WorldWideScience

Sample records for ground-based solar power

  1. Solar radiation concentrators paired with multijunction photoelectric converters in ground-based solar power plants (part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionova, E. A.; Ulanov, M. V.; Davidyuk, N. Yu.; Sadchikov, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a method for determining parameters of radiation concentrator in solar power plants. To estimate the efficiency of concentrators in the form of Fresnel lenses in setups with three-junction photoelectric converters, the concept of the efficiency of the concentrator-photoelectric converter pair has been introduced. We have proposed a method for calculating the refracting profile of concentrators taking into account the dispersion relation for the refractive index and its variations with temperature for the material of the refracting profile of the concentrator (Wacker RT604 silicone compound). The results of calculation make it possible to achieve the maximal efficiency of the concentrator-photoelectric converter pair in the presence of chromatic aberrations in the optical system of solar radiation concentration.

  2. Current trends in ground based solar magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Continuous observations of the sun, over more than a century, have led to several important discoveries in solar astronomy. These include the discovery of the solar magnetism and its cyclic modulation, active region formation and decay and their role in energetic phenomena such as fares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), fine structure and dynamics of the sunspots and small-scale organization of the magnetic flux in the form of flux tubes and so forth. In this article we give a brief overview of advancements in solar observational techniques in recent decades and the results obtained from the such observations. These include techniques to achieve high angular resolution, high spectral and polarimetric sensitivity and innovative new detectors. A wide range of spatial, temporal and spectral domains exploited by solar astronomers to understand the solar phenomena are discussed. Many new upcoming telescopes and instruments that are designed to address different aspects of solar physics problems are briefly described. Finally, we discuss the advantages of observing from the ground and how they can complement space-based observations.

  3. Low Power Ground-Based Laser Illumination for Electric Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven R.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of low power, ground-based laser powered electric propulsion systems is presented. A review of available and near-term laser, photovoltaic, and adaptive optic systems indicates that approximately 5-kW of ground-based laser power can be delivered at an equivalent one-sun intensity to an orbit of approximately 2000 km. Laser illumination at the proper wavelength can double photovoltaic array conversion efficiencies compared to efficiencies obtained with solar illumination at the same intensity, allowing a reduction in array mass. The reduced array mass allows extra propellant to be carried with no penalty in total spacecraft mass. The extra propellant mass can extend the satellite life in orbit, allowing additional revenue to be generated. A trade study using realistic cost estimates and conservative ground station viewing capability was performed to estimate the number of communication satellites which must be illuminated to make a proliferated system of laser ground stations economically attractive. The required number of satellites is typically below that of proposed communication satellite constellations, indicating that low power ground-based laser beaming may be commercially viable. However, near-term advances in low specific mass solar arrays and high energy density batteries for LEO applications would render the ground-based laser system impracticable.

  4. Ground-based monitoring of solar radiation in Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Integrated measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev, Moldova have been started by Atmospheric Research Group (ARG) at the Institute of Applied Physics from 2003. Direct, diffuse and total components of solar and atmospheric long-wave radiation are measured by using of the radiometric complex at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station. Measurements are fulfilled at the stationary and moving platforms equipped with the set of 9 broadband solar radiation sensors overlapping wavelength range from UV-B to IR. Detailed description of the station can be found at the site http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E). Summary of observation data acquired at the station in the course of short-term period from 2004 to 2009 are presented below. Solar radiation measurements were fulfilled by using CM11(280-3000 nm) and CH1 sensors (Kipp&Zonen). In the course of a year maximum and minimum of monthly sums of total radiation was ~706.4 MJm-2 in June and ~82.1MJm-2 in December, respectively. Monthly sums of direct solar radiation (on horizontal plane) show the maximum and minimum values of the order ~456.9 MJm-2 in July and ~25.5MJm-2 in December, respectively. In an average, within a year should be marked the predominance of direct radiation over the scattered radiation, 51% and 49%, respectively. In the course of a year, the percentage contribution of the direct radiation into the total radiation is ~55-65% from May to September. In the remaining months, the percentage contribution decreases and takes the minimum value of ~ 28% in December. In an average, annual sum of total solar radiation is ~4679.9 MJm-2. For the period from April to September accounts for ~76% of the annual amount of total radiation. Annual sum of sunshine duration accounts for ~2149 hours, which is of ~ 48% from the possible sunshine duration. In an average, within a year maximum and minimum of sunshine duration is ~ 304 hours in

  5. Models of ionospheric VLF absorption of powerful ground based transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio transmitters play a role in precipitation of energetic Van Allen electrons. Initial analyses of the contribution of VLF transmitters to radiation belt losses were based on early models of trans-ionospheric propagation known as the Helliwell absorption curves, but some recent studies have found that the model overestimates (by 20-100 dB) the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. It was subsequently suggested that conversion of wave energy into electrostatic modes may be responsible for the error. We utilize a newly available extensive record of VLF transmitter energy reaching the magnetosphere, taken from the DEMETER satellite, and perform a direct comparison with a sophisticated full wave model of trans-ionospheric propagation. Although the model does not include the effect of ionospheric irregularities, it correctly predicts the average total power injected into the magnetosphere within several dB. The results, particularly at nighttime, appear to be robust against the variability of the ionospheric electron density. We conclude that the global effect of irregularity scattering on whistler mode conversion to quasi-electrostatic may be no larger than 6 dB.

  6. Changes in ground-based solar ultraviolet radiation during fire episodes: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available about the relationship between fires and solar UVR without local high-quality column or ground-based ambient air pollution (particulate matter in particular) data; however, the threat to public health from fires was acknowledged....

  7. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France) measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Viatte; B. Gaubert; Eremenko, M.; Hase, F.; Schneider, M; Blumenstock, T.; Ray, M; P. Chelin; J.-M. Flaud; Orphal, J

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscop...

  8. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France) measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy [Discussion paper

    OpenAIRE

    C. Viatte; B. Gaubert; Eremenko, M.; Hase, F.; Schneider, M; Blumenstock, T.; Ray, M; P. Chelin; J.-M. Flaud; Orphal, J

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscop...

  9. Ground Based Synoptic Instrumentation for Solar Observations (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    None are corrected for chromatic aberration . The system overall is diffraction limited for all wavelengths in the tunable range. The magnifier lens...simultaneously corrects for chromatic focus effects and maintains a constant solar diameter throughout the year. The magnifier lens is interchangeable

  10. The high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS determined from ground-based solar irradiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gröbner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been determined from ground-based measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance (SSI over the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm using the Langley-plot technique. The measurements were obtained at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre from the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Tenerife, Spain, during the period 12 to 24 September 2016. This solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS was combined from medium-resolution (bandpass of 0.86 nm measurements of the QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe spectroradiometer in the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm and high-resolution measurements (0.025 nm from a Fourier transform spectroradiometer (FTS over the wavelength range from 305 to 380 nm. The Kitt Peak solar flux atlas was used to extend this high-resolution solar spectrum to 500 nm. The expanded uncertainties of this solar spectrum are 2 % between 310 and 500 nm and 4 % at 300 nm. The comparison of this solar spectrum with solar spectra measured in space (top of the atmosphere gave very good agreements in some cases, while in some other cases discrepancies of up to 5 % were observed. The QASUMEFTS solar spectrum represents a benchmark dataset with uncertainties lower than anything previously published. The metrological traceability of the measurements to the International System of Units (SI is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations leading to the primary spectral irradiance standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany.

  11. Asteroseismology of solar-type stars with Kepler: III. Ground-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Molenda-Żakowicz , J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than a thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study by the Kepler Asteroseis......We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than a thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study by the Kepler...

  12. Asteroseismology of solar-type stars with Kepler: III. Ground-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Molenda-Żakowicz , J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than a thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study by the Kepler Asteroseis...

  13. Solar tower atmospheric Cherenkov effect experiment (STACEE) for ground based gamma ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Chantell, M. C.; Coppi, P.; Covault, C. E.; Dragovan, M.; Gregorich, D. T.; Hanna, D. S.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Oser, S.; Ragan, K.; Tümer, O. T.; Williams, D. A.

    1997-05-01

    The STACEE experiment is being developed to study very high energy astrophysical gamma rays between 50 and 500 GeV. During the last few years this previously unexplored region has received much attention due to the detection of sources up to about 10 GeV by the EGRET instrument on board the CGRO. However, the paucity of detected sources at ~1 TeV indicates that fundamental processes working within these sources and/or in the intergalactic space are responsible for the cutoff in the photon spectra of the EGRET sources. The cutoff or the spectral change of these sources can be observed with ground-based Cherenkov detectors with a very low threshold. The use of large arrays of mirrors at solar power facilities is a promising way of lowering the threshold. Using this concept a series of tests were conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) with a full size prototype of the STACEE telescope system. The tests show that STACEE will be capable of meaningful exploration of the gamma-ray sky between 50 and 500 GeV with good sensitivity.

  14. Limitation of Ground-based Estimates of Solar Irradiance Due to Atmospheric Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.; Holben, Brent N.

    2003-01-01

    The uncertainty in ground-based estimates of solar irradiance is quantitatively related to the temporal variability of the atmosphere's optical thickness. The upper and lower bounds of the accuracy of estimates using the Langley Plot technique are proportional to the standard deviation of aerosol optical thickness (approx. +/- 13 sigma(delta tau)). The estimates of spectral solar irradiance (SSI) in two Cimel sun photometer channels from the Mauna Loa site of AERONET are compared with satellite observations from SOLSTICE (Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) on UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) for almost two years of data. The true solar variations related to the 27-day solar rotation cycle observed from SOLSTICE are about 0.15% at the two sun photometer channels. The variability in ground-based estimates is statistically one order of magnitude larger. Even though about 30% of these estimates from all Level 2.0 Cimel data fall within the 0.4 to approx. 0.5% variation level, ground-based estimates are not able to capture the 27-day solar variation observed from SOLSTICE.

  15. Estimation of solar irradiance using ground-based whole sky imagers

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, Soumyabrata; Lee, Yee Hui; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Ground-based whole sky imagers (WSIs) can provide localized images of the sky of high temporal and spatial resolution, which permits fine-grained cloud observation. In this paper, we show how images taken by WSIs can be used to estimate solar radiation. Sky cameras are useful here because they provide additional information about cloud movement and coverage, which are otherwise not available from weather station data. Our setup includes ground-based weather stations at the same location as the imagers. We use their measurements to validate our methods.

  16. Ground-based Observations of the Solar Sources of Space Weather (Invited Review)

    CERN Document Server

    Veronig, Astrid M

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and its activity is a task of growing importance in the frame of space weather research and awareness. Major space weather disturbances at Earth have their origin in energetic outbursts from the Sun: solar flares, coronal mass ejections and associated solar energetic particles. In this review we discuss the importance and complementarity of ground-based and space-based observations for space weather studies. The main focus is drawn on ground-based observations in the visible range of the spectrum, in particular in the diagnostically manifold H$\\alpha$ spectral line, which enables us to detect and study solar flares, filaments, filament eruptions, and Moreton waves. Existing H$\\alpha$ networks such as the GONG and the Global High-Resolution H$\\alpha$ Network are discussed. As an example of solar observations from space weather research to operations, we present the system of real-time detection of H$\\alpha$ flares and filaments established at Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory (KSO; Austria) in the...

  17. Future Ground-Based Solar System Research: a Prospective Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Käufl, H. U.

    2009-09-01

    The article tries to provide a perspective summary of the planetary science to be performed with future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) as an outcome of the workshop on ‘Future Ground-based Solar System Research: Synergies between Space Probes and Space Telescopes’ held on 8-12 September 2008 in Portoferraio on Isola d’ Elba, Italy. It addresses science cases on solar system objects that might challenge the capabilities of ELTs and that provide a major step forward in the knowledge and understanding of planetary system objects per se and all populations. We also compile high-level requirements for such telescopes and their instrumentation that should enable successful ELT usage for research on objects in the Solar System, the ‘disturbing foreground to real astronomy’.

  18. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aculinin A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  19. Solar diameter, eclipses and transits: the importance of ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    According to satellite measurements the difference between polar and equatorial radius does not exceed 10 milliarcsec. These measurements are differential, and the absolute value of the solar diameter is not precisely known to a level of accuracy needed for finding variations during years or decades. Moreover the lifetime of a satellite is limited, and its calibration is not stable. This shows the need to continue ground-based observations of the Sun exploiting in particular the methods less affected by atmospheric turbulence, as the planetary transits and the total and annular eclipses. The state of art, the advantages and the limits of these two methods are here considered.

  20. Asteroseismology of Solar-type stars with Kepler III. Ground-based Data

    CERN Document Server

    Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Sousa, Sergio; Frasca, Antonio; Biazzo, Katia; Huber, Daniel; Ireland, Mike; Bedding, Tim; Stello, Dennis; Uytterhoeven, Katrien; Dreizler, Stefan; De Cat, Peter; Briquet, Maryline; Catanzaro, Giovanni; Karoff, Chistoffer; Frandsen, Soeren; Spezzi, Loredana; Catala, Claude

    2010-01-01

    We report on the ground-based follow-up program of spectroscopic and photometric observations of solar-like asteroseismic targets for the Kepler space mission. These stars constitute a large group of more than thousand objects which are the subject of an intensive study of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium Working Group 1 (KASC WG-1). The main goal of this coordinated research is the determination of the fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters, which are used for the computing of their asteroseismic models, as well as for the verification of the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC).

  1. Ground-based Observations of the Solar Sources of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronig, A. M.; Pötzi, W.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and its activity is a task of growing importance in the frame of space weather research and awareness. Major space weather disturbances at Earth have their origin in energetic outbursts from the Sun: solar flares, coronal mass ejections and associated solar energetic particles. In this review we discuss the importance and complementarity of ground-based and space-based observations for space weather studies. The main focus is drawn on ground-based observations in the visible range of the spectrum, in particular in the diagnostically manifold Hα spectral line, which enables us to detect and study solar flares, filaments (prominences), filament (prominence) eruptions, and Moreton waves. Existing Hα networks such as the GONG and the Global High-Resolution Hα Network are discussed. As an example of solar observations from space weather research to operations, we present the system of real-time detection of Hα flares and filaments established at Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO; Austria) in the frame of the space weather segment of the ESA Space Situational Awareness programme (swe.ssa.esa.int). An evaluation of the system, which is continuously running since July 2013 is provided, covering an evaluation period of almost 2.5 years. During this period, KSO provided 3020 hours of real-time Hα observations at the ESA SWE portal. In total, 824 Hα flares were detected and classified by the real-time detection system, including 174 events of Hα importance class 1 and larger. For the total sample of events, 95 % of the automatically determined flare peak times lie within ±5 min of the values given in the official optical flares reports (by NOAA and KSO), and 76 % of the start times. The heliographic positions determined are better than ±5°. The probability of detection of flares of importance 1 or larger is 95 %, with a false alarm rate of 16 %. These numbers confirm the high potential of automatic flare detection and alerting from ground-based

  2. High resolution surface solar radiation patterns over Eastern Mediterranean: Satellite, ground-based, reanalysis data and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, G.; Georgoulias, A.; Meleti, C.; Balis, D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface solar radiation (SSR) and its long and short term variations play a critical role in the modification of climate and by extent of the social and financial life of humans. Thus, SSR measurements are of primary importance. SSR is measured for decades from ground-based stations for specific spots around the planet. During the last decades, satellite observations allowed for the assessment of the spatial variability of SSR at a global as well as regional scale. In this study, a detailed spatiotemporal view of the SSR over Eastern Mediterranean is presented at a high spatial resolution. Eastern Mediterranean is affected by various aerosol types (continental, sea, dust and biomass burning particles) and encloses countries with significant socioeconomical changes during the last decades. For the aims of this study, SSR data from satellites (Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility - CM SAF) and our ground station in Thessaloniki, a coastal city of ~1 million inhabitants in northern Greece, situated in the heart of Eastern Mediterranean (Eppley Precision pyranometer and Kipp & Zonen CM-11 pyranometer) are used in conjunction with radiative transfer simulations (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - SBDART). The CM SAF dataset used here includes monthly mean SSR observations at a high spatial resolution of 0.03x0.03 degrees for the period 1983-2005. Our ground-based SSR observations span from 1983 until today. SBDART radiative transfer simulations were implemented for a number of spots in the area of study in order to calculate the SSR. High resolution (level-2) aerosol and cloud data from MODIS TERRA and AQUA satellite sensors were used as input, as well as ground-based data from the AERONET. Data from other satellites (Earth Probe TOMS, OMI, etc) and reanalysis projects (ECMWF) were used where needed. The satellite observations, the ground-based measurements and the model estimates are validated against each other. The good agreement

  3. Petascale Computing for Ground-Based Solar Physics with the DKIST Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berukoff, Steven J.; Hays, Tony; Reardon, Kevin P.; Spiess, DJ; Watson, Fraser; Wiant, Scott

    2016-05-01

    When construction is complete in 2019, the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope will be the most-capable large aperture, high-resolution, multi-instrument solar physics facility in the world. The telescope is designed as a four-meter off-axis Gregorian, with a rotating Coude laboratory designed to simultaneously house and support five first-light imaging and spectropolarimetric instruments. At current design, the facility and its instruments will generate data volumes of 3 PB per year, and produce 107-109 metadata elements.The DKIST Data Center is being designed to store, curate, and process this flood of information, while providing association of science data and metadata to its acquisition and processing provenance. The Data Center will produce quality-controlled calibrated data sets, and make them available freely and openly through modern search interfaces and APIs. Documented software and algorithms will also be made available through community repositories like Github for further collaboration and improvement.We discuss the current design and approach of the DKIST Data Center, describing the development cycle, early technology analysis and prototyping, and the roadmap ahead. We discuss our iterative development approach, the underappreciated challenges of calibrating ground-based solar data, the crucial integration of the Data Center within the larger Operations lifecycle, and how software and hardware support, intelligently deployed, will enable high-caliber solar physics research and community growth for the DKIST's 40-year lifespan.

  4. The interdependence of continental warm cloud properties derived from unexploited solar background signal in ground-based lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Chiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We have extensively analysed the interdependence between cloud optical depth, droplet effective radius, liquid water path (LWP and geometric thickness for stratiform warm clouds using ground-based observations. In particular, this analysis uses cloud optical depths retrieved from untapped solar background signal that is previously unwanted and needs to be removed in most lidar applications. Combining these new optical depth retrievals with radar and microwave observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma during 2005–2007, we have found that LWP and geometric thickness increase and follow a power-law relationship with cloud optical depth regardless of the presence of drizzle; LWP and geometric thickness in drizzling clouds can be generally 20–40% and at least 10% higher than those in non-drizzling clouds, respectively. In contrast, droplet effective radius shows a negative correlation with optical depth in drizzling clouds, while it increases with optical depth and reaches an asymptote of 10 μm in non-drizzling clouds. This asymptotic behaviour in non-drizzling clouds is found in both droplet effective radius and optical depth, making it possible to use simple thresholds of optical depth, droplet size, or a combination of these two variables for drizzle delineation. This paper demonstrates a new way to enhance ground-based cloud observations and drizzle delineations using existing lidar networks.

  5. Roles of Ground-based Solar Observations of Hida Observatory toward the Solar-C Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S.; Shibata, K.; Ichimoto, K.; Nagata, S.; Dorotovič, I.; Shahamatnia, E.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Fonseca, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    For the realization of the Solar-C satellite, discussions about scientific themes and preliminary observations are internationally carried out now. At Hida Observatory of Kyoto University, we will play the following roles toward the Solar-C era by utilizing the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) and the international solar chromospherirc full-disk observation network (CHAIN project) that includes the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART) with international collaborations, for example, such as the development of image-analysis software by UNINOVA (Portugal) and so on.

  6. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient.

  7. Design, construction, and implementation of a ground-based solar spectrograph for the National Student Solar Spectrograph Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, E.; Moen, D.; Peck, C.; Zimny, C.; Repasky, K.

    2012-10-01

    A solar spectrograph is an instrument that takes incoming sunlight over a specified portion of the sun's emitted electromagnetic spectrum and separates the light into its constituent frequency components, or spectrum. The components are then sent to a detector that measures intensity, which reveals the location of spectral properties of the light such as absorption and emission lines. The National Student Solar Spectrograph Competition (NSSSC) is a Montana Space Grant Consortium sponsored competition where undergraduate student teams from across the country design, build, and implement a ground-based solar spectrograph to perform any solar related task and demonstrate their spectrographs for the competition in May 2012 in Bozeman, MT. Each team is given a 2,000-dollar budget to build their spectrograph, which cannot be exceeded, and all spectrographs must follow regulations in the NSSSC guidelines. This team designed a spectrograph to be capable of imaging the sun across the visible spectrum using spatial filters and a standard photo detector rather than a traditional charge-coupled device due to budget limitations. The spectrograph analyzes the spectrum of small sections of the sun to determine how the spectrum varies across solar features such as the corona, active regions, and quiet regions. In addition to solar imaging, the spectrograph will also analyze atmospheric absorption of the solar spectrum by comparing the measured spectrum to the theoretical spectrum calculated from the blackbody equation.

  8. Flight validation of ground-based assessment for control power requirements at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.; Abbott, Troy D.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented in viewgraph format of an ongoing NASA/U.S. Navy study to determine control power requirements at high angles of attack for the next generation high-performance aircraft. This paper focuses on recent flight test activities using the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which are intended to validate results of previous ground-based simulation studies. The purpose of this study is discussed, and the overall program structure, approach, and objectives are described. Results from two areas of investigation are presented: (1) nose-down control power requirements and (2) lateral-directional control power requirements. Selected results which illustrate issues and challenges that are being addressed in the study are discussed including test methodology, comparisons between simulation and flight, and general lessons learned.

  9. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Viatte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscopy", installed in Créteil (France. The capacity of the technique to separate stratospheric and tropospheric ozone is demonstrated. Daily mean tropospheric ozone columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and from OASIS measurements are compared for summer 2009 and a good agreement of −5.6 (±16.1 % is observed. Also, a qualitative comparison between in-situ surface ozone measurements and OASIS data reveals OASIS's capacity to monitor seasonal tropospheric ozone variations, as well as ozone pollution episodes in summer 2009 around Paris. Two extreme pollution events are identified (on the 1 July and 6 August 2009 for which ozone partial columns from OASIS and predictions from a regional air-quality model (CHIMERE are compared following strict criteria of temporal and spatial coincidence. An average bias of 0.2%, a mean square error deviation of 7.6%, and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 is found between CHIMERE and OASIS, demonstrating the potential of a mid-resolution FTIR instrument in ground-based solar absorption geometry for tropospheric ozone monitoring.

  10. Ozone vertical distribution retrieval from ground-based high resolution infrared solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougatchev, N. S.; Connor, B. J.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    A practical procedure for the retrieval of ozone vertical profiles from ground-based high resolution Fourier transform infrared solar spectra has been developed. The analysis is based on a multilayer line-by-line forward model and a semi-empirical version of the optimal estimation inversion method of Rodgers. The 1002.6-1003.2 cm(exp -1) spectral interval has been selected for the analysis on the basis of synthetic spectrum calculations. This interval contains numerous ozone lines covering a range of intensities and providing retrieval sensitivity from ground level to about 35 km. Characterization of the method and an error analysis have been performed. For a spectral resolution of 0.05-0.01 cm(exp -1) and a signal-to-noise ratio greater than or equal to 100 the retrieval is stable with a vertical resolution of approximately 5 km attainable near the surface degrading to approximately 10 km in the stratosphere. Synthetic spectra studies show that the a priori profile and weak constraints selected for the retrievals introduce no significant biases for a wide range of ozone profiles.

  11. Solar mobile power supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Libian

    2014-01-01

    The solar mobile power supply is a comprehensive energy saving and environment protective product. Besides, it consists of solar panels, storage battery and controller as well as other important components. Based on the traditional solar charging circuit, this solar power supply combines the 5V USB interface and 12V adjustable circuit as well as the 220V inverter and power adapter to greatly improve the function of the power system.

  12. Coordinated ground-based and Cluster observations of large amplitude global magnetospheric oscillations during a fast solar wind speed interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Mann

    Full Text Available We present magnetospheric observations of very large amplitude global scale ULF waves, from 9 and 10 December 2000 when the upstream solar wind speed exceeded 600 km/s. We characterise these ULF waves using ground-based magnetometer, radar and optical instrumentation on both the dawn and dusk flanks; we find evidence to support the hypothesis that discrete frequency field line resonances (FLRs were being driven by magnetospheric waveguide modes. During the early part of this interval, Cluster was on an outbound pass from the northern dusk side magnetospheric lobe into the magnetosheath, local-time conjugate to the Canadian sector. In situ magnetic fluctuations, observed by Cluster FGM, show evidence of quasi-periodic motion of the magnetosheath boundary layer with the same period as the ULF waves seen on the ground. Our observations represent the first simultaneous magnetometer, radar and optical observations of the characteristics of FLRs, and confirm the potential importance of ULF waves for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, particularly via the generation and modulation of electron precipitation into the ionosphere. The in situ Cluster measurements support the hypothesis that, during intervals of fast solar wind speed, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI can excite magnetospheric waveguide modes which bathe the flank magnetosphere with discrete frequency ULF wave power and drive large amplitude FLRs. 

    Paper submitted to the special issue devoted to "Cluster: First scientific results", Ann. Geophysicae, 19, 10/11/12, 2001.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  13. PhotoSpec - Ground-based Remote Sensing of Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, K.; Magney, T. S.; Frankenberg, C.; Seibt, U.; Pivovaroff, A. L.; Hurlock, S. C.; Stutz, J.

    2016-12-01

    Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) emitted from vegetation can be used as a proxy for photosynthetic activity and is observable on a global scale from space. However, many issues on a leaf-to-canopy scale remain poorly understood, such as influences on the SIF signal from environmental conditions, water stress, or radiation. We have developed a novel ground-based spectrometer system for measuring SIF from natural ecosystems. The instrumental set-up, requirements, and measurement technique are based on decades of experience using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), an established method to measure atmospheric trace gases. The instrument consists of three thermally stabilized commercial spectrometers that are linked to a 2D scanning telescope unit via optical fiber bundles, and also includes a commercial photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) sensor. The spectrometers cover a SIF retrieval wavelength range at high spectral resolution (670 - 780 nm, 0.1 nm FWHM), and also provide moderate resolution spectra (400 - 800 nm, 1.5 nm FWHM) to retrieve vegetation indices and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI). We report on results of the first continuous field measurements of this novel system at Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains UC Reserve, where the PhotoSpec instrument was monitoring SIF of four native Californian shrubland species with different adaptations to seasonal summer drought. We report on the correlation with CO2 fluxes over both the growing season and the hot summer period in 2016. We also show detailed measurements of the diurnal cycle of the SIF signal of single broad leaves, as well as dark-light transitions, under controlled experimental conditions. In addition to demonstrating the instrumental set-up, retrieval algorithm, and instrument performance, our results illustrate that SIF measurements at the leaf to ecosystem scale are needed to understand and interpret the SIF signals retrieved at larger scales.

  14. Power Beaming, Orbital Debris Removal, and Other Space Applications of a Ground Based Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    successful interstellar propagation of a laser communications signal. A casual survey of the night’s sky indicates that light can travel across...laser illumination of objects within the solar system for scientific study, and interstellar laser illumination for communications. Power beaming...these ranges. FEL illumination at interstellar ranges is modeled and discussed to determine our ability to communicate or detect laser communications

  15. Space Solar Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  16. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Viatte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscopy", installed in Créteil (France. Indeed, the information content of OASIS ozone retrievals is clearly sufficient to monitor separately tropospheric (from the surface up to 8 km and stratospheric ozone. Daily mean tropospheric ozone columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and from OASIS measurements have been compared for summer 2009 and a good agreement of −5.6 (±16.1 % is observed. Also, a qualitative comparison between in-situ surface ozone measurements and OASIS data clearly shows OASIS's capacity to monitor seasonal tropospheric ozone variations, as well as ozone pollution episodes in summer 2009 around Paris. Two extreme pollution events were identified (on the 1 July and 6 August 2009 for which ozone partial columns from OASIS and predictions from a regional air-quality model (CHIMERE were compared by respecting temporal and spatial coincidence criteria. Quantitatively, an average bias of 0.2 %, a mean square error deviation of 7.6 %, and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 was found between CHIMERE and OASIS. This demonstrates that a mid-resolution FTIR instrument in ground-based solar absorption geometry is a promising technique for monitoring tropospheric ozone.

  17. A solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, Yu.V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Gagiyan, L.A.; Kharapetyan, G.S.; Vartanyan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is designed for solar energy collectors in the form of heat pipes. A solar power plant is proposed that contains a solar concentrator in the form of at least one heat pipe with evaporation and condensation sections, the first of which is constructed to absorb solar emission and the second located in a heat exchanger equipped with inlet and outlet pipes. In order to simplify the design, the solar power plant is equipped with an additional heat exchanger connected through a connector to the inlet and outlet pipes, while the evaporation section holds an additional section in the lower half, within the auxiliary heat exchanger. During operation as a solar energy collector, the evaporation region absorbs the solar energy and converts it to heat, which is then carried by the heat transfer medium to the heating tube.

  18. Solar Power Shines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    While still in its infancy, the solar energy industry is growing in China as the country seeks clean, cheap and renewable sources of power Shi Zhengrong, President and CEO of Suntech Power Holdings Co. Ltd., was not a very familiar face to people outside the solar power industry until December 14 last year. On that day, Suntech, based in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, became the first Chinese

  19. The relation between solar and seismic activity based on satellite and ground-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, B.; Georgieva, K.; Atanasov, D.; Haiakawa, M.

    It has been noted that a significant correlation exists between solar and seismic activity on different time-scales, from centennial (Gleissberg) to the 11-year solar cycle, however the solar activity agent and the mechanism for this influence remained unclear. As two well expressed maxima of the number of earthquakes are observed in the 11-year solar cycle, one coinciding with sunspot maximum, and the other with solar coronal holes maximum, it has been supposed that the agent triggering seismic activity could be the high-speed solar wind. Data from numerous spacecraft monitoring solar wind parameters have been used compiled in OMNI data-base, and it has been found that the number of earthquakes in the days of the arrival of high speed solar wind and the days following right after them is significantly greater than in all other days. Further, we use data for the Earth rotation rate from the International Earth Rotation Service, and for the atmospheric circulation from meteorological stations worldwide. We find that they are both related to seismic activity, and discuss a possible mechanism of solar activity influences on the number of earthquakes through solar wind influences on the Earth and atmospheric dynamics.

  20. Update on the Solar Power Satellite transmitter design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    A number of remaining problems in the conceptual design of the transmitting antenna for the Solar Power Satellite have been solved as a result of additional technology development. Much of the technology was derived from the conceptual design of a ground-based transmitting antenna for beaming power to a high altitude airship or airplane.

  1. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  2. Precision in ground based solar polarimetry: Simulating the role of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaraju, K

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement of polarization in spectral lines is important for the reliable inference of magnetic fields on the Sun. For ground based observations, polarimetric precision is severely limited by the presence of Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulence (seeing) produces signal fluctuations which combined with the non-simultaneous nature of the measurement process cause intermixing of the Stokes parameters known as seeing induced polarization cross-talk. Previous analysis of this effect (Judge et al., 2004) suggests that cross-talk is reduced not only with increase in modulation frequency but also by compensating the seeing induced image aberrations by an Adaptive Optics (AO) system. However, in those studies the effect of higher order image aberrations than those corrected by the AO system was not taken into account. We present in this paper an analysis of seeing induced cross-talk in the presence of higher order image aberrations through numerical simulation. In this analysis we find that the amount...

  3. Cloud recognition from ground-based solar radiation measurements: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Josep; Gonzalez, Josep-Abel

    1998-12-01

    Despite cloud recognition techniques that can routinely identify cloud classes form satellite images, observation of clouds from the ground is still needed to acquire a complete description of cloud climatology. Solar radiation in a given site is one of the meteorological magnitudes that are most affected by cloud cover. Presently, the number of stations where both global and diffuse total solar radiation is measured is growing, due basically to energetic applications of solar radiation. Global and diffuse hourly irradiation, along with some measure of the temporal variability of solar radiation, are used in this paper to describe the sky condition, and to classify it into several cloud types. A classical maximum likelihood method is applied for clustering data. One year of solar radiation data and cloud observations at a site in Catalonia, Spain is used to illustrate the ability of solar radiation measurements to describe cloud types. Preliminary results of the above methodology show that three clusters appear using global and diffuse hourly irradiation only. Fog, stratus, and stratocumulus from the first group. A second group includes altocumulus alone or mixed with other clouds, as well as scattered cumulus congestus. In a third group, we find clear skies, cirrus and scattered cumulus. Especially in this third group, variability of solar radiation within an hour helps to separate different situations.

  4. High precision ground-based measurements of solar diameter in support of Picard mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the solar diameter is introduced in the wider framework of solar variability, and, consequently of the influences of the Sun upon the Earth's climate. It is possible to measure the solar diameter with enough accuracy to study climate changes and irradiation variations using ancient eclipses. This would permit to extend the knowledge of the solar luminosity back to three centuries, through the parameter W=dLogL/dLog R. The method of eclipses and Baily beads is discussed, and a significant improvement with respect to the last 40 years, has been obtained by reconstructing the Limb Darkening Function from the Baily's bead light curve, and the search of its inflexion point. The case of the Jan 15, 2010 annular eclipse has been studied in detail, while the atlas of Baily's beads with worldwide contributions by IOTA members, along with the solar diameter during the eclipse of 2006, have been published. The transition between the photographic atlas of the lunar limb (Watts, 1963) and the laser-alti...

  5. Why Not Solar Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Reeju; Sheldon, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Most of the world generally depends on energy sources such as fossil fuels and nuclear power to meet our energy consumption needs. As we all know, the excessive use of these resources has large environmental impacts, including displacing habitats, pollution, global warming, and scarcity of resources. Solar power is a clean form of energy that has the potential to fulfill our energy needs while balancing the natural state of our environment. So why do we not power our houses with solar energy? I will give a general overview of the working principles of commercially available solar power, and examine the issues relating to why we should use it and why we currently do not.

  6. Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Lee A.; Loomis, James; Bhatia, Bikram; Bierman, David M.; Wang, Evelyn N.; Chen, Gang

    2015-12-09

    Solar energy is a bountiful renewable energy resource: the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth in an hour exceeds the energy consumed by all of humanity in a year.(1) While the phrase “solar energy conversion” probably brings photovoltaic (PV) cells to mind first, PV is not the only option for generating electricity from sunlight. Another promising technology for solar energy conversion is solar–thermal conversion, commonly referred to as concentrating solar power (CSP).(2) The first utility-scale CSP plants were constructed in the 1980s, but in the two decades that followed, CSP saw little expansion.(3, 4) More recent years, however, have seen a CSP renaissance due to unprecedented growth in the adoption of CSP.(3, 5) Photographs of two operating CSP plants, a parabolic trough collector plant and a central receiver (or “power tower”), are shown here.

  7. The DKIST Data Center: Meeting the Data Challenges for Next-Generation, Ground-Based Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, A. R.; Reardon, K.; Berukoff, S. J.; Hays, T.; Spiess, D.; Watson, F. T.; Wiant, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is under construction on the summit of Haleakalā in Maui, and scheduled to start science operations in 2020. The DKIST design includes a four-meter primary mirror coupled to an adaptive optics system, and a flexible instrumentation suite capable of delivering high-resolution optical and infrared observations of the solar chromosphere, photosphere, and corona. Through investigator-driven science proposals, the facility will generate an average of 8 TB of data daily, comprised of millions of images and hundreds of millions of metadata elements. The DKIST Data Center is responsible for the long-term curation and calibration of data received from the DKIST, and for distributing it to the user community for scientific use. Two key elements necessary to meet the inherent big data challenge are the development of flexible public/private cloud computing and coupled relational and non-relational data storage mechanisms. We discuss how this infrastructure is being designed to meet the significant expectation of automatic and manual calibration of ground-based solar physics data, and the maximization the data's utility through efficient, long-term data management practices implemented with prudent process definition and technology exploitation.

  8. High-resolution, high-sensitivity, ground-based solar spectropolarimetry with a new fast imaging polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias, F A; Nagaraju, K; Solanki, S K

    2016-01-01

    Context. Remote sensing of weak and small-scale solar magnetic fields is of utmost relevance for a number of important open questions in solar physics. This requires the acquisition of spectropolarimetric data with high spatial resolution (0.1 arcsec) and low noise (1e-3 to 1e-5 of the continuum intensity). The main limitations to obtain these measurements from the ground, are the degradation of the image resolution produced by atmospheric seeing and the seeing-induced crosstalk (SIC). Aims. We introduce the prototype of the Fast Solar Polarimeter (FSP), a new ground-based, high-cadence polarimeter that tackles the above-mentioned limitations by producing data that are optimally suited for the application of post-facto image restoration, and by operating at a modulation frequency of 100 Hz to reduce SIC. Results. The pnCCD camera reaches 400 fps while keeping a high duty cycle (98.6 %) and very low noise (4.94 erms). The modulator is optimized to have high (> 80%) total polarimetric efficiency in the visible ...

  9. Solar g-mode oscillations: Comparison of SMM-ACRIM and ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Philip H.

    1989-01-01

    Progress was made in access to data and in developing programs for its analysis. The difficulties in completing the work in the planned time can be traced to several factors. The correction of the Stanford oscillation using gridded intensity data was not successful. It was concluded that due to poor continuity of the 1985 and 1986 data due to clouds, that a joint analysis with the ACRIM data (best solar oscillation data to date) on the summer 1987 observations should be performed. The 1988 Stanford oscillation data are being examined and the cross comparison of the ACRIM spectrum with the Standford spectrum for 1987 in the g-mode regime will shortly begin.

  10. Multiple ground-based observations at Zhongshan Station during the April/May 1998 solar events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Ruiyuan(刘瑞源); HU; Hongqiao(胡红桥); HE; Longsong(贺龙松); LIU; Yonghua(刘勇华); LIU; Shunlin(刘顺林); LI; Shenggui(李胜桂); N.; Sato; B.; J.; Fraser

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous observations at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica, during May 1-7, 1998 are presented to show the responses of the polar ionosphere to the April/May 1998 solar events. One of the main geo-effects of the solar events resulted in the major magnetic storm on May 4. At the storm onset on May 2 the ionosphere F2 layer abruptly increased in altitude, the geomagnetic H-component started negative deviation and the spectral amplitude of the ULF wave intensified. Both large isolated riometer absorption and large negative deviation of the geomagnetic H-component occurred at about 0639UT. There was a time lag of about one hour and ten minutes between the storm onset and the IMF southward turning, as measured by the WIND satellite. The polar ionosphere was highly disturbed, as shown by frequent large deviations of the geomagnetic H-component, large riometer absorption events and strong ULF waves in all the courses of the storm. The absorption increased greatly causing the digisonde to be blackout most of the time. However, the data still showed a substantial decrease in the F2 electron density and oscillation of the F2 layer peak height with an amplitude exceeding 200 km.

  11. Solar-absorption measurements of ozone from two ground based FTIR sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Eddy; Stremme, Wolfgang; Bezanilla, Alejandro; Grutter, Michel; Blumenstock, Thomas; Hase, Frank; Gisi, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Ozone reduces the amount of ultraviolet light entering earths atmosphere and continuous monitoring of total ozone column especially in higher latitudes has been a major task since the discovery of the stratospheric ozone depletion. As tropospheric ozone is a main greenhouse gas, monitoring of ozone in the lower atmosphere and also in the tropics gains importance. Tropospheric ozone also plays an important role in air quality and high levels of ozone in the boundary layer affects the public health. Ozone is produced through a complicated path of photochemistry processes from volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides (NOx)[1]. In large cities, these ozone precursors are mainly emitted from anthropogenic activities and in Mexico City the ozone concentration frequently exceedes the local standard for air quality (e.g. on 80% of the days of the year 2002)[2]. Since May 2012 high resolution Fourier transform infrared solar absorption spectra have been used for determining the total column and profile of ozone at the high altitude remote site Altzomoni (19°.12`N, 98°.65`E) located 60 km southeast of Mexico City at 4000 m a.s.l. These measurements are complemented with solar absorption spectra recorded with a moderate resolution FTIR spectrometer at the UNAM campus in Mexcio City (19°25`N, 99°10`W, 2240 m a.s.l.). The vertical profiles and total columns of ozone are inferred from solar spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT. The results are compared with simulations of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and other correlative data. The ozone column amount in the polluted mixing layer of Mexico City is estimated from the intercomparison of measurements at the urban and remote sites and discussed. [1] Tie, X.; Brasseur, G.; Ying, Z. Impact of Model Resolution on Chemical Ozone Formation in Mexico City: Application of the Wrf-Chem Model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2010, 10, 8983-8995. [2] McKinley, G.; Zuk, M.; Hojer, M.; Avalos, M

  12. Solar Sea Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  13. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  14. Petascale cyberinfrastructure for ground-based solar physics: approach of the DKIST data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berukoff, S.; Hays, T.; Reardon, K.; Spiess, DJ; Watson, F.; Wiant, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope, under construction in Maui, is designed to perform high-resolution spectropolarimetric visible and infrared measurements of the Sun, and will annually produce 3 PB of data, via 5x108 images and 2x1011 metadata elements requiring calibration, long-term data management, and open and free distribution. After briefly describing the DKIST and its instrument suite, we provide an overview of functions that the DKIST Data Center will provide, and focus on major challenges in its development. We conclude by discussing approach and mention some technologies that the Data Center team is using to develop a petascale computational and data storage resource to support this unique world-class DKIST facility and support its long-term scientific and operational goals.

  15. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  16. Development of High Power Amplifiers for Space and Ground-based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carlos Cilla

    and the Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits. The research work presented here focuses on practical realization and demonstration of these two types of amplifiers. The design and experimental performance assessment of 50W Solid State C-band High Power Amplifier using European Monolithic Microwave Integrated......-based amplifiers. They are efficient and provide very high power levels operating at low duty cycles. But they have a questionable longterm reliability, large footprints and they are not suitable for modern equipment with a decentralized transmitter, like a phase array system. Solid State Power Amplifier......D dissertation lies in the development of nonlinear design methodologies, manufacturing, and efficient testing of Solid State High Power Amplifier modules, with special focus on GaN state of the art technology. It is possible to identify two types of GaN Solid State High Power Amplifiers: the Hybrids...

  17. Retrieval of ethane from ground-based FTIR solar spectra using improved spectroscopy: Recent burden increase above Jungfraujoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, B.; Bader, W.; Toon, G. C.; Bray, C.; Perrin, A.; Fischer, E. V.; Sudo, K.; Boone, C. D.; Bovy, B.; Lejeune, B.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2015-07-01

    An improved spectroscopy is used to implement and optimize the retrieval strategy of ethane (C2H6) from ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580 m a.s.l.). The improved spectroscopic parameters include C2H6 pseudo-lines in the 2720-3100 cm-1 range and updated line parameters for methyl chloride and ozone. These improved spectroscopic parameters allow for substantial reduction of the fitting residuals as well as enhanced information content. They also contribute to limiting oscillations responsible for ungeophysical negative mixing ratio profiles. This strategy has been successfully applied to the Jungfraujoch solar spectra available from 1994 onwards. The resulting time series is compared with C2H6 total columns simulated by the state-of-the-art chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Despite very consistent seasonal cycles between both data sets, a negative systematic bias relative to the FTIR observations suggests that C2H6 emissions are underestimated in the current inventories implemented in GEOS-Chem. Finally, C2H6 trends are derived from the FTIR time series, revealing a statistically-significant sharp increase of the C2H6 burden in the remote atmosphere above Jungfraujoch since 2009. Evaluating cause of this change in the C2H6 burden, which may be related to the recent massive growth of shale gas exploitation in North America, is of primary importance for atmospheric composition and air quality in the Northern Hemisphere.

  18. Solar powered headwear fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsh, G.B.; Volk, S.; Cirrito, W.; Brann, D.

    1987-07-21

    A fan assembly is described. A housing is adapted for resting on an exterior surface of headwear. A fan mounted in the housing at one end of the housing is adapted for forcing air through an opening defined in a forward protuberance of the headwear. Solar cell means are mounted on the housing at another end of the housing opposite to and remote from the one end for powering the fan means and adapted for resting on a crown of the headwear. Vent means are defined by the housing for allowing air to be sucked into the housing and forced out of the housing when the power means drive the fan means. Mounting means are defined by the housing, including hinge means for removably mounting the modular fan assembly on an exterior surface of the headwear. A portion of the housing occupies a substantial distance between the fan means and the solar cell means. Display means are defined by the portion of the housing between the power means and the fan means for displaying of decorative graphic material.

  19. Studies of Plasma Instability Process Excited by Ground Based High Power HF (Heating) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the altitude z = 285 km. Night time plasma line intensities were observed to be enhanced by a factor 10 ÷ 100 extended to altitude below 250 km. When HF...waves, whose wave vector is directed toward the radar, and the phase velocity vph is equal to the velocity of suprathermal electrons v vph =(1/2) λr...averaged and in final form depends on two scalar factors only: full power density P absorbed by fast electrons in the acceleration layer, and characteristic

  20. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  1. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The selling price of electrical power varies with time. The economic viability of space solar power is maximum if the power can be sold at peak power rates, instead of baseline rate. Price and demand of electricity was examined from spot-market data from four example markets: New England, New York City, suburban New York, and California. The data was averaged to show the average price and demand for power as a function of time of day and time of year. Demand varies roughly by a factor of two between the early-morning minimum demand, and the afternoon maximum; both the amount of peak power, and the location of the peak, depends significantly on the location and the weather. The demand curves were compared to the availability curves for solar energy and for tracking and non-tracking satellite solar power systems in order to compare the market value of terrestrial and solar electrical power. In part 2, new designs for a space solar power (SSP) system were analyzed to provide electrical power to Earth for economically competitive rates. The approach was to look at innovative power architectures to more practical approaches to space solar power. A significant barrier is the initial investment required before the first power is returned. Three new concepts for solar power satellites were invented and analyzed: a solar power satellite in the Earth-Sun L2 point, a geosynchronous no-moving parts solar power satellite, and a nontracking geosynchronous solar power satellite with integral phased array. The integral-array satellite had several advantages, including an initial investment cost approximately eight times lower than the conventional design.

  2. Using the IRI, the MAGIC model, and the co-located ground-based GPS receivers to study ionospheric solar eclipse and storm signatures on July 22, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Yen; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Chien-Hung; Sun, Yang-Yi; Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.; Kakinami, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-01

    The longest total solar eclipse in the 21st century occurred in Southeast Asia on 22 July 2009 from 00:55 to 04:15 UT, and was accompanied by a moderate magnetic storm starting at 03:00 UT with a D st reduction of -78 nT at 07:00 UT. In this study, we use the ionospheric reference model IRI, the data assimilation model MAGIC, and ground-based GPS receivers to simulate and examine the ionospheric solar eclipse and geomagnetic storm signatures in Taiwan and Japan. Cross-comparisons between the two model results and observations show that IRI fails to simulate the two signatures while MAGIC partially reproduces the storm features. It is essential to include ground-based GPS measurements to improve the IRI performance.

  3. Stirling Converters For Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1993-01-01

    Two designs expected to meet long-term goals for performance and cost. Proposed for advanced systems to convert solar thermal power to electrical power. Each system, designed to operate with 11-m-diameter paraboloidal reflector, includes solar-energy receiver, liquid-metal heat-transport subsystem, free-piston Stirling engine, cooling subsystem, alternator or generator coupled directly or indirectly to commercial electric-power system, and control and power-conditioning circuitry. System converts approximately 75 kW of input solar thermal power falling on collector to about 25 kW of output electrical power.

  4. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Kazadzis, Stelios; Taylor, Michael; Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Marinou, Eleni; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Solomos, Stavros; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Amiridis, Vassilis; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kontoes, Charalabos

    2017-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO) observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM) and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) attenuation by as much as 40-50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) decrease (80-90 %), while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS). Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m-2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m-2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are being planned.

  5. Solar Power Sources: PV, Concentrated PV, and Concentrated Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing a s...

  6. Solar Power for Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine; Gerace, Jay; Mehner, Nicole; Mohamed, Sharif; Reiss, Kelly

    1999-12-06

    Condensed list of products and activities: 8 educational posters and 1 informational brochure (all original illustrations and text); a business plan with micro-agreements; corporation created called Tanzanian Power, LLC; business feasibility study developed with the University of Albany; Hampshire College collaborated in project development; research conducted seeking similar projects in underdeveloped countries; Citibank proposal submitted (but rejected); cleaned and sent PV panels to Tanzania; community center built in Tanzania; research and list provided to Robinson for educational TV videos and product catalogs; networked with Chase Manhattan Bank for new solar panels; maintained flow of information among many people (stateside and Tanzania); wrote and sent press releases and other outreach information. Several families purchased panels.

  7. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  8. Solar technology applications: a survey of solar powered irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1978-04-17

    Published information on solar powered irrigation systems is presented. Thermal solar systems, thermoelectric solar systems, and photovoltaic solar systems are included. A bibliography and survey of on-going work is presented. (WHK)

  9. Ground based observations of Pc3-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation power at Antarctic McMurdo station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maclennan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The two horizontal geomagnetic components and, measured by a fluxgate magnetometer at Antarctic McMurdo station (corrected geomagnetic coordinates 80.0° S, 327.5° E, are analyzed for the period May-June 1994; the spectral powers are calculated and integrated over three frequency intervals corresponding to the nominal ranges. The time dependence of those integrated powers and their correlations with northern auroral indices and solar wind speed are considered. The observations are compared with previous results reported from Terra Nova Bay station (located near McMurdo at the same corrected geomagnetic latitude during Antarctic summer intervals. The differences found between the two stations are discussed in terms of the seasonal dependence of geomagnetic field line configurations in the near cusp region.

  10. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  11. U.S. Solar Power Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    The report provides an overview of the domestic market for solar, including a concise look at the steps being taken to grow solar power in the U.S. Topics covered include: an overview of solar power including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving interest in solar power; a description of solar power technologies; a review of the economics of solar power; a discussion of the key markets for solar power; and, profiles of domestic solar cell/module manufacturers.

  12. Solar Power at Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    For the very first time, astronomers have witnessed the speeding up of an asteroid's rotation, and have shown that it is due to a theoretical effect predicted but never seen before. The international team of scientists used an armada of telescopes to discover that the asteroid's rotation period currently decreases by 1 millisecond every year, as a consequence of the heating of the asteroid's surface by the Sun. Eventually it may spin faster than any known asteroid in the solar system and even break apart. ESO PR Photo 11a/07 ESO PR Photo 11a/07 Asteroid 2000 PH5 "The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is believed to alter the way small bodies in the Solar System rotate," said Stephen Lowry (Queens University Belfast, UK), lead-author of one of the two companion papers in which this work is reported [1, 2]. "The warming caused by sunlight hitting the surfaces of asteroids and meteoroids leads to a gentle recoil effect as the heat is released," he added. "By analogy, if one were to shine light on a propeller over a long enough period, it would start spinning." Although this is an almost immeasurably weak force, its effect over millions of years is far from negligible. Astronomers believe the YORP effect may be responsible for spinning some asteroids up so fast that they break apart, perhaps leading to the formation of double asteroids. Others may be slowed down so that they take many days to complete a full turn. The YORP effect also plays an important role in changing the orbits of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, including their delivery to planet-crossing orbits, such as those of near-Earth asteroids. Despite its importance, the effect has never been seen acting on a solar system body, until now. Using extensive optical and radar imaging from powerful Earth-based observatories, astronomers have directly observed the YORP effect in action on a small near-Earth asteroid, known as (54509) 2000 PH5. Shortly after its discovery in 2000, it was

  13. Solar-Powered Water Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menninger, F. J.; Elder, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar-powered still produces pure water at rate of 6,000 gallons per year. Still fully automatic and gravity-fed. Only outside electric power is timer clock and solenoid-operated valve. Still saves $5,000 yearly in energy costs and pays for itself in 3 1/2 years.

  14. Comments to the Article by Thuillier et al. "The Infrared Solar Spectrum Measured by the SOLSPEC Spectrometer Onboard the International Space Station" on the Interpretation of Ground-based Measurements at the Izaña Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Cuevas, E.; García, R.; Redondas, A.

    2016-10-01

    Thuillier et al. ( Solar Phys. 290, 1581, 2015) article compares ATLAS-3 reference composite solar spectral irradiance (SSI) with more recent spatial measurements, as well as ground-based ones, including IRSPERAD. With respect to the IRSPERAD spectrum of Bolsée et al. ( Solar Phys. 289, 2433, 2014), Thuillier et al. (2015) presents an analysis based on a set of meteorological parameters retrieved at the moment of the respective ground-based campaign. This comment is intended to give a new insight to the said analysis which is based upon revised values of the meteorological parameters incorrectly used in Thuillier et al. (2015).

  15. Peak Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15,000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  16. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  17. Solar Power in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    that support its missions and users. Only the small secrets need to be protected. The large ones are kept secret by public incredulity. — Marshall ... McLuhan With such obvious benefits for the nation and so many potential stake- holders, one would think it easy to move forward, but it is not. SBSP Solar...impossible.” —Lord Kelvin, President of the Royal Society “Airplanes are interesting toys of no military value.” — Marshal Ferdinand Foch, Ecole

  18. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

  19. Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    "Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  1. Solar-powered airship. Solar angetriebenes Luftschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaupp, W. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)); Rehmet, M.A. (Inst. fuer Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Two solar-powered airships were designed and built within 20 months. The principal aim was to identify ecological alternatives within individual technological fields of air traffic and to demonstrate their feasibility. The project is directed at the design of an ultra-light-weight remote-controlled airship (length 16m) with a video camera for on-line transmission of images and flight data. A particular technological challenge is posed by the design of a light-weight flexible photovoltaic generator and its integration with the airship shell. (orig./BWI)

  2. A proposal on the study of solar-terrestrial coupling processes with atmospheric radars and ground-based observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Nozawa, Satonori; Miyaoka, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2016-09-01

    The solar energy can mainly be divided into two categories: the solar radiation and the solar wind. The former maximizes at the equator, generating various disturbances over a wide height range and causing vertical coupling processes of the atmosphere between the troposphere and middle and upper atmospheres by upward propagating atmospheric waves. The energy and material flows that occur in all height regions of the equatorial atmosphere are named as "Equatorial Fountain." These processes from the bottom also cause various space weather effects, such as satellite communication and Global Navigation Satellite System positioning. While, the electromagnetic energy and high-energy plasma particles in the solar wind converge into the polar region through geomagnetic fields. These energy/particle inflow results in auroral Joule heating and ion drag of the atmosphere particularly during geomagnetic storms and substorms. The ion outflow from the polar ionosphere controls ambient plasma constituents in the magnetosphere and may cause long-term variation of the atmosphere. We propose to clarify these overall coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system from the bottom and from above through high-resolution observations at key latitudes in the equator and in the polar region. We will establish a large radar with active phased array antenna, called the Equatorial Middle and Upper atmosphere radar, in west Sumatra, Indonesia. We will participate in construction of the EISCAT_3D radar in northern Scandinavia. These radars will enhance the existing international radar network. We will also develop a global observation network of compact radio and optical remote sensing equipment from the equator to polar region.

  3. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  4. New gridded database of clear-sky solar radiation derived from ground-based observations over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, Blanka; Wild, Martin; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Hakuba, Maria Z.

    2017-04-01

    Since aerosols modify the entire energy balance of the climate system through different processes, assessments regarding aerosol multiannual variability are highly required by the climate modelling community. Because of the scarcity of long-term direct aerosol measurements, the retrieval of aerosol data/information from other type of observations or satellite measurements are very relevant. One approach frequently used in the literature is analyze of the clear-sky solar radiation which offer a better overview of changes in aerosol content. In the study first two empirical methods are elaborated in order to separate clear-sky situations from observed values of surface solar radiation available at the World Radiation Data Center (WRDC), St. Petersburg. The daily data has been checked for temporal homogeneity by applying the MASH method (Szentimrey, 2003). In the first approach, clear sky situations are detected based on clearness index, namely the ratio of the surface solar radiation to the extraterrestrial solar irradiation. In the second approach the observed values of surface solar radiation are compared to the climatology of clear-sky surface solar radiation calculated by the MAGIC radiation code (Muller et al. 2009). In both approaches the clear-sky radiation values highly depend on the applied thresholds. In order to eliminate this methodological error a verification of clear-sky detection is envisaged through a comparison with the values obtained by a high time resolution clear-sky detection and interpolation algorithm (Long and Ackermann, 2000) making use of the high quality data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). As the consequences clear-sky data series are obtained for 118 European meteorological stations. Next a first attempt has been done in order to interpolate the point-wise clear-sky radiation data by applying the MISH (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis) method for the spatial interpolation of

  5. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  6. Following solar activity with geomagnetic and cosmic-ray ground-based stations in the Iberian Peninsula region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Victor; José Blanco, Juan; Miquel Torta, Joan; Catalán, Manuel; Ribeiro, Paulo; Morozova, Anna; Tordesillas, José Manuel; Solé, Germán; Gomis-Moreno, Almudena

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is located in the South-West of Europe between 36°00' N and 43°47' N and between 9°29' W and 3°19' E. There are four Geomagnetic Observatories currently operative in this area devoted to the observation of the Earth's magnetic field: Observatori de l'Ebre (NE Spain); Observatorio de San Pablo de los Montes (central Spain); Observatorio de San Fernando (southern Spain); Observatório de Coimbra (central Portugal); plus another one, Observatorio de Güímar, in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). There is also one neutron monitor located in Guadalajara (central Spain; 40°38' N, 3°9' W at 708 m asl) continuously measuring the arrival of cosmic rays to the Earth's surface. In this work we show combined observations of these six stations during events caused by solar activity. We analyze them looking for differences that could imply extremely local effects caused by the response of the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere to solar activity.

  7. Quality assessment of ozone total column amounts as monitored by ground-based solar absorption spectrometry in the near infrared (> 3000 cm-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O. E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Sepúlveda, E.; González, Y.

    2014-09-01

    recording the solar absorption spectra in the 3000 cm-1 spectral region at high spectral resolution (about 0.005 cm-1) might be useful for TCCON sites. Hence, both NDACC and TCCON ground-based FTIR experiments might contribute to global ozone databases.

  8. Background CO2 levels and error analysis from ground-based solar absorption IR measurements in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylon, Jorge L.; Stremme, Wolfgang; Grutter, Michel; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    In this investigation we analyze two common optical configurations to retrieve CO2 total column amounts from solar absorption infrared spectra. The noise errors using either a KBr or a CaF2 beam splitter, a main component of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), are quantified in order to assess the relative precisions of the measurements. The configuration using a CaF2 beam splitter, as deployed by the instruments which contribute to the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), shows a slightly better precision. However, we show that the precisions in XCO2 ( = 0.2095 ṡ size: .7em; color: #68;">Total Column CO2size: .7em; color: #68;">Total Column O2) retrieved from > 96 % of the spectra measured with a KBr beam splitter fall well below 0.2 %. A bias in XCO2 (KBr - CaF2) of +0.56 ± 0.25 ppm was found when using an independent data set as reference. This value, which corresponds to +0.14 ± 0.064 %, is slightly larger than the mean precisions obtained. A 3-year XCO2 time series from FTIR measurements at the high-altitude site of Altzomoni in central Mexico presents clear annual and diurnal cycles, and a trend of +2.2 ppm yr-1 could be determined.

  9. Solar powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a solar array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the solar powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor controller for controlling voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the solar cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.

  10. Chapter 11: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stekli, J. [U.S. Department of Energy; Bueno, P. C. [Southwest Research Institute

    2017-01-02

    This chapter summarizes the applications of the supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. The design and operation of CSP plants are reviewed to highlight the requirements for the power cycle and attributes that are advantageous for the solar-thermal application. The sCO2 Brayton cycle offers the potential of higher cycle efficiency versus superheated or supercritical steam cycles at temperatures relevant for CSP applications. In addition, Brayton cycle systems using sCO2 are anticipated to have smaller weight and volume, lower thermal mass, and less complex power blocks compared with Rankine cycles due to the higher density of the fluid and simpler cycle design. The simpler machinery and compact size of the sCO2 process may also reduce the installation, maintenance, and operation cost of the system. Power cycle capacities in the range of 10-150 MWe are anticipated for the CSP application. In this chapter, we explore sCO2 Brayton cycle configurations that have attributes that are desirable from the perspective of a CSP application, such as the ability to accommodate dry cooling and daily cycling, as well as integration with thermal energy storage.

  11. Solar Powered Electronic Trash Can

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engr. Joan P. Lazaro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to create an improvement of a normal trash can using an embedded systemintegrated with a solar panel that aims to improve the disposal practices of schoolchildren and improve the awareness of the students about the emerging capability of solar power. To use the system, the user needs to scan the material of the garbage then the chamber opens depending on what type of material was scanned. As the chamber opens, the user throws the trash inside the chamber, it has 10 seconds to dispose of the trash then the chamber will automatically close. A message appears in the matrix board whether the user had successfully disposed of the trash. The framework of the system discusses the procedure in constructing the propose project. It consists of the input, the processes, and the output. Inputs consist of the software and the hardware requirements. A vital part of the software development is the coding of the embedded system and on hardware development is the construction of the mechanism, after this phase the user tests it for possible enhancement and revision to be incorporated in the mechanism. The output of the system must be a fully functional mechanism that can be executed completely by the user.Upon thorough research, the proponents developed a Solar Powered Electronic Trash Can that helps school-children in proper disposing of their trash. This can also affects the pollution rating by means of proper trash segregation.

  12. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  13. Nanostructured electrodes for Solar Power Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key to achieving high-power solar arrays for NASA applications is the development of high-efficiency, thin-film solar cells that can be fabricated directly on...

  14. Solar Power for the Digital Fieldworker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Honeyman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the technical aspects of a solar power setup for remote field situations. It guides the reader through estimating power consumption and setting up a basic solar kit. The authors address picking a solar panel, using a charge regulator, and choosing a battery based on estimated power consumption and availability. They discuss two different types of power adaptors, how to connect the equipment, and the benefits and drawbacks of using multi-meters. They address the use of rechargeable batteries and finally, caution against too heavy a reliance on solar power.

  15. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  16. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  17. Development of nonmetallic solar collector and solar-powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Design and building of two unique components for solar heating (1. flatplate solar collector using no metal components, and 2. solar powered pump for heating and cooling systems are outlined in report. Report also discusses hardware, deliverable end items, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and performance certification.

  18. Ground-based remote sensing profiling and numerical weather prediction model to manage nuclear power plants meteorological surveillance in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Calpini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological surveillance of the four nuclear power plants in Switzerland is of first importance in a densely populated area such as the Swiss Plateau. The project "Centrales Nucléaires et Météorologie" CN-MET aimed at providing a new security tool based on one hand on the development of a high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP model. The latter is providing essential nowcasting information in case of a radioactive release from a nuclear power plant in Switzerland. On the other hand, the model input over the Swiss Plateau is generated by a dedicated network of surface and upper air observations including remote sensing instruments (wind profilers and temperature/humidity passive microwave radiometers. This network is built upon three main sites ideally located for measuring the inflow/outflow and central conditions of the main wind field in the planetary boundary layer over the Swiss Plateau, as well as a number of surface automatic weather stations (AWS. The network data are assimilated in real-time into the fine grid NWP model using a rapid update cycle of eight runs per day (one forecast every three hours. This high resolution NWP model has replaced the former security tool based on in situ observations (in particular one meteorological mast at each of the power plants and a local dispersion model. It is used to forecast the dynamics of the atmosphere in the planetary boundary layer (typically the first 4 km above ground layer and over a time scale of 24 h. This tool provides at any time (e.g. starting at the initial time of a nuclear power plant release the best picture of the 24-h evolution of the air mass over the Swiss Plateau and furthermore generates the input data (in the form of simulated values substituting in situ observations required for the local dispersion model used at each of the nuclear power plants locations. This paper is presenting the concept and two validation studies as well as the results of an

  19. Wind-solar Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the development and utilization of new energy sources, the solar energy and wind energy are paid more attention by various countries, and have become a new field of energy development and utilization of the highest level, the most mature technology, the most widely used and commercial development conditions for new energy. But both the traditional wind power system and solar power system have the characteristic of energy instability. Therefore, wind-solar hybrid power system was proposed i...

  20. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  1. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  2. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O' brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  3. SOLAR POWER THE FUTURE OF AVIATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Vashishtha,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar powered aircraft capable of continuous flight was a dream some years ago, but this great challenge has become feasible today. Quite a few manned and unmanned solar powered aircraft have been developed and flown in the last 30 years. The research activities carried out till now have been mainly focused on flying wings or conventional aircraft configurations, with a great emphasis on the technological aspects. Solar powered aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part forthe night flight. The paper deals with the current state of art of empower the aviation industry with solar power and the shortcoming and the future aspect.

  4. Renewable Energy Solar Power Surges On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the increased focus and attention solar power is receiving around the world as a potentially significant energy alternative, it makes sense that China's solar enterprises are today doing big business and raking in massive profits. Among the most notable returns have been those of newcomer Suntech Power Holdings.

  5. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  6. Online short-term solar power forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2009-01-01

    -minute observations of solar power from 21 PV systems located on rooftops in a small village in Denmark. The suggested method is a two-stage method where first a statistical normalization of the solar power is obtained using a clear sky model. The clear sky model is found using statistical smoothing techniques...

  7. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  8. Space-Based Solar Power System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Panel 100,000,000 kg Power Storage 176,000 kg Diode- pumped Laser Transmitter 5,000,000 kg TOTAL SYSTEM WEIGHT 105,181,400 kg 73 deployed...64 a. Power Storage Requirements .................................................65 b. Energy Transfer...alternatives to fossil fuels: nuclear fission reactors, hydroelectric power, wind turbines and solar power to name just a few. Each has advantages

  9. Solar power water distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  10. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  11. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  12. Design consideration of solar powered cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Zafer Gul, M. [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels and the rising concerns over the environment, it is important to develop new technologies that reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. Using solar energy is a good solution which could meet the world's energy needs. The aim of this study is to present the design process in the production of a solar powered car. Designing a solar powered car is a difficult task as there are strict requirements in term of efficiency: the car must have low drag resistance, be light-weight, and have low rolling resistance. In addition this paper presents the use of the solar powered Stirling engine technology rather than a photovoltaic conversion system for vehicle propulsion. This study presented a design process in the construction of a solar powered car and is expected to provide a new topic of research in the transportation field.

  13. Using ground-based solar and lunar infrared spectroscopy to study the diurnal trend of carbon monoxide in the Mexico City boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stremme

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a main pollutant in urban agglomerations. Quantifying the total burden of this pollutant in a megacity is challaging because not only its surface concentration but also its vertical dispersion present different behaviours and high variability. The diurnal trend of columnar CO in the boundary layer of Mexico City has been measured during various days with ground-based infrared absorption spectroscopy. Daytime CO total columns are retrieved from solar spectra and for the first time, nocturnal CO total columns using moonlight have been retrieved within a megacity. The measurements were taken at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM campus located in Mexico City (19.33° N, 99.18° W, 2260 m a.s.l. from October 2007 until February 2008 with a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer at 0.5 cm−1 resolution. The atmospheric CO background column was measured from the high altitude site Altzomoni (19.12° N, 98.65° W, 4010 m a.s.l. located 60 km southeast of Mexico City. The total CO column within the city presents large variations that are caused mainly by fresh CO emissions at the surface, but also the transport of cleaner or more polluted air masses within the field-of-view of the instrument and other processes contribute to its variability. The mean background value above the boundary mixing layer was found to be around (1.2±0.2×1018 molecules/cm2, while inside the city, the late morning mean on weekdays and Sundays was found to be (3.2±0.3×1018 molecules/cm2 and (2.1±0.4×1018 molecules/cm2, respectively. Continuous CO column retrieval during the day and night (when available, in conjunction with surface CO measurements, allow for a reconstruction of the effective mixing layer height. The limitations from this simplified approach, as well as the potential of using continuous column measurements in order to derive top-down CO

  14. Using ground-based solar and lunar infrared spectroscopy to study the diurnal trend of carbon monoxide in the Mexico City boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stremme

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important pollutant in urban agglomerations. Quantifying the total burden of this pollutant in a megacity is challenging because not only its surface concentration but also its vertical dispersion present different behaviours and high variability. The diurnal trend of columnar CO in the boundary layer of Mexico City has been measured during various days with ground-based infrared absorption spectroscopy. Daytime CO total columns are retrieved from solar spectra and for the first time, nocturnal CO total columns using moonlight have been retrieved within a megacity. The measurements were taken at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM campus located in Mexico City (19.33° N, 99.18° W, 2260 m a.s.l. from October 2007 until February 2008 with a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer at 0.5 cm−1 resolution. The atmospheric CO background column was measured from the high altitude site Altzomoni (19.12° N, 98.65° W, 4010 m a.s.l. located 60 km southeast of Mexico City. The total CO column within the city presents large variations. Fresh CO emissions at the surface, the transport of cleaner or more polluted air masses within the field-of-view of the instrument and other processes contribute to this variability. The mean background value above the boundary mixing layer was found to be (8.4±0.5×1017 molecules/cm2, while inside the city, the late morning mean on weekdays and Sundays was found to be (2.73±0.41×1018 molecules/cm2 and (2.04±0.57×1018 molecules/cm2, respectively. Continuous CO column retrieval during the day and night (when available, in conjunction with surface CO measurements, allow for a reconstruction of the effective mixing layer height. The limitations from this simplified approach, as well as the potential of using continuous column measurements in order to derive top-down CO emissions from a large urban area

  15. Dissecting the Power Sources of Low-Luminosity Emission-Line Galaxy Nuclei via Comparison of HST-STIS and Ground-Based Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Anca; Ho, Luis C; Barth, Aaron J; Filippenko, Alexei V; Castillo, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of ~100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of H_alpha and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which Transition Objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at <10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The Transition Objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad H_...

  16. Solar power generation technology, new concepts & policy

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Jayarama

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the current state of affairs in the field of solar power engineering from a global perspective. In four parts, this well-researched volume informs about (1) established solar PV (photovoltaic) technologies; (2) third-generation PV technologies based on new materials with potential for low-cost large-scale production; (3) solar cell technology based on new (third-generation) concepts such as quantum dot solar cells and nano wire solar cells using silicon and compound semiconductors; and (4) economic implications and effects, as well as policies and incentives i

  17. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  18. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  19. Dissecting the Power Sources of Low-Luminosity Emission-Line Galaxy Nuclei via Comparison of HST-STIS and Ground-Based Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Anca; Shields, Joseph C.; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Castillo, Christopher A.

    2015-12-01

    Using a sample of ∼100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of Hα and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which transition objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at ≲10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The transition objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad Hα emission in the high-resolution data, as well as the strongest density gradients, supporting the composite model for these systems as accreting sources surrounded by star-forming activity. The narrow-line LINERs appear to be the weaker counterparts of the Type 1 LINERs, where the low accretion rates cause the disappearance of the broad-line component. The enhanced sensitivity of the HST observations reveals a 30% increase in the incidence of accretion-powered systems at z ≈ 0. A comparison of the strength of the broad-line emission detected at different epochs implies potential broad-line variability on a decade-long timescale, with at least a factor of three in amplitude. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  20. DISSECTING THE POWER SOURCES OF LOW-LUMINOSITY EMISSION-LINE GALAXY NUCLEI VIA COMPARISON OF HST-STIS AND GROUND-BASED SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Anca; Castillo, Christopher A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Shields, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Using a sample of ∼100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of Hα and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which transition objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at ≲10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The transition objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad Hα emission in the high-resolution data, as well as the strongest density gradients, supporting the composite model for these systems as accreting sources surrounded by star-forming activity. The narrow-line LINERs appear to be the weaker counterparts of the Type 1 LINERs, where the low accretion rates cause the disappearance of the broad-line component. The enhanced sensitivity of the HST observations reveals a 30% increase in the incidence of accretion-powered systems at z ≈ 0. A comparison of the strength of the broad-line emission detected at different epochs implies potential broad-line variability on a decade-long timescale, with at least a factor of three in amplitude.

  1. Fresnel Concentrators for Space Solar Power and Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Rodney; Parks, Robert W.; Craig, Harry B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large deployable Fresnel concentrators are applicable to solar thermal propulsion and multiple space solar power generation concepts. These concentrators can be used with thermophotovoltaic, solar thermionic, and solar dynamic conversion systems. Thin polyimide Fresnel lenses and reflectors can provide tailored flux distribution and concentration ratios matched to receiver requirements. Thin, preformed polyimide film structure components assembled into support structures for Fresnel concentrators provide the capability to produce large inflation-deployed concentrator assemblies. The polyimide film is resistant to the space environment and allows large lightweight assemblies to be fabricated that can be compactly stowed for launch. This work addressed design and fabrication of lightweight polyimide film Fresnel concentrators, alternate materials evaluation, and data management functions for space solar power concepts, architectures, and supporting technology development.

  2. Consumer Attitudes Towards Domestic Solar Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Faiers, Adam; Neame, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies som...

  3. Solar-powered air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.

    1977-01-01

    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  4. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  5. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  6. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  7. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  8. Short-Term Solar Collector Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Perers, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power output from solar thermal collectors. The method is suited for online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is applied to predict hourly values of power from a standard single glazed large area flat plate collector....... The method is applied for horizons of up to 42 hours. Solar heating systems naturally come with a hot water tank, which can be utilized for energy storage also for other energy sources. Thereby such systems can become an important part of energy systems with a large share of uncontrollable energy sources......, such as wind power. In such a scenario online forecasting is a vital tool for optimal control and utilization of solar heating systems. The method is a two-step scheme, where first a non-linear model is applied to transform the solar power into a stationary process, which then is forecasted with robust time...

  9. Online Short-term Solar Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    This poster presents two approaches to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The methods are suited for online forecasting in many applications and here they are used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons up to 32 hours.......This poster presents two approaches to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The methods are suited for online forecasting in many applications and here they are used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons up to 32 hours....

  10. Low-cost solar electric power

    CERN Document Server

    Fraas, Lewis M

    2014-01-01

    ?This book describes recent breakthroughs that promise major cost reductions in solar energy production in a clear and highly accessible manner. The author addresses the three key areas that have commonly resulted in criticism of solar energy in the past: cost, availability, and variability. Coverage includes cutting-edge information on recently developed 40? efficient solar cells, which can produce double the power of currently available commercial cells. The discussion also highlights the potentially transformative emergence of opportunities for integration of solar energy storage and natura

  11. Solar Power Systems Web Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Bimal Aklesh

    2011-01-01

    All over the world the peak demand load is increasing and the load factor is decreasing year-by-year. The fossil fuel is considered insufficient thus solar energy systems are becoming more and more useful, not only in terms of installation but monitoring of these systems is very crucial. Monitoring becomes very important when there are a large number of solar panels. Monitoring would allow early detection if the output falls below required level or one of the solar panel out of 1000 goes down. In this study the target is to monitor and control a developed solar panel by using available internet foundation. This web-enabled software will provide more flexibility over the system such as transmitting data from panel to the host computer and disseminating information to relevant stake holders barring any geographical barrier. The software would be built around web server with dynamic HTML and JAVA, this paper presents the preliminary design of the proposed system.

  12. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  13. Grid-connected distributed solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T.

    This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more costly than most analyses estimate. Results show that certain local conditions and uncommon purchase considerations can combine to make small, distributed solar power attractive, but lower interconnect costs (per kW), lower marketing and product distribution costs, and more favorable purchase criteria make large, centralized solar energy more attractive. Specifically, the value of dispersed solar systems to investors and utilities can be higher than $2000/kw. However, typical residential owners place a value of well under $1000 on the installed system.

  14. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  15. SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy C. Gee

    2004-11-15

    This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

  16. Design considerations for solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Leopold, L.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance characteristics of a conceptual solar power satellite (SPS) system with emphasis on the microwave power transmission system. The latest tradeoff studies on photovoltaic and thermal systems for converting solar energy into electricity at the satellite are reviewed. The microwave system, consisting of dc-RF amplifiers, a 1-km phased array, and a ground antenna/rectifier scheme is capable of delivering 5 GW of power to the commercial grid. The transmission efficiencies of smaller system sizes (down to 1 GW) are compared with that of the nominal 5 GW system. At present the frequency region of interest is the IMS (industrial, medical, and scientific) band at 2450 plus or minus 50 MHz. Economic and technical tradeoffs as a function of the microwave operating frequency are considered. Candidate dc-RF power converter tubes, including medium-power amplitrons, high-power klystrons, and low-power solid state amplifiers, are examined.

  17. Solar vs. Fission Surface Power for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Oleson, Steve; George, Pat; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James; Bogner, Amee; Jones, Robert E.; Turnbull, Elizabeth; Martini, Michael C.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-discipline team of experts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Mars surface power system point design solutions for two conceptual missions. The primary goal of this study was to compare the relative merits of solar- versus fission-powered versions of each surface mission. First, the team compared three different solar power options against a fission power system concept for a sub-scale, uncrewed demonstration mission. The 4.5 meter (m) diameter pathfinder lander's primary mission would be to demonstrate Mars entry, descent, and landing techniques. Once on the Martian surface, the lander's In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload would demonstrate liquid oxygen propellant production using atmospheric resources. For the purpose of this exercise, location was assumed to be at the Martian equator. The three solar concepts considered included a system that only operated during daylight hours (at roughly half the daily propellant production rate of a round-the-clock fission design), a battery-augmented system that operated through the night (matching the fission concept's propellant production rate), and a system that operated only during daylight, but at a higher rate (again, matching the fission concept's propellant production rate). Including 30% mass growth allowance, total payload masses for the three solar concepts ranged from 1,116 to 2,396 kg, versus the 2,686 kg fission power scheme. However, solar power masses are expected to approach or exceed the fission payload mass at landing sites further from the equator, making landing site selection a key driver in the final power system decision. The team also noted that detailed reliability analysis should be performed on daytime-only solar power schemes to assess potential issues with frequent ISRU system on/off cycling. Next, the team developed a solar-powered point design solution for a conceptual four-crew, 500-day surface mission consisting of up to four landers per

  18. A Comparison Of A Solar Power Satellite Concept To A Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the Solar Power Satellite concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, that the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground.

  19. First retrievals of HCFC-142b from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations: application to high-altitude Jungfraujoch spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Emmanuel; O'Doherty, Simon; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin; Bader, Whitney; Bovy, Benoît; Lejeune, Bernard; Demoulin, Philippe; Roland, Ginette; Servais, Christian; Zander, Rodolphe

    2013-04-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the first substitutes to the long-lived ozone depleting halocarbons, in particular the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Given the complete ban of the CFCs by the Montreal Protocol, its Amendments and Adjustments, HCFCs are on the rise, with current rates of increase substantially larger than at the beginning of the 21st century. HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) is presently the second most abundant HCFCs, after HCFC-22 (CHClF2). It is used in a wide range of applications, including as a blowing foam agent, in refrigeration and air-conditioning. Its concentration will soon reach 25 ppt in the northern hemisphere, with mixing ratios increasing at about 1.1 ppt/yr [Montzka et al., 2011]. The HCFC-142b lifetime is estimated at 18 years. With a global warming potential of 2310 on a 100-yr horizon, this species is also a potent greenhouse gas [Forster et al., 2007]. First space-based retrievals of HCFC-142b have been reported by Dufour et al. [2005]. 17 occultations recorded in 2004 by the Canadian ACE-FTS instrument (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer, onboard SCISAT-1) were analyzed, using two microwindows (1132.5-1135.5 and 1191.5-1195.5 cm-1). In 2009, Rinsland et al. determined the HCFC-142b trend near the tropopause, from the analysis of ACE-FTS observations recorded over the 2004-2008 time period. The spectral region used in this study extended from 903 to 905.5 cm-1. In this contribution, we will present the first HCFC-142b measurements from ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra. We use observations recorded at the high altitude station of the Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8°E, 3580 m asl), with a Bruker 120HR instrument, in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, visit http://www.ndacc.org). The retrieval of HCFC-142b is very challenging, with simulations indicating only weak absorptions, lower than 1% for low sun spectra and current

  20. Online short-term solar power forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The method is suited to online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons of up to 36 hours. The data used is fifteen....... Then forecasts of the normalized solar power are calculated using adaptive linear time series models. Both autoregressive (AR) and AR with exogenous input (ARX) models are evaluated, where the latter takes numerical weather predictions (NWPs) as input. The results indicate that for forecasts up to two hours...

  1. Solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M. T. B. F.

    2016-11-01

    The Philippines is surrounded by coastal areas and these areas can be a potential source for potable water. This study aims to design and construct a solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens. The experimental study was conducted using polluted salt water for the sample and desalination was carried out using the designed system. The desalination system was composed of the solar concentrator, solar still and the condenser system. The Fresnel lens was made of acrylic plastic and was an effective solar concentrator. Solar stills made of dark colored glass bottles were effective in absorbing the solar energy. The condenser system made of polybutylene and polystyrene were effective in condensing the vapor at ambient temperature. The shortest time of vaporization of the salt water was at 293 sec and the optimum angle of position of the lens was 36.42°. The amount of condensate collected was directly proportional to the amount of salt water in the solar still. The highest mean efficiency of the designed set-up was 34.82%. The water produced by the solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens passed the standards set by WHO (World Health Organization) for drinking water.

  2. Solar Versus Fission Surface Power for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Oleson, Steve; George, Pat; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James; Bogner, Amee; Jones, Robert E.; Turnbull, Elizabeth; McNatt, Jeremiah; Martini, Michael C.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-discipline team of experts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Mars surface power system point design solutions for two conceptual missions to Mars using In-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The primary goal of this study was to compare the relative merits of solar- versus fission-powered versions of each surface mission. First, the team compared three different solar-power options against a fission power system concept for a sub-scale, uncrewed demonstration mission. This “pathfinder” design utilized a 4.5 meter diameter lander. Its primary mission would be to demonstrate Mars entry, descent, and landing techniques. Once on the Martian surface, the lander’s ISRU payload would demonstrate liquid oxygen propellant production from atmospheric resources. For the purpose of this exercise, location was assumed to be at the Martian equator. The three solar concepts considered included a system that only operated during daylight hours (at roughly half the daily propellant production rate of a round-the-clock fission design), a battery-augmented system that operated through the night (matching the fission concept’s propellant production rate), and a system that operated only during daylight, but at a higher rate (again, matching the fission concept’s propellant production rate). Including 30% mass growth allowance, total payload masses for the three solar concepts ranged from 1,128 to 2,425 kg, versus the 2,751 kg fission power scheme. However, solar power masses increase as landing sites are selected further from the equator, making landing site selection a key driver in the final power system decision. The team also noted that detailed reliability analysis should be performed on daytime-only solar power schemes to assess potential issues with frequent ISRU system on/off cycling.

  3. Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

  4. A composite solar power assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairamov, R.B.; Khodzhiev, A.I.; Korneev, N.R.; Kuladova, N.A.; Ushakova, A.D.

    1981-08-23

    An assembly is described which contains heat and cooling sections; the first of these contains a solar collector built in the form of a frame with a light transparent cover and an internal boiler and battery. The second section contains an aborber and an evaporator; the battery and the evaporator are connected to the customer through a heat exchanger.

  5. Solar thermal power systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Each of DOE's solar Thermal Power Systems projects funded and/or in existence during FY 1978 is described and the status as of September 30, 1978 is reflected. These projects are divided as follows: small thermal power applications, large thermal power applications, and advanced thermal technology. Also included are: 1978 project summary tables, bibliography, and an alphabetical index of contractors. (MHR)

  6. Solar thermionic power systems for terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study which showed that a low-temperature, high-efficient thermionic power system can efficiently convert solar energy to electrical energy without heat transport, as required by most solar thermal systems are described. A 3-dimensional (2-axis tracking) 93 sq m parabolic solar concentrator, consisting of mirrors on a foam glass substrate and designed to a concentration ratio (mirror area/aperture area) of 2000 is considered for producing a design temperature of 1100 C at an efficiency of 74%. A tracking subsystem must track the sun at an accuracy of a nominal plus or minus 1.0 degree for maximum use of the sun's energy. Each complete solar thermionic power system unit rated at about 20 kWe peak can generate approximately 48,000 kWh/yr. In addition, a thermal energy conversion system can be cascaded within the thermionic power system so that the high quality waste heat can be further utilized to increase the net electrical output. Potential applications of a solar thermionic power generation system are remote sites, apartment house complexes, heating and cooling, hydrogen production and large power stations.

  7. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  8. Solar Power. Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sarah [Booth Clean Energy LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-05-01

    As global electricity demand increases, governments are designing and implementing policies to scale up and catalyze renewable energy, which now meets 22% of global electricity demand (REN21 2014). Solar technologies are a critical component of this expanded deployment, and they have experienced unprecedented growth in recent years. As presented in Figure 1, solar prices have decreased significantly over the last decade (REN21 2014) and in 2013, new capacity installation of solar electricity from photovoltaics (PV) 1 surpassed all other renewable energy technologies worldwide—excluding hydropower—with 39 gigawatts installed that year. Concentrating solar thermal power,2 although it still represents a fairly nascent market, also continues to expand as installed capacity increased by 36% in 2013 compared to 2012. In addition to meeting energy demand in an increasingly cost-effective manner, solar deployment can also support critical economic, social, and environmental development goals (Flavin and Hull Aeck, n.d.).

  9. Retrievals of ethane from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations with updated line parameters: determination of the optimum strategy for the Jungfraujoch station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, W.; Perrin, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Sudo, K.; Yashiro, H.; Gauss, M.; Demoulin, P.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2012-04-01

    Ethane (C2H6) is the most abundant Non-Methane HydroCarbon (NMHC) in the Earth's atmosphere, with a lifetime of approximately 2 months. C2H6 has both anthropogenic and natural emission sources such as biomass burning, natural gas loss and biofuel consumption. Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical is by far the major C2H6 sink as the seasonally changing OH concentration controls the strong modulation of the ethane abundance throughout the year. Ethane lowers Cl atom concentrations in the lower stratosphere and is a major source of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and carbon monoxide (by reaction with OH). Involved in the formation of tropospheric ozone and in the destruction of atmospheric methane through changes in OH, C2H6 is a non-direct greenhouse gas with a net-global warming potential (100-yr horizon) of 5.5. The retrieval of ethane from ground-based infrared (IR) spectra is challenging. Indeed, the fitting of the ethane features is complicated by numerous interferences by strong water vapor, ozone and methane absorptions. Moreover, ethane has a complicated spectrum with many interacting vibrational modes and the current state of ethane parameters in HITRAN (e.g. : Rothman et al., 2009, see http://www.hitran.com) was rather unsatisfactory in the 3 μm region. In fact, PQ branches outside the 2973-3001 cm-1 range are not included in HITRAN, and most P and R structures are missing. New ethane absorption cross sections recorded at the Molecular Spectroscopy Facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Harrison et al., 2010) are used in our retrievals. They were calibrated in intensity by using reference low-resolution spectra from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Pseudoline parameters fitted to these ethane spectra have been combined with HITRAN 2004 line parameters (including all the 2006 updates) for all other species encompassed in the selected microwindows. Also, the improvement brought by the update of the line positions and intensities

  10. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkerim, A. I.; Sami Eusuf, M. M. R.; Salami, M. J. E.; Aibinu, A.; Eusuf, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors.

  11. New directions for space solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-07-01

    Several of the central issues associated with the eventual realization of the vision of solar power from space for terrestrial markets resolve around the expect costs associated with the assembly, inspection, maintenance and repair of future solar power satellite (SPS) stations. In past studies (for example, NASA's "Fresh Look Study", c. 1995-1997) efforts were made to reduce both the scale and mass of large, systems-level interfaces (e.g., the power management and distribution (PMAD) system) and on-orbit fixed infrastructures through the use of modular systems strategies. These efforts have had mixed success (as reflected in the projected on-orbit mass of various systems concepts. However, the author remains convinced of the importance of modular strategies for exceptionally large space systems in eventually realizing the vision of power from space. This paper will introduce some of the key issues associated with cost-competitive space solar power in terrestrial markets. It will examine some of the relevant SPS concepts and will assess the 'pros and cons' of each in terms of space assembly, maintenance and servicing (SAMS) requirements. The paper discusses at a high level some relevant concepts and technologies that may play r role in the eventual, successful resolution of these challenges. The paper concludes with an example of the kind of novel architectural approach for space solar power that is needed.

  12. Economic analysis of large solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiss, Helmut; Nitsch, Joachim; Geyer, Michael

    1987-11-01

    The current status and future potential of solar-tower, parabolic-reflector/Stirling-engine, channel-collector, and photovoltaic solar power plants of capacity 10 MWe or more are discussed. Consideration is given to the geographic and technological limitations, initial investment and operating costs, presently operating facilities, market openings, and critical technological challenges controlling future expansion. Numerical data are presented in tables and graphs, and it is concluded that solar power production will soon become economically competitive. It is suggested that the channel collector, at present the most mature and cost-efficient technology, has the least potential for further improvement, and that parabolic/Stirling and photovoltaic systems are probably better suited to smaller applications than to large-scale commercial power production.

  13. Concentrating Solar Power. Report April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, Erik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Enery and Environment, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies offer ways to utilise solar radiation by concentrating the light. In a concentrated form, the light can be utilised more cost efficiently. It is focused with mirrors or lenses and used either as a heat source in thermal power cycles (thermal CSP) or as a light source for high efficiency photovoltaic cells (concentrating photovoltaics, CPV). All concentrating systems use tracking to follow the movement of the sun, in two or three dimensions, and require direct sunlight (no diffusing clouds). CSP plants are often more complex, component wise than those based on flat PV. The extra cost of complexity is generally more than offset by the larger scales, the less need for expensive materials such as purified silicon and a better fit with the current energy infrastructure. Some thermal CSP plants offer great possibilities to deal with the intermittency of solar energy, as the heat generated can be stored in the form of a heated liquid in large tanks for many hours with little additional cost, and drive the thermal power generation also during cloudy periods or at night. CSP is growing rapidly and can be an important portion of future low-carbon energy systems. A prerequisite is that expected cost reductions are, at least largely, realised. In regions with good solar conditions (Mediterranean countries, US Southwest, Middle East, Australia etc), CSP systems already in the short-term future can satisfy significant shares of the power demand, to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions. Less solar-intensive regions (Northern Europe, much of North America etc) can be supplied with CSP power from solar-rich regions by using long distance power grids, for instance the high voltage DC cables being deployed and developed today

  14. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  15. Analysis and Compact Modeling of a Vertical Grounded-Base NPN Bipolar Transistor used as ESD Protection in a Smart Power Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Géraldine; Delage, Christelle; Bafleur, Marise; Nolhier, Nicolas; Dorkel, Jean-Marie; Nguyen, Quang; Mauran, Nicolas; Trémouilles, David; Perdu, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    9 pages; International audience; A thorough analysis of the physical mechanisms involved in a Vertical Grounded-Base NPN bipolar transistor (VGBNPN) under ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) stress is first carried out by using 2D-device simulation, Transmission Line Pulse measurement (TLP) and photoemission experiments. This analysis is used to account for the unexpected low value of the VGBNPN snapback holding voltage under TLP stress. A compact model based on a new avalanche formulation resultin...

  16. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  17. Solar power deployment: Forecasting and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Mohana

    The rapid growth of Photovoltaic (PV) technology has been very visible over the past decade. Recently, the penetration of PV plants to the existing grid has significantly increased. Such increase in the integration of solar energy has brought attention to the solar irradiance forecasting. This thesis presents a thorough research of PV technology, how solar power can be forecasted, and PV planning under uncertainty. Over the last decade, the PV was one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies. However, the PV system output varies based on weather conditions. Due to the variability and the uncertainty of solar power, the integration of the electricity generated by PV system is considered one of the challenges that have confronted the PV system. This thesis proposes a new forecasting method to reduce the uncertainty of the PV output so the power operator will be able to accommodate its variability. The new forecasting method proposes different processes to be undertaken before the data is fed to the forecasting model. The method converts the data sets included in the forecasting from non-stationary data to a stationary data by applying different processes including: removing the offset, removing night time solar values, and normalization. The new forecasting method aims to reduce the forecasting error and analyzes the error effect on the long term planning through calculating the payback period considering different errors.

  18. Quality assessment of ozone total column amounts as monitored by ground-based solar absorption spectrometry in the near infrared (> 3000 cm−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possibility of ground-based remote sensing ozone total column amounts (OTC from spectral signatures at 3040 and 4030 cm−1. These spectral regions are routinely measured by the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed experiments. In addition, they are potentially detectable by the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network FTIR instruments. The ozone retrieval strategy presented here estimates the OTC from NDACC FTIR high resolution spectra with a theoretical precision of about 2% and 5% in the 3040 cm−1 and 4030 cm−1 regions, respectively. Empirically, these OTC products are validated by inter-comparison to FTIR OTC reference retrievals in the 1000 cm−1 spectral region (standard reference for NDACC ozone products, using a 8 year FTIR time series (2005–2012 taken at the subtropical ozone super-site of the Izaña Observatory (Tenerife, Spain. Associated with the weaker ozone signatures at the higher wavenumber regions, the 3040 cm−1 and 4030 cm−1 retrievals show lower vertical sensitivity than the 1000 cm−1 retrievals. Nevertheless, we observe that the rather consistent variations are detected: the variances of the 3040 cm−1 and the 4030 cm−1 retrievals agree within 90% and 75%, respectively, with the variance of the 1000 cm−1 standard retrieval. Furthermore, all three retrievals show very similar annual cycles. However, we observe a large systematic difference of about 7% between the OTC obtained at 1000 cm−1 and 3040 cm−1, indicating a significant inconsistency between the spectroscopic ozone parameters (HITRAN 2012 of both regions. Between the 1000 cm−1 and the 4030 cm−1 retrieval the systematic difference is only 2–3%. Finally, the long-term stability of the OTC retrievals has also been examined, observing that both near infrared retrievals can monitor the long-term OTC evolution in consistency to the 1000 cm−1

  19. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-04-14

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  20. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  1. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  2. Sandwich module testing for space solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Paul

    Solar power satellites have been envisioned as a means to provide electricity for terrestrial use. The approach entails collection of solar energy in space and its wireless transmission to the earth. This potentially gives the benefit of provision of baseload power while avoiding the losses due to the day/night cycle and tropospheric effects that are associated with terrestrial solar power. Proponents have contended that the implementation of such systems could offer energy security, environmental, and technological advantages to those who would undertake their development. Among recent implementations commonly proposed for SSP, the Modular Symmetrical Concentrator and other modular concepts have received considerable attention. Each employs an array of modules for performing conversion of concentrated sunlight into microwaves or laser beams for transmission to earth. The research described herein details efforts in the development and testing of photovoltaic arrays, power electronics, microwave conversion electronics, and antennas for 2.45 GHz microwave-based “ sandwich” module prototypes. Prototypes were designed, fabricated, and subjected to the challenging conditions inherent in the space environment, including the solar concentration levels in which an array of modules might be required to operate.

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    This report has been prepared in response to section 603(b) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, (Pub. L. No. 110-140), which states that “…the Secretary of Energy shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of a study on methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by concentrating solar power systems.”

  4. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  5. Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker for Power Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Banik,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ―Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker For power utilities‖ As the name implied, it is a photovoltaic system that uses the photovoltaic array as a source of electrical power supply and since every photovoltaic (PV array has an optimum operating point, called the maximum power point, which varies depending on the insolation level and array voltage. A maximum power point tracker (MPPT is needed to operate the PV array at its maximum power point. The objective of this thesis project is to build a photovoltaic (PV array Of 121.6V DC Voltage(6 cell each 20V, 100watt And convert the DC voltage to Single phase 120v,50Hz AC voltage by switch mode power converter‘s and inverter‘s.

  6. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observered in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris, Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  7. Dynamics of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities caused by a powerful radio emission of the Sura facility from the data collected onto ground-based GNSS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogogin, D. A.; Nasyrov, I. A.; Grach, S. M.; Shindin, A. V.; Zagretdinov, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of variations in the total electron content of the Earth's ionosphere along the GPS satellite signal propagation path are described. The signal parameters were measured at a network of receivers at three distant sites: Sura (Vasilsursk), Zelenodolsk, and Kazan. They are arranged along the geomagnetic latitude of the Sura Facility under short-wave radio irradiation of the ionosphere. One feature of the experiment is the crossing of a disturbed region by the radio path between a GPS satellite and Vasilsursk. This resulted from the angular sizes of the Sura array pattern; the radio paths between a GPS satellite and Zelenodolsk and a GPS satellite and Kazan did not cross. Variations in the total electron content of up to 0.15-0.3 TECU were revealed at all three sites during four experimental campaigns (March 2010, March 2013, May 2013, and November 2013). The lateral scale of an ionospheric disturbance stimulated by a high-power radio wave and the velocity of its west-to-east propagation along the geomagnetic latitude were 30-60 km and 270-350 m/s, respectively. A decrease in the total electron content (down to 0.55 TECU) was recorded along the Kazan-Zelenodolsk-Vasilsurks line, which is connected with the solar terminator transit; the lateral scale of the related ionospheric inhomogeneities was 65-80 km.

  8. Lightweight Solar Power for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    The innovation targets small satellites or CubeSats for which conventional deployable arrays are not feasible due to their size, weight and complexity. This novel solar cell array includes a thin and flexible photovoltaic cell applied to an inflatable structure to create a high surface area array for collecting solar energy in a lightweight, simple and deployable structure. The inflatable array, with its high functional surface area, eliminates the need and the mechanisms required to point the system toward the sun. The power density achievable in these small arrays is similar to that of conventional high-power deployable/pointable arrays used on large satellites or space vehicles. Although inflatable solar arrays have been previously considered by others, the arrays involved the use of traditional rigid solar cells. Researchers are currently working with thin film photovoltaics from various suppliers so that the NASA innovation is not limited to any particular solar cell technology. NASA has built prototypes and tested functionality before and after inflation. As shown in the current-voltage currents below, deployment does not damage the cell performance.

  9. Research on battery array based on solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhong

    2017-03-01

    Almost all of the energy of solar power supply system comes from solar energy, which is a kind of pollution-free green energy, using independent photovoltaic system as base station power supply. In this paper, taking the solar power system as the research object, we made MATLAB simulation analysis of the independent solar photovoltaic system battery array. The simulation results showed that the output voltage and the output current of the solar array based on solar power system are affected by the illumination intensity and temperature change. In addition, it also showed that at any temperature and illumination intensity, there will a largest output power.

  10. Space Solar Power Demonstrations: Challenges and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The prospects of using electrical power beamed from space are coming closer to reality with the continued pursuit and improvements in the supporting space solar research and technology. Space Solar Power (SSP) has been explored off and on for approximately three decades as a viable alternative and clean energy source. Results produced through the more recent Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program involving extensive participation by industry, universities, and government has provided a sound technical basis for believing that technology can be improved to the extent that SSP systems can be built, economically feasible, and successfully deployed in space. Considerable advancements have been made in conceptual designs and supporting technologies including solar power generation, wireless power transmission, power management distribution, thermal management and materials, and the integrated systems engineering assessments. Basic technologies have progressed to the point were the next logical step is to formulate and conduct sophisticated demonstrations involving prototype hardware as final proof of concepts and identify high end technology readiness levels in preparation for full scale SSP systems designs. In addition to continued technical development issues, environmental and safety issues must be addressed and appropriate actions taken to reassure the public and prepare them for the future use of this alternative renewable energy resource. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related R&D investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (terrestrial markets, science, commercial development of space, and other government missions).

  11. Concentrating Solar Power Program Review 2013 (Book) (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Concentrating Solar Power Program Review Meeting booklet will be provided to attendees at the Concentrating Solar Power Review Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona on April 23-25, 2013.

  12. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  13. Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the six billion people on Earth produce less than 2,500 per year per person of Gross World Product (GWP). GWP growth is severely limited by the high cost, low availability and reliability, environmental damages, and political uncertainties of conventional fossil, nuclear, and terrestrial renewable power systems. In 2000 the World Energy Council challenged all decision makers to enable the equivalent of 6.7 kWt per person of thermal power within two generations. This implies 67 TWt, or approx.20 to 30 TWe, of sustainable electric power by 2050. Twenty-five power systems were reviewed to select which could: (1) sustainably provide 20 TWe to consumers; (2) profitably sell electricity for less than 0.01 per kWe-h; (3) be environmentally neutral, even nurturing; and (4) use understood technologies. The analyses indicated that only the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System could meet these requirements within the 21st Century.

  14. Turbomachinery for small solar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammert, K.; Heikal, H.; Mobarak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Conversion of solar energy into mechanical or electrical energy in small solar power plants (10 bis 500 kW) requires new design criteria, especially with regard to turbomachinery. The cycles suitable for solar power production are affected by many variables such as kinds of working fluid, range of power and maximum cycle temperature determined by the type of collector. Also, the size of the plant will influence the selection of the various components of the plant, especially that of the turbomachinery. A study of a suitable thermodynamic cycle and working fluid is done for different ranges of power and temperature. The working fluids considered are steam, toluene, and refrigerant 113 for the Rankine cycle systems and air for gas turbine systems. For Rankine cycles, turbine selection is a problem in the small power range. This is mainly due to the fact, that for high efficiency the enthalpy drop should be as high as possible, and the mass flow rate of the working fluid through the turbine becomes very small. This, in turn, requires high rotational speed, multistaging and partial admission, especially if water is the working fluid. Toluene offers better design criteria for the turbine in the same temperature and power range (50-200 kW). For the very small range (10 kW) refrigerant 113 or similar should be used, otherwise severe design problems with the turbine will occur. In this power range, photovoltaics may also be considered. For high concentration systems with Brayton cycles (800-1000/sup 0/C) only open-cycle gas turbine plants should be used.

  15. Experimental investigation of solar powered diaphragm and helical pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several years, many types of solar powered water pumping systems were evaluated, and in this paper, diaphragm and helical solar photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping systems are discussed. Data were collected on diaphragm and helical pumps which were powered by different solar PV arrays at mul...

  16. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  17. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  18. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  19. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS, A.; RAMOS, F.

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of...

  20. Atmospheric aerosol characteristics retrieved using ground based solar extinction studies at Mohal in the Kullu valley of northwestern Himalayan region, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nand L Sharma; Jagdish C Kuniyal; Mahavir Singh; Pitamber P Dhyani; Raj P Guleria; Harinder K Thakur; Pan S Rawat

    2012-02-01

    Aerosol parameters are measured using a ground-based Multi-wavelength Radiometer (MWR) at Mohal (31.90°N, 77.11°E, 1154 m amsl) in the Kullu valley during clear sky days of a seasonal year. The study shows that the values of spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) at 500 nm and the Ångstrom turbidity coefficient ‘’ (a measure of columnar loading in atmosphere) are high (0.41 ± 0.03, 0.27 ± 0.01) in summer, moderate (0.30 ± 0.03, 0.15 ± 0.03) in monsoon, low (0.19 ± 0.02, 0.08 ± 0.01) in winter and lowest (0.18 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01) in autumn, respectively. The Ångstrom wavelength exponent ‘’ (indicator of the fraction of accumulation-mode particles to coarse-mode particles) has an opposite trend having lowest value (0.64 ± 0.06) in summer, low (0.99 ± 0.10) in monsoon, moderate (1.20 ± 0.15) in winter and highest value (1.52 ± 0.03) in autumn. The annual mean value of AOD at 500 nm, ‘’ and ‘’ are 0.24 ± 0.01, 1.06 ± 0.09 and 0.14 ± 0.01, respectively. The fractional asymmetry factor is more negative in summer due to enhanced tourists’ arrival and also in autumn months due to the monthlong International Kullu Dussehra fair. The AOD values given by MWR and satellite-based moderate resolution imaging spectro-radiometer have good correlation of 0.76, 0.92 and 0.97 on diurnal, monthly and seasonal basis, respectively. The AODs at 500 nm as well as ‘’ are found to be highly correlated, while ‘’ is found to be strongly anti-correlated with temperature and wind speed suggesting high AODs and turbidity but low concentration of fine particles during hot and windy days. With wind direction, the AOD and ‘’ are found to be strongly anti-correlated, while ‘’ is strongly correlated.

  1. Analysis of global and regional CO burdens measured from space between 2000 and 2009 and validated by ground-based solar tracking spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yurganov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variations in AIRS and MOPITT retrieved CO burdens are validated, corrected, and compared with CO emissions from wild fires from the Global Fire Emission Dataset (GFED2 inventory. Validation of daily mean CO total column (TC retrievals from MOPITT version 3 and AIRS version 5 is performed through comparisons with archived TC data from the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS between March 2000 and December 2007. MOPITT V3 retrievals exhibit an increasing temporal bias with a rate of 1.4–1.8% per year; thus far, AIRS retrievals appear to be more stable. For the lowest CO values in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, AIRS TC retrievals overestimate FTS TC by 20%. MOPITT's bias and standard deviation do not depend on CO TC absolute values. Empirical corrections are derived for AIRS and MOPITT retrievals based on the observed annually averaged bias versus the FTS TC. Recently published MOPITT V4 is found to be in a good agreement with MOPITT V3 corrected by us (with exception of 2000–2001 period. With these corrections, CO burdens from AIRS V5 and MOPITT V3 (as well as MOPITT V4 come into good agreement in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (NH and in the tropical belt. In the SH, agreement between AIRS and MOPITT CO burdens is better for the larger CO TC in austral winter and worse in austral summer when CO TC are smaller. Before July 2008, all variations in retrieved CO burden can be explained by changes in fire emissions. After July 2008, global and tropical CO burdens decreased until October before recovering by the beginning of 2009. The NH CO burden also decreased but reached a minimum in January 2009 before starting to recover. The decrease in tropical CO burdens is explained by lower than usual fire emissions in South America and Indonesia. This decrease in tropical emissions also accounts for most of the change in the global CO burden. However, no

  2. Peak-power-point monitor for solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine solar cell panel peak power capability without disrupting power flow from panel. Separate solar cell strings were switched from panel circuits, and increasingly larger loads were added rapidly until peak power points were transversed. String wattage output was recorded and all stored string measurements summed together indicate peak power point in panel.

  3. Retrieval of xCO2 from ground-based mid-infrared (NDACC solar absorption spectra and comparison to TCCON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buschmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High resolution solar absorption spectra, taken within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC in the mid-infrared spectral region are used to infer partial or total column abundances of many gases. In this paper we present the retrieval of a column averaged mole fraction of carbon dioxide from NDACC-IRWG spectra taken with a Fourier-Transform-Infra-Red (FTIR spectrometer at the site in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. The retrieved time series is compared to co-located standard TCCON measurements of total column CO2. Comparing the NDACC and TCCON retrievals we find that the sensitivity of the NDACC retrieval is lower in the troposphere (by a factor of two and higher in the stratosphere, compared to TCCON. Thus, the NDACC retrieval is less sensitive to tropospheric changes (e.g. the seasonal cycle in the column average.

  4. Retrieval of HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra: Atmospheric increase since 1989 and comparison with surface and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Emmanuel; Lejeune, Bernard; Bovy, Benoît; Servais, Christian; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Bernath, Peter F.; Boone, Christopher D.; Walker, Kaley A.; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; O'Doherty, Simon

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an approach for retrieving HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra, using its ν7 band Q branch in the 900-906 cm-1 interval. Interferences by HNO3, CO2 and H2O have to be accounted for. Application of this approach to observations recorded within the framework of long-term monitoring activities carried out at the northern mid-latitude, high-altitude Jungfraujoch station in Switzerland (46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580 m above sea level) has provided a total column times series spanning the 1989 to mid-2015 time period. A fit to the HCFC-142b daily mean total column time series shows a statistically-significant long-term trend of (1.23±0.08×1013 molec cm-2) per year from 2000 to 2010, at the 2-σ confidence level. This corresponds to a significant atmospheric accumulation of (0.94±0.06) ppt (1 ppt=1/1012) per year for the mean tropospheric mixing ratio, at the 2-σ confidence level. Over the subsequent time period (2010-2014), we note a significant slowing down in the HCFC-142b buildup. Our ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) results are compared with relevant data sets derived from surface in situ measurements at the Mace Head and Jungfraujoch sites of the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) network and from occultation measurements by the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on-board the SCISAT satellite.

  5. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  6. Solar powered automobile automation for heatstroke prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navtej Swaroop; Sharma, Ishan; Jangid, Santosh

    2016-03-01

    Heatstroke inside a car has been critical problem in every part of the world. Non-exertional heat stroke results from exposure to a high environmental temperature. Exertional heat stroke happens from strenuous exercise. This paper presents a solution for this fatal problem and proposes an embedded solution, which is cost effective and shows the feasibility in implementation. The proposed system consists of information sharing platform, interfacing of sensors, Global System Mobile (GSM), real time monitoring system and the system is powered by the solar panel. The system has been simulated and tested with experimental setup.

  7. Study of Emergency Power Based on Solar Battery Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lei; Zhu Mengfu; Chen Ping; Deng Cheng; Liu Zhimeng; Wang Yanan

    2016-01-01

    To study an emergency power based on solar battery charging. Based on the electric-generation principle of solar panel, solar energy is changed into electrical energy. Through voltage conversion circuit and filter circuit, electrical energy is stored in the energy storage battery. The emergency power realizes the conversion from solar energy to electrical energy. The battery control unit has the function of PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) charging, overcharging protection, over-discharging prote...

  8. Solar-Tep. Solar thermal power. Final report; Solar-Tep. Solare Thermokraft. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, R.; Weidenkaff, A.

    2006-07-01

    The direct and efficient conversion of concentrated solar radiation into electricity with a high power output requires the development of thermoelectrically active p- and n-type semiconductors with similar material properties which are stable in air at very high temperature. The only suitable materials that fulfil this task are high performance ceramics. We successfully developed and investigated novel perovskite-type transition-metal oxides as potential candidates for thermoelectric devices operating at high temperatures as they can possess large positive as well as large negative thermo-power depending on their composition. The three parameters defining the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT are in most cases interdependent: the thermo-power increases with increasing resistivity. The heat conductivity increases with electrical conductivity. Therefore, an optimum charge carrier concentration and mobility has to be defined, which depends on the substitution level, the spin states of the transition metals, the Ligand field, i.e. the crystallographic structure, the valence states of the cations and ionic deficiencies. The tuning of the thermoelectric properties of the perovskite-type candidates is based on controlled anionic and cationic substitutions. The resulting products are characterised as far as structure and composition are concerned using various methods available at EMPA and at large scale facilities including Xray and Neutron Diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermal analysis, synchrotron-radiation-based techniques (EXAFS, XANES, Diffraction) as well as Raman spectroscopy and tested concerning their thermoelectric activity in the new thermoelectricity lab at EMPA. (author)

  9. Solar/Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting and Wireless Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of existing works and solutions in the field of solar/electromagnetic energy harvesting and wireless power transmission. More specifically, the paper covers: solar/electromagnetic harvesters where solar antenna structures are used to obtain a compact implementation, direct current (dc) combining circuits necessary to combine the outputs of the solar and the electromagnetic harvesters, and efficient solar-to-electromagnetic (EM) converters that can be used to synth...

  10. Optimal concentration and temperatures of solar thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Using simple, finite-time, thermodynamic models of solar thermal power plants, the existence of an optimal solar receiver temperature has previously been demonstrated in literature. Scant attention has been paid, however, to the presence of an optimal level of solar concentration at which the conversion of incident sunlight to electricity (solar-to-electric efficiency) is maximized. This paper addresses that gap. The paper evaluates the impact, on the design of Rankine-cycle solar-trough and ...

  11. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yassine Allani; Klaus Ziegler; Daniel Favrat; Malick Kane

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors) featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS). This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a) the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System)...

  12. High-Performance, Reliable Solar Power for Smallsat Constellations

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Theodore; Walmsley, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Small satellites used in satellite constellations require high-performance, reliable solar power. Even with constellation redundancy, the risk to mission performance of solar panel failure is significant, and so extensive qualification and acceptance testing is normally implemented to assure reliability of customized solar panel designs To minimize these costs and risks, a modular, laminated solar panel design has been developed that combines highefficiency solar cells and space-qualified mat...

  13. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis John M. Rubio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste disposal in thePhilippines. The device used a Gizduino X ATMega 1281 as its main processing module along with a Gizduino 644 microcontroller board, anda GSM Shield module for communication. Arduino1.6 IDE is used to program the Gizduinoboards. The device is powered by a 15V rechargeable battery, which is charged by a solar panel retrofitted at the roof of the device, this is to promote energy conservation, and green engineering principles in the development of the study.The device can process empty plastic bottles (500ml. max with a base diameter of 3.5 inches, and aluminium cans. These recyclable materials are placed inside the machine and is scanned, then crushed and placed in a bin. An inductive sensor is used to detect either the material is a plastic bottle or an aluminium can. To compensate the user for recycling, an equivalent monetary value will be dispensed. The owner of the device can check the status of the coin dispenser and bins through an Android messaging application developed using the Eclipse IDE and the Java programming language, and when a certain limit is reached by the coin dispenser or the trash bins, an automatic text message notification will be sent to the owner.

  14. Rankine engine solar power generation. II - The power generation module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batton, W. D.; Barber, R. E.

    1981-11-01

    The characteristics and performance of a solar flat plate collector powered low temperature power generation module (PGM) funded by NASA are described. The PGM uses a halogen refrigerant as a working fluid, which is pumped from a reservoir to a chamber where it is heated by exchangers filled with an ethylene-glycol fluid which has gained thermal energy from a collector array. The heated refrigerant is allowed to expand through turbine blades and exits through a regenerative heater to condensation into the original well. The PGM was built mainly from off-the-shelf components, except for the turbo-gearbox, which was fabricated specifically for the PGM and attains the design goal of 80% efficiency, producing 13.8 kW at the design point. The components and controls are detailed, including start-up and shutdown, and safety procedures. The testing program is outlined, and 6000 hours of operating experience has resulted in a 7.2% efficiency.

  15. Assessment of solar-powered cooling of buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, H.M.

    1975-04-01

    Three solar-powered cooling concepts are analyzed and evaluated. These are: (1) the solar Rankine concept in which a Rankine cycle driven by solar energy is used to drive a vapor compression refrigeration machine, (2) the solar-assisted Rankine concept in which a Rankine cycle driven by both solar energy and fuel combustion is used to drive a vapor compression refrigeration machine, and (3) the solar absorption concept in which solar energy is used to drive an absorption refrigeration machine. These concepts are compared on the bases of coefficient of performance, requirements for primary fuel input, and economic considerations. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  16. Combined Heat & Power Using the Infinia Concentrated Solar CHP PowerDish System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    FINAL REPORT Combined Heat & Power Using the Infinia Concentrated Solar CHP PowerDish System ESTCP Project EW-201145 AUGUST 2013...Combined Heat & Power Using the Infinia Concentrated Solar CHP PowerDish System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...demonstrated the capabilities of the Infinia PowerDish? CHP technology to generate clean solar thermal and electric energy compatible with domestic and

  17. Study on the statistical characteristics of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Solar power in China has grown rapidly recently. It exists variation of solar power due to cloudy and dusty, which is not that much of wind. The way to evaluate the statistical characteristics of solar power is important to the analysis of power system planning and operation. In this study, a multi-scale spatial and temporal framework of evaluating indices was established to describe the variation of its own natural features and the interaction between solar and load, grids. Finally, we have a case study on the variation, comparison, penetration, etc.

  18. Solar energy perspectives for public power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N. H.

    1979-06-01

    Perspectives on the utilization of solar energy for electricity production and thermal energy utilization by the public are briefly discussed. Wind energy conversion, biomass conversion, solar thermal, OTEC, photovoltaics, and solar heating and cooling are discussed. (WHK)

  19. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banoni Vanessa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated

  20. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated over the lifespan of the farm

  1. How to use solar energy in the home and garden? Instructions and suggestions for easy self-construction of solar-powered systems: garden lighting, fountains, solar accumulators and solar motors; Wie nutze ich Solarenergie in Haus und Garten?. Bauanleitungen und Anregungen zum leichten Selbstbau von Solaranlagen wie z.B. Solar-Gartenbeleuchtung, Solar-Springbrunnen, Solar-Akkumulatoren, Solar-Elektromotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, B.

    1995-08-01

    The book reports on solar energy utilization: - solar energy and photovoltaics, - solar cell modules for self-construction, - self-sufficient solar power supply, - solar-powered pumps and engines, - ventilation and cooling using solar power, - heating using solar power, - garden lighting using solar power. (HW) [Deutsch] Das Buch berichtet ueber die Nutzung von Solarenergie: - Solarenergie und Photovoltaic; - Solarzellenmodule in Selbstbau; - Selbstversorgung mit Solarstrom; - Solar-Pumpen und -Motoren; - Lueften und Kuehlung mit Solarstrom; - Heizen mit Solarstrom; - Gartenbeleuchtung mit Solarstrom. (orig.)

  2. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    uses of electricity and fuels currently covered by fossil fuels. This is a global replacement load of about 9000 gigawatts. Green theorists are divided on this issue. Some claim that ground based solar, wind, and other renewable sources will supply all the energy we need, ignoring economic costs that severely limit their use. Others would (unrealistically) require the developed countries to reduce their energy consumption per capita to a level closer to that of the developing world, thereby admitting the limitations of the "appropriate" systems they espouse. Both sides in the past have rejected as "non-appropriate" and/or "dangerous" all the chemically clean energy sources of high capacity that have been previously proposed, such as safer nuclear fission, fusion power, and space solar power. If ground based "appropriate" energy sources are not sufficient, the economic and social effects of sudden forced curtailments of fossil energy use could be drastic. This paper supports the thesis that Space Solar Power does have the potential to provide such a clean, abundant, and economical energy source. It will cover both the limitations and promise of ground based energy sources, including the difficulties of using intermittent energy sources. It will discuss whether specified levels of energy cost increases would be damaging to the world economy and whether economical ground based sources alone would have sufficient capacity. It will show how the one major problem of launch costs, (currently preventing economical implementation of Space Solar Power), has a number of quite reasonable solutions. Finally, it will consider whether Space Solar Power, along with the other major space goals of Science &Exploration, Mars Colonization, Non- terrestrial Materials Recovery and Space Tourism, could be another space "killer app" which, by creating a high demand for launch services, could force large reductions in launch costs.

  3. Ground-based solar absorption measurements of CH{sub 4}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C2H2 and HCN in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Anna K.; Warneke, Thorsten; Velasco, Voltaire; Notholt, Justus [Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen (Germany); Schrems, Otto [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The composition of the tropical atmosphere and its change is of significant importance for global climate. Currently large uncertainties in the budgets of many trace gases in the tropics exist, mainly due to a lack of measurements in the tropics. We have performed solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed measurements at Paramaribo, Suriname (5.83 N, 55.17 W) during four consecutive dry seasons, starting in autumn 2004. Currently these are the only remote sensing measurements performed in the inner-tropics over a longer time period. In the case of methane these measurements represent the only tropical ground-based remote sensing data of sufficient precision to validate satellite retrievals of CH4. Here we present first results on methane (CH{sub 4}) and trace gases related to biomass burning. Methane retrievals are compared with model simulations, satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY and in situ data. In addition we investigate the pollution from biomass burning using CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN. Backwardtrajectories and global fire maps were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Correlations between the different gases are analysed and compared to literature data.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Gen3 Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wagner, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andraka, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Today's power-tower concentrating solar power (CSP) technology exists in large part as a result of Department of Energy (DOE) and utility industry funding of demonstration systems in the 1980s and 1990s. Today's most advanced towers are integrated with molten-salt thermal energy storage, delivering thermal energy at 565 degrees C for integration with conventional steam-Rankine cycles. The supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle has been identified as a likely successor to the steam-Rankine power cycle due to its potential for high efficiency when operating at elevated temperatures of 700 degrees C or greater. Over the course of the SunShot Initiative, DOE has supported a number of technology pathways that can operate efficiently at these temperatures and that hold promise to be reliable and cost effective. Three pathways - molten salt, particle, and gaseous - were selected for further investigation based on a two-day workshop held in August of 2016. The information contained in this roadmap identifies research and development challenges and lays out recommended research activities for each of the three pathways. DOE foresees that by successfully addressing the challenges identified in this roadmap, one or more technology pathways will be positioned for demonstration and subsequent commercialization within the next ten years. Based on current knowledge of the three power tower technologies, all three have the potential to achieve the SunShot goal of 6 cents/kilowatt-hour. Further development, modeling, and testing are now required to bring one or more of the technologies to a stage where integrated system tests and pilot demonstrations are feasible.

  5. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  6. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  7. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  8. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  9. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Ramos, F.

    2012-09-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  10. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  11. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  12. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  13. Techno-economic Appraisal of Concentrating Solar Power Systems (CSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Gasti, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of Concentrating Solar Power Systems (CSP) systems is currently taking place at a much slower pace than photovoltaic (PV) power systems. This is mainly because of the higher present cost of the solar thermal power plants, but also for the time that is needed in order to build them. Though economic attractiveness of different Concentrating technologies varies, still PV power dominates the market. The price of CSP is expected to drop significantly in the near future and wide sprea...

  14. Combined Heat & Power Using the Infinia Concentrated Solar - CHP PowerDish System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    installed cost as the PowerDish CHP system). The solar thermal system selected and installed will be a low or medium-temperature collector system...implementing the PowerDish CHP. ...................................... 29 Table 8. Important costs for implementing the PowerDish CHP versus PV- solar thermal ...capabilities of the Infinia PowerDish CHP technology to generate clean solar electricity as well as thermal energy for domestic hot water and space

  15. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  16. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  17. Description of an Immersed Photovoltaic Concentrating Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Falbel, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    Recent advancements in photovoltaic solar cells made from Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) have shown that with concentration ratios greater than one solar constant, overall efficiencies up to 23% can be achieved. A second issue applicable to solar power systems for spacecraft is the cost driver, which requires that the efficiency/weight ratio be improved so that solar panels with high output, weighing less, will reduce payload weights, which, in turn, reduces launch costs. This has resulted in a "Fig...

  18. The research and development of the automatic solar power tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a kind of automatic tracker using solar power. It depends on two important parts which are servo system and adjusting mechanism system to keep the tracker operating normally. The article focuses on describing the characteristics and functions of two systems and the operating details of the automatic solar power tracker.

  19. Control Electronics for Solar/Flywheel Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit automatically directs flow of electrical energy to and from motor with flywheel that constitutes storage element of solar-power system. When insolation is sufficient for charging, power is supplied by solar-cell array to load and motor. During periods of darkness, motor made to act as generator, drawing kinetic energy from flywheel and supplying it to load.

  20. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  1. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  2. A learning curve for solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaics started its success story by predicting the cost degression depending on cumulated installed capacity. This so-called learning curve was published and used for predictions for PV modules first, then predictions of system cost decrease also were developed. This approach is less sensitive to political decisions and changing market situations than predictions on the time axis. Cost degression due to innovation, use of scaling effects, improved project management, standardised procedures including the search for better sites and optimization of project size are learning effects which can only be utilised when projects are developed. Therefore a presentation of CAPEX versus cumulated installed capacity is proposed in order to show the possible future advancement of the technology to politics and market. However from a wide range of publications on cost for CSP it is difficult to derive a learning curve. A logical cost structure for direct and indirect capital expenditure is needed as the basis for further analysis. Using derived reference cost for typical power plant configurations predictions of future cost have been derived. Only on the basis of that cost structure and the learning curve levelised cost of electricity for solar thermal power plants should be calculated for individual projects with different capacity factors in various locations.

  3. Supervisor Circuit Decides When Solar Array Can Power A Load

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sun powered electronic devices may suffer in twilight conditions. In particular microprocessors (widely used to perform solar power conditioning, such MPPTs) do not like unstable power or smooth edges on power on. The proposed circuit offers some nice supervision performance at the price of 3 transistors.

  4. Future Performance of Ground-Based and Airborne Water-Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar. II. Simulations of the Precision of a Near-Infrared, High-Power System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V; Walther, C

    2001-10-20

    Taking into account Poisson, background, amplifier, and speckle noise, we can simulate the precision of water-vapor measurements by using a 10-W average-power differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system. This system is currently under development at Hohenheim University, Germany, and at the American National Center for Atmospheric Research. For operation in the 940-nm region, a large set of measurement situations is described, including configurations that are considered for the first time to the authors' knowledge. They include ultrahigh-resolution measurements in the surface layer (resolutions, 1.5 m and 0.1 s) and vertically pointing measurements (resolutions, 30 m and 1 s) from the ground to 2 km in the atmospheric boundary layer. Even during daytime, the DIAL system will have a measurement range from the ground to the upper troposphere (300 m, 10 min) that can be extended from a mountain site to the lower stratosphere. From the ground, for the first time of which the authors are aware, three-dimensional fields of water vapor in the boundary layer can be investigated within a range of the order of 15 km and with an averaging time of 10 min. From an aircraft, measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer (60 m, 1 s) can be performed from a height of 4 km to the ground. At higher altitudes, up to 18 km, water-vapor profiles can still be obtained from aircraft height level to the ground. When it is being flown either in the free troposphere or in the stratosphere, the system will measure horizontal water-vapor profiles up to 12 km. We are not aware of another remote-sensing technique that provides, simultaneously, such high resolution and accuracy.

  5. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  6. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  7. Improving the efficiency of solar photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Henry A.

    As the local and national clamor for foreign energy independent United States continues to grow unabated; renewable energy has been receiving increased focus and it's widely believed that it's not only the answer to ever increasing demand for energy in this country, but also the environmentally friendly means of meeting such demand. During the spring of 2010, I was involved with a 5KW solar power system design project; the project involved designing and building solar panels and associated accessories like the solar array mounts and Solar Inverter system. One of the key issues we ran into during the initial stage of the project was how to select efficient solar cells for panel building at a reasonable cost. While we were able to purchase good solar cells within our allocated budget, the issue of design for efficiency was not fully understood , not just in the contest of solar cells performance , but also in the overall system efficiency of the whole solar power system, hence the door was opened for this thesis. My thesis explored and expanded beyond the scope of the aforementioned project to research different avenues for improving the efficiency of solar photo-voltaic power system from the solar cell level to the solar array mounting, array tracking and DC-AC inversion system techniques.

  8. Model Predictive Load Scheduling Using Solar Power Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Abdulelah H.; Kleissl, Jan; de Callafon, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a model is developed to solve the on/off scheduling of (non-linear) dynamic electric loads based on predictions of the power delivery of a (standalone) solar power source. Knowledge of variations in the solar power output is used to optimally select the timing and the combinations of a set of given electric loads, where each load has a desired dynamic power profile. The optimization exploits the desired power profiles of the electric loads in terms of dynamic power ramp up/down ...

  9. Studying the factors affecting solar power generation systems performance ( SPGSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal A Al-Tabtabaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a huge, clean and renewable source of energy. It is also available everywhere on the earth. However, there are many technical and economic difficulties need to be solved so that solar energy becomes a strong competition against the traditional energy sources. Energy from the sun can be used successfully in electric power generation systems. Depending on the climate conditions and the use of a properly designed, installing and maintained system can meet a large demand in this request. Work plane for this research will include many steps, the first step will include an introduction to solar energy. The second step will be a short review of the solar energy availability, geometry, fields of applications and the largest commercial application of solar energy is the solar thermal power generation. In addition, the most common types of solar thermal power plants, the solar field, heat transfer fluid and the power conversion system types will be explained in detail. The third step, a simple analysis for the solar thermal power plant will be explained in order to predict the optimum conditions leading to maximum performance. Discussions of results will be the fourth step. The last step a conclusion and recommendation for future work will also be included.

  10. The Evaluation of Solar Contribution in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize various types of solar thermal energy for coupling coal-fired power plants by using the characteristics of various thermal needs of the plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will be unnecessary while the intermittent and unsteady way of power generation will be avoided. Moreover, the large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and the energy-saving aim of power plants will be realized. The contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power needs to be explored. This paper deals with the evaluation method of solar contribution based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of thermoeconomics with a case of 600 MW solar aided coal-fired power plant. In this study, the feasibility of the method has been carried out. The contribution of this paper is not only to determine the proportion of solar energy in overall electric power, but also to assign the individual cost components involving solar energy. Therefore, this study will supply the theoretical reference for the future research of evaluation methods and new energy resource subsidy.

  11. The Future of Solar Power in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Reid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used detailed industry data to analyse the impacts of expected further cost reductions on the competitiveness of solar power in Britain, and assess whether the solar market can survive without support in the near future. We investigated three solar power markets: large-scale, ground-mounted “solar farms” (defined in our analysis as larger than a 5000 kilowatt system; commercial roof-top (250 kW; and residential rooftop (3 kW. We found that all three would be economic without support in the next decade. Such an outcome assumes progressively falling support under a stable policy regime. We found that unsubsidised residential solar power may be cheaper with battery storage within the next five to 10 years. Unsupported domestic solar battery packs achieve payback periods of less than 10 years by 2025. That could create an inflexion point driving adoption of domestic solar systems. The variability of solar power will involve some grid integration costs at higher penetration levels, such as more frequent power market scheduling; more interconnector capacity; storage; and backup power. These costs and responses could be weighed against non-market benefits including the potential for grid balancing; lower carbon and particulate emissions; and energy security.

  12. The laser calibration system for the STACEE ground-based gamma ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the laser system used for calibration monitoring of components of the STACEE detector. STACEE is a ground based gamma ray detector which uses the heliostats of a solar power facility to collect and focus Cherenkov light onto a system of secondary optics and photomultiplier tubes. To monitor the gain and check the linearity and timing properties of the phototubes and associated electronics, a system based on a dye laser, neutral density filters and optical fibres has been developed. In this paper we describe the system and present some results from initial tests made with it.

  13. Ground-based and spaceborn observations of the type II burst with developed fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorovskyy, V.; Melnik, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Rucker, H.; Stanislavskyy, A.; Panchenko, M.

    2012-09-01

    The combination of two huge ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2 and URAN-2) operated in decameter wavelengths with three spatially separated spacecrafts (SOHO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B) equipped with white light coronagraphs, UV telescopes and decameter-hectometer band radio telescopes created a unique opportunity to investigate the high energy solar transients, such as CMEs and their manifestations in radio bands - type II bursts. In this paper we made detailed analysis of the powerful and complex event occurred on 7 June 2011 consisted of Halo-CME and type II burst with rich fine structure.

  14. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  15. Using Power Purchase Agreements for Solar Deployment at Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny; O' Shaughnessy, Eric

    2016-02-24

    More than 60 universities have used solar power purchase agreements (PPAs) to deploy more than 100 megawatts of solar PV on campuses around the country. This webinar is intended for university financial planners and other stakeholders who are assessing the financial aspects of deploying solar. The speakers will provide an overview of how universities are using PPAs and key PPA components. In addition, they will discuss the process of using PPAs, why PPAs make sense for campus solar deployment, and the benefits and challenges for universities. Tools and other resources will be shared to help universities interested in using PPAs for campus solar deployment.

  16. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  17. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  18. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  19. Methods and systems for concentrated solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen

    2016-05-24

    Embodiments described herein relate to a method of producing energy from concentrated solar flux. The method includes dropping granular solid particles through a solar flux receiver configured to transfer energy from concentrated solar flux incident on the solar flux receiver to the granular solid particles as heat. The method also includes fluidizing the granular solid particles from the solar flux receiver to produce a gas-solid fluid. The gas-solid fluid is passed through a heat exchanger to transfer heat from the solid particles in the gas-solid fluid to a working fluid. The granular solid particles are extracted from the gas-solid fluid such that the granular solid particles can be dropped through the solar flux receiver again.

  20. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, M. Keith [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Barnett, Russell [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  1. The economics of solar powered absorption cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Analytic procedure evaluates cost of combining absorption-cycle chiller with solar-energy system in residential or commercial application. Procedure assumes that solar-energy system already exists to heat building and that cooling system must be added. Decision is whether to cool building with conventional vapor-compression-cycle chiller or to use solar-energy system to provide heat input to absorption chiller.

  2. Spectroscopic Parameters for Ozone and its Isotopes: Current Status, Prospects for Improvement, and the Identification of 16O16O17O and O-16O-16O-17 and O-16O-17O-16 Lines in Infrared Ground-Based and Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Flaud, J.-M.; Goldman, A.; Perrin, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Smith, M. A. H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. C.; Barbe, A.; Stephens, T. M.; hide

    1998-01-01

    We describe the updates to the spectroscopic parameters of ozone and its isotopes in the 1996 HITRAN compilation. Recent published studies not included in HITRAN are also summarized. Finally, we report the identification of infrared lines of the v(sub 3) bands of O-16O-16O-17 and O-16O-17O-16 in high-resolution solar spectra recorded by stratospheric balloon-borne and ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers.

  3. Solar Power Constellations Implications for the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Ralph Nansen, who worked on the first government sponsored solar power satellite studies, and is the author of Sun Power : The Global Solution for the...Ad Astra (Jan/Feb 1998). 36. 7 Nansen, Ralph. Sun Power : The Global Solution for the Coming Energy Crisis. (Canada: Ocean Press, 1995) 206. 8...Lasers that Beam Power to Earth.” Aerospace America (July 1999): 50. 18 Nansen, Ralph. Sun Power : The Global Solution for the Coming Energy Crisis

  4. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H. F.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Forecasting solar energy generation is a challenging task due to the variety of solar power systems and weather regimes encountered. Forecast inaccuracies can result in substantial economic losses and power system reliability issues. This paper presents a suite of generally applicable and value-based metrics for solar forecasting for a comprehensive set of scenarios (i.e., different time horizons, geographic locations, applications, etc.). In addition, a comprehensive framework is developed to analyze the sensitivity of the proposed metrics to three types of solar forecasting improvements using a design of experiments methodology, in conjunction with response surface and sensitivity analysis methods. The results show that the developed metrics can efficiently evaluate the quality of solar forecasts, and assess the economic and reliability impact of improved solar forecasting.

  5. Overheat Prevention in Solar-Powered Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigus, W. E.; Pons, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed controller for solar-powered Stirling engine prevents engine from burning up when energy added by Sun exceeds that withdrawn by load. Head-temperature controller used existing electrical control unit of Stirling engine to regulate power output in response to head temperature. Power out-put is varied so keeps head temperature fairly constant.

  6. INDITEP: The first pre-commercial DSG solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarza, Eduardo; Rojas, M' a Esther; Gonzalez, Lourdes [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Apartado P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Caballero, Jose M' a [INITEC Energia, Principe de Vergara 120, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Rueda, Fernando [Iberdrola Ingenieria consultoria, Avda. de Burgos, 8B, Edif. Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents the conceptual design of the first solar power plant using Direct Steam Generation (DSG) in a parabolic-trough solar field. Experience and know-how in the DSG process acquired during the DISS project were applied in designing the solar field of this plant. The 5-MWe plant is composed of a DSG parabolic-trough solar field connected to a superheated steam Rankine power cycle. The solar field produces 410{sup o}C/70-bar superheated steam. Detail engineering of this plant is currently underway within the framework of the INDITEP project, which is promoted by a German-Spanish consortium with the financial support of the European Commission (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2001-00540). The main design objective is to assure high operational flexibility and reliability. This is the reason why a robust superheated steam turbine has been selected, though the efficiency of its power block is modest. (author)

  7. Integrated Solar-Thermal Power Plants: TPP Bitola Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso; Stefanov, Goce; Sarac, Vasilija

    2016-01-01

    The potentials for usage of the solar energy as a renewable energy source, whether by its conversion only into heat, indirect conversion into electricity using a prior generated thermal energy, or direct conversion of solar energy into electric energy using the photoelectric effect, are enormous. This paper presents a study for the development of an integrated solar-thermal power plant (ISTPP) for repowering the existing goal-fired TPP Bitola. In the proposed plant, firstly sol...

  8. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  9. Solar power from Tyrol; Sonne aus Tirol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, J.

    2007-04-03

    A new name, a new production line and many new staff members: Under the new name of Tisun, Tyrol-based producer of solar collectors Teufel and Schwarz intends to become a top producer in the European solar industry. The new central administrative building was commissioned on 16 March 2007. (orig.)

  10. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  11. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cell

  12. Detecting photovoltaic solar panels using hyperspectral imagery and estimating solar power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirjak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing platforms have consistently demonstrated the ability to detect, and in some cases identify, specific targets of interest, and photovoltaic solar panels are shown to have a unique spectral signature that is consistent across multiple manufacturers and construction methods. Solar panels are proven to be detectable in hyperspectral imagery using common statistical target detection methods such as the adaptive cosine estimator, and false alarms can be mitigated through the use of a spectral verification process that eliminates pixels that do not have the key spectral features of photovoltaic solar panel reflectance spectrum. The normalized solar panel index is described and is a key component in the false-alarm mitigation process. After spectral verification, these solar panel arrays are confirmed on openly available literal imagery and can be measured using numerous open-source algorithms and tools. The measurements allow for the assessment of overall solar power generation capacity using an equation that accounts for solar insolation, the area of solar panels, and the efficiency of the solar panels conversion of solar energy to power. Using a known location with readily available information, the methods outlined in this paper estimate the power generation capabilities within 6% of the rated power.

  13. Study of Emergency Power Based on Solar Battery Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study an emergency power based on solar battery charging. Based on the electric-generation principle of solar panel, solar energy is changed into electrical energy. Through voltage conversion circuit and filter circuit, electrical energy is stored in the energy storage battery. The emergency power realizes the conversion from solar energy to electrical energy. The battery control unit has the function of PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation charging, overcharging protection, over-discharging protection and over-current protection. It also realizes the fast and safe charging of energy storage battery. The emergency power could provide both 12V AC power for emergency equipment such as miniature PSA oxygen concentrator and 5V USB for electronic equipment (mobile phone, GPS device, rechargeable light, etc..

  14. Availability modeling methodology applied to solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unione, A.; Burns, E.; Husseiny, A.

    1981-01-01

    Availability is discussed as a measure for estimating the expected performance for solar- and wind-powered generation systems and for identifying causes of performance loss. Applicable analysis techniques, ranging from simple system models to probabilistic fault tree analysis, are reviewed. A methodology incorporating typical availability models is developed for estimating reliable plant capacity. Examples illustrating the impact of design and configurational differences on the expected capacity of a solar-thermal power plant with a fossil-fired backup unit are given.

  15. Cleaning Robot for Solar Panels in Solar Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Lu-Bin; Shen, Cheng-Wei; Bian, Huai-Qiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-01

    The dust particles on solar panel surface have been a serious problem for the photovoltaic industry, a new monorail-tracked robot used for automatic cleaning of solar panel is presented in this paper. To meet the requirement of comprehensive and stable cleaning of PV array, the monorail-tracked pattern of robot is introduced based on the monorail structure technique. The running and striding mechanism are designed for mobility of robot on the solar panels. According to the carrying capacity and water circulation mechanism, a type of self-cleaning device with filtering system is developed. Combined with the computer software and communications technology, the control system is built in this robot, which can realize the functions of autonomous operation, positioning and monitoring. The application of this developed cleaning robot can actualize the Industrialization of automatic cleaning for PV components and have wide market prospect.

  16. Solar Power and Solar Fuels Synthesis Report. Technology, market and research activities 2006-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt; Nilsson, Ronny; Rehnlund, Bjoern [Grontmij, Stockholm (Sweden); Kasemo, Bengt [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the synthesis is to survey the situation and give an accumulated and concentrated knowledge about status, needs and opportunities for Swedish research and Swedish industry within the area of solar power and solar fuels, to be used for prioritisation of further efforts. The synthesis shall identify strengths and weaknesses in areas fundamental for development of solar power and solar fuels, focused on the development in Sweden, but in an international context. The synthesis shall also cover proposals for future Swedish research efforts and organisation of future Swedish research programs.

  17. Designing High Efficient Solar Powered OLED Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2016-01-01

    for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed.......OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. This paper reports the development of electronic Three-Port-Converters for PV OLED product integration in the low-power area respectively for 1-10 Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power...

  18. Designing High Efficient Solar Powered OLED Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2016-01-01

    OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. This paper reports the development of electronic Three-Port-Converters for PV OLED product integration in the low-power area respectively for 1-10 Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power...... for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed....

  19. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  20. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandar Oo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart is also provided.

  1. Concentrated solar power in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenon, Alaric C.; Fylaktos, Nestor; Montagnino, Fabio; Paredes, Filippo; Papanicolas, Costas N.

    2017-06-01

    Solar concentration systems are usually deployed in large open spaces for electricity generation; they are rarely used to address the pressing energy needs of the built environment sector. Fresnel technology offers interesting and challenging CSP energy pathways suitable for the built environment, due to its relatively light weight (project, part of the STS-MED program (Small Scale Thermal Solar District Units for Mediterranean Communities) financed by the European Commission under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), CBCMED program.

  2. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, J.; Lettl, J.

    2011-01-01

    The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system...

  3. Bidirectional control system for energy flow in solar powered flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An energy storage system for a spacecraft is provided which employs a solar powered flywheel arrangement including a motor/generator which, in different operating modes, drives the flywheel and is driven thereby. A control circuit, including a threshold comparator, senses the output of a solar energy converter, and when a threshold voltage is exceeded thereby indicating the availability of solar power for the spacecraft loads, activates a speed control loop including the motor/generator so as to accelerate the flywheel to a constant speed and thereby store mechanical energy, while also supplying energy from the solar converter to the loads. Under circumstances where solar energy is not available and thus the threshold voltage is not exceeded, the control circuit deactivates the speed control loop and activates a voltage control loop that provides for operation of the motor as a generator so that mechanical energy from the flywheel is converted into electrical energy for supply to the spacecraft loads.

  4. Design approach for solar cell and battery of a persistent solar powered GPS tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Nasim; Watson, Sterling M.; Pennes, Anthony; Marius Peters, Ian; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2017-08-01

    Sensors with wireless communication can be powered by photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, using solar power requires thoughtful design of the power system, as well as a careful management of the power consumption, especially for devices with cellular communication (because of their higher power consumption). A design approach can minimize system size, weight, and/or cost, while maximizing device performance (data transmission rate and persistence). In this contribution, we describe our design approach for a small form-factor, solar-powered GPS tracker with cellular communication. We evaluate the power consumption of the device in different stages of operation. Combining measured power consumption and the calculated energy-yield of a solar cell, we estimate the battery capacity and solar cell area required for 5 years of continuous operation. We evaluate trade-offs between PV and battery size by simulating the battery state of charge. The data show a trade-off between battery capacity and solar-cell area for given target data transmission rate and persistence. We use this analysis to determine the combination of solar panel area and battery capacity for a given application and the data transmission rate that results in minimum cost or total weight of the system.

  5. A new method to detect long term trends of methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O total columns measured within the NDACC ground-based high resolution solar FTIR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Total columns measured with the ground-based solar FTIR technique are highly variable in time due to atmospheric chemistry and dynamics in the atmosphere above the measurement station. In this paper, a multiple regression model with anomalies of air pressure, total columns of hydrogen fluoride (HF and carbon monoxide (CO and tropopause height are used to reduce the variability in the methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O total columns to estimate reliable linear trends with as small uncertainties as possible. The method is developed at the Harestua station (60° N, 11° E, 600 m a.s.l. and used on three other European FTIR stations, i.e. Jungfraujoch (47° N, 8° E, 3600 m a.s.l., Zugspitze (47° N, 11° E, 3000 m a.s.l., and Kiruna (68° N, 20° E, 400 m a.s.l.. Linear CH4 trends between 0.13 ± 0.01-0.25 ± 0.02 % yr−1 were estimated for all stations in the 1996-2009 period. A piecewise model with three separate linear trends, connected at change points, was used to estimate the short term fluctuations in the CH4 total columns. This model shows a growth in 1996–1999 followed by a period of steady state until 2007. From 2007 until 2009 the atmospheric CH4 amount increases between 0.57 ± 0.22–1.15 ± 0.17 % yr−1. Linear N2O trends between 0.19 ± 0.01–0.40 ± 0.02 % yr−1 were estimated for all stations in the 1996-2007 period, here with the strongest trend at Harestua and Kiruna and the lowest at the Alp stations. From the N2O total columns crude tropospheric and stratospheric partial columns were derived, indicating that the observed difference in the N2O trends between the FTIR sites is of stratospheric origin. This agrees well with the N2O measurements by the SMR instrument onboard the Odin satellite showing the highest trends at Harestua, 0.98 ± 0.28 % yr−1, and considerably smaller trends at lower latitudes, 0.27 ± 0.25 % yr−1. The multiple regression model was compared with two other trend methods, the ordinary linear

  6. Mini Solar and Sea Current Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenhali, Abdulrahman; Alshamsi, Hatem; Aljunaibi, Yaser; Almussabi, Dheyab; Alshehhi, Ahmed; Hilal, Hassan Bu

    2017-07-01

    The power demand in United Arab Emirates is increased so that there is a consistent power cut in our region. This is because of high power consumption by factories and also due to less availability of conventional energy resources. Electricity is most needed facility for the human being. All the conventional energy resources are depleting day by day. So we have to shift from conventional to non-conventional energy resources. In this the combination of two energy resources is takes place i.e. wind and solar energy. This process reviles the sustainable energy resources without damaging the nature. We can give uninterrupted power by using hybrid energy system. Basically this system involves the integration of two energy system that will give continuous power. Solar panels are used for converting solar energy and wind turbines are used for converting wind energy into electricity. This electrical power can utilize for various purpose. Generation of electricity will be takes place at affordable cost. This paper deals with the generation of electricity by using two sources combine which leads to generate electricity with affordable cost without damaging the nature balance. The purpose of this project was to design a portable and low cost power system that combines both sea current electric turbine and solar electric technologies. This system will be designed in efforts to develop a power solution for remote locations or use it as another source of green power.

  7. A gravity gradient stabilized solar power satellite design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a solar power satellite (SPS) is reviewed, and a design proposed for such a satellite taking advantage of solar radiation pressure and gravity gradient forces to eliminate much of the structure from the baseline configuration. The SPS design consists of a solar cell array lying in the orbital plane and a free floating mirror above to reflect sunlight down onto it. The structural modes of the solar cell array are analyzed and found to be well within control limitations. Preliminary calculations concerning the free floating mirror and its position-keeping propellant requirements are also performed. A numerical example is presented, which shows that, even in terms of mass only, this configuration is a competitive design when compared to the conventional Department of Energy reference design. Other advantages, such as easier assembly in orbit, lower position-keeping propellant requirements, possibilities for decreasing necessary solar cell area, and longer solar cell life, may make this design superior.

  8. A Remote Power Management Strategy for the Solar Energy Powered Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsing Chao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar energy powered bicycle by a wireless sensor network (WSN far-end network monitoring solar energy to transfer the electrical energy storage and the effectiveness analysis is proposed. In order to achieve this goal, an embarked ZigBee by a solar-powered bicycle the far-end wireless network supervisory system is setup. Experimental results prove that our prototype, the solar energy powered bicycle, can manage the solar energy for charging two Lead-Acid batteries pack. As a result, the user by the wireless network in parking period knows the data on the amount of immediate solar radiation, the degree of illumination, the ambient temperature, and electrical energy storage capacity information by the internet interface.

  9. Joint Solar Power Industry and Department of Energy Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Steve; Myers, Daryl

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has embarked on a collaborative effort with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of concentrating solar thermal power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result will be high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  10. Satellite Type Estination from Ground-based Photometric Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, T.; Ono, H.; Suzuki, J.; Ando, T.; Takanezawa, T.

    2016-09-01

    The optical photometric observation is potentially a powerful tool for understanding of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) objects. At first, we measured in laboratory the surface reflectance of common satellite materials, for example, Multi-layer Insulation (MLI), mono-crystalline silicon cells, and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP). Next, we calculated visual magnitude of a satellite by simplified shape and albedo. In this calculation model, solar panels have dimensions of 2 by 8 meters, and the bus area is 2 meters squared with measured optical properties described above. Under these conditions, it clarified the brightness can change the range between 3 and 4 magnitudes in one night, but color index changes only from 1 to 2 magnitudes. Finally, we observed the color photometric data of several GEO satellites visible from Japan multiple times in August and September 2014. We obtained that light curves of GEO satellites recorded in the B and V bands (using Johnson filters) by a ground-base optical telescope. As a result, color index changed approximately from 0.5 to 1 magnitude in one night, and the order of magnitude was not changed in all cases. In this paper, we briefly discuss about satellite type estimation using the relation between brightness and color index obtained from the photometric observation.

  11. Energy comparison between solar thermal power plant and photovoltaic power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Urška; Avsec, Jurij

    2017-07-01

    The combined use of renewable energy and alternative energy systems and better efficiency of energy devices is a promising approach to reduce effects due to global warming in the world. On the basis of first and second law of thermodynamics we could optimize the processes in the energy sector. The presented paper shows the comparison between solar thermal power plant and photovoltaic power plant in terms of energy, exergy and life cycle analysis. Solar thermal power plant produces electricity with basic Rankine cycle, using solar tower and solar mirrors to produce high fluid temperature. Heat from the solar system is transferred by using a heat exchanger to Rankine cycle. Both power plants produce hydrogen via electrolysis. The paper shows the global efficiency of the system, regarding production of the energy system.

  12. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  13. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    OpenAIRE

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    This thesis reviews the work that was done before my time as a graduate student so that one may understand the solar thermal technology and specific design, and why a double effect absorption chiller was chosen as the ideal application; and how we designed, built and tested the first ever non-tracking solar powered double effect absorption chiller.

  14. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Anvari, M; Wächter, M; Milan, P; Lorenz, E; Heinemann, D; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of {\\it seconds} and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-li...

  15. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyolar, Bennett K.

    A solar thermal cooling system using novel non-tracking External Compound Parabolic Concentrators (XCPC) has been built at the University of California, Merced and operated for two cooling seasons. Its performance in providing power for space cooling has been analyzed. This solar cooling system is comprised of 53.3 m2 of XCPC trough collectors which are used to power a 23 kW double effect (LiBr) absorption chiller. This is the first system that combines both XCPC and absorption chilling technologies. Performance of the system was measured in both sunny and cloudy conditions, with both clean and dirty collectors. It was found that these collectors are well suited at providing thermal power to drive absorption cooling systems and that both the coinciding of available thermal power with cooling demand and the simplicity of the XCPC collectors compared to other solar thermal collectors makes them a highly attractive candidate for cooling projects.

  16. Design and development of a solar powered mobile laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L.; Simon, A.; Barrera, H.; Acharya, V.; Repke, W.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a solar powered mobile laboratory (SPML) system. The SPML provides a mobile platform that schools, universities, and communities can use to give students and staff access to laboratory environments where dedicated laboratories are not available. The lab includes equipment like 3D printers, computers, and soldering stations. The primary power source of the system is solar PV which allows the laboratory to be operated in places where the grid power is not readily available or not sufficient to power all the equipment. The main system components include PV panels, junction box, battery, charge controller, and inverter. Not only is it used to teach students and staff how to use the lab equipment, but it is also a great tool to educate the public about solar PV technologies.

  17. Solar radiation pumped solid state of lasers for Solar Power Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ruiyi [New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The Laser Solar Power Satellites (L-SPS) is the most promising way to overcome global energy and environmental and economical problems. The purpose was to use the favorable combination of solar radiation, modern lasers and the extremely promising phenomenon Optical Phase Conjugation (OPC). Direct conversion of solar energy to energy of a high-power laser beam has the advantage of high efficiency and precise energy transportation. In this paper, direct solar radiation pumping of the laser is compared with the pumping using the intermediate stage of the conversion of the solar radiation in electrical energy. Possible solid-state lasers that can be used in L-SPS are also discussed (including optical system and cooling system). [Spanish] Los Satelites de Energia Solar Laser (L-SPS) son la forma mas prometedora para contrarrestar los problemas globales de energia, ambientales y problemas economicos. El proposito fue el de usar la combinacion favorable de radiacion solar, laseres modernos y el fenomeno extremadamente prometedor de conjugacion de fase optica (OPC). La conversion directa de energia solar a energia de un rayo laser de alta potencia tiene la ventaja de la alta eficiencia y precision de la transportacion de la energia. En este documento la radiacion solar directa impulsada por el laser se compara con la impulsion usando el estado intermedio de conversion de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Tambien se analizan los posibles laseres de estado solido que pueden usarse en L-SPS (incluyendo el sistema optico y el sistema de enfriamiento).

  18. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  19. Direct steam generation (DSG) solar thermal power plant in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukchai, Sukruedee; Chramsa-ard, Wisut; Sonsaree, Sorawit; Boonsu, Rungrudee [Naresuan Univ., Phitsanulok (Thailand). School of Renewable Energy Technology; Krueger, Joachim; Pandian, Yuvaraj [Solarlite GmbH, Duckwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the total electricity consumption in Thailand was 149,301 GWh, increased by 10.5% compared with that in the previous year. The economic sector accounting for the highest share of national electricity consumption was the industrial sector, holding a share of 46%; while the household and commercial sectors accounted for a share of 22% and 15% respectively. The electricity is generated from natural gas, coal, oil, hydro, import and other of 72%, 18%, 0.4%, 3%, 4%, and 2% respectively. In the past, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) was the sole power producer. Later, the government had formulated a policy promoting the private sector role in the power generation sector in order to encourage competition in the generation business. Currently, it is resulting in a growing number of Very Small Power Producers (VSPP), using renewable energy as main fuel, supplying power to the grid. In this presentation, general background and situation of solar thermal power plant (DSG) in Thailand will be presented. The resource potential which presented by solar map for the central, north and northeast parts of the country is quite clear sky that receive the highest direct normal irradiation of 1,350 - 1,400 kWh/m{sup 2}-year stand for 43% of the total areas of the country. Together with the high direct normal irradiation is received during summer from January to April about 14-17 MJ/m{sup 2}-day. The first of solar thermal power plant in Thailand is presented. Solar energy development that is one of renewable energy promotion program in the nation master plan has been reviewed and discussed to indicate the recommendation. Barriers as educational, technical and financial to promote solar thermal power plant is also presented. From the investigation, this presentation proposes some idea to be the guideline for policy setting, overcome the solar thermal power plant barrier in Thailand. (orig.)

  20. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  1. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  2. Fresnel-collectors in hybrid solar thermal power plants with high solar shares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerchenmueller, H.; Mertins, M.; Morin, G. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Solar Info Center, Freiburg (Germany); Bockamp, S.; Ewert, M.; Fruth, M.; Griestop, T. [E.ON Energie AG, Muenchen (Germany); Dersch, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The use of Fresnel-Collectors in power plant configurations with low or zero CO2-emission has been analysed in this paper. Both, the solar-biomass hybrid plant and the solar-gas hybrid plant are very promising concepts with respect to technical, economical and ecological aspects. The hybrid operation would be very useful to handle the fluctuating solar resource and facilitate operation. Depending on feed in tariffs the hybridisation of a solar thermal power plant with biomass or with small shares of natural gas can be economically very interesting. The ecological advantage of a solar-biomass power plant is evident, since it would be a zero CO2- emission plant. Beyond that biomass is a limited source, especially in regions with high solar irradiance. The herein examined gas hybrid variants are by far more favourable than Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems (ISCCS), which have been previously examined. Since much higher solar shares can be reached this is a forward-looking technology. Furthermore the solar field does not act as a disturbing factor as opposed to the ISCCS concept, where the efficiency of the sophisticated CC system is reduced due to suboptimal dimensioning of components. In other words: It is better to build the suggested hybrid plant with low gas share and CC plants instead of ISCCS plants. The resulting solar levelised electricity costs of both options are approximately the same. The calculated levelised electricity costs for the examined configurations of between 11 and 13 ct/kWh are very promising results. The calculations were made based on cost assumptions for the collector of 130 Euro/m{sup 2} which seems realistic not for the first project but for the third plant. As a next step in the commercialisation of the Fresnel-technology demonstration and test collectors must be built, such as by the Australian company Solar Heat and Power, to validate the technical and economic assumptions. (orig.)

  3. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  4. On the form of the power equation for modeling solar chimney power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Nima; Vorobieff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. The importance of these analyses is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation for solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). We examine the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specifically the power equation in this model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions. The analytical resutls are compared against the available experimental data from the Manzanares power plant.

  5. Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and ...

  6. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Allani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS. This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System that integrates the parabolic trough into a fossil fired combined cycle, which allows a larger exergy potential of the fuel to be converted. b the HSTS (Hybrid Solar Tower System which uses high concentration optics (via a power tower generator and high temperature air receivers to drive the combined cycle power plant. In the latter case, solar energy is used at a higher exergy level as a heat source of the topping cycle. This paper presents the results of a thermoeconomic investigation of an ISCCS envisaged in Tunisia. The study is realized in two phases. In the first phase, a mixed approach, based on pinch technology principles coupled with a mathematical optimization algorithm, is used to minimize the heat transfer exergy losses in the steam generators, respecting the off design operating conditions of the steam turbine (cone law. In the second phase, an economic analysis based on the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC approach was carried out for the configurations, which provided the best concepts during the first phase. A comparison of ISCCS with pure fossil fueled plants (CC+GT is reported for the same electrical power load. A sensitivity analysis based on the relative size of the solar field is presented.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000

  7. Studying the factors affecting solar power generation systems performance ( SPGSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal A Al-Tabtabaei

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy is a huge, clean and renewable source of energy. It is also available everywhere on the earth. However, there are many technical and economic difficulties need to be solved so that solar energy becomes a strong competition against the traditional energy sources. Energy from the sun can be used successfully in electric power generation systems. Depending on the climate conditions and the use of a properly designed, installing and maintained system can meet a large dema...

  8. GPP Webinar: Market Outlook and Innovations in Wind and Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar reviewing the state of the renewable energy industry as a whole, with a focus on wind and solar power and exploring recent marketplace innovations in wind and solar power and renewable energy purchases.

  9. Energy Decisions: Is Solar Power the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2011-01-01

    People around the world are concerned about affordable energy. It is needed to power the global economy. Petroleum-based transportation and coal-fired power plants are economic prime movers fueling the global economy, but coal and gasoline are also the leading sources of air pollution. Both of these sources produce greenhouse gases and toxins.…

  10. Energy Decisions: Is Solar Power the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2011-01-01

    People around the world are concerned about affordable energy. It is needed to power the global economy. Petroleum-based transportation and coal-fired power plants are economic prime movers fueling the global economy, but coal and gasoline are also the leading sources of air pollution. Both of these sources produce greenhouse gases and toxins.…

  11. Proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Annual Review are presented. The results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program were emphasized. Among the topics discussed were: overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development along with associated hardware and test results; distributed systems operating experience; international parabolic dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. Solar electric generation was also addressed.

  12. Simulation of a Martian Solar Thermal Power Plant - Diurnal Operation and Power-Efficiency Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.; Popescu, G.; Feidt, M.

    A solar thermal power plant operating on Mars surface is analyzed in this work. During analysis meteorological data measured at Viking Landers (VL) sites were used. Our results show that during autumn at VL1 site, properly designed thermal power plant based on flat - plate solar collectors are comparable in performance with PV- based power systems. During a winter dust-storm day the maximum output power is much smaller than during autumn. High efficiency thermal engines is recommended to be used in combination with solar collectors kept perpendicular on Sun's rays. When a horizontal solar collector is considered, the dependence of the maximum output power on optimum solar efficiency seems to be quadratic at both VL1 and VL2 sites. When a collector perpendicular on Sun's rays is considered, this dependence is more complicate, but keeps the quadratic feature. A certain optimum solar efficiency threshold (around 5%) must be exceeded in order the system provide useful power. No obvious difference exists between power plant performance in the two years of VL2 operation.

  13. Development Trends and Economics of Concentrating Solar Power Generation Technologies: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we compare development trends, economics and financial risks of alternative large-scale solar power generation technologies (parabolic trough, solar tower, and three different photovoltaic technologies). In particular, a number of European countries, Algeria and the US promote solar power generation. In oure study, we investigate the economic viability of the solar trough projects Andasol-I (Spain), Nevada Solar One (US), the solar tower projects PS-10 and Solar Tres (Spain), an...

  14. The STACEE-32 Ground Based Gamma-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, D S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hinton, J A; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schütte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tümer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment detector in its initial configuration (STACEE-32). STACEE is a new ground-based gamma ray detector using the atmospheric Cherenkov technique. In STACEE, the heliostats of a solar energy research array are used to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous detectors.

  15. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M; Bramel, D; Carson, J; Covault, C E; Fortin, P; Hanna, D S; Hinton, J A; Jarvis, A; Kildea, J; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Theoret, C G; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) in its complete configuration. STACEE uses the heliostats of a solar energy research facility to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The light is concentrated onto an array of photomultiplier tubes located near the top of a tower. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous ground-based detectors. STACEE is being used to observe pulsars, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts.

  16. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  17. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  18. ISCC Kuraymat Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, G.

    2006-07-01

    The New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) of Egypt intends to implement an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant, ISCC Kuraymat, to be located about 95 km south of Cairo, on the eastern side of the river Nile, at a northern latitude of 29{sup o} 16' and an eastern longitude of 31{sup o} 15'. The complete ISCC Project shall be implemented in three (3) contract lots: One (1) Contract Lot for Solar Island as EPC cum OandM contract for engineering, procurement, construction, testing, commissioning and five (5) years operation and maintenance; (Two contracts will be used for this Lot (Solar Island), one for EPC and one for the OandM part of the Lot.) The Solar Island shall consist of a parabolic trough solar field capable to generate about 110 MW (thermal) of solar heat at a temperature of 393{sup o}C, the related IandC and control room and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) system up to the HTF inlet and outlet flanges of the Solar Heat Exchanger(s). The Contractor for Solar Island shall guarantee the supply of solar heat to the Solar Heat Exchanger(s) as a function of normal direct solar irradiation (DNI) and of solar position. One (1) Contract for Combined Cycle Island as EPC contract for engineering, procurement, construction, testing and commissioning and extended two (2) year warranty period. The Combined Cycle Island shall consist of one (1) or two (2) gas turbine(s) with ISO rating of about 80 MWe (total), one (1) or two (2) heat recovery steam generator(s) (HRSG), one (1) steam turbine of about 70 MWe, solar heat exchanger(s) capable to absorb about 110 MW (thermal) of solar heat plus all associated balance of plant equipment. The Contractor(s) for Combined Cycle Island shall guarantee the supply of electricity and the heat rate as a function of ambient temperature and as a function of solar heat supply from the Solar Island. One (1) Contract for Combined Cycle Island as OandM contract for five (5) year operation and maintenance. (Author)

  19. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  20. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  1. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  2. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  3. Concentrated Solar Power: Components and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribus, A.

    2017-07-01

    CSP technologies are well developed and offer many advantages compared to other renewable energy options. They can also be very effective in many locations with high solar radiation around the world. However today they are less competitive than other technologies. Understanding the limitations, and identifying opportunities for improvements, requires a detailed analysis of the energy conversion processes, the needed components, and the required technologies for these plant components. Here we present the three main energy conversion steps in a CSP plant, the behavior and limitations of the technologies that are currently used in commercial CSP plants, and some directions for development of plant components that will offer better performance.

  4. Italy trials solar-thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-08-01

    It was in the Sicilian port of Syracuse that in 213 BC the Greek mathematician Archimedes was reputed to have torched an invading Roman fleet by concentrating the Sun's rays onto the enemy ships using large mirrors. Now, on a site very close to where Archimedes set up his putative solar weapon, engineers are building an array of parabolic mirrors to convert the Sun's energy into electricity. It is claimed that the technology, which uses molten salt to transfer energy to turbines, could be competitive with fossil fuels if it is deployed on a large enough scale in sunny climates.

  5. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bozhi; Zheng, Xiaolin; Kempa, Thomas J; Fang, Ying; Yu, Nanfang; Yu, Guihua; Huang, Jinlin; Lieber, Charles M

    2007-10-18

    Solar cells are attractive candidates for clean and renewable power; with miniaturization, they might also serve as integrated power sources for nanoelectronic systems. The use of nanostructures or nanostructured materials represents a general approach to reduce both cost and size and to improve efficiency in photovoltaics. Nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires have been used to improve charge collection efficiency in polymer-blend and dye-sensitized solar cells, to demonstrate carrier multiplication, and to enable low-temperature processing of photovoltaic devices. Moreover, recent theoretical studies have indicated that coaxial nanowire structures could improve carrier collection and overall efficiency with respect to single-crystal bulk semiconductors of the same materials. However, solar cells based on hybrid nanoarchitectures suffer from relatively low efficiencies and poor stabilities. In addition, previous studies have not yet addressed their use as photovoltaic power elements in nanoelectronics. Here we report the realization of p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) coaxial silicon nanowire solar cells. Under one solar equivalent (1-sun) illumination, the p-i-n silicon nanowire elements yield a maximum power output of up to 200 pW per nanowire device and an apparent energy conversion efficiency of up to 3.4 per cent, with stable and improved efficiencies achievable at high-flux illuminations. Furthermore, we show that individual and interconnected silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements can serve as robust power sources to drive functional nanoelectronic sensors and logic gates. These coaxial silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements provide a new nanoscale test bed for studies of photoinduced energy/charge transport and artificial photosynthesis, and might find general usage as elements for powering ultralow-power electronics and diverse nanosystems.

  7. Air emissions due to wind and solar power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenstein, Warren; Apt, Jay

    2009-01-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) encourage large-scale deployment of wind and solar electric power. Their power output varies rapidly, even when several sites are added together. In many locations, natural gas generators are the lowest cost resource available to compensate for this variability, and must ramp up and down quickly to keep the grid stable, affecting their emissions of NOx and CO2. We model a wind or solar photovoltaic plus gas system using measured 1-min time-resolved emissions and heat rate data from two types of natural gas generators, and power data from four wind plants and one solar plant. Over a wide range of renewable penetration, we find CO2 emissions achieve approximately 80% of the emissions reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions. Using steam injection, gas generators achieve only 30-50% of expected NOx emissions reductions, and with dry control NOx emissions increase substantially. We quantify the interaction between state RPSs and NOx constraints, finding that states with substantial RPSs could see significant upward pressure on NOx permit prices, if the gas turbines we modeled are representative of the plants used to mitigate wind and solar power variability.

  8. Solar powered wrist worn acquisition system for continuous photoplethysmogram monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieffenderfer, James P; Beppler, Eric; Novak, Tristan; Whitmire, Eric; Jayakumar, Rochana; Randall, Clive; Qu, Weiguo; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    We present a solar-powered, wireless, wrist-worn platform for continuous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters during the activities of daily life. In this study, we demonstrate the capability to produce photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals using this platform. To adhere to a low power budget for solar-powering, a 574 nm green light source is used where the PPG from the radial artery would be obtained with minimal signal conditioning. The system incorporates two monocrystalline solar cells to charge the onboard 20 mAh lithium polymer battery. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is used to tether the device to a smartphone that makes the phone an access point to a dedicated server for long term continuous storage of data. Two power management schemes have been proposed depending on the availability of solar energy. In low light situations, if the battery is low, the device obtains a 5-second PPG waveform every minute to consume an average power of 0.57 mW. In scenarios where the battery is at a sustainable voltage, the device is set to enter its normal 30 Hz acquisition mode, consuming around 13.7 mW. We also present our efforts towards improving the charge storage capacity of our on-board super-capacitor.

  9. Power Management System Design for Solar-Powered UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    longevity of the battery . Working through an example problem leads us to the determinations for required battery weight, as well as required PV array size ...parts is optimized with size and weight in mind. Therefore, the impetus of this thesis is to examine the power management system within a systems...engineering framework. This study includes maximum power point tracking, battery management, energy storage and flux tracking by the batteries , propulsion

  10. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  11. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  12. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  13. Performance evaluation of space solar Brayton cycle power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zheng-Gang

    1992-06-01

    Unlike gas turbine power systems which consume chemical or nuclear energy, the energy consumption and/or cycle efficiency should not be a suitable criterion for evaluating the performance of space solar Brayton cycle power. A new design goal, life cycle cost, can combine all the power system characteristics, such as mass, area, and station-keeping propellant, into a unified criterion. Effects of pressure ratio, recuperator effectiveness, and compressor inlet temperature on life cycle cost were examined. This method would aid in making design choices for a space power system.

  14. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  15. A dish-Stirling solar-thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.; Clark, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a preliminary design/economic study of a first-generation point focusing distributed receiver solar-thermal electric system optimized for application to industrial and small community power plants at power levels up to 10 MWe. Power conversion is provided by small Stirling cycle engines mounted at the focus of paraboloidal solar concentrators. The output of multiple power modules (concentrator, receiver, engine, and electric generator) is collected by means of a conventional electrical system and interfaced with a utility grid. Based on the United Stirling P-75 engine, a 1 MWe system employing mass-produced components (100,000 modules/year) could produce electricity at costs competitive with those projected for electricity generated by more conventional means, e.g. with fossil fuels.

  16. Concentrating solar power - Present status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.

    2008-07-01

    This set of presentation slides was presented by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich in co-operation with the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Switzerland, at a conference on concentrated solar power held at the Swiss Centre for Electronics and Microtechnology in Neuchatel in 2008. The slides examine the status and future prospects for concentrated solar power and provide an overview of the present situation in this area. Possible sites, technologies and the associated financial frameworks are examined. Examples of parabolic trough systems, combined-cycle installations, Fresnel-lens concentrator systems and so-called 'power towers' with tracking heliostats are quoted as are other receiver technologies. Thermal and chemical heat storage topics are addressed, as are the long-term economics of the systems and the new electricity grids necessary for the transport of power.

  17. Energy storage and power conditioning aspects of photovoltaic solar power systems. Volume I. First quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Solar energy may be utilized as thermal energy or converted into electricity by solar cells. ERDA's National Photovoltaic Conversion Program is concerned with this latter approach and is currently sponsoring industrial programs for photovoltaic systems and devices. In one such program, Spectrolab, Inc., is charged with performing conceptual design and analysis of three photovoltaic solar power systems. The sizes of these three systems will cover the requirements of residential, commercial and electric utility central station applications. In addition to a solar cell array, photovoltaic power systems must also include an energy storage system to enable operation during periods of low insolation and a power conditioning system to control the dc power from the array and convert it into an ac waveshape compatible with existing electrical equipment. The Scientific Development Operation of Bechtel Corporation is participating in the Spectrolab program by compiling and studying data on the energy storage and power conditioning aspects of all three photovoltaic solar power systems and by the conceptual design of the system for electric utility central station applications. The results of the energy storage and power conditioning study effort are presented in this report. (W.D.M.)

  18. The small community solar thermal power experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiceniuk, T.

    1981-01-01

    Contractors were asked to develop a preferred system concept, to perform sensitivity analyses, and to outline recommended approaches for the follow-on design program of a one-megawatt solar thermal demonstration plant. The systems recommended by the contractors in each of the categories were: (1) McDonnell-Douglas Astronautics Company: Central tower with field of south-facing heliostats; (2) General Electric Company: Field of parabolic dishes with steam piped to a central turbine-generator unit; and (3) Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation: Field of parabolic dishes with a Stirling cycle engine/generator unit at the focus of each dish. A description of each of the proposed experimental plants is given.

  19. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  20. LOW POWER UPCONVERSION FOR SOLAR FUELS PHOTOCHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, Felix N. [Bowling Green State University

    2013-08-05

    Earth abundant copper(I) diimine complexes represent a renewable and economically feasible alternative to commonly used heavy metal containing chromophores. In the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, copper(I) diimine complexes typically undergo a significant structural rearrangement, leading to molecules with large Stokes shifts and very short excited state lifetimes, thereby limiting their usefulness as sensitizers in bimolecular electron and triplet energy transfer reactions. Strategically placed bulky substituents on the coordinating phenanthroline ligands have proven useful in restricting the transiently produced excited state Jahn-Teller distortion, leading to longer-lived excited states. By combining bulky sec-butyl groups in the 2- and 9- positions with methyl groups in the 3-,4-, 7-, and 8- positions, a remarkably long-lived (2.8 μs in DCM) copper(I) bis-phenanthroline complex, [Cu(dsbtmp)2]+, has been synthesized and characterized. Unlike other copper(I) diimine complexes, [Cu(dsbtmp)2]+ also retains a μs lifetime in coordinating solvents such as acetonitrile and water as a result of the cooperative sterics inherent in the molecular design. Preliminary results on the use of this complex in hydrogen-forming homogeneous photocatalysis is presented. Photon upconversion based on sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) represents a photochemical means to generate high-energy photons (or high-energy chemical products) from low-energy excitation, having potential applications in solar energy conversion and solar fuels producing devices. For the first time, synthetically facile and earth abundant Cu(I) MLCT sensitizers have been successfully incorporated into two distinct photochemical upconversion schemes, affording both red-to-green and orange-to-blue wavelength conversions. Preliminary results on aqueous-based photochemical upconversion as well as intramolecular Sn(IV) porphyrins containing axially coordinated aromatic hydrocarbon

  1. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  2. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alahmer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambient humidity of around 35% and at moderate outdoor wind speed. Also, the computational fluid dynamic CFD of transient thermal behavior based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to demonstrate the prevailing temperature rises in the solar natural-ventilation system associated with the internal heat flux due to solar radiation and moisture removal. The efficiency of solar dryer was improved using Nano coating technology. The result showed good agreement between the computational solid simulation and the experimental measurements obtained from this system.

  3. Economic methodology for solar power-generating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A generalized methodology is developed for comparative assessments of various design concepts of solar power systems. Relationships are formulated based on identified reference frames, equally applicable to any solar power system, and explicit relationships between equipment costs and fundamental system parameters that relate to physical properties and design concepts. No arbitrary cost assumptions are made; however, major cost-determining factors are identified and correlated. All solar systems and subsystems are compared on an equal basis, namely, ''normalization'' is built in. Synergetic effects between the subsystems of a plant are identified, and the assessment of the relative merits of various possible improvements is facilitated. As the area-related subsystems cost several times more than the conversion subsystems, analysis shows that efforts for improving conversion efficiencies are justified even at considerable expense. Especially high-temperature materials are expected to play an important role in this respect.

  4. Concentrating solar power: Still small but learning fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Concentrating solar power had a difficult market start compared to other renewable technologies, leading to a total global capacity of only 5 GW today after more than a decade of deployment. A comprehensive global empirical study identifies distinct deployment phases, with high learning rates exceeding 25% over the past 5 years.

  5. Sandwich module prototype progress for space solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Paul; Hodkin, Jason; Harrington, Forest; Person, Clark; Nurnberger, Michael; Nguyen, Bang; LaCava, Susie; Scheiman, Dave; Stewart, Grant; Han, Andrew; Hettwer, Ethan; Rhoades, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Space solar power (SSP) has been broadly defined as the collection of solar energy in space and its wireless transmission for use on earth. This approach potentially gives the benefit of provision of baseload power while avoiding the losses due to the day/night cycle and tropospheric effects that are associated with terrestrial solar power. Proponents have contended that the implementation of such systems could offer energy security, environmental, and technological advantages to those who would undertake their development. Among recent implementations commonly proposed for SSP, the modular symmetrical concentrator (MSC) and other modular concepts have received considerable attention. Each employs an array of modules for performing conversion of concentrated sunlight into microwaves or laser beams for transmission to earth. While prototypes of such modules have been designed and developed previously by several groups, none have been subjected to the challenging conditions inherent to the space environment and the possible solar concentration levels in which an array of modules might be required to operate. The research described herein details our team's efforts in the development of photovoltaic arrays, power electronics, microwave conversion electronics, and antennas for microwave-based "sandwich" module prototypes. The implementation status and testing results of the prototypes are reviewed.

  6. Thermo-electronic solar power conversion with a parabolic concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukunle, Olawole C.; De, Dilip K.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the energy dynamics of the power generation from the sun when the solar energy is concentrated on to the emitter of a thermo-electronic converter with the help of a parabolic mirror. We use the modified Richardson-Dushman equation. The emitter cross section is assumed to be exactly equal to the focused area at a height h from the base of the mirror to prevent loss of efficiency. We report the variation of output power with solar insolation, height h, reflectivity of the mirror, and anode temperature, initially assuming that there is no space charge effect. Our methodology allows us to predict the temperature at which the anode must be cooled in order to prevent loss of efficiency of power conversion. Novel ways of tackling the space charge problem have been discussed. The space charge effect is modeled through the introduction of a parameter f (0 solar insolation, height h, apart from radii R of the concentrator aperture and emitter, and the collector material properties. We have also considered solar thermos electronic power conversion by using single atom-layer graphene as an emitter.

  7. Flight of the loon : solar-powered boating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-04-01

    Details of the first solar-powered, zero-emission boat to venture across the Trent-Severn waterway were presented. Called the 'Loon', the boat is now being manufactured for environmentally-conscious boaters around the world. The seating arrangement, pontoon design, and propulsion system were all designed to minimize impacts on the ecosystem. A prototype boat was built and tested in the summer of 2005 to determine the viability of the solar-powered boat, and a family trip down the waterway was completed in August. Results of the trip encouraged the inventor to raise capital and a suitable production facility. After several months of development, the first production boat was completed with many improvements to the original prototype. An entrepreneur from Belize was the first person to place an order after he discovered that most commercially-available solar-powered boats were higher-priced and less capable than the Loon. High gas prices and the detrimental effects of fuel exhaust in lakes have caused many people to become sensitive to the issues surrounding fuel use and pleasure boats. It was concluded that a storefront has recently been opened north of Orillia in order to sell the solar-powered craft. 3 figs.

  8. Solid state device technology for Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using solid state elements in the solar power satellite transmitter system is addressed. Recommendations are given concerning device types, the antenna modules, and the overall antenna system. The development of a solid state amplifier based on GaAs field effect transistor devices is also described.

  9. Emerging US Space Launch, Trends and Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the state of the art of emerging US space launch and spacecraft. Reviews the NASA budget ascontext, while providing example scenarios. Connects what has been learned in space systems commercial partnershipsto a potential path for consideration by the space solar power community.

  10. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  11. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  12. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  13. Effects of Power Tracking Algorithms on Lifetime of Power Electronic Devices Used in Solar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canras Batunlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In photovoltaic solar energy systems, power management algorithms (PMAs, usually called maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms, are widely used for extracting maximum available power at every point in time. However, tracking the maximum power has negative effects on the availability of solar energy systems. This is due, mainly, to the created disturbances and thermal stresses on the associated power electronic converters (PECs. This work investigates the effects of PMA on the lifetime consumption, thermal stresses and failures on DC-DC converters used in solar systems. Firstly theoretical analysis and modelling of photovoltaic solar systems including converter’s electro thermal characteristics were developed. Subsequently, experiments on photovoltaic solar systems were carried out using two different PMAs, namely, perturb and observe (P&O and incremental conductance (IC. Real-time data was collected, under different operating conditions, including thermal behavior using thermal imaging camera and dSPACE. Converters’ thermal cycling was found to be approximately 3 °C higher with the IC algorithm. The steady state temperature was 52.7 °C, for the IC while it was 42.6 °C for P&O. Although IC algorithm offers more accurate power management tool, it causes more severe thermal stresses which, in this study, has led to approximately 1.4 times greater life consumption compared to P&O.

  14. The first batteryless, solar-powered cardiac pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberlin, Andreas; Zurbuchen, Adrian; Walpen, Sébastien; Schaerer, Jakob; Niederhauser, Thomas; Huber, Christoph; Tanner, Hildegard; Servatius, Helge; Seiler, Jens; Haeberlin, Heinrich; Fuhrer, Juerg; Vogel, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary pacemakers (PMs) are powered by primary batteries with a limited energy-storing capacity. PM replacements because of battery depletion are common and unpleasant and bear the risk of complications. Batteryless PMs that harvest energy inside the body may overcome these limitations. The goal of this study was to develop a batteryless PM powered by a solar module that converts transcutaneous light into electrical energy. Ex vivo measurements were performed with solar modules placed under pig skin flaps exposed to different irradiation scenarios (direct sunlight, shade outdoors, and indoors). Subsequently, 2 sunlight-powered PMs featuring a 4.6-cm(2) solar module were implanted in vivo in a pig. One prototype, equipped with an energy buffer, was run in darkness for several weeks to simulate a worst-case scenario. Ex vivo, median output power of the solar module was 1963 μW/cm(2) (interquartile range [IQR] 1940-2107 μW/cm(2)) under direct sunlight exposure outdoors, 206 μW/cm(2) (IQR 194-233 μW/cm(2)) in shade outdoors, and 4 μW/cm(2) (IQR 3.6-4.3 μW/cm(2)) indoors (current PMs use approximately 10-20 μW). Median skin flap thickness was 4.8 mm. In vivo, prolonged SOO pacing was performed even with short irradiation periods. Our PM was able to pace continuously at a rate of 125 bpm (3.7 V at 0.6 ms) for 1½ months in darkness. Tomorrow's PMs might be batteryless and powered by sunlight. Because of the good skin penetrance of infrared light, a significant amount of energy can be harvested by a subcutaneous solar module even indoors. The use of an energy buffer allows periods of darkness to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

  16. Solar Power Satellites for Space Exploration and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnet, C.; Sein, E.; Celeste, A.; Summerer, L.

    2004-12-01

    Power generation is one of the crucial elements of space vehicles and of future infrastructures on planets and moons. The increased demand for power faces many constraints, in particular the sizing of the power generation system also driven by eclipse periods and the solar intensity at the operational spot. In the medium term, Earth orbiting platforms will require higher power levels. Interplanetary exploration vehicles face the problem of distance to the Sun, especially when large amount of power may be needed. Large infrastructures on Moon and planets, like Mars, are constrained by environment attenuation, long eclipse or distance to the Sun. New systems and technologies have to be found, which go beyond simple improvements of the current technologies. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) systems, based on wireless power transmission, are attractive candidate solutions to provide power to space vehicles or to elements on planet surface. Studies have been carried out for many years on the problem of providing renewable electrical energy from space to Earth with SPS. This paper reviews the main results of an ESA funded study, led by EADS Astrium with the support of the Université of La Réunion, which assessed the utilisation of SPS concepts for space-to-space and space-to-planet applications.

  17. Probabilistic modeling of solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a probabilistic approach based on Markov chain theory to model stand-alone photovoltaic power systems and predict their long-term service performance. The major advantage of this approach is that it allows designers and developers of these systems to analyze the system performance as well as the battery subsystem performance in the long run and determine the system design requirements that meet a specified service performance level. The methodology presented is illustrated by using data for a radio repeater system for the Boston, Massachusetts, location.

  18. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  19. Software and codes for analysis of concentrating solar power technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-12-01

    This report presents a review and evaluation of software and codes that have been used to support Sandia National Laboratories concentrating solar power (CSP) program. Additional software packages developed by other institutions and companies that can potentially improve Sandia's analysis capabilities in the CSP program are also evaluated. The software and codes are grouped according to specific CSP technologies: power tower systems, linear concentrator systems, and dish/engine systems. A description of each code is presented with regard to each specific CSP technology, along with details regarding availability, maintenance, and references. A summary of all the codes is then presented with recommendations regarding the use and retention of the codes. A description of probabilistic methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of concentrating solar power technologies is also provided.

  20. A wireless soil moisture sensor powered by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingliang; Lv, Mouchao; Deng, Zhong; Zhai, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    In a variety of agricultural activities, such as irrigation scheduling and nutrient management, soil water content is regarded as an essential parameter. Either power supply or long-distance cable is hardly available within field scale. For the necessity of monitoring soil water dynamics at field scale, this study presents a wireless soil moisture sensor based on the impedance transform of the frequency domain. The sensor system is powered by solar energy, and the data can be instantly transmitted by wireless communication. The sensor electrodes are embedded into the bottom of a supporting rod so that the sensor can measure soil water contents at different depths. An optimal design with time executing sequence is considered to reduce the energy consumption. The experimental results showed that the sensor is a promising tool for monitoring moisture in large-scale farmland using solar power and wireless communication.

  1. Solar-Powered Electric Propulsion Systems: Engineering and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J. W.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight, multikilowatt solar power arrays in conjunction with electric propulsion offer potential improvements to space exploration, extending the usefulness of existing launch vehicles to higher-energy missions. Characteristics of solar-powered electric propulsion missions are outlined, and preliminary performance estimates are shown. Spacecraft system engineering is discussed with respect to parametric trade-offs in power and propulsion system design. Relationships between mission performance and propulsion system performance are illustrated. The present state of the art of electric propulsion systems is reviewed and related to the mission requirements identified earlier. The propulsion system design and test requirements for a mission spacecraft are identified and discussed. Although only ion engine systems are currently available, certain plasma propulsion systems offer some advantages in over-all system design. These are identified, and goals are set for plasma-thrustor systems to make them competitive with ion-engine systems for mission applications.

  2. Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and

  3. Integration of Small Solar tower Systems into Distributed Power Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-paks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leadings to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begum. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs.

  4. Investigation of Solar Cells Power Degradation Due to Electrostatic Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fayazi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellites are surrounded with protons, electrons and heavy charged particles. Space radiation impact on satellite sub-systems cause several anomalies which are important problem for satellite designers. Until recently, the majority of spacecraft primary power systems used solar arrays and rechargeable batteries to supply 28 V. For low-inclination spacecraft, 28 V systems have not been observed to arc. As the power requirements for spacecraft increased, however, high-voltage solar arrays were baselined to minimize total mass and increase power production efficiency. With the advent of 100 V systems in the late 1980s, arcing began to be observed on a number of spacecraft. The mechanism proposed in this paper, described electrical and physical degradation of solar cells due to electrostatic discharge anomalies on satellites. The cell was characterized again after arcing to determine the change in efficiency. This paper details the process for designing the circuit to create the arcing, and the different setups used to degrade the cells electrically and physically. It also describes the final setups to be used in space laboratory. This model is designed using Matlab and SPENVIS. Identification and simulation this mechanism is an important step in solar array design for space application

  5. Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinega, Alexei; John, Sajeev

    2012-10-01

    It is suggested that using only 1 μm of silicon, sculpted in the form of a modulated nanowire photonic crystal, solar power conversion efficiency in the range of 15%-20% can be achieved. Choosing a specific modulation profile provides antireflection, light trapping, and back-reflection over broad angles in targeted spectral regions for high efficiency power conversion without solar tracking. Solving both Maxwell's equations in the 3D photonic crystal and the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations in each nanowire, we identify optimal junction and contact geometries and study the influence of the nanowire surface curvature on solar cell efficiency. We demonstrate that suitably modulated nanowires enable 20% efficiency improvement over their straight counterparts made of an equivalent amount of silicon. We also discuss the efficiency of a tandem amorphous and crystalline silicon nanowire photonic crystal solar cell. Opportunities for "hot carrier" collection and up-conversion of infrared light, enhanced by photonic crystal geometry, facilitate further improvements in power efficiency.

  6. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the Investigation Based on... States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof by reason...

  7. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  8. Development of Local Supply Chain : A Critical Link for Concentrated Solar Power in India

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Amid the success of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) projects in India, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology also provides a compelling case for support by the government as among solar technologies; CSP is the only techno-economically viable option at present that provides a storage option for dispatchable and dependable solar energy. Furthermore, the conversion of solar to steam is a relativ...

  9. Development of Local Supply Chain : The Missing Link for Concentrated Solar Power Projects in India

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Amid the success of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) projects in India, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology also provides a compelling case for support by the government as among solar technologies; CSP is the only techno-economically viable option at present that provides a storage option for dispatchable and dependable solar energy. Furthermore, the conversion of solar to steam is a relativ...

  10. Solar central receiver hybrid - A cost effective future power alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshore, D. G.; Bolton, C. N.; Montague, J. E.

    1980-05-01

    System analyses and conceptual designs of solar central receiver hybrid concepts using molten salt (60% NaNO3, 40% KNO3 by weight) and fossil fired nonsolar energy sources (coal, oil, or gas) have been performed. Analyses have developed plant configurations with various solar energy storage capacities and fossil fuels. Economic analyses support the final configuration selection based on minimization of the cost of energy produced from the plant. A 500 MWe commercial plant size installed for a 1990 initial year of operation is competitive with new coal, oil, and nuclear power generation sources. This hybrid plant will save an estimated 5 million barrels of oil per year.

  11. [Occupational hygiene at solar-energy electric power plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkina, L I; Kolesnikova, A V; Tsirkova, N L

    1991-01-01

    The labour conditions of the personnel engaged in servicing an experimental solar electric power station in warm seasons of the year were characterized by the unfavourable environmental factors peculiar of working out-doors (heliostat sites) and in the station's shops (solar radiation, heating microclimate, noise). Combinations and activity of those factors were professionally determined. Established was the role of the labour conditions and respective occupational peculiarities in the individual response formation to work overload. A set of health-related preventive measures was also proposed.

  12. Concentrated solar power - Testing of process heat collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzi, A.

    2008-07-01

    This set of presentation slides was presented by the Swiss Solar Testing Institute SPF at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland at a conference on concentrating solar power systems held at the Swiss Centre for Electronics and Microtechnology in Neuchatel in 2008. The slides illustrate the activities of the SPF and the challenges placed by the lack in part of dedicated standards. Performance testing and warranty issues are discussed, as are funding and the capacity of testing facilities. Also, the development of modelling skills and associated tools is examined.

  13. Solar-powered nanomechanical transduction from crystalline molecular rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Sven O; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2013-06-25

    A photoinduced solid-state SO₂ isomerism drives a larger mechanical change (benzene-ring rotation) in a neighbouring ion (i.e., the system acts as a solar-powered molecular transducer). The ring rotation and SO₂ photoisomerisation are observed using in situ X-ray crystallography and are controllable, reproducible, and metastable at low temperatures. This discovery presents a new range of materials for solar-energy-based molecular transduction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Centurion solar-powered high-altitude aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1980 AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) has been experimenting with solar-powered aircraft, often in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Thus far, AeroVironment, now headquartered in Monrovia, California, has achieved several altitude records with its Solar Challenger, Pathfinder, and Pathfinder-Plus aircraft. It expects to exceed these records with the newer and larger solar-powered Centurion and its successors the Centelios and Helios vehicles, in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The Centurion is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the technology of applying solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. It is considered to be a prototype technology demonstrator for a future fleet of solar-powered aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions or while serving as telecommunications relay platforms. Although it shares many of the design concepts of the Pathfinder, the Centurion has a wingspan of 206 feet, more than twice the 98-foot span of the original Pathfinder and 70-percent longer than the Pathfinder-Plus' 121-foot span. At the same time, Centurion maintains the 8-foot chord (front to rear distance) of the Pathfinder wing, giving the wing an aspect ratio (length-to-chord) of 26 to 1. Other visible changes from its predecessor include a modified wing airfoil designed for flight at extreme altitude and four underwing pods to support its landing gear and electronic systems (compared with two such pods on the Pathfinder). The flexible wing is primarily fabricated from carbon fiber, graphite epoxy composites, and kevlar. It is built in five sections, a 44-foot-long center section and middle and outer sections just over 40 feet long. All five sections have an identical thickness--12 percent of the chord

  15. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes;

    2016-01-01

    Some major challenges in the development of L2L products is the lack of efficient converter electronics, modelling tools for dimensioning and furthermore, characterization facilities to support the successful development of the products. We report the development of 2 Three-Port-Converters respec......Some major challenges in the development of L2L products is the lack of efficient converter electronics, modelling tools for dimensioning and furthermore, characterization facilities to support the successful development of the products. We report the development of 2 Three......-Port-Converters respectively for 1-10Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, a modelling tool for L2L products has been developed and a laboratory for feeding in component data not available in the datasheets to the model is described....

  16. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communication Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication. Like their name implies, solar sails 'sail' by reflecting sunlight from a large, lightweight reflective material that resembles the sails of 17th and 18th century ships and modern sloops. Instead of wind, the sail and the ship derive their thrust by reflecting solar photons. Solar sail technology has been discussed in the literature for quite some time, but it is only since 2010 that sails have been proven to work in space. Thin-film photovoltaics are revolutionizing the terrestrial power generation market and have been found to be suitable for medium-term use in the space environment. When mounted on the thin-film substrate, these photovoltaics can be packaged into very small volumes and used to generate significant power for small spacecraft. Finally, embedded antennas are being developed that can be adhered to thin-film substrates to provide lightweight, omnidirectional UHF and X-band coverage, increasing bandwidth or effective communication ranges for small spacecraft. Taken together, they may enable a host of new deep space destinations to be reached by a generation of spacecraft smaller and more capable than ever before.

  17. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taherbaneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.

  18. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Taherbaneh; A. H. Rezaie; H. Ghafoorifard; Rahimi, K; M. B. Menhaj

    2010-01-01

    In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar...

  19. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  20. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  1. Mission performance of a solar- and microwave-powered aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles typically have limited flight time due to their reconnaissance payload requirements and their restricted scale. A microwave/solar powered flight vehicle, on the other hand, can remain in-theater continuously by harvesting electromagnetic radiation using on-board antennas and solar panels. A rectifying antenna is used to harvest power and rectify it into a form usable by the on-board electric motors and other electronics, while photovoltaic cells harness incoming solar radiation. Discussed is the design of the fuel-less air vehicle and its sensitivity to several key performance metrics for this class of aircraft. New metrics are presented that are unique to microwave-powered aircraft and are useful in the design of its missions. Of critical importance is the strong coupling among the aircraft's flight performance, power harvesting abilities, and its mission capabilities. Traditional and non-traditional wing shapes are presented in order to motivate a discussion of some of the key parameters in the design of a fuel-less air vehicle.

  2. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  3. Autonomous solar air conditioner. 100 percent solar powered; Solar autarke Klimatisierung. Mit 100% Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindenburg, C. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Autonomous solar cooling is an interesting option in all cases where storage of chilled products brings about large inherent thermal (cold) storage potential, e.g. wine production. There are also applications in air conditioning of buildings in which autonomous solar cooling systems are technically feasible and economically interesting. (orig.) [German] Generell sind alle Faelle von Prozesskuehlung, in denen durch die Lagerung von gekuehlten Produkten prozessinhaerent grosse thermische (Kaelte-)Speicher vorhanden sind, fuer die solar autarke Kuehlung interessant, beispielsweise die Weinherstellung. Es gibt aber auch Anwendungsfaelle im Bereich der Gebaeudeklimatisierung, bei denen eine solar autarke Kuehlung technisch machbar und zugleich oekonomisch darstellbar ist. (orig.)

  4. 76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems... importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof that infringe one or more...

  5. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  6. A solar photovoltaic power system for use in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Colozza, A. J.; Merolla, A.

    1994-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power system was designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA/NSF Antarctic Space Analog Program. The system was installed at a remote field camp at Lake Hoare in the Dry Valleys and provided a six-person field team with the power to run personal computers and printers, lab equipment, lightning, and a small microwave oven. The system consists of three silicon photovoltaic sub-arrays delivering 1.5 kW peak power, three lead-acid gel battery modules supplying 2.4 kWh, and electrical distribution system which delivers 120 Vac and 12 Vdc to the user. The system was modularized for each of deployment and operation. Previously the camp has been powered by diesel generators, which have proven to be both noisy and polluting. The NSF, in an effort to reduce their dependence on diesel fuel from both and environmental and cost standpoint is interested in the use of alternate forms of energy, such as solar power. Such a power system will also provide NASA with important data on system level deployment and operation in a remote location by a minimally trained crew, as well as validate initial integration concepts.

  7. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  8. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable k – ε model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  9. Potential for solar-powered base-load capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Brady; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In 2010 nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japans nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large-scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan operated beyond base load with excess energy being stored in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems. Here we show how coupling these storage systems to rooftop solar systems in Tokyo could compensate for the loss of nuclear power. Data from a study of rooftop space, and a 34-year data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. If current generation PV systems were placed on the available rooftop space in greater Tokyo, this coupled system could provide for 20% of Toyo's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.99. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with six times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.98.

  10. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  11. Efficient Cells Cut the Cost of Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    If you visit Glenn Research Center, you might encounter a photovoltaic (PV) array that looks unlike anything you've ever seen. In fact, what one would normally identify as the panel is actually a series of curved mirrors called solar concentrators, engineered to reflect sunlight rather than absorb it. These concentrators gather, intensify, and focus sun beams upward, aiming at a fixture containing specialized silicon concentrated PV chips the actual solar cells. If you stay by the array for a while, you'll notice that the solar concentrators follow the path of the sun throughout the day, changing position to best capture and utilize the sunlight. The specialized chips that make the technology possible are the brainchild of Bernard Sater, an engineer who had worked at Glenn since the early 1960s before retiring to pursue his unique ideas for harnessing solar power. Sater contributed to multiple PV projects in the latter part of his career at the Center, including research and development on the International Space Station s solar arrays. In his spare time, he enjoyed tinkering with new approaches to solar power, experiments that resulted in the system installed at Glenn today. Sater s basic idea had two components. First, he wanted to create a silicon cell that was smaller, more efficient, and much lower cost than those available at the time. To ensure that the potential of such a chip could be realized, he also planned on pairing it with a system that could concentrate sunlight and focus it directly on the cell. When he retired from Glenn in 1994 to focus on researching and developing the technology full time, Sater found that NASA was interested in the concept and ready to provide funding, facilities, and expertise in order to assist in its development.

  12. Solar-Powered Desalination: A Modelling and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Jimmy; Andrews, John

    2007-10-01

    Water shortage is becoming one of the major problems worldwide. As such, desalination technologies have been implemented to meet growing demands for fresh water. Among the desalination technologies, thermal desalination, including multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect evaporation (MEE), is the current leading desalination process. Reverse osmosis (RO) is also being increasingly used. Despite technological improvements, thermal desalination and reverse osmosis continue to be intensive fossil-fuel consumers and contribute to increased levels of greenhouse gases. As energy costs rise, thermal desalination by solar energy and/or low cost waste heat is likely to become increasingly attractive. As part of a project investigating the productive use of saline land and the development of sustainable desalination systems, the feasibility of producing potable water from seawater or brackish water using desalination systems powered by renewable energy in the form of low-temperature solar-thermal sources has been studied. A salinity-gradient solar pond and an evacuated tube solar collector system have been used as heat sources. Solar ponds combine solar energy collection with long-term storage and can provide reliable thermal energy at temperature ranges from 50 to 90 °C. A visual basic computer model of the different multi-stage flash desalination processes coupled with a salinity-gradient solar pond was developed to determine which process is preferable in regards to performance and greenhouse impact. The governing mathematical equations are derived from mass balances, heat energy balances, and heat transfer characteristics. Using the results from the modelling, a small-scale solar-powered desalination system, capable of producing up to 500 litres of fresh water per day, was designed and manufactured. This single-stage flash system consists of two main units: the heat supply and storage system and the flash desalination unit. Two different condenser heat exchanger

  13. Residential Solar Combined Heat and Power Generation using Solar Thermoelectric Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, B.; Wagner, M.; Kunkle, C.; Watson, P.; Williams, R.; Donohoe, R.; Ugarte, K.; Wilmoth, R.; Chong, M. Zachary; Lee, H.

    2015-06-01

    Recent reports on improved efficiencies of solar thermoelectric generation (STEG) systems have generated interest in STEGs as a competitive power generation system. In this paper, the design of a combined cooling and power utilizing concentrated solar power is discussed. Solar radiation is concentrated into a receiver connected to thermoelectric modules, which are used as a topping cycle to generate power and high grade heat necessary to run an absorption chiller. Modeling of the overall system is discussed with experimental data to validate modeling results. A numerical modeling approach is presented which considers temperature variation of the source and sink temperatures and is used to maximize combined efficiency. A system is built with a demonstrated combined efficiency of 32% in actual working conditions with power generation of 3.1 W. Modeling results fell within 3% of the experimental results verifying the approach. An optimization study is performed on the mirror concentration ration and number of modules for thermal load matching and is shown to improve power generation to 26.8 W.

  14. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  15. Solar-Powered Plasmon-Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naldoni Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis uses semiconductors to convert sunlight into chemical energy. Recent reports have shown that plasmonic nanostructures can be used to extend semiconductor light absorption or to drive direct photocatalysis with visible light at their surface. In this review, we discuss the fundamental decay pathway of localized surface plasmons in the context of driving solar-powered chemical reactions. We also review different nanophotonic approaches demonstrated for increasing solar-to-hydrogen conversion in photoelectrochemical water splitting, including experimental observations of enhanced reaction selectivity for reactions occurring at the metalsemiconductor interface. The enhanced reaction selectivity is highly dependent on the morphology, electronic properties, and spatial arrangement of composite nanostructures and their elements. In addition, we report on the particular features of photocatalytic reactions evolving at plasmonic metal surfaces and discuss the possibility of manipulating the reaction selectivity through the activation of targeted molecular bonds. Finally, using solar-to-hydrogen conversion techniques as an example, we quantify the efficacy metrics achievable in plasmon-driven photoelectrochemical systems and highlight some of the new directions that could lead to the practical implementation of solar-powered plasmon-based catalytic devices.

  16. Solar-Powered Plasmon-Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldoni, Alberto; Riboni, Francesca; Guler, Urcan; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Photocatalysis uses semiconductors to convert sunlight into chemical energy. Recent reports have shown that plasmonic nanostructures can be used to extend semiconductor light absorption or to drive direct photocatalysis with visible light at their surface. In this review, we discuss the fundamental decay pathway of localized surface plasmons in the context of driving solar-powered chemical reactions. We also review different nanophotonic approaches demonstrated for increasing solar-to-hydrogen conversion in photoelectrochemical water splitting, including experimental observations of enhanced reaction selectivity for reactions occurring at the metalsemiconductor interface. The enhanced reaction selectivity is highly dependent on the morphology, electronic properties, and spatial arrangement of composite nanostructures and their elements. In addition, we report on the particular features of photocatalytic reactions evolving at plasmonic metal surfaces and discuss the possibility of manipulating the reaction selectivity through the activation of targeted molecular bonds. Finally, using solar-to-hydrogen conversion techniques as an example, we quantify the efficacy metrics achievable in plasmon-driven photoelectrochemical systems and highlight some of the new directions that could lead to the practical implementation of solar-powered plasmon-based catalytic devices.

  17. Distributed power from solar tower systems : a MIUS approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M.J.; Tellez, F.M.; Blanco, M. [CIEMAT/DER-PSA, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, V. [AICIA, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Seville (Spain); Baonza, F. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica; Berger, S. [Ecole Nat. des Ponts et Chaussees, Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    1999-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration into communities and energy islands for local power supply (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, ecoparks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small solar tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leading to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begun. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The main questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and how to make them feasible. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36 MW plant and its integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with a solar tower producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. (Author)

  18. Sizing and preliminary hardware testing of solar powered UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jashnani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating solar energy into modern aircraft technology has been a topic of interest and has received a lot of attention from researchers over the last two decades. A few among the many potential applications of this technology are the possibility of continuous self sustained flight for purposes such as information relay, surveillance and monitoring. This paper discusses the altitude and payload mass, as independent parameters, and their influence on the size and design of the aircraft. To estimate available solar power, two different models have been presented; one for low altitudes and the other for high altitudes. An engineering ground model was built to simulate the power and propulsion system over 24 h of continuous operation. The paper presents data from tests performed till date and lessons learnt while dealing with the construction of the engineering ground model as well as changes that can be made to improve the design.

  19. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  20. Solar power management for smart grids with storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, Manuel [Universidad de Alicante (Spain). Area de Ingenieria Electrica; Rios, Alberto [Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain). Area de Ingenieria Electrica

    2012-07-01

    The increasing integration of solar photovoltaic power into the power system makes the optimal management of different situations that can occur more and more important. The current capacity is observed in order to be able to predict the solar generation for short periods of time. This way it is possible to plan the production which would be adjusted to the variations in these storage systems allowing the system to maintain its constant programming for base plants, adjusting the variations in these systems in the short term. The referred accumulation systems are as follows: a fuel cell, mass flywheel, pump and turbine systems, compressed air systems, electrochemical cells, supercapacitors, superconductors, and electric vehicles. As a result the maximum benefit for the smart grid is achieved. (orig.)

  1. MPPT CONTROLLER BASED SOLAR POWER GENERATION USING A MULTILEVEL INVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelam Bhargav

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a renewable energy that is found abundantly in nature. It is green energy that can be utilized throughout day, therefore maximum energy has to captured from the panel. MPPT algorithm is incorporated to capture maximum energy. A multilevel inverter is a power electronic converter that synthesizes a desired output voltage from several levels of dc voltages of dc voltages as inputs. With an increasing number of dc voltage source, the sinusoidal waveform is obtained by the output voltage, while using a fundamental frequency-switching scheme. The advantage of multilevel inverter is very small output voltage, results in higher output quality and lower switching losses. This paper proposes a MPPT controller based solar power generation system, which consist of dc/dc converter and a new nine-level inverter.

  2. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  3. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brian; Alhadeff, Sam; Beard, Shawn; Carlile, David; Cook, David; Douglas, Craig; Garcia, Don; Gillespie, David; Golingo, Raymond; Gonzalez, Drew

    1990-06-01

    Lunar surface operations require habitation, transportation, life support, scientific, and manufacturing systems, all of which require some form of power. As an alternative to nuclear power, the development of a modular one megawatt solar power system is studied, examining both photovoltaic and dynamic cycle conversion methods, along with energy storage, heat rejection, and power backup subsystems. For photovoltaic power conversion, two systems are examined. First, a substantial increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency is realized with the use of new GaAs/GaSb tandem photovoltaic cells, offering an impressive overall array efficiency of 23.5 percent. Since these new cells are still in the experimental phase of development, a currently available GaAs cell providing 18 percent efficiency is examined as an alternate to the experimental cells. Both Brayton and Stirling cycles, powered by linear parabolic solar concentrators, are examined for dynamic cycle power conversion. The Brayton cycle is studied in depth since it is already well developed and can provide high power levels fairly efficiently in a compact, low mass system. The dynamic conversion system requires large scale waste heat rejection capability. To provide this heat rejection, a comparison is made between a heat pipe/radiative fin system using advanced composites, and a potentially less massive liquid droplet radiator system. To supply power through the lunar night, both a low temperature alkaline fuel cell system and an experimental high temperature monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell system are considered. The reactants for the fuel cells are stored cryogenically in order to avoid the high tankage mass required by conventional gaseous storage. In addition, it is proposed that the propellant tanks from a spent, prototype lunar excursion vehicle be used for this purpose, therefore resulting in a significant overall reduction in effective storage system mass.

  4. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brian; Alhadeff, Sam; Beard, Shawn; Carlile, David; Cook, David; Douglas, Craig; Garcia, Don; Gillespie, David; Golingo, Raymond; Gonzalez, Drew

    1990-01-01

    Lunar surface operations require habitation, transportation, life support, scientific, and manufacturing systems, all of which require some form of power. As an alternative to nuclear power, the development of a modular one megawatt solar power system is studied, examining both photovoltaic and dynamic cycle conversion methods, along with energy storage, heat rejection, and power backup subsystems. For photovoltaic power conversion, two systems are examined. First, a substantial increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency is realized with the use of new GaAs/GaSb tandem photovoltaic cells, offering an impressive overall array efficiency of 23.5 percent. Since these new cells are still in the experimental phase of development, a currently available GaAs cell providing 18 percent efficiency is examined as an alternate to the experimental cells. Both Brayton and Stirling cycles, powered by linear parabolic solar concentrators, are examined for dynamic cycle power conversion. The Brayton cycle is studied in depth since it is already well developed and can provide high power levels fairly efficiently in a compact, low mass system. The dynamic conversion system requires large scale waste heat rejection capability. To provide this heat rejection, a comparison is made between a heat pipe/radiative fin system using advanced composites, and a potentially less massive liquid droplet radiator system. To supply power through the lunar night, both a low temperature alkaline fuel cell system and an experimental high temperature monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell system are considered. The reactants for the fuel cells are stored cryogenically in order to avoid the high tankage mass required by conventional gaseous storage. In addition, it is proposed that the propellant tanks from a spent, prototype lunar excursion vehicle be used for this purpose, therefore resulting in a significant overall reduction in effective storage system mass.

  5. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas, Constantinos Rouvas, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis, George Kourtis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software...

  6. A Spanish 'power tower' solar system - Project CESA-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Torralbo, A.; Hernandez Gonzalvez, C.; Ortiz Roses, C.; Avellaner Lacal, J.; Sanchez, F.

    1984-02-01

    Attention is given to the design features, development and construction status, and performance capabilities of the CESA-1 solar thermal central receiver system project. The heliostat field includes 300 units of two different types, and the central receiver is of water-steam cavity type. Power conversion is by means of a regenerative Rankine cycle whose primary component is a turbogenerator with multistage condensing turbine. A molten salt sensible heat storage system is incorporated. Detailed specifications are given for all operating parameters.

  7. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A technical progress report on the DOE Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is given. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the prior to FY 1978 is given; the significant achievements and real progress of each project during FY 1978 are described; and future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements for each project are forecast. (WHK)

  8. Power Management Strategy by Enhancing the Mission Profile Configuration of Solar-Powered Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy offers solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV the possibility of unlimited endurance. Some researchers have developed techniques to achieve perpetual flight by maximizing the power from the sun and by flying in accordance with its azimuth angles. However, flying in a path that follows the sun consumes more energy to sustain level flight. This study optimizes the overall power ratio by adopting the mission profile configuration of optimal solar energy exploitation. Extensive simulation is conducted to optimize and restructure the mission profile phases of UAV and to determine the optimal phase definition of the start, ascent, and descent periods, thereby maximizing the energy from the sun. In addition, a vertical cylindrical flight trajectory instead of maximizing the solar inclination angle has been adopted. This approach improves the net power ratio by 30.84% compared with other techniques. As a result, the battery weight may be massively reduced by 75.23%. In conclusion, the proposed mission profile configuration with the optimal power ratio of the trajectory of the path planning effectively prolongs UAV operation.

  9. Assessment of distributed solar power systems: Issues and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R. A.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T. C.; Patton, J. B.

    1982-11-01

    The installation of distributed solar-power systems presents electric utilities with a host of questions. Some of the technical and economic impacts of these systems are discussed. Among the technical interconnect issues are isolated operation, power quality, line safety, and metering options. Economic issues include user purchase criteria, structures and installation costs, marketing and product distribution costs, and interconnect costs. An interactive computer program that allows easy calculation of allowable system prices and allowable generation-equipment prices was developed as part of this project. It is concluded that the technical problems raised by distributed solar systems are surmountable, but their resolution may be costly. The stringent purchase criteria likely to be imposed by many potential system users and the economies of large-scale systems make small systems (less than 10 to 20 kW) less attractive than larger systems. Utilities that consider life-cycle costs in making investment decisions and third-party investors who have tax and financial advantages are likely to place the highest value on solar-power systems.

  10. Non-Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Options for Financing Solar Deployment at Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-01

    Financing solar using power purchase agreements (PPAs) has facilitated solar deployment of more than 100 megawatts (MW) at universities--as compared to 50 MW facilitated by financing models not using PPAs. This brochure, which overviews existing financing models and funding mechanisms available for solar procurement, focuses on non-PPA financing models. For more information on solar deployment at universities using PPAs, refer to Using Power Purchase Agreements for Solar Deployment at Universities.

  11. Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data (CSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T.; Renne, D.; Myers, D.; Wilcox, S.; Sengupta, M.; George, R.; Turchi, C.

    2010-09-01

    As the world looks for low-carbon sources of energy, solar power stands out as the most abundant energy resource. Harnessing this energy is the challenge for this century. Photovoltaics and concentrating solar power (CSP) are two primary forms of electricity generation using sunlight. These use different technologies, collect different fractions of the solar resource, and have different siting and production capabilities. Although PV systems are most often deployed as distributed generation sources, CSP systems favor large, centrally located systems. Accordingly, large CSP systems require a substantial investment, sometimes exceeding $1 billion in construction costs. Before such a project is undertaken, the best possible information about the quality and reliability of the fuel source must be made available. That is, project developers need to have reliable data about the solar resource available at specific locations to predict the daily and annual performance of a proposed CSP plant. Without these data, no financial analysis is possible. This handbook presents detailed information about solar resource data and the resulting data products needed for each stage of the project.

  12. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-05-27

    IntroductionSolar power represents an important and rapidly expanding component of the renewable energy portfolio of the United States (Lovich and Ennen, 2011; Hernandez and others, 2014). Understanding the impacts of renewable energy development on wildlife is a priority for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in compliance with Department of Interior Order No. 3285 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2009) to “develop best management practices for renewable energy and transmission projects on the public lands to ensure the most environmentally responsible development and delivery of renewable energy.” Recent studies examining effects of renewable energy development on mortality of migratory birds have primarily focused on wind energy (California Energy Commission and California Department of Fish and Game, 2007), and in 2012 the FWS published guidance for addressing wildlife conservation concerns at all stages of land-based wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). As yet, no similar guidelines exist for solar development, and no published studies have directly addressed the methodology needed to accurately estimate mortality of birds and bats at solar facilities. In the absence of such guidelines, ad hoc methodologies applied to solar energy projects may lead to estimates of wildlife mortality rates that are insufficiently accurate and precise to meaningfully inform conversations regarding unintended consequences of this energy source and management decisions to mitigate impacts. Although significant advances in monitoring protocols for wind facilities have been made in recent years, there remains a need to provide consistent guidance and study design to quantify mortality of bats, and resident and migrating birds at solar power facilities (Walston and others, 2015).In this document, we suggest methods for mortality monitoring at solar facilities that are based on current methods used at wind power facilities but adapted for the

  13. Statement of work for solar thermal power systems and photovoltaic solar-energy systems technical support services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Work is broken down in the following areas: solar thermal central receiver systems analysis; advanced solar thermal systems analysis and engineering; thermal power systems support; total energy systems mission analysis; irrigation and small community mission analysis; photovoltaics mission analysis; Solar Thermal Test Facility and Central Receiver Pilot Plant systems engineering. (LEW)

  14. Choice of antenna geometry for microwave power transmission from solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison is made between square and circular transmitting antennas for solar power satellite microwave power transmission. It is seen that the exclusion zone around the rectenna needed to protect populations from microwaves is smaller for a circular antenna operating at 2.45 GHz than it is for a square antenna at that frequency. If the frequency is increased, the exclusion zone size remains the same for a square antenna, but becomes even smaller for a circular antenna. Peak beam intensity is the same for both antennas if the frequency and antenna area are equal. The circular antenna puts a somewhat greater amount of power in the main lobe and somewhat less in the side lobes. Since rain attenuation and atmospheric heating remain problems above 10 GHz, it is recommended that future solar power satellite work concentrate on circular transmitting antennas at frequencies of roughly 10 GHz.

  15. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  16. Lightweight DC-DC Converter with Partial Power Processing and MPPT for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab-Marzouk, Ahmad

    A lightweight dc-dc partial power processing converter is demonstrated for solar aerospace applications. A system-level model is conceived to determine conformity to payload and target distance objectives, with the Solarship aircraft used as an application example. The concept of partial power processing is utilized to realize a high efficiency lightweight converter that performs Max Peak Power Tracking (MPPT) to transfer power from the aircraft solar array to the high-voltage battery bus. The isolated Cuk is determined to be a suitable converter topology for the application. A small-signal model is derived for control design. The operation of a 400V, 2.7 kW prototype is verified at high frequency (200 kHz), high efficiency (> 98%), small mass (0.604 kg), and uses no electrolytic capacitors. MPPT operation is verified on a 376 V commercial solar installation at The University of Toronto. The prototype serves as an enabling technology for solar aerospace applications.

  17. Solid-state retrodirective phased array concepts for microwave power transmission from Solar Power Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K. G.; Petroff, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed is on-going solid-state amplifier development.

  18. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Tug Power System Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Bury, Kristen M.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Sajdak, Adam M.; Scheiddegger, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is truly at the "intersection of commercial and military space" as well as the intersection of NASA robotic and human space missions. Building on the use of SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft station keeping, there are numerous potential commercial and military mission applications for SEP stages operating in Earth orbit. At NASA, there is a resurgence of interest in robotic SEP missions for Earth orbit raising applications, 1-AU class heliocentric missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) and SEP spacecraft technology demonstrations. Beyond these nearer term robotic missions, potential future human space flight missions to NEOs with high-power SEP stages are being considered. To enhance or enable this broad class of commercial, military and NASA missions, advancements in the power level and performance of SEP technologies are needed. This presentation will focus on design considerations for the solar photovoltaic array (PVA) and electric power system (EPS) vital to the design and operation of an SEP stage. The engineering and programmatic pros and cons of various PVA and EPS technologies and architectures will be discussed in the context of operating voltage and power levels. The impacts of PVA and EPS design options on the remaining SEP stage subsystem designs, as well as spacecraft operations, will also be discussed.

  19. The Solar Umbrella: A Low-cost Demonstration of Scalable Space Based Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Sherwood, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Within the past decade, the Space Solar Power (SSP) community has seen an influx of stakeholders willing to entertain the SSP prospect of potentially boundless, base-load solar energy. Interested parties affiliated with the Department of Defense (DoD), the private sector, and various international entities have all agreed that while the benefits of SSP are tremendous and potentially profitable, the risk associated with developing an efficient end to end SSP harvesting system is still very high. In an effort to reduce the implementation risk for future SSP architectures, this study proposes a system level design that is both low-cost and seeks to demonstrate the furthest transmission of wireless power to date. The overall concept is presented and each subsystem is explained in detail with best estimates of current implementable technologies. Basic cost models were constructed based on input from JPL subject matter experts and assume that the technology demonstration would be carried out by a federally funded entity. The main thrust of the architecture is to demonstrate that a usable amount of solar power can be safely and reliably transmitted from space to the Earth's surface; however, maximum power scalability limits and their cost implications are discussed.

  20. Scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnav

    2016-09-01

    Energy is at the core of economic growth and development in the present day world. But relentless and unchecked use of harmful energy resources like fossil fuels (coil and oil), nuclear energy has taken a toll on mother nature. The energy coffers are being rapidly depleted and within a few years all of them will become empty, leaving nothing for the future generations to build on. Their constant usage has degraded the air quality and given way to land and water pollution. Scientists and world leaders have initiated a call for action to shift our dependence from currently popular energy sources to cleaner and renewable energy sources. Search for such energy sources have been going on for many years. Solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, tidal energy, biofuel, etc. have caught the attention of people. Another such important which has become popular is 'Solar Hydrogen'. Many visionary scientists have called hydrogen the energy of the future. It is produced from water by direct or indirect use of sunlight in a sustainable manner. This paper discusses the current energy scenario, the importance of solar-hydrogen as a fuel and most importantly the scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coastline.

  1. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters Integrating Solar Radiation with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric harvesters use temperature fluctuations to generate electrical outputs. Solar radiation and waste heat are rich energy sources that can be harvested. Pyroelectric energy converters offer a novel and direct energy-conversion technology by transforming time-dependent temperatures directly into electricity. Moreover, the great challenge for pyroelectric energy harvesting lies in finding promising temperature variations or an alternating thermal loading in real situations. Hence, in this article, a novel pyroelectric harvester integrating solar radiation with wind power by the pyroelectric effect is proposed. Solar radiation is a thermal source, and wind is a dynamic potential. A disk generator is used for harvesting wind power. A mechanism is considered to convert the rotary energy of the disk generator to drive a shutter for generating temperature variations in pyroelectric cells using a planetary gear system. The optimal period of the pyroelectric cells is 35 s to harvest the stored energy, about 70 μJ, while the rotary velocity of the disk generator is about 31 RPM and the wind speed is about 1 m/s. In this state, the stored energy acquired from the pyroelectric harvester is about 75% more than that from the disk generator. Although the generated energy of the proposed pyroelectric harvester is less than that of the disk generator, the pyroelectric harvester plays a complementary role when the disk generator is inactive in situations of low wind speed.

  2. Ultralightweight Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrators for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeill, M. J.; McDanal, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    The first phase of this project was completed in March 2000, and included the successful technology demonstration of a new ultralightweight photovoltaic concentrator array at the fully functional panel level. The new array is called the Stretched Lens Aurora (SLA) array, and uses deployable, flexible, thin-film silicone rubber Fresnel lenses to focus sunlight onto high efficiency multijunction solar cells, which are mounted to a composite radiator surface for waste heat dissipation. A prototype panel was delivered to NASA Marshall in March 2000, and comprised four side-by-side lenses focussing sunlight onto four side-by-side photovoltaic receivers. This prototype panel was tested by NASA Glenn prior to delivery to NASA Marshall. The best of the four lens/receiver modules achieved 27.4% efficiency at room temperature in the NASA Glenn solar simulator tests. This performance equates to 375 W/sq.m. areal power and 378 W/kg specific power at the fully functional panel level. We believe this to be the first space solar array of any kind to simulataneously meet the two long-standing NASA goals of 300 W/sq.m. and 300 W/kg at the functional panel level. Key results for the first phase of the program have been documented by ENTECH in a Draft Final Technical Report, which is presently being reviewed by NASA, and which should be published in the near future.

  3. Large area solar power heliostat array for OSETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Corbin E.

    2001-08-01

    Current OSETI programs make use of optical telescopes with light collection areas on the order of 10 square meters or less. The small collection area limits the ultimate sensitivity achievable to low-intensity signals. However, solar power facilities such as the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) provide the potential for a much larger collecting area. The NSTTF is operated at by the Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories for research in solar power development and testing. The NSTTF site includes over 200 fully steerable mirrors (called heliostats) each providing 37 square meters of collecting area. This facility is currently being used at night for gamma-ray astronomy. The STACEE experiment makes use of 64 heliostats to detect nanosecond flashes of optical Cherenkov light associated with gamma-ray air showers from the top of the atmosphere. The STACEE experiment has been in operation since 1998 and has already detected gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula. In principle, the STACEE experiment can be operated with minor modifications to detect OSETI signals on the ground at a photon density of less than two optical photons per square meter per pulse. We summarize performance results from the STACEE experiment, and we discuss the sensitivity of a hypothetical future STACEE-OSETI experiment with particular attention to potential sources of background.

  4. Radiation Testing of PICA at the Solar Power Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratory's Solar Power Tower was used to irradiate specimens of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), in order to evaluate whether this thermal protection system material responded differently to potential shock layer radiative heating than to convective heating. Tests were run at 50, 100 and 150 Watts per square centimeter levels of concentrated solar radiation. Experimental results are presented both from spectral measurements on 1- 10 mm thick specimens of PICA, as well as from in-depth temperature measurements on instrumented thicker test specimens. Both spectral measurements and measured in-depth temperature profiles showed that, although it is a porous, low-density material, PICA does not exhibit problematic transparency to the tested high levels of NIR radiation, for all pragmatic cm-to-inch scale thicknesses. PICA acted as a surface absorber to efficiently absorb the incident visible and near infrared incident radiation in the top 2 millimeter layer in the Solar Power Tower tests up to 150 Watts per square centimeter.

  5. Ground-based Space Weather Monitoring with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael; van Haarlem, Michiel; Lawrence, Gareth; Reid, Simon; Bos, Andre; Rawlings, Steve; Salvini, Stef; Mitchell, Cathryn; Soleimani, Manuch; Amado, Sergio; Teresa, Vital

    As one of the first of a new generation of radio instruments, the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) will provide a number of unique and novel capabilities for the astronomical community. These include remote configuration and operation, dynamic real-time processing and system response, and the ability to provide multiple simultaneous streams of data to a community whose scientific interests run the gamut from lighting in the atmospheres of distant planets to the origins of the universe itself. The LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) system is optimized for a frequency range from 30-240 MHz and consists of multiple antenna fields spread across Europe. In the Netherlands, a total 36 LOFAR stations are nearing completion with an initial 8 international stations currently being deployed in Germany, France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR has the potential to achieve unparalleled sensitivity and spatial resolution in the low frequency radio regime. LOFAR will also be one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. As we discuss in this presentation, the same capabilities that make LOFAR a powerful tool for radio astronomy also provide an excellent platform upon which to build a ground-based monitoring system for space weather events. For example, the ability to monitor Solar activity in near real-time is one of the key scientific capabilities being developed for LOFAR. With only a fraction of its total observing capacity, LOFAR will be able to provide continuous monitoring of the Solar spectrum over the entire 10-240 MHz band down to microsecond timescales. Autonomous routines will scan these incoming spectral data for evidence of Solar flares and be

  6. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Ken

    2002-04-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a ground-based instrument designed to study astrophysical sources of gamma rays in the energy range from 50 to 500 GeV using an array of heliostat mirrors at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in New Mexico. The mirrors collect Cherenkov light generated by gamma-ray air showers and concentrate it onto cameras composed of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE instrument is now complete, and uses a total of 64 heliostats. Prototype instruments, using smaller numbers of heliostats, have previously detected gamma emission from both the Crab Nebula and the Active Galactic Nucleus Mrk421. The complete instrument has a lower threshold -- approximately 50 GeV -- than those prototypes due to superior triggering and electronics, including flash ADCs for every channel.We will discuss the performance of the complete instrument in its first full season of operation, and present preliminary results of selected observations.

  7. Solar Stirling power generation - Systems analysis and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Wu, Y.-C.; Moynihan, P. I.; Day, F. D., III

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of an electric power generation system utilizing a sun-tracking parabolic concentrator and a Stirling engine/linear alternator is being evaluated. Performance predictions and cost analysis of a proposed large distributed system are discussed. Design details and preliminary test results are presented for a 9.5 ft diameter parabolic dish at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Caltech) Table Mountain Test Facility. Low temperature calorimetric measurements were conducted to evaluate the concentrator performance, and a helium flow system is being used to test the solar receiver at anticipated working fluid temperatures (up to 650 or 1200 C) to evaluate the receiver thermal performance. The receiver body is designed to adapt to a free-piston Stirling engine which powers a linear alternator assembly for direct electric power generation. During the next phase of the program, experiments with an engine and receiver integrated into the concentrator assembly are planned.

  8. Fresnel zones for ground-based antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. Bach

    1964-01-01

    The ordinary Fresnel zone concept is modified to include the influence of finite ground conductivity. This is important for ground-based antennas because the influence on the radiation pattern of irregularities near the antenna is determined by the amplitude and phase of the groundwave. A new...

  9. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  10. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  11. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  12. Identifying potential solar power generation sites using satellite apt images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawz-Ul-Haq, K. R.; Siddiqui, Z. R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, satellite APT images have been used to study cloud-cover over Pakistan, so as to determine those areas which have the least frequency of cloudiness. Such areas are likely to receive maximum insolation, and have been shown on a contour map of Pakistan. It is observed that more than half of Pakistan is highly sunny, and has many promising areas for establishing large scale solar electric power generation stations. It is further observed that, some of the productive mineral-rich areas in remote parts, such as Chagai, are highly cloud-free, therefore, it may be possible to meet their mining needs through solar energy. Thus Pakistan, on the threshold of industrialization, has high prospects of obtaining `clean' energy, free of greenhouse gases.

  13. The silicon solar satellite power system - A net energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, B.; Naughton, J. P.

    The physical aspects and net energy balance of a Satellite Solar Power System (SSPS) are examined. The feasibility of operating with or without laser annealing for the cells, possible variations in the total system costs, the projected worth of the energy, and the R&D costs are explored. The energy needed to mine, refine, fabricate, manufacture, launch, and maintain the SSPS materials and structures are included in the energy analysis, and cost-to-energy ratio of energy used to energy produced graphs are provided for the cases of the use or non-use of laser annealing for radiation protection for the solar cells. The resulting energy ratios indicate that the reference SSPS compares unfavorably with coal or nuclear earth-based plants, although further research is necessary to determine what level of technology is actually required for construction of the SSPS.

  14. Development of solar concentrators for high-power solar-pumped lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T H; Ohkubo, T; Yabe, T

    2014-04-20

    We have developed unique solar concentrators for solar-pumped solid-state lasers to improve both efficiency and laser output power. Natural sunlight is collected by a primary concentrator which is a 2  m×2  m Fresnel lens, and confined by a cone-shaped hybrid concentrator. Such solar power is coupled to a laser rod by a cylinder with coolant surrounding it that is called a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL). Performance of the cylindrical LLGL has been characterized analytically and experimentally. Since a 14 mm diameter LLGL generates efficient and uniform pumping along a Nd:YAG rod that is 6 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length, 120 W cw laser output is achieved with beam quality factor M2 of 137 and overall slope efficiency of 4.3%. The collection efficiency is 30.0  W/m2, which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. The overall conversion efficiency is more than 3.2%, which can be comparable to a commercial lamp-pumped solid-state laser. The concept of the light-guide lens can be applied for concentrator photovoltaics or other solar energy optics.

  15. Numerical evaluation of the Kalina cycle for concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish

    of using a Kalina cycle is evaluated with a thermoeconomic optimization with a turbine inlet temperature of 500 C for a central receiver solar power plant with direct vapour generation, and 370 C for a parabolic trough solar power plant with Therminol VP-1 as the solar field heat transfer fluid. No thermal......Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. One of the key challenges currently faced by the solar industry is the high cost of electricity production....... These costs may be driven down by developing more cost-effective plant components and improving the system designs. This thesis focuses on the power cycle aspect of the concentrating solar power plants by studying the use a Kalina cycle with ammonia-water mixtures as the cycle working fluid. The potential...

  16. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongPing; CUI YingHong; HOU HongJuan; GUO XiYan; YANG ZhiPing; WANG NinLing

    2008-01-01

    Integrationg rating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha-nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a of SEGS, 0.14 S/kW. h.

  17. Investigating the Correlation Between Wind and Solar Power Forecast Errors in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.

    2013-05-01

    Wind and solar power generations differ from conventional energy generation because of the variable and uncertain nature of their power output. This variability and uncertainty can have significant impacts on grid operations. Thus, short-term forecasting of wind and solar generation is uniquely helpful for power system operations to balance supply and demand in an electricity system. This paper investigates the correlation between wind and solar power forecasting errors.

  18. Impact of Improved Solar Forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    The diurnal nature of solar power is made uncertain by variable cloud cover and the influence of atmospheric conditions on irradiance scattering processes. Its forecasting has become increasingly important to the unit commitment and dispatch process for efficient scheduling of generators in power system operations. This study examines the value of improved solar power forecasting for the Independent System Operator-New England system. The results show how 25% solar power penetration reduces net electricity generation costs by 22.9%.

  19. Convex relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Feeders with embedded solar power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    panels with uncontrolled inverters, the upper limit of installable capacity is quickly reached in many of today’s distribution feeders. This problem can often be mitigated by optimally controlling the voltage angles of inverters. However, the optimal power flow problem in its standard form is a large......There is an increasing interest in using Distributed Energy Resources (DER) directly coupled to end user distribution feeders. This poses an array of challenges because most of today’s distribution feeders are designed for unidirectional power flow. Therefore when installing DERs such as solar...... scale non-convex optimization problem, and thus can’t be solved precisely and also is computationally heavy and intractable for large systems. This paper examines the use of a convex relaxation using Semi-definite programming to optimally control solar power inverters in a distribution grid in order...

  20. Towards Space Solar Power - Examining Atmospheric Interactions of Power Beams with the HAARP Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, M

    2014-01-01

    In the most common space solar power (SSP) system architectures, solar energy harvested by large satellites in geostationary orbit is transmitted to Earth via microwave radiation. Currently, only limited information about the interactions of microwave beams with energy densities of several tens to hundreds of W/m$^2$ with the different layers of the atmosphere is available. Governmental bodies will likely require detailed investigations of safety and atmospheric effects of microwave power beams before issuing launch licenses for SSP satellite systems. This paper proposes to collect representative and comprehensive data of the interaction of power beams with the atmosphere by extending the infrastructure of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. Estimates of the transmission infrastructure performance as well as measurement devices and scientific capabilities of possible upgrade scenarios will be discussed. The proposed upgrade of the HAARP facility is expected to d...

  1. Dynamic Modeling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Barcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic trough solar power plants use a thermal fluid to transfer thermal energy from solar radiation to a water-steam Rankine cycle in order to drive a turbine that, coupled to an electrical generator, produces electricity. These plants have a heat transfer fluid (HTF system with the necessary elements to transform solar radiation into heat and to transfer that thermal energy to the water-steam exchangers. In order to get the best possible performance in the Rankine cycle and, hence, in the thermal plant, it is necessary that the thermal fluid reach its maximum temperature when leaving the solar field (SF. Also, it is mandatory that the thermal fluid does not exceed the maximum operating temperature of the HTF, above which it degrades. It must be noted that the optimal temperature of the thermal fluid is difficult to obtain, since solar radiation can change abruptly from one moment to another. The aim of this document is to provide a model of an HTF system that can be used to optimize the control of the temperature of the fluid without interfering with the normal operation of the plant. The results obtained with this model will be contrasted with those obtained in a real plant.

  2. PowerShades. Transparent photovoltaics and solar shading. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzel, E. (PhotoSolar ApS, Taastrup (Denmark)); Univ. of Neuchatel, Institute of Microtechnology, Neuchatel (CH)); Savcor Denmark A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)); Chem-Tec Plating A/S, Uldum (Denmark)); Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark))

    2008-06-15

    This report marks the end of the PSO funded R and D project PowerShades. The objective of the project has been to establish knowledge about the manufacturing of PowerShade transparent photovoltaics and to demonstrate the viability of PowerShade, both as a product and when considered a building element. It has not been the objective to demonstrate a full-scale manufacturing of PowerShade, but to establish the knowledge that enables industrial manufacturing. The overall objective of the project has been achieved, and the large majority of the milestones defined have been met to full extent. It has been shown that PowerShade photovoltaic cells with an electrical efficiency of 5% can be reached, and it is expected that future work will lead to even better efficiency. Also, it has been demonstrated by full size side by side comparison that PowerShade transparent photovoltaics may replace exterior solar shading devices without compromise to the thermal properties of the building. The project has identified a number of work areas that must be addressed before an industrial manufacturing can be established. The efficiency of the photovoltaic generator must be increased and the stability of the entire product documented. Also, some of the identified processing steps must be scaled in capacity before manufacturing can be considered. (author)

  3. Phase control system concepts and simulations. [solar power satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A phase control system concept for a solar power satellite is proposed which partitions the system into three major levels. The first level of phase control consists of a reference phase distribution system implemented in the form of phase distribution tree structure. The major purpose of the tree structure is to electronically compensate for the phase shift due to the transition path lengths from the center of the spacetenna to each phase control center located in each subarray. In the reference system, this is accomplished using the master slave returnable timing system technique. The second level of phase control consists of the beam steering and microwave power generating system which houses the power transponders. This transponder consists of a set of phase conjugation multipliers driven by the reference phase distribution system output and the output of a pilot spread spectrum receiver which accepts the received pilot via a diplexer connected to a separate receive horn or the subarray itself. The output of the phase conjugation circuits serve as inputs to the third level of the phase control system. The third level of phase control is associated with maintaining an equal and constant phase shift through the microwave power amplifier devices while minimizing the associated phase noise effects on the generated power beam. This is accomplished by providing a phase locked loop around each high power amplifier.

  4. First Ground-Based Infrared Solar Absorption Measurements of Free Tropospheric Methanol (CH3OH): Multidecade Infrared Time Series from Kitt Peak (31.9 deg N 111.6 deg W): Trend, Seasonal Cycle, and Comparison with Previous Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Chiou, Linda; Herbin, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric CH3OH (methanol) free tropospheric (2.09-14-km altitude) time series spanning 22 years has been analyzed on the basis of high-spectral resolution infrared solar absorption spectra of the strong vs band recorded from the U.S. National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak (latitude 31.9degN, 111.6degW, 2.09-km altitude) with a 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The measurements span October 1981 to December 2003 and are the first long time series of CH3OH measurements obtained from the ground. The results were analyzed with SFIT2 version 3.93 and show a factor of three variations with season, a maximum at the beginning of July, a winter minimum, and no statistically significant long-term trend over the measurement time span.

  5. Experimental validation of a solar-chimney power plant model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Nima; Wayne, Patrick; Trueba Monje, Ignacio; Vorobieff, Peter

    2016-11-01

    In a solar chimney power plant system (SCPPS), the energy of buoyant hot air is converted to electrical energy. SCPPS includes a collector at ground level covered with a transparent roof. Solar radiation heats the air inside and the ground underneath. There is a tall chimney at the center of the collector, and a turbine located at the base of the chimney. Lack of detailed experimental data for validation is one of the important issues in modeling this type of power plants. We present a small-scale experimental prototype developed to perform validation analysis for modeling and simulation of SCCPS. Detailed velocity measurements are acquired using particle image velocimetry (PIV) at a prescribed Reynolds number. Convection is driven by a temperature-controlled hot plate at the bottom of the prototype. Velocity field data are used to perform validation analysis and measure any mismatch of the experimental results and the CFD data. CFD Code verification is also performed, to assess the uncertainly of the numerical model with respect to our grid and the applied mathematical model. The dimensionless output power of the prototype is calculated and compared with a recent analytical solution and the experimental results.

  6. Solar Dynamic Power System Stability Analysis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct dynamic analysis, control design, and control performance test of solar power system. Solar power system consists of generation system and distribution network system. A bench mark system is used in this research, which includes a generator with excitation system and governor, an ac/dc converter, six DDCU's and forty-eight loads. A detailed model is used for modeling generator. Excitation system is represented by a third order model. DDCU is represented by a seventh order system. The load is modeled by the combination of constant power and constant impedance. Eigen-analysis and eigen-sensitivity analysis are used for system dynamic analysis. The effects of excitation system, governor, ac/dc converter control, and the type of load on system stability are discussed. In order to improve system transient stability, nonlinear ac/dc converter control is introduced. The direct linearization method is used for control design. The dynamic analysis results show that these controls affect system stability in different ways. The parameter coordination of controllers are recommended based on the dynamic analysis. It is concluded from the present studies that system stability is improved by the coordination of control parameters and the nonlinear ac/dc converter control stabilize system oscillation caused by the load change and system fault efficiently.

  7. Convex relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Feeders with embedded solar power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun;

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using Distributed Energy Resources (DER) directly coupled to end user distribution feeders. This poses an array of challenges because most of today’s distribution feeders are designed for unidirectional power flow. Therefore when installing DERs such as solar pa...... to minimize the global line losses of the feeder. The mathematical model is presented in details. Further, case studies are completed with simulations involving a 15-bus radial distribution system. These simulations are run for 24 hour periods, with actual solar data and demand data....

  8. Simulation of a solar powered electric vehicle under the constraints of the world solar challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerig, Steven J.

    1995-03-01

    Development of an effective method for evaluation of alternative energy sources in the automotive industry has always been a necessity for cost efficient design analysis. One viable alternative energy source is electricity. In the present day environment of shrinking fossil fuel supplies and environmental awareness, electric powered vehicles are becoming a low cost, non-polluting, alternative means of transportation. The analysis of reliable electric propulsion can be expensive without a modeling tool for evaluating design strategies before vehicle construction. This thesis explores electricity as an alternative energy source for the automobile of tomorrow. Under the guidelines of the World Solar challenge, a solar powered electric vehicle, using a permanent-magnet brushless dc motor has be modeled and simulated in Simulink (Dynamic System Simulation Software). The simulations were performed with the goal of determining the optimum configuration to efficiently utilize the power supplied from the solar array, batteries, and motor. The simulated vehicle was 'driven' over various terrain's and at various speeds. The results obtained confirm this simulation as an efficient design tool and present an example of an optimum vehicle speed for one particular vehicle configuration.

  9. Early Mission Power Assessment of the Dawn Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; DiStefano, Salvatore; Rayman, Marc D.; Ulloa-Severino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Discovery Mission Dawn was launched in September 2007. Dawn will be the first to orbit two asteroids on a single voyage. The solar array for the Dawn mission will provide power under greatly varying illumination and temperature conditions. Dawn's ion propulsion system (IPS) will provide the spacecraft with enough thrust to reach Vesta and Ceres and orbit both. The demanding mission would be impossible without ion propulsion -- a mission only to the asteroid Vesta (and not including Ceres) would require a much more massive spacecraft and, a much larger launch vehicle.

  10. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  11. Solar central electric power generation - A baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the conceptual technical baseline design of a solar electric power plant using the central receiver concept, and derives credible cost estimates from the baseline design. The major components of the plant - heliostats, tower, receiver, tower piping, and thermal storage - are discussed in terms of technical and cost information. The assumed peak plant output is 215 MW(e), over 4000 daylight hours. The contribution of total capital investment to energy cost is estimated to be about 55 mills per kwh in mid-1974 dollars.

  12. Early Mission Power Assessment of the Dawn Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; DiStefano, Salvatore; Rayman, Marc D.; Ulloa-Severino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Discovery Mission Dawn was launched in September 2007. Dawn will be the first to orbit two asteroids on a single voyage. The solar array for the Dawn mission will provide power under greatly varying illumination and temperature conditions. Dawn's ion propulsion system (IPS) will provide the spacecraft with enough thrust to reach Vesta and Ceres and orbit both. The demanding mission would be impossible without ion propulsion -- a mission only to the asteroid Vesta (and not including Ceres) would require a much more massive spacecraft and, a much larger launch vehicle.

  13. North Germany is gaining ground in solar power generation; Der Norden holt beim Sonnenstrom auf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-10-15

    In 2010, the North German states of Brandenburg and Schleswig-Holstein took second and third place in the construction of new solar systems. Bavaria is still leading. The capacity increase in the solar sector substitutes one nuclear power station.

  14. Double mirror polyheliostat solar furnace of 1000 kW thermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riskiev, T.T.; Suleimanov, S.K.H. (Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Scientific Association ' Physics Sun' , Tashkent (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    The optical-energetic scheme, construction and performance of a double mirror polyheliostat solar furnace of 1000 kW thermal power are outlined and first results of material synthesis in this solar furnace are reported. (orig.).

  15. Worldwide impact of aerosol's time scale on the predicted long-term concentrating solar power potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A; Gueymard, Christian A; Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2016-01-01

    ...% in some areas with high solar resource, which may result in detrimental consequences for the bankability of concentrating solar power projects. Recommendations for the use of either daily or monthly AOD data are provided on a geographical basis.

  16. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  17. Design and analysis of solar thermoelectric power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharasathien, Narong; Hirunlabh, Jongjit; Khedari, Joseph; Daguenet, Michel

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on the design and performance analysis of a solar thermoelectric power generation plant (STEPG). The system considers both truncated compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) with a flat receiver and conventional flat-plate collectors, thermoelectric (TE) cooling and power generator modules and appropriate connecting pipes and control devices. The design tool uses TRNSYS IIsibat-15 program with a new component we developed for the TE modules. The main input data of the system are the specifications of TE module, the maximum hot side temperature of TE modules, and the desired power output. Examples of the design using truncated CPC and flat-plate collectors are reported and discussed for various slope angle and half-acceptance angle of CPC. To minimize system cost, seasonal adjustment of the slope angle between 0° and 30° was considered, which could give relatively high power output under Bangkok ambient condition. Two small-scale STEPGs were built. One of them uses electrical heater, whereas the other used a CPC with locally made aluminum foil reflector. Measured data showed reasonable agreement with the model outputs. TE cooling modules were found to be more appropriate. Therefore, the TRNSYS software and the developed TE component offer an extremely powerful tool for the design and performance analysis of STEPG plant.

  18. Optimization of solar power plants with rotating electric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppe, Harry O.; Blumenberg, J.

    It is shown how such electric power plants can be optimized for space applications, including space-based solar power systems generating electric energy for Earth usage. Reradiation from the energy collector and optical properties of the collector are of significant influence. Main conclusions are: -simple (i.e optically inferior), but light-weight concentrators should not be ruled out, -optimum temperatures are not extremely high, -the ratio of power plant mass to electric power is comparable to corresponding data for such systems deriving primary power from nuclear reactors. This paper consists of two parts: Firstly (H. O. Ruppe), somewhat extreme and idealized design examples are presented and the method is developed. Only the Rankine (really, derated Carnot) cycle is considered. All of this information is based strongly on pp. 225-241 of Ruppe, Introduction to Astronautica, Vol. 2. Academic Press, New York (1967). Secondly (J. Blumenberg), more refined information is included. This is largely taken from Blumenberg, Acta Astronautica8, 839-854 (1981), and additional data which were developed for this publication.

  19. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  20. A Solar Automatic Tracking System that Generates Power for Lighting Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Xun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we design and test a novel solar tracking generation system. Moreover, we show that this system could be successfully used as an advanced solar power source to generate power in greenhouses. The system was developed after taking into consideration the geography, climate, and other environmental factors of northeast China. The experimental design of this study included the following steps: (i the novel solar tracking generation system was measured, and its performance was analyzed; (ii the system configuration and operation principles were evaluated; (iii the performance of this power generation system and the solar irradiance were measured according to local time and conditions; (iv the main factors affecting system performance were analyzed; and (v the amount of power generated by the solar tracking system was compared with the power generated by fixed solar panels. The experimental results indicated that compared to the power generated by fixed solar panels, the solar tracking system generated about 20% to 25% more power. In addition, the performance of this novel power generating system was found to be closely associated with solar irradiance. Therefore, the solar tracking system provides a new approach to power generation in greenhouses.

  1. The use of solar energy for powering a portable autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, M N; Chandak, A; Phute, S U; Khadse, R K; Adchitre, H R; Kulkarni, S D

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels have forced the developed world to look for clean energy alternatives. Solar cooking is developing in Asian and African countries blessed with ample sun, but is still at an early stage. A portable autoclave was developed in India using this technology. The Prince-40 Concentrator provided adequate capacity to autoclave culture media and treat biomedical waste in a small laboratory set-up, and could save electricity worth Rs. 15,000 (188.10 GBP)/year or LPG worth Rs. 37,500 (470.25 GBP)/year. This technology would be of immense use in health centres in rural areas with frequent power cuts or no power supply. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Data-driven modeling of solar-powered urban microgrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halu, Arda; Scala, Antonio; Khiyami, Abdulaziz; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Distributed generation takes center stage in today's rapidly changing energy landscape. Particularly, locally matching demand and generation in the form of microgrids is becoming a promising alternative to the central distribution paradigm. Infrastructure networks have long been a major focus of complex networks research with their spatial considerations. We present a systemic study of solar-powered microgrids in the urban context, obeying real hourly consumption patterns and spatial constraints of the city. We propose a microgrid model and study its citywide implementation, identifying the self-sufficiency and temporal properties of microgrids. Using a simple optimization scheme, we find microgrid configurations that result in increased resilience under cost constraints. We characterize load-related failures solving power flows in the networks, and we show the robustness behavior of urban microgrids with respect to optimization using percolation methods. Our findings hint at the existence of an optimal balance between cost and robustness in urban microgrids.

  3. Nonlinear Compensation of Solar Array Simulators with Dual Power Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Tkachev, S. B.; Poymanov, D. N.; Fedchenko, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    During the tests of the spacecraft electrical systems there is a need for simulators of individual parts of the spacecrafts, in particular, solar array simulators (SAS). One of the topologies of medium and high power SAS simulators has dual control of consumed power and contains series or parallel connected linear and switching regulators. This topology allows to provide wide bandwidth and high efficiency, but the range of the resistance change of periodically switched SAS load is limited to the value of the stabilized attribute. Nonlinear compensator (NC) allows to reduce the average feedback voltage of the switching regulator in case of periodic load switching, which, in turn, allows to increase the average value of the stabilized attribute. The describing function method provides a mathematical description of the NC electrical circuit, which allows to select parameters of NC that eliminate the excitation of self-oscillation based on the SAS load switching frequency range and to study the switching regulator stability.

  4. Fuzzy Controller for a Voltage-Regulated Solar-Powered MPPT System for Hybrid Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fuzzy-logic-based voltage-regulated solar power maximum power point tracking (MPPT system for applications involving hybrid power systems. The system contains a solar power system and battery as the primary and secondary power sources, respectively. The solar system alone supplies power to the electric motor and maintains the output voltage at a predetermined level when it has sufficient power. When the solar power is insufficient, the solar system is operated at its maximum power point (MPP and the battery is engaged to compensate for the insufficiency. First, a variant of the incremental conductance MPP condition was established. Under the MPP condition, the voltage-regulated MPPT system was formulated as a feedback control system, where the MPP condition and voltage regulation requirements were used as the system inputs. Next, a fuzzy controller was developed to perform the voltage-regulated MPPT function for the hybrid power system. A simulation model based on Matrix laboratory (MATLAB/SIMULINK (a block diagram environment for multi-domain simulation and model-based design and a piecewise linear electric circuit simulation (PLECS tool for controlling the dc motor velocity was developed to verify the voltage-regulated solar power MPPT system.

  5. a Technical Overview of the "suntower" Solar Power Satellite Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-03-01

    During 1995-1996, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a far-reaching reexamination of the technologies, systems concepts and terrestrial markets that might be involved in future space solar power (SSP) systems. The principal objective of this "fresh look" study was to determine whether a solar power satellite (SPS) and associated systems could be defined that could deliver energy into terrestrial electrical power grids at prices equal to or below ground alternatives in a variety of markets, do so without major environmental drawbacks, and which could be developed at a fraction of the initial investment projected for the SPS Reference System of the late 1970s. One of the key concepts emerging from the "fresh look" SSP study is the "SunTower" SPS system. This concept exploits a variety of innovative technologies and design approaches to achieve a potential breakthrough in establishing the technical and programmatic feasibility on initial commercial SSP operations. Capable of being deployed to either low Earth orbit or middle Earth orbit altitudes and various inclinations, the SunTower concept involves essentially no in-space infrastructure and requires no unique heavy lift launch vehicle. The concept, which can provide power to global market places appears to allow up to a factor of 30:1 reduction in initial investment requirements, compared to the 1979 SPS Reference Concept. This paper presents a technical overview of the SunTower SPS concept, including key technologies, sensitivity trades, operational scenarios. Potential non-SPS space program uses of the SunTower concept and related technologies are identified, including human exploration, space science and commercial space applications.

  6. Space and Ground-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Jon; Zell, Martin

    This chapter deals first with the main characteristics of the space environment, outside and inside a spacecraft. Then the space and space-related (ground-based) infrastructures are described. The most important infrastructure is the International Space Station, which holds many European facilities (for instance the European Columbus Laboratory). Some of them, such as the Columbus External Payload Facility, are located outside the ISS to benefit from external space conditions. There is only one other example of orbital platforms, the Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Orbital Capsule. In contrast, non-orbital weightless research platforms, although limited in experimental time, are more numerous: sounding rockets, parabolic flight aircraft, drop towers and high-altitude balloons. In addition to these facilities, there are a number of ground-based facilities and space simulators, for both life sciences (for instance: bed rest, clinostats) and physical sciences (for instance: magnetic compensation of gravity). Hypergravity can also be provided by human and non-human centrifuges.

  7. In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf

  8. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    The unfolding of the energy crisis in the early 1970s brought solar to the fore as a topic for national discussion. National dialogues about solar power and national energy policy were one way that Americans interpreted their present and envisioned their nation's future. Yet, policy makers and the general public considered alternative energies, including solar, largely based on the economic conditions of their eras, considerations that, at least until the Reagan era, often transcended political ideologies and parties. Energy prices and the emerging political expediency of replacing fossil fuels were the primary drivers in shaping federal energy policies and public interest during this era. Enthusiasm for solar power often corresponded to the market price of petroleum. By the late 1970s, a lot of people believed the same. Amid growing public enthusiasm, President Carter eventually came out strongly in favor of solar energy, mounting solar panels on the White House and unveiling a plan to procure 20% of the nation's energy from the sun by the year 2000. During the 1960s and 1970s, Americans changed their energy values in response to concerns over environmentalism and the antinuclear movement. Pollution, environmental disasters, and energy crises during the 1960s and 1970s brought terms like "clean energy" and "renewable energy" into the national lexicon, and solar often served as the most prominent symbol of those ideas. At the same time, advocates presented solar as a stark contrast to nuclear: solar energy made life on earth possible; nuclear energy made it perilous. Science fiction and futurism shaped the American popular imagination through its presentation of solar technology. Each genre suffused the other and ingrained in the American national consciousness a sense of grandiose wonderment about the potential for solar energy, a potential that often did not match the contemporary applications for solar technology. The emergence of solar industries alarmed oil

  9. Evaluating the enablers in solar power developments in the current scenario using fuzzy DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Kharb, Ravinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining solar power initiatives and developments for a country as large as India is difficult due to the involvement of different enablers. The decisions of these enablers will influence the formulation of strategies to encourage solar power development in India. The present research work....... This work identifies sixteen solar power enablers based on relevant literature and experts inputs. To evaluate and to categorize the recognized solar power development key enablers, a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) based methodology is utilized. The fuzzy DEMATEL approach....... In this research, the enablers causal relationships and their interactions are examined, and the findings are useful to encourage solar power development initiatives and decisions. This work will help policymakers formulate decisions to initiate and encourage solar power developments in India....

  10. Development of Ground-Based Plant Sentinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    plants in response to different strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Planta . 217:767-775. De Moraes CM, Schultz JC, Mescher MC, Tumlinson JH. (2004...09-30-2004 Final Technical _ April 2001 - April 2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developing Plants as Ground-based Sentinels 5b. GRANT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 9 "Z Plants emit volatile mixes characteristic of exposure to both plant and animal (insect) pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The

  11. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  12. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng; Velazquez-Vargas, Luis G; Maryamchik, Mikhail

    2016-10-04

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vessel connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.

  13. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng; Velazquez-Vargas, Luis G; Maryamchik, Mikhail

    2016-10-04

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vessel connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.

  14. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  15. Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted and results are presented in the paper. The maximum power point tracking function is achieved through appropriate control of the power switches of the power converter. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to perform the MPPT function for obtaining maximum power from the PV panel. The MATLAB-based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the complete circuit simulation model.

  16. COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY OF A SOLAR DRIVEN CARNOT ENGINE UNDER MAXIMUM POWER AND POWER DENSITY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis on thermodynamic efficiency based on maximum power & power density conditions have been performed for a solar-driven Carnot heat engine with internal irreversibility. In this analysis, the heat transfer from the hot reservoir is to be in the radiation mode and the heat transfer to the cold reservoir is to be in the convection mode. The thermodynamic efficiency function, power & power density functions have been derived and maximization of the power functions have been performed for various design parameters. From the optimum conditions, the thermal efficiencies at maximum power and power densities have been obtained. The effects of internal irreversibility, extreme temperature ratios & specific engine size in area ratio between the hot & cold reservoirs as various design parameters on thermodynamic efficiencies have been investigated for both the conditions. The efficiencies have been compared with Curzon-Ahlborn & Carnot efficiencies respectively.The analysis showed that the efficiency at maximum power output is greater than the efficiency at maximum power density. And the efficiencies can be greater than the Curzon- Ahlborn`s efficiency only for low values of design parameters.

  17. Ground based spectroscopy of hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    It has been shown in recent years with great success that spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is feasible using space based observatories such as the HST and Spitzer. However, with the end of the Spitzer cold-phase, space based observations in the near to mid infra-red are limited, which will remain true until the the onset of the JWST. The importance of developing methods of ground based spectroscopic analysis of known hot Jupiters is therefore apparent. In the past, various groups have attempted exoplanetary spectroscopy using ground based facilities and various techniques. Here I will present results using a novel spectral retrieval method for near to mid infra-red emission and transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres taken from the ground and discuss the feasibility of future ground-based spectroscopy in a broader context. My recently commenced PhD project is under the supervision of Giovanna Tinetti (University College London) and in collaboration with J. P. Beaulieu (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris), Mark Swain and Pieter Deroo (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech).

  18. Sensitivity Comparison of Searches for Binary Black Hole Coalescences with Ground-based Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Satya; Caudill, Sarah; Clark, James; Hanna, Chad; Klimenko, Sergey; Pankow, Chris; Vaulin, Ruslan; Vedovato, Gabriele; Vitale, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Searches for gravitational-wave transients from binary black hole coalescences typically rely on one of two approaches: matched filtering with templates and morphology-independent excess power searches. Multiple algorithmic implementations in the analysis of data from the first generation of ground-based gravitational wave interferometers have used different strategies for the suppression of non-Gaussian noise transients, and targeted different regions of the binary black hole parameter space. In this paper we compare the sensitivity of three such algorithms: matched filtering with full coalescence templates, matched filtering with ringdown templates and a morphology-independent excess power search. The comparison is performed at a fixed false alarm rate and relies on Monte-carlo simulations of binary black hole coalescences for spinning, non-precessing systems with total mass 25-350 solar mass, which covers the parameter space of stellar mass and intermediate mass black hole binaries. We find that in the mas...

  19. Analyzing the Impact of Solar Power on Multi-Hourly Thermal Generator Ramping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkranz, Joshua-Benedict; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-04-08

    Solar power generation, unlike conventional forms of electricity generation, has higher variability and uncertainty in its output because solar plant output is strongly impacted by weather. As the penetration rate of solar capacity increases, grid operators are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty that solar power provides. This paper illustrates the impacts of increasing solar power penetration on the ramping of conventional electricity generators by simulating the operation of the Independent System Operator -- New England power system. A production cost model was used to simulate the power system under five different scenarios, one without solar power and four with increasing solar power penetrations up to 18%, in terms of annual energy. The impact of solar power is analyzed on six different temporal intervals, including hourly and multi-hourly (2- to 6-hour) ramping. The results show how the integration of solar power increases the 1- to 6-hour ramping events of the net load (electric load minus solar power). The study also analyzes the impact of solar power on the distribution of multi-hourly ramping events of fossil-fueled generators and shows increasing 1- to 6-hour ramping events for all different generators. Generators with higher ramp rates such as gas and oil turbine and internal combustion engine generators increased their ramping events by 200% to 280%. For other generator types--including gas combined-cycle generators, coal steam turbine generators, and gas and oil steam turbine generators--more and higher ramping events occurred as well for higher solar power penetration levels.

  20. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  1. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  2. Status of the microwave power transmission components for the solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the 1970-1980 time period a substantial advance has been made in developing all portions of a microwave power transmission system for the solar power satellite (SPS). The most recent advances pertain to the transmitting portion of the system in the satellite and are based upon experimental observations of the use of the magnetron combined with a passive directional device to convert it into a highly efficient directional amplifier with excellent low-noise properties and potentially very long life. The ability of its microwave output to track a phase reference makes it possible to combine it with many other radiating units to provide a highly coherent microwave beam. The ability of its output to track an amplitude reference while operating from a dc power source with varying voltage makes it possible to eliminate most of the power conditioning equipment that would otherwise be necessary.

  3. Design of a 7kw power transfer solar array drive mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    With the availability of the Shuttle and the European launcher, Ariane, there will be a continuing trend towards large payload satellite missions requiring high-power, high-inertia, flexible solar arrays. The need arises for a solar array drive with a large power transfer capability which can rotate these solar arrays without disturbing the satellite body pointing. The modular design of such a Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) which is capable of transferring 7kW of power or more is described. Total design flexibility has been achieved, enabling different spacecraft power requirements to be accommodated within the SADM design.

  4. A review of solar energy based heat and power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Bühler, Fabian; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy based technologies has attracted increased interest in recent times in order to satisfy the various energy demands of our society. This paper presents a thorough review of the open literature on solar energy based heat and power plants. In order to limit the scope...... of the review, only fully renewable plants with at least the production of electricity and heat/hot water for end use are considered. These include solar photovoltaic and solar thermal based plants with both concentrating and non-concentrating collectors in both solar-only and solar-hybrid configurations....... The paper also presents a selection of case studies for the evaluation of solar energy based combined heat and power generation possibility in Denmark. The considered technologies for the case studies are (1) solar photovoltaic modules, (2) solar flat plate collectors, (3) a ground source heat pump, (4...

  5. Development and Commercialization of the Lunar Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The proposed Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth (1, 2, 3, 4). The LSP System may be the only reasonable method for establishing sustainable global energy prosperity within two generations. Commercial power prosperity requires at least 2 kWe/person. For ten billion people this implies 20 TWe and 2,000 TWe-y of electric energy or ~6,000 TWt-y of thermal energy per century (5, 6, 7, 8). A brief overview is presented of a reference LSP System that supplies 20 TWe by 2050. The engineering scales and the cost and benefits of this system are described. In order to provide low cost commercial electric energy, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth (1, 2, 3). In addition, lunar production machinery can be made primarily from lunar materials. Advantages of this approach, versus the reference LSP System, are discussed. Full-scale production of a LSP System will certainly be proceeded by terrestrial and lunar operation of the production machinery and a small-scale demonstration of the operational system (1). Using government funds to establishing a permanent lunar base and the associated transportation system would significantly reduce the upfront cost for the demonstration of a commercial LSP System (2). The government program would provide a legal framework for commercial development of the LSP System (3, 9). The LSP System offers the opportunity to establish a materials industry on the Moon that can produce a growing mass and variety of goods and enable new services of benefit on the Earth and the Moon (10). New priorities are suggested for civilian space programs that can accelerate the establishment

  6. A Novel Extension Decision-Making Method for Selecting Solar Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complex parameters of a solar power system, the designer not only must think about the load demand but also needs to consider the price, weight, and annual power generating capacity (APGC and maximum power of the solar system. It is an important task to find the optimal solar power system with many parameters. Therefore, this paper presents a novel decision-making method based on the extension theory; we call it extension decision-making method (EDMM. Using the EDMM can make it quick to select the optimal solar power system. The paper proposed this method not only to provide a useful estimated tool for the solar system engineers but also to supply the important reference with the installation of solar systems to the consumer.

  7. Concentrated solar power generation: Firm and dispatchable capacity for Brazil's solar future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaschek, Jan; Haasz, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    The Brazilian electricity mix is currently dominated by renewable energy forms, foremost hydropower. Large additional capacity demands are expected in the mid-term future but additional potential for hydro power is limited. In addition it is planned to construct more than 17 GW of wind power and additional capacity of photovoltaics (PV). Due to the fluctuating nature of such renewables, however, wind and PV are hardly able to provide firm capacity. Concentrated solar power (CSP) might be a feasible option to provide firm and dispatchable capacity at low carbon emissions. This study analyses the opportunities for integrating CSP into the Brazilian energy system. Making use of the TiPS-B model, a novel application of the optimization model generator TIMES, we compare different climate protection strategies with a reference scenario and analyze the contribution of CSP to the electricity mix. The analysis covers various types of CSP power plants with molten salt energy storage where we look at possible dispatch strategies considering the fluctuations in electricity supply and use. The consideration of solar water heaters (SWH) is the first step to transfer the power system model to an energy system model that is capable of showing the benefits of energy saving measures on the demand side. It can be demonstrated that the Brazilian power system is likely to change significantly in future. This development would go hand in hand with a strong increase in carbon emissions if no mitigation actions are taken and fossil fueled power plants are used to fill the gap in capacity. CSP power plants are found as a feasible alternative for covering the demand while taking carbon mitigation actions. In a scenario, aiming at 4 and 2 degrees global warming, CSP provides for 7.6 GW and 14.6 GW capacity in 2050, respectively. Different storage configurations are used to provide energy in the evening hours to cover the demand peak providing a strong benefit over photovoltaic electricity

  8. Delta Lloyd solar boat team; sailing 30km/h with a solar-powered boat, using hydrofoils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Every two years since 2006, the Delta Lloyd Solar Boat Team builds a boat to participate in the World Cup for solar-powered boats, across the ‘Elfsteden-route’, the famous tour of the eleven cities in the Dutch province of Friesland. The upcoming year the team, consisting of a new group of students,

  9. Concentrating solar power (CSP) power cycle improvements through application of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, John A.; Libby, Cara; Shingledecker, John

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) capability offer unique advantages to other renewable energy technologies in that solar radiation can be captured and stored for utilization when the sun is not shining. This makes the technology attractive as a dispatchable resource, and as such the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been engaged in research and development activities to understand and track the technology, identify key technical challenges, and enable improvements to meet future cost and performance targets to enable greater adoption of this carbon-free energy resource. EPRI is also involved with technically leading a consortium of manufacturers, government labs, and research organizations to enable the next generation of fossil fired power plants with advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam temperatures up to 760°C (1400°F). Materials are a key enabling technology for both of these seemingly opposed systems. This paper discusses how major strides in structural materials for A-USC fossil fired power plants may be translated into improved CSP systems which meet target requirements.

  10. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas, Constantinos Rouvas, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis, George Kourtis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software tool. The results indicate that the estimated efficiency and the expected specific capital cost of the power block are very important criteria in choosing the best steam turbine size of a CSP plant. For capacity sizes of 10kWe up to 50MWe, the steam turbine efficiency increases and the steam turbine expected specific capital cost of the power block decreases at a high rate, whereas for larger sizes they remain almost constant. Thus, there is significant efficiency gains to be realized and large cost savings in increasing the turbine size up to 50MWe. Finally, although the cost of electricity of a CSP plant with capacities greater than 1MWe is significantly reduced to less than 1US$/kWh, currently such technology can only become economically viable through supporting schemes.

  11. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Rouvas, Constantinos; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis; Kourtis, Gorge [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software tool. The results indicate that the estimated efficiency and the expected specific capital cost of the power block are very important criteria in choosing the best steam turbine size of a CSP plant. For capacity sizes of 10kWe up to 50MWe, the steam turbine efficiency increases and the steam turbine expected specific capital cost of the power block decreases at a high rate, whereas for larger sizes they remain almost constant. Thus, there is significant efficiency gains to be realized and large cost savings in increasing the turbine size up to 50MWe. Finally, although the cost of electricity of a CSP plant with capacities greater than 1MWe is significantly reduced to less than 1US$/kWh, currently such technology can only become economically viable through supporting schemes.

  12. A solar powered wireless computer mouse. Industrial design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, N.H.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Veefkind, M.; Silvester, S. [Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628 CE Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    A solar powered wireless computer mouse (SPM) was chosen to serve as a case study for the evaluation and optimization of industrial design processes of photovoltaic (PV) powered consumer systems. As the design process requires expert knowledge in various technical fields, we assessed and compared the following: appropriate selection of integrated PV type, battery capacity and type, possible electronic circuitries for PV-battery coupling, and material properties concerning mechanical incorporation of PV into the encasing. Besides technical requirements, ergonomic aspects and design aesthetics with respect to good 'sun-harvesting' properties influenced the design process. This is particularly important as simulations show users can positively influence energy balances by 'sun-bathing' the PV mouse. A total of 15 SPM prototypes were manufactured and tested by actual users. Although user satisfaction proved the SPM concept to be feasible, future research still needs to address user acceptance related to product dimensions and user willingness to pro-actively 'sun-bath' PV powered products in greater detail. (author)

  13. SF{sub 6} ground-based infrared solar absorption measurements: long-term trend, pollution events, and a search for SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3} absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinsland, C.P. E-mail: c.p.rinsland@larc.nasa.gov; Goldman, A.; Stephen, T.M.; Chiou, L.S.; Mahieu, E.; Zander, R

    2003-04-15

    Infrared solar spectra recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex on Kitt Peak (31.9 deg. N latitude, 111.6 deg. W, 2.09 km altitude), southwest of Tucson, Arizona, have been analyzed to retrieve average SF{sub 6} tropospheric mixing ratios over a two-decade time span. The analysis is based primarily on spectral fits to absorption by the intense, unresolved {nu}{sub 3} band Q branch at 947.9 cm{sup -1}. A best fit to measurements recorded with SF{sub 6} near typical background concentrations yields a SF{sub 6} increase in the average tropospheric mixing ratio from 1.13 pptv (10{sup -12} per unit volume) in March 1982 to 3.77 pptv in March 2002. The long-term increase by a factor of 3.34 over the time span is consistent with the rapid growth of surface mixing ratios measured in situ at Northern Hemisphere remote stations, though the infrared measurements show a large scatter. Average tropospheric mixing ratio enhancements above background by 2-3 orders of magnitude have been identified in spectra recorded on 5 days between November 1988 and April 1997. These spectra were individually analyzed in an attempt to detect the strongest 8-12 {mu}m band of SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3}, a molecule recently identified with an atmospheric growth that has closely paralleled the rise in SF{sub 6} during the past three decades. Absorption by the strongest SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3} band was predicted to be above the noise level in the Kitt Peak spectrum with the highest average mean tropospheric SF{sub 6} mixing ratio, assuming the reported atmospheric SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3}/SF{sub 6} ratio and a room temperature absorption cross sections reported for the SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3} 903-cm{sup -1} band. An upper limit of 8x10{sup 15} molecules cm{sup -2} for the SF{sub 5}CF{sub 3} total column was estimated for this case. We hypothesize that the highly elevated SF{sub 6} levels above Kitt Peak resulted from a local release experiment rather than production via

  14. The NASA-Lewis terrestrial photovoltaics program. [solar cell power system for weather station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    Research and technology efforts on solar cells and arrays having relevance to terrestrial uses are outline. These include raising cell efficiency, developing the FEP-covered module concept, and exploring low cost cell concepts. Solar cell-battery power systems for remote weather stations have been built to demonstrate the capabilities of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

  15. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  16. Power Spectra, Power Law Exponents, and Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence at Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, J. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    The Wind spacecraft provides simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field measurements with 3- second time resolution, roughly an order of magnitude faster than previous measurements, enabling the small scale features of solar wind turbulence to be studied in unprecedented detail. Almost the entire inertial range can now be explored (the inertial range extends from approximately 1 to 10(exp 3) seconds in the spacecraft frame) although the dissipation range of the velocity fluctuations is still out of reach. Improved measurements of solar wind turbulence spectra at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane are presented including spectra of the energy and cross-helicity, the magnetic and kinetic energies, the Alfven ratio, the normalized cross-helicity, and the Elsasser ratio. Some recent observations and theoretical challenges are discussed including the observation that the velocity and magnetic field spectra often show different power law exponents with values close to 3/2 and 5/3, respectively; the energy (kinetic plus magnetic) and cross-helicity often have approximately equal power law exponents with values intermediate between 3/2 and 5/3; and the Alfven ratio, the ratio of the kinetic to magnetic energy spectra, is often a slowly increasing function of frequency increasing from around 0.4 to 1 for frequencies in the inertial range. Differences between high- and low-speed wind are also discussed. Comparisons with phenomenological turbulence theories show that important aspects of the physics are yet unexplained.

  17. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  18. Metal hydrides for concentrating solar thermal power energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Paskevicius, M.; Humphries, T. D.; Felderhoff, M.; Capurso, G.; Bellosta von Colbe, J.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Ward, P. A.; Teprovich, J. A.; Corgnale, C.; Zidan, R.; Grant, D. M.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The development of alternative methods for thermal energy storage is important for improving the efficiency and decreasing the cost of concentrating solar thermal power. We focus on the underlying technology that allows metal hydrides to function as thermal energy storage (TES) systems and highlight the current state-of-the-art materials that can operate at temperatures as low as room temperature and as high as 1100 °C. The potential of metal hydrides for thermal storage is explored, while current knowledge gaps about hydride properties, such as hydride thermodynamics, intrinsic kinetics and cyclic stability, are identified. The engineering challenges associated with utilising metal hydrides for high-temperature TES are also addressed.

  19. Modelling of Steam Generating Paraboloidal dish Solar Thermal Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siangsukone, P.; Lovegrove, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Australian National University (ANU) has a 400m2 Paraboloidal dish solar concentrator system, informally named the Big Dish that produces superheated steam via a receiver mounted monotube boiler connected to 50kWe steam engine for electricity generation. This paper describes an investigation of the system and its components modelled using the TRNYSYS transient system simulation package. The system was modelled in the context of performance assessment for multiple dishes, central generation Rankine cycle power plants. Five new custom components; paraboloidal dish collector, steam cavity receiver, steam line or feedwater line, steam engine, and pressure drop calculator, were developed for the TRNSYS deck file constructed for this study. Validation tests were performed by comparing with the latest experimental results measured with a 1-minute time step and good agreement, with errors less than 10%, has been found. (Author)

  20. Growian 2 for more wind power and first European solar farm inaugurated

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A wind power installation with a power of five megawatts to be used in the Federal Republic of Germany is described. The first European solar farm was inaugurated in Madrid, and its operation is discussed.

  1. Efficient Lightweight AC-AC Power Control for Solar UAV Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A highly efficient and lightweight dual bridge matrix power controller development is proposed that will provide high performance to a solar powered high altitude...

  2. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Bremen, Lueder von; Greiner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe......The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite...... the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases....

  3. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  4. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of a test of a ground-based lidar of other type. The test was performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The result as an establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided...... by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the wind vanes is also given....

  5. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  6. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  7. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  8. Alphabus Solar Array- Versatile and Powerful Solar Arrays for Tomorrow's Commercial Telecom Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, T.; Oxynos, C.; Greff, P.; Gerlach, L.

    2008-09-01

    After the successful series of Eurostar 3000 and Spacebus 4000 satellites and due to the demand of satellite operators for even larger and more powerful satellites, ESA decided to co-fund the development of a new satellite platform which covers the market segment beyond the upper limits of both satellite families.The new satellite bus family Alphabus is developed in the frame of ARTES 8 project by a joint project team of ASTRIUM and TAS, whereas the solar array is developed by ASTRIUM GmbH.The main approaches in this design phase for the Alphabus solar array were to find a standardized and scaleable design to production and to use qualification heritage from former projects, especially Eurostar 3000, as far as possible. The main challenges for the solar array design and test philosophy were the usage of lateral deployment and related sequential deployment and the bus voltage of 102,5V and related ESD precautions.This paper provides an overview of the different configurations, their main design features and performance parameters. In addition it summarizes the development and verification approach and shows the actual qualification status.

  9. Construction and characterization of spherical Si solar cells combined with SiC electric power inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Hiramatsu, Kouichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    Spherical silicon (Si) photovoltaic solar cell systems combined with an electric power inverter using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistor (FET) were constructed and characterized, which were compared with an ordinary Si-based converter. The SiC-FET devices were introduced in the direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) converter, which was connected with the solar panels. The spherical Si solar cells were used as the power sources, and the spherical Si panels are lighter and more flexible compared with the ordinary flat Si solar panels. Conversion efficiencies of the spherical Si solar cells were improved by using the SiC-FET.

  10. Solar battery powered bicycle lamp SKL050. Final report; Solar/Akkufahrradleuchte SKL050. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, O.

    2001-06-01

    Up to now there are no functional or high quality mobile solar powered chargers and lamps available for the outdoor and bicycle consumer. Hence the project SKL050 was concerned with the development of a novel combination of battery powered multi-functional lamp and solar charger. All components such as solar module, bulb, electronics and housing were supposed to be involved in the development. The goal was a ready-for-production development well placed in the field of high quality bicycle, camping and household appliances by efficient, well matched components and an exclusive and functional design. Another issue in the development was a cost effective production by automated assembling in order to maintain the maximum customer price of 129,- DM (incl. VAT). Most of the stated goals were reached at the end of the project. Only the detailed construction of the housing parts and final approvals have to be carried out by a bicycle accessories company which is interested to produce and market the SKL050 in licence. Apart from the product SKL050 several important results regarding automation processes of small solar modules have been collected and are supposed to be integrated in future products of the SOLARC GmbH. (orig.) [German] Im Bereich mobiler solarbetriebener Ladegeraete und Leuchten fuer den Outdoor- und Fahrradkonsumenten sind bislang keine funktionell oder aesthetisch brauchbaren Produkte verfuegbar. Das Vorhaben SKL050 umfasste daher gezielt die Entwicklung einer neuartigen Kombination aus akkubetriebener Mehrzweckleuchte und Solar-Akkulader. Saemtliche Basiskomponenten wie Solarmodul, Leuchtmittel, Elektronik und Gehaeuse sollten mit in die Entwicklung einbezogen werden. Ziel des Vorhabens war ein zur Serienreife entwickeltes Produkt, welches durch leistungsfaehige, optimal aufeinander abgestimmte Komponenten sowie durch ein exklusives und funktionelles Design einen Platz im Bereich der hochwertigen Fahrrad-, Camping-, und Haushaltsaccessoires findet. Bei

  11. Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-09

    Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The University’s microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion process—improving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

  12. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco [Investigaciones y Recursos Solares Avanzados (IrSOLaV), Tres Cantos 2 8045 (Spain); Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana [Energy Department, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  13. Potential for a Danish power system using wind energy generators, solar cells and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegaa, S.; Christiansen, G.

    1981-10-01

    Performance characteristics of a combined solar/wind power system equipped with storage and an unspecified back-up power source are studied on the basis of meteorological data in Denmark from 1959-1972. A model for annual production and storage from wind/solar installations is presented, assuming 12% efficiency for the solar cells and various power coefficients of the windmills, in addition to long and short-term storage. Noting that no correlation between wind and solar energy availability was found, and a constant ratio of 60% wind/40% solar was determined to be the optimum mix for large scale power production without taking into consideration the variations among years. It is concluded that 80-90% of the total Danish electrical load can be covered by solar/wind systems, and 100% may be possible with the addition of pumped hydroelectric storage.

  14. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-07

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  15. Solar energy: the government sets the rules; Solaire: le gouvernement precise la regle du jeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossement, A.

    2010-02-15

    The mere analysis of the purchase tariffs is no more sufficient to assess the opportunity and feasibility of a solar energy plant project. New legal texts concerning solar energy and town planning have been recently implemented. The most impacting is the Borloo instruction service of December 2009 the 18. Three conclusions can be drawn from this text. First, French authorities want to slow down the development of ground-based solar units and promote solar installations integrated to the buildings themselves. Secondly, any ground-based solar unit must look for a broad consensus about its size and the choice of the site. Thirdly, the environmental impact (particularly the carbon emission) of any ground-based solar unit project has to be assessed (it is acknowledged that the clearing of a large area has a negative impact on carbon emission). New rules concerning town planning impose prerequisite authorization for any ground-based solar unit whose peak power output is over 3 kW (and below 250 kW) or whose height is over 1.80 m. In a protected area any ground-based solar unit requires a prerequisite authorization if its peak output is below 3 kW and otherwise a building license. (A.C.)

  16. First ground-based FTIR-observations of methane in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Petersen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Total column concentrations and volume mixing ratio profiles of methane have been retrieved from ground-based solar absorption FTIR spectra in the near-infrared recorded in Paramaribo (Suriname. The methane FTIR observations are compared with TM5 model simulations and satellite observations from SCIAMACHY, and represent the first validation of SCIAMACHY retrievals in the tropics using ground-based remote sensing techniques. Apart from local biomass burning features, our methane FTIR observations agree well with the SCIAMACHY retrievals and TM5 model simulations.

  17. A Low-Power and Low-Voltage Power Management Strategy for On-Chip Micro Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Cevik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental characteristics of on-chip micro solar cell (MSC structures were investigated in this study. Several MSC structures using different layers in three different CMOS processes were designed and fabricated. Effects of PN junction structure and process technology on solar cell performance were measured. Parameters for low-power and low-voltage implementation of power management strategy and boost converter based circuits utilizing fractional voltage maximum power point tracking (FVMPPT algorithm were determined. The FVMPPT algorithm works based on the fraction between the maximum power point operation voltage and the open circuit voltage of the solar cell structure. This ratio is typically between 0.72 and 0.78 for commercially available poly crystalline silicon solar cells that produce several watts of power under typical daylight illumination. Measurements showed that the fractional voltage ratio is much higher and fairly constant between 0.82 and 0.85 for on-chip mono crystalline silicon micro solar cell structures that produce micro watts of power. Mono crystalline silicon solar cell structures were observed to result in better power fill factor (PFF that is higher than 74% indicating a higher energy harvesting efficiency.

  18. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  19. Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

  20. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.