was mounted on the drainage pipes. The experiment lasted for three years, and the first two years was the sludge loading period, and the third year was the natural stabilization period. In the first two years, a total thickness of 8.4 m of sludge was loaded and the average sludge loading rate was 41.3 kg x (m2 x a)(-1). After the three-year stabilization, the contents of the sixteen PAHs decreased with time in both the sludge drying bed and the reed bed. The total PAHs contents in the surface, middle and bottom sludge layers in the sludge drying bed were 4.161, 3.543 and 3.118 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 26.91%, 37.77% and 45.23% of removal; and the values in the reed bed were 2.722, 1.648 and 1.218 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 52.18%, 71.05% and 78.60% of removal. The average PAHs removal in the reed bed was 29.86% higher than that in the sludge drying bed. In the stabilized sludge, the removal of low-molecular-weight PAHs predominated. The results suggested that reed played a positive role in the removal of PAHs.

  10. Impact on carbon footprint: a life cycle assessment of disposable versus reusable sharps containers in a large US hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmond, Terry; Reiner, Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Hospitals are striving to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Targeting supply chain points and replacing disposable with reusable items are among recommendations to achieve this. Annually, US hospitals use 35 million disposable (DSC) or reusable sharps containers (RSC) generating GHG in their manufacture, use, and disposal. Using a life cycle assessment we assessed the global warming potential (GWP) of both systems at a large US hospital which replaced DSC with RSC. GHG emissions (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) were calculated in metric tons of CO(2) equivalents (MTCO(2)eq). Primary energy input data was used wherever possible and region-specific conversions used to calculate the GWP of each activity. Unit process GHGs were collated into manufacture, transport, washing, and treatment and disposal. The DSC were not recycled nor had recycled content. Chemotherapy DSC were used in both systems. Emission totals were workload-normalized per 100 occupied beds-yr and rate ratio analyzed using Fisher's test with P ≤0.05 and 95% confidence level. With RSC, the hospital reduced its annual GWP by 127 MTCO(2)eq (-83.5%) and diverted 30.9 tons of plastic and 5.0 tons of cardboard from landfill. Using RSC reduced the number of containers manufactured from 34,396 DSC annually to 1844 RSC in year one only. The study indicates sharps containment GWP in US hospitals totals 100,000 MTCO(2)eq and if RSC were used nationally the figure could fall by 64,000 MTCO(2)eq which, whilst only a fraction of total hospital GWP, is a positive, sustainable step.

  11. Experiments on the dryout behavior of stratified debris beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Simon; Kulenovic, Rudi; Laurien, Eckart [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE)

    2015-10-15

    In case of a severe accident with loss of coolant and core meltdown a particle bed (debris) can be formed. The removal of decay heat from the debris bed is of prime importance for the bed's long-term coolability to guarantee the integrity of the RPV. In contrast to previous experiments, the focus is on stratified beds. The experiments have pointed out that the bed's coolability is significantly affected.

  12. NONUNIFORM OPEN CHANNEL FLOW WITH UPWARD SEEPAGE THROUGH LOOSE BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY

    2003-01-01

    The Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are important parameters in fluvial hydraulics. Steadynonuniform flow in open channels with streamwise sloping beds having upward seepage through loose beds is theoretically analyzed to estimate the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress. Equations of the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are developed, assuming a modified logarithmic velocity distribution law due to upward seepage, and using the Reynolds and continuity equations of twodimensional flow in open channels.

  13. Bed Stability and Debris Flow Erosion: A Dynamic "Shields Criterion" Associated with Bed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjas, A.; Hill, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows are mass movements that play an important role in transporting sediment from steep uplands to rivers at lower slopes. As the debris flow moves downstream, it entrains materials such as loose boulders, gravel, sand and mud deposited locally by shorter flows such as slides and rockfalls. To capture the conditions under which debris flows entrain bed sediment, some models use something akin to the Shields' criterion and an excess shear stress of the flow. However, these models typically neglect granular-scale effects in the bed which can modify the conditions under which a debris flow is erosional or depositional. For example, it is well known that repeated shearing causes denser packing in loose dry soils, which undoubtedly changes their resistance to shear. Here, we present laboratory flume experiments showing that the conditions for entrainment by debris flows is significantly dependent on the aging of an erodible bed even for narrowly distributed spherical particles. We investigate this quantitatively using particle tracking measurements to quantify instantaneous erosion rates and the evolving bed structure or "fabric". With progressive experiments we find a signature that emerges in the bed fabric that is correlated with an increasing apparent "fragility" of the bed. Specifically, a system that is originally depositional may become erosional after repeated debris flow events, and an erodible bed becomes increasingly erodible with repeated flows. We hypothesize that related effects of bed aging at the field scale may be partly responsible for the increasing destructiveness of secondary flows of landslides and debris flows.

  14. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W

    2010-02-15

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited number of cell types including vulval cells whose divisions are affected in bed-3 mutants. A bed-3 mutation also affects the expression pattern of the cdh-3 cadherin gene in the vulva. The phenotype of bed-3 mutants is similar to the phenotype caused by mutations in cog-1 (Nkx6), a component of a gene regulatory network controlling cell type specific gene expression in the vulval lineage. These results suggest that bed-3 is a key component linking the gene regulatory network controlling cell-type specification to control of cell division during vulval organogenesis.

  15. Thermal Analysis of Fluidized Bed and Fixed Bed Latent Heat Thermal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Shiva Keshava Reddy, Kota; Rajesh, Kona; Anderson, A.

    2017-05-01

    Thermal energy storage technology is essential because its stores available energy at low cost. Objective of the work is to store the thermal energy in a most efficient method. This work is deal with thermal analysis of fluidized bed and fixed bed latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) system with different encapsulation materials (aluminium, brass and copper). D-Mannitol has been used as phase change material (PCM). Encapsulation material which is in orbicular shape with 4 inch diameter and 2 mm thickness orbicular shaped product is used. Therminol-66 is used as a heat transfer fluid (HTF). Arrangement of encapsulation material is done in two ways namely fluidized bed and fixed bed thermal storage system. Comparison was made between the performance of fixed bed and fluidized bed with different encapsulation material. It is observed that from the economical point of view aluminium in fluidized bed LHTS System has highest efficiency than copper and brass. The thermal energy storage system can be analyzed with fixed bed by varying mass flow rate of oil paves a way to find effective heat energy transfer.

  16. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  17. Comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, have been compared for the reforming of methane for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversi

  18. Theoretical comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, has been compared for ultra-pure hydrogen production via methane reforming. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversion

  19. Methane Pyrolysis and Disposing Off Resulting Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rapp, D.; Rahotgi, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    Sabatier/Electrolysis (S/E) is a leading process for producing methane and oxygen for application to Mars ISPP. One significant problem with this process is that it produces an excess of methane for combustion with the amount of oxygen that is produced. Therefore, one must discard roughly half of the methane to obtain the proper stoichiometric methane/oxygen mixture for ascent from Mars. This is wasteful of hydrogen, which must be brought from Earth and is difficult to transport to Mars and store on Mars. To reduced the problem of transporting hydrogen to Mars, the S/E process can be augmented by another process which reduces overall hydrogen requirement. Three conceptual approaches for doing this are (1) recover hydrogen from the excess methane produced by the S/E process, (2) convert the methane to a higher hydrocarbon or other organic with a lower H/C ratio than methane, and (3) use a separate process (such as zirconia or reverse water gas shift reaction) to produce additional oxygen, thus utilizing all the methane produced by the Sabatier process. We report our results here on recovering hydrogen from the excess methane using pyrolysis of methane. Pyrolysis has the advantage that it produces almost pure hydrogen, and any unreacted methane can pass through the S/E process reactor. It has the disadvantage that disposing of the carbon produced by pyrolysis presents difficulties. Hydrogen may be obtained from methane by pyrolysis in the temperature range 10000-12000C. The main reaction products are hydrogen and carbon, though very small amounts of higher hydrocarbons, including aromatic hydrocarbons are formed. The conversion efficiency is about 95% at 12000C. One needs to distinguish between thermodynamic equilibrium conversion and conversion limited by kinetics in a finite reactor.

  20. IHI-FW circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Omata, K.; Ishimoto, R.; Asai, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The technology and application of the circulating fluidized bed boiler (IHI-FW) are outlined. Circulating fluidized bed boilers have various features as compared with bubbling fluidized bed boilers as follows; a high combustion efficiency, efficient use of limestone for desulfurization, low NOx emission, adaptability to various fuels and capability to cope with load change. The IHI-FW boiler is furthermore featured by water-wall furnace of all-welded structure, water-cooled/steam cooled cyclone, and simple circulating system. The 30 t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler was introduced into the Tsu Works, Omikenshi Co., Ltd., Japan for private power generation. The boiler equipped with a backup heavy oil burner mainly uses semi-anthracite coal, and besides sulfur capture and NOx reduction functions of a bed, a bag filter with a high dust collecting efficiency is installed in an exhaust gas system. The installation period was reduced to 2.5 months, a half of conventional ones, by more assembly in a factory followed by less field works. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Wear prediction in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, E.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Rogers, W.A. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-06-01

    A procedure to model the wear of surfaces exposed to a fluidized bed is formulated. A stochastic methodology adapting the kinetic theory of gases to granular flows is used to develop an impact wear model. This uses a single-particle wear model to account for impact wear from all possible-particle collisions. An adaptation of a single-particle abrasion model to describe the effects of many abrading particles is used to account for abrasive wear. Parameters describing granular flow within the fluidized bed, necessary for evaluation of the wear expressions, are determined by numerical solution of the fluidized bed hydrodynamic equations. Additional parameters, describing the contact between fluidized particles and the wearing surface, are determined by optimization based on wear measurements. The modeling procedure was used to analyze several bubbling and turbulent fluidized bed experiments with single-tube and tube bundle configurations. Quantitative agreement between the measured and predicted wear rates was found, with some exceptions for local wear predictions. This work demonstrates a methodology for wear predictions in fluidized beds.

  2. Grain Exchange Probabilities Within a Gravel Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the vertical exchange of sediments during floods. These exchanges regulate the virtual velocity of sediment and bed material texture. This study describes general tendencies in the vertical exchange of gravels within the substrate that result from multiple floods. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. These tracers have been recovered 10 times over 12 flood seasons to quantify their vertical position in the streambed. For analysis, the bed is divided into layers based on armor layer thickness. Once tracers are well mixed within the streambed, grains in the surface layer are most likely to be mixed into the subsurface, while subsurface grains are most likely to persist within the subsurface. Fractional exchange probabilities approach size independence when the most active depth of the substrate is considered. Overall these results highlight vertical mixing as an important process in the dispersion of gravels.

  3. Nonlinear Mechanism of Bed Load Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Haijue; BAI Yuchuan; NG Chiu-On

    2009-01-01

    From the group movement of the bed load within the bottom layer, details of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of bed load movement are discussed in this paper. Whether the sediment is initiated into motion cor-responds to whether the constant term in the equation is equal to zero. If constant term is zero and no dispersive force is considered, the equation represents the traditional Shields initiation curve, and if constant term is zero with-out the dispersive force being considered, then a new Shields curve which is much lower than the traditional one is got, The fixed point of the equation corresponds to the equilibrium sediment transport of bed load. In the mutation analysis, we have found that the inflection point is the demarcation point of breaking. In theory, the breaking point corresponds to the dividing boundary line, across which the bed form changes from flat bed to sand ripple or sand dune. Compared with the experimental data of Chatou Hydraulic Lab in France, the conclusions are verified.

  4. Radioactive Waste Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal

    CERN Document Server

    Streffer, Christian; Kamp, Georg; Kröger, Wolfgang; Rehbinder, Eckard; Renn, Ortwin; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Waste caused by the use of radioactive material in research, medicine and technologies, above all high level waste from nuclear power plants, must be disposed of safely. However, the strategies discussed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as proposals for choosing a proper site for final waste disposal are strongly debated. An appropriate disposal must satisfy complex technical requirements and must meet stringent conditions to appropriately protect man and nature from risks of radioactivity over very long periods. Ethical, legal and social conditions must be considered as well. An interdisciplinary team of experts from relevant fields compiled the current status and developed criteria as well as strategies which meet the requirements of safety and security for present and future generations. The study also provides specific recommendations that will improve and optimize the chances for the selection of a repository site implementing the participation of stakeholders including the general public an...

  5. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  6. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B P; Leahy, J J; Henihan, A M; O'Dwyer, T F; Sutton, D; Leahy, M J

    2002-05-01

    The land disposal of waste from the poultry industry and subsequent environmental implications has stimulated interest into cleaner and more useful disposal options. The review presented here details advances in the three main alternative disposal routes for poultry litter, specifically in the last decade. Results of experimental investigations into the optimisation of composting, anaerobic digestion and direct combustion are summarised. These technologies open up increased opportunities to market the energy and nutrients in poultry litter to agricultural and non-agricultural uses. Common problems experienced by the current technologies are the existence and fate of nitrogen as ammonia, pH and temperature levels, moisture content and the economics of alternative disposal methods. Further advancement of these technologies is currently receiving increased interest, both academically and commercially. However, significant financial incentives are required to attract the agricultural industry.

  7. Unsustainable Wind Turbine Blade Disposal Practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Tejeda, Katerin; Turcotte, David A; Pike, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Finding ways to manage the waste from the expected high number of wind turbine blades in need of disposal is crucial to harvest wind energy in a truly sustainable manner. Landfilling is the most cost-effective disposal method in the United States, but it imposes significant environmental impacts. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes allow for some energy and/or material recovery, but they also carry potential negative externalities. This article explores the main economic and environmental issues with various wind turbine blade disposal methods. We argue for the necessity of policy intervention that encourages industry to develop better technologies to make wind turbine blade disposal sustainable, both environmentally and economically. We present some of the technological initiatives being researched, such as the use of bio-derived resins and thermoplastic composites in the manufacturing process of the blades.

  8. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  9. Storing, Transporting and Disposing of Mercury in Your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics: Mercury in Your Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Storing, Transporting and Disposing of ... of a pick-up truck or in your car's trunk. If you must transport in the passenger ...

  10. Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women in Jos, Plateau State. ... and practices of proper domestic refuse handling and factors affecting same ... Conclusion: Health education intervention was found to be effective in ...

  11. Disposal of solid wastes with simultaneous energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.

    1980-01-01

    The need for resource recovery from solid wastes is discussed. The incentives for a comprehensive system, a gasification based disposal system, and biological recovery methods are reviewed. Biogas process development and the Lanfilgas process are described. (MHR)

  12. 7 CFR 989.67 - Disposal of reserve raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be physically disposed of promptly in any available outlet not competitive with normal market... delinquent; and further, that such rate of interest be added to the bill monthly until the...

  13. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  14. Plant Test of Industrial Waste Disposal in a Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 韩杰; 等

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of industrial waste in cement rotary kilins(CRKs) is an alternative technology for the treatment of certain types of industrial waste(IW).In this paper,three typical types of industrial wastes were co-incinerated in the CRK at Beijing Cement Plant to determine the effects of waste disposal(especially solid waste disposal )on the quality of clinker and the concentration of pollutants in air emission.Experimental results show that(1) waste disposal does not affect the quality of clinker and fly ash,and fly ash after the IW disposal can still be used in the cement production,(2) heavy metals from IW are immobilized and stabilized in the clinker and cement,and (3) concentration of pollutants in air emission is far below than the permitted values in the China National Standard-Air Pollutants Emission Standard(GB 16297-1996).

  15. TECHNICAL NOTE LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL IN URBAN LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of in a properly designed and integrated network of pipes, which collect and ... been overcrowding, poverty, health problems and an ever increasing strain on basic ... ·adequate water supply, then 111 adequate waste disposal syltcm is needed ...

  16. 50 CFR 21.25 - Waterfowl sale and disposal permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... before you may lawfully sell, trade, donate, or otherwise dispose of, most species of captive-reared and... sell game, you may remove the marked foot or wing from the raw carcasses if the number of your...

  17. Assessment of the storage and disposal of medicines in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    over), places of purchase, if medicines were gotten on .... labeling and disposal by the majority was done .... storage and self medication behaviour ... Abahussain E, Waheed M, Kosh S. Practice Awareness and Opinion of. Pharmacists toward.

  18. Conceptual design requirements for Korean Reference HLW disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Son; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun; Lee, Yang

    2005-05-15

    This report outlined the requirements for the conceptual design of KRS(Korean Reference HLW disposal System). The site for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes has not yet been selected in Korea. Since the KRS should be designed under these circumstances, the necessary requirements which should be determined are studied in the report. The amounts of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants in the long-term national power development plan are projected. With this estimation the disposal rates of CANDU and PWR spent fuels are analyzed and determined. The national and international regulations regarding the disposal of HLW are summarized. The functions of the underground facilities are defined. The representative geological conditions are determined since no site is yet decided in Korea.

  19. Methodology for Radiological Risk Assessment of Deep Borehole Disposal Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Peretz, Fred(ORNL)

    2017-03-01

    The primary purpose of the preclosure radiological safety assessment (that this document supports) is to identify risk factors for disposal operations, to aid in design for the deep borehole field test (DBFT) engineering demonstration.

  20. Measurement of powder bed density in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Donmez, A.; Slotwinski, J.; Moylan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Many factors influence the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) processes, resulting in a high degree of variation in process outcomes. Therefore, quantifying these factors and their correlations to process outcomes are important challenges to overcome to enable widespread adoption of emerging AM technologies. In the powder bed fusion AM process, the density of the powder layers in the powder bed is a key influencing factor. This paper introduces a method to determine the powder bed density (PBD) during the powder bed fusion (PBF) process. A complete uncertainty analysis associated with the measurement method was also described. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty, U PBD (k  =  2), was determined as 0.004 g · cm-3. It was shown that this expanded measurement uncertainty is about three orders of magnitude smaller than the typical powder bed density. This method enables establishing correlations between the changes in PBD and the direction of motion of the powder recoating arm.

  1. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  2. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Colón Jordà, Joan; Ruggieri, Luz; Sánchez Ferrer, Antoni; González Puig, Aina; PUIG VENTOSA, Ignasi

    2011-01-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process per...

  3. Argillite And Crystalline Disposal Research: Accomplishments And Path-Forward.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Kevin A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The intention of this document is to provide a path-forward for research and development (R&D) for two host rock media-specific (argillite and crystalline) disposal research work packages within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The two work packages, Argillite Disposal R&D and Crystalline Disposal R&D, support the achievement of the overarching mission and objectives of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Technologies Program. These two work packages cover many of the fundamental technical issues that will have multiple implications to other disposal research work packages by bridging knowledge gaps to support the development of the safety case. The path-forward begins with the assumption of target dates that are set out in the January 2013 DOE Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (http://energy.gov/downloads/strategy-management-and-disposal-used-nuclear-fuel-and-high-levelradioactive- waste). The path-forward will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to available funding and the progress of multiple R&D tasks in the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign and the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program. This path forward is developed based on the report of “Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Disposal Research and Development Roadmap (FCR&D-USED- 2011-000065 REV0)” (DOE, 2011). This document delineates the goals and objectives of the UFDC R&D program, needs for generic disposal concept design, and summarizes the prioritization of R&D issues.

  4. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  5. Unwanted Medication Collection Events: The Importance of Proper Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, William L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this service-learning research project was to discover current practices and barriers related to proper medication disposal while protecting the safety of the public and the integrity of the environment. Collection and analysis of unused medications followed by environmentally friendly disposal is a current vision found in the Healthy People 2020 initiative and coincides with this objective. Since 2012, medication collection events have been conducted in multiple locations in...

  6. Solid Waste Disposal: A Choice Experiment Experience in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pek, Chuen Khee; Othman, Jamal

    2009-01-01

    Increasing generation of solid waste requires better quality disposal options in Malaysia. Control tipping is the most commonly used complemented by sanitary landfill and incineration. This study estimates the non-market values of improved waste disposal services and also ranking them using choice experiment. River water quality is the most concerned followed by psychological fear, air pollution and land use. Socio-economic background and distance factor influence the types of compensating su...

  7. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  8. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Richardson, T.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  9. Developments in management and technology of waste reduction and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushbrook, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Scandals and public dangers from the mismanagement and poor disposal of hazardous wastes during the 1960s and 1970s awakened the modern-day environmental movement. Influential publications such as "Silent Spring" and high-profile disposal failures, for example, Love Canal and Lekkerkerk, focused attention on the use of chemicals in everyday life and the potential dangers from inappropriate disposal. This attention has not abated and developments, invariably increasing expectations and tightening requirements, continue to be implemented. Waste, as a surrogate for environmental improvement, is a topic where elected representatives and administrations continually want to do more. This article will chart the recent changes in hazardous waste management emanating from the European Union legislation, now being implemented in Member States across the continent. These developments widen the range of discarded materials regarded as "hazardous," prohibit the use of specific chemicals, prohibit the use of waste management options, shift the emphasis from risk-based treatment and disposal to inclusive lists, and incorporate waste producers into more stringent regulatory regimes. The impact of the changes is also intended to provide renewed impetus for waste reduction. Under an environmental control system where only certainty is tolerated, the opportunities for innovation within the industry and the waste treatment and disposal sector will be explored. A challenging analysis will be offered on the impact of this regulation-led approach to the nature and sustainability of hazardous waste treatment and disposal in the future.

  10. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  11. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  12. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  13. Methane desorption from a coal-bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.P. Feldman; T.A. Vasilenko [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Donetsk Institute for Physics of Mining Processes

    2007-11-15

    We study the desorption of methane from a coal-bed. A model taking into account both methane diffusion in coal-blocks and its filtration through the system of open pores and cracks is developed. Methane pressure in the coal-bed is found for an arbitrary instant of time. Dependency of the rate of methane release upon the block size, open and closed porosity, viscosity, solubility, bed pressure and temperature is established. We derive the effective coefficient of diffusion of methane in blocks containing closed pores filled with gaseous methane. It is shown that at a hindered diffusion methane is distinctly divided into the 'quick' and the 'slow' one. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Flow Past a Permeable Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venugopal

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates mass flow velocity heat transfer rates and velocity/temperature distributions in the viscous, incompressible and slightly conducting fluid past a permeable bed in three different configurations namely (1 Couette flow (2 Poiseuille flow and (3 free surface flow, under the influence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. To discuss the solution, the flow region is divided into two zones : Zone 1 (from the impermeable upper rigid plate to the permeable bed in which the flow is laminar and governed by Navier-Stokes equations, and Zone 2 (the permeable bed below the nominal surface in which the flow is governed by Darcy law. The paper also investigates the effects of magnetic field, porosity and Biot number on the physical quantities mentioned above.

  15. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  16. Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

    1978-08-04

    A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

  17. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  18. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  19. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  20. Fixed-bed column study for hexavalent chromium removal and recovery by short-chain polyaniline synthesized on jute fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Potsangbam Albino; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2009-03-15

    Fixed-bed column studies were conducted to evaluate performance of a short-chain polymer, polyaniline, synthesized on the surface of jute fiber (PANI-jute) for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in aqueous environment. Influent pH, column bed depth, influent Cr(VI) concentrations and influent flow rate were variable parameters for the present study. Optimum pH for total chromium removal was observed as 3 by electrostatic attraction of acid chromate ion (HCrO(4)(-)) with protonated amine group (NH(3)(+)) of PANI-jute. With increase in column bed depth from 40 to 60 cm, total chromium uptake by PANI-jute increased from 4.14 to 4.66 mg/g with subsequent increase in throughput volume from 9.84 to 12.6L at exhaustion point. The data obtained for total chromium removal were well described by BDST equation till 10% breakthrough. Adsorption rate constant and dynamic bed capacity at 10% breakthrough were observed as 0.01 L/mgh and 1069.46 mg/L, respectively. Adsorbed total chromium was recovered back from PANI-jute as non-toxic Cr(III) after ignition with more than 97% reduction in weight, minimizing the problem of solid waste disposal.

  1. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizinig larger catalyst particles and small biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2016-12-06

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  2. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  3. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizinig larger catalyst particles and small biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2016-12-06

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  4. Development of a hover test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason Alan

    This research examines the development, validation, and verification of a hover test bed at the Missile Defense Agency's National Hover Test Facility located at the Air Force Research Laboratory on Edwards Air Force Base, California. This work's scope includes the development of a test bed for exoatmospheric kill vehicle testing in an integrated hover test arrangement. The approach involved reactivation of the facility, design of a risk reduction methodology, and vehicle performance verification. Details from a combustion stability issue on the divert engine is investigated, and changing the diameter of the injector reduced a first tangential combustion chamber mode combustion instability from 17.8% to 0.8%.

  5. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  6. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  7. South Africa slashes pebble-bed cash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    A novel modular technology that promised to make nuclear power cheaper and safer has suffered a serious blow following withdrawal of support from the South African government. It decided not to renew funding for the pebble-bed modular reactor beyond 31 March this year following a lack of interest from other investors and no customers for its product. The company developing the reactor concept - Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Ltd (PBMR) - is to axe three-quarters of its roughly 800 staff and its chief executive has resigned.

  8. Numerical simulation of nuclear pebble bed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, A., E-mail: shams@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F., E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Komen, E.M.J., E-mail: komen@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Baglietto, E., E-mail: emiliob@MIT.EDU [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of a single face cubic centred pebble bed are performed. • Wide range of turbulence modelling techniques are used to perform these calculations. • The methods include 1-DNS, 1-LES, 3-Hybrid (RANS/LES) and 3-RANS models, respectively. • The obtained results are extensively compared to provide guidelines for such flow regimes. • These guidelines are used to perform reference LES for a limited sized random pebble bed. - Abstract: High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) are being considered all over the world. An HTR uses helium gas as a coolant, while the moderator function is taken up by graphite. The fuel is embedded in the graphite moderator. A particular inherent safety advantage of HTR designs is that the graphite can withstand very high temperatures, that the fuel inside will stay inside the graphite pebble and cannot escape to the surroundings even in the event of loss of cooling. Generally, the core can be designed using a graphite pebble bed. Some experimental and demonstration reactors have been operated using a pebble bed design. The test reactors have shown safe and efficient operation, however questions have been raised about possible occurrence of local hot spots in the pebble bed which may affect the pebble integrity. Analysis of the fuel integrity requires detailed evaluation of local heat transport phenomena in a pebble bed, and since such phenomena cannot easily be modelled experimentally, numerical simulations are a useful tool. As a part of a European project, named Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS), a benchmarking quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a well-defined pebble bed configuration has been performed. This q-DNS will serve as a reference database in order to evaluate the prediction capabilities of different turbulence modelling approaches. A wide range of numerical simulations based on different available turbulence modelling approaches are performed and compared with

  9. Lake bed classification using acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Karen K.; Li, Xing; Bonde, John; Richards, Carl; Cholwek, Gary

    1998-01-01

    As part of our effort to identify the lake bed surficial substrates using remote sensing data, this work designs pattern classifiers by multivariate statistical methods. Probability distribution of the preprocessed acoustic signal is analyzed first. A confidence region approach is then adopted to improve the design of the existing classifier. A technique for further isolation is proposed which minimizes the expected loss from misclassification. The devices constructed are applicable for real-time lake bed categorization. A mimimax approach is suggested to treat more general cases where the a priori probability distribution of the substrate types is unknown. Comparison of the suggested methods with the traditional likelihood ratio tests is discussed.

  10. Critical conditions of bed sediment entrainment due to debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Papa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes entrainment characteristics of bed material into debris flow, based on flume tests, numerical and dimensional analyses. Flume tests are conducted to investigate influences of bed sediment size on erosion rate by supplying debris flows having unsaturated sediment concentration over erodible beds. Experimental results show that the erosion rate decreases monotonically with increase of sediment size, although erosion rate changes with sediment concentration of debris flow body. In order to evaluate critical condition of bed sediment entrainment, a length scale which measures an effective bed shear stress is introduced. The effective bed shear stress is defined as total shear stress minus yield stress on the bed surface. The results show that critical entrainment conditions can be evaluated well in terms of Shields curve using the effective bed shear stress instead of a usual bed shear stress.

  11. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  12. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  13. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  14. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  15. Transformation products of clindamycin in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Gordon T H; Escola Casas, Monica; Andersen, Henrik R; Bester, Kai

    2017-04-15

    Clindamycin is widely prescribed for its ability to treat a number of common bacterial infections. Thus, clindamycin enters wastewater via human excretion or disposal of unused medication and widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in rivers proves the insufficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants in removing clindamycin. Recently, it has been discovered that attached biofilm reactors, e.g., moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) obtain a higher removal of pharmaceuticals than conventional sludge wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, this study investigated the capability of MBBRs applied in the effluent of conventional wastewater treatment plants to remove clindamycin. First, a batch experiment was executed with a high initial concentration of clindamycin to identify the transformation products. It was shown that clindamycin can be removed from wastewater by MBBR and the treatment process converts clindamycin into the, possibly persistent, products clindamycin sulfoxide and N-desmethyl clindamycin as well as 3 other mono-oxygenated products. Subsequently, the removal kinetics of clindamycin and the formation of the two identified products were investigated in batch experiments using MBBR carriers from polishing and nitrifying reactors. Additionally, the presence of these two metabolites in biofilm-free wastewater effluent was studied. The nitrifying biofilm reactor had a higher biological activity with k-value of 0.1813 h(-1) than the reactor with polishing biofilm (k = 0.0161 h(-1)) which again has a much higher biological activity for removal of clindamycin than of the suspended bacteria (biofilm-free control). Clindamycin sulfoxide was the main transformation product which was found in concentrations exceeding 10% of the initial clindamycin concentration after 1 day of MBBR treatment. Thus, MBBRs should not necessarily be considered as reactors mineralizing clindamycin as they perform transformation reactions at least to some extent.

  16. Perspectives for Fluidized Bed Nuclear Reactor Technology using Rotating Fluidized Beds in a Static Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broqueville, Axel De; Wilde, Juray De

    The new concept of a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry opens perspectives for fluidized bed nuclear reactor technology and is experimentally and numerically investigated. With conventional fluidized bed technology, the maximum attainable power is rather limited and maximum at a certain fluidization gas flow rate. Using a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry, the fluidization gas drives both the centrifugal force and the counteracting radial gas-solid drag force in a similar way. This allows operating the reactor at any chosen sufficiently high solids loading over a much wider fluidization gas flow rate range and in particular at much higher fluidization gas flow rates than with conventional fluidized bed reactor technology, offering increased flexibility with respect to cooling via the fluidization gas. Furthermore, the centrifugal force can be a multiple of earth gravity, allowing radial gas-solid slip velocities much higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The latter result in gas-solid heat transfer coefficients one or multiple orders of magnitude higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The combination of dense operation and high fluidization gas flow rates allows process intensification and a more compact reactor design.

  17. Loading and Unloading Weaned Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of weaned pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps below 20° to load and unload pigs. Three ramp angles (0°, 10° or 20°, five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay, two moistures (dry or wet bedding; >50% moisture over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, <23.9 °C winter were assessed for slips/falls/vocalizations (n = 6,000 pig observations. “Score” was calculated by the sum of slips, falls, and vocalizations. With the exception of using feed as a bedding, all beddings provided some protection against elevated slips, falls, and vocalizations (P < 0.01. Providing bedding reduced (P < 0.05 scores regardless of whether the bedding was dry or wet. Scores increased as the slope increased (P < 0.01. Provision of bedding, other than feed, at slopes greater than zero, decreased slips, falls and vocalizations. The total time it took to load and unload pigs was

  18. From Modern Push-Button Hospital-beds to 20th Century Mechatronic Beds: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, I.; Mariño, M.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present the different aspects of modern high complexity electric beds of the period 1940 until 2000 exclusively. The chronology of the product has been strictly divided into three big stages: electric and semi-electric beds (until the 90’s), mechatronic beds (90’s until 2000) and, mechatronic intelligent beds of the last 15 years. The latter are not considered in this work due to the extension for its analysis. The justification for classifying the product is presented under the concepts of medical, assistive and mobility devices. Relevant aspects of common immobility problems of the different types of patients for which the beds are mainly addressed are shown in detail. The basic functioning of the patient’s movement generator and the implementation of actuators, together with IT programs, specific accessories and connectivity means and network-communication shown in this work, were those that gave origin to current mechatronic beds. We present the historical evolution of high complexity electric beds by illustrating cases extracted from a meticulous time line, based on patents, inventions and publications in newspapers and magazines of the world. The criteria adopted to evaluate the innovation were: characteristics of controls; accessories (mattresses, lighting, siderails, etc.), aesthetic and morphologic properties and outstanding functionalities.

  19. Effect of bed particles to combustion of gases in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Wallen, V.; Etelaeaho, R.; Correia, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to obtain experimental data on effects of sand particles to the combustion of gases. The effect of the surface area of the particles was tested using different sized particles. The fluidized bed reactor used in these experiments was a stainless-steel tube with an internal diameter of 42 mm surrounded by an electric heater. The test rig was built in the Laboratory of Energy and Process Engineering at Tampere University of Technology. In order to elucidate the possible changes of particle surface, microscopic and porosimetric studies were conducted with both fresh bed particles and used bed particles. These measurements indicate that carbon monoxide significantly reacts with oxygen in the particulate or emulsion phase of a fluidized bed, if the residence time is long enough. The reaction rate depends mainly on temperature, air coefficient, residence time and particle size of the solids. It seems that the combustion enhances if the average particle size increases. Whether this is caused by increased free path length or reduced specific surface area of the bed is yet unknown. The first might be more probable cause because the majority of reactions often took place in the freeboard right above the bed. It was clear that the bed hindered proper combustion in several cases. (orig.)

  20. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.5 Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984. (a) The operator of a solid waste disposal site...